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Sample records for air espectrometria gama

  1. Laboratório virtual de física moderna: sistema para espectrometria gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Canzian da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2015v32n2p542 O artigo descreve como foi implementada uma simulação computacional de um sistema de detecção de radiação ionizante semelhante ao encontrado em tradicionais laboratórios de física moderna. A simulação modela um sistema composto por “fontes” radioativas emissoras de fótons com energias bem definidas e de um “detector” de comportamento semelhante a um sistema de espectrometria de fótons (cintilador + fotomultiplicadora + analisador multicanal. Como em um sistema real, além de escolher a fonte, é possível ajustar a tensão na fotomultiplicadora, o ganho do amplificador e o ganho de conversão do analisador multicanal, observando-se o efeito disso nos “dados” adquiridos. São apresentados e discutidos resultados obtidos com o simulador para alguns roteiros de experimentos (calibração em energia, identificação de energias desconhecidas, determinação da resolução em energia etc.. A simulação foi utilizada com duas turmas do curso de licenciatura em física a distância da UFSC em 2011 e em 2014, associadas à realização do experimento real. Permeando o texto são discutidas as motivações e os problemas do uso das simulações neste contexto. À guisa de conclusão é discutido como o trabalho se relaciona às principais metas dos laboratórios introdutórios de física, segundo um comitê da American Physical Society especificamente constituído para isso.

  2. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  3. Aerial gamma spectrometry of the uranium province of Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA, Brazil): go environmental aspects and distribution of the absorbed dose in the air; Espectrometria gama aerea da provincia uranifera de Lagoa Real (Caetite, BA): aspectos geoambientais e distribuicao da dose absorvida no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Esau Francisco Sena

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, it was analyzed the surface concentrations of the natural radioelements K, U and Th, as well as the absorbed dose rate in air caused by gamma radiation from the Lagoa Real uranium province, which is located at the center southern portion of Bahia State and comprises an area of approximately 4.600 Km{sup 2}. Data from the airborne gamma ray spectrometric survey of the region (Sao Timoeo Project) carried out in 1979, was used in this study. Besides, recent data of U, Th and absorbed dose rates from the Environmental Monitoring Program of the uranium concentration plant (URA), operated in the region by the Brazilian Nuclear Industries (INB), were used with the aim of inter compare the sampling points in the same geo referenced area. Imaging geo processing software's give support to frame maps of surface concentrations and ternary maps, as well as allow the integration of these with other themes (e.g. hydrology, geology, pedology) favouring the interpretation of geo environmental process from the radioactive cartography. Considering the whole study area, it was obtained the following mean values: absorbed dose rate in air (61,08 nGy.h{sup -1}), Potassium (1,65 % K) , Uranium (3,02 ppm eU) and thorium (18,26 ppm eTh). The geological unities bounding the uranium anomalies were placed in the areas characterized by the highest values of radioelements and, as expected, the major dose levels. The use of ternary maps coupled with the geology and hydrology allowed distinguishing the relationship between the surface distribution of natural radioelements and the geo environmental aspects, including the influence of the catchment in their transport and migration. (author)

  4. In-situ gamma spectrometry method for determination of environmental gamma dose; Metodo de espectrometria gamma in situ para determinacao de dose gama ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de Carvalho

    1995-07-15

    This work tries to establish a methodology for germanium detectors calibration, normally used for in situ gamma ray spectrometry, for determining the environmental exposure rate in function of the energy of the incident photons. For this purpose a computer code has been developed, based on the stripping method, for the computational spectra analysis to calculate the contribution of the partial absorption of the gamma rays (Compton effect) in the active and nonactive parts of the detector. The resulting total absorption spectrum is then converted to fluence distribution in function of the energy for the photons reaching the detector, which is then used to calculate the exposure rate or kerma in air. The unfolding and fluency convention parameters are determined by detector calibration using point gamma sources. The method is validated by comparison of the results against the calculated exposure rate at a point of interest for the standards. This method is used for the direct measurement of the exposure rate distribution in function of the energy at the site, in situ measurement technic, leading to rapid results during an emergency situation and also used for indoor measurements. (author)

  5. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement; Medida de los descendientes del radon en aire por Espectrometria Alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena, M L; Crespo, M T

    1989-07-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs.

  6. Influence of soil composition in the determination of chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame air / acetylene; Influencia de la composicion del suelo en la determinacion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica con llama aire/acetileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Sosa, Ibis; Granda Valdes, Mayra [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba); Pomares Alfonso, Mario Simeon, E-mail: mpomares@imre.oc.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-07-01

    The Air-acetylene Flame Atomic Absorption determination of chromium is a complex task, being strongly influenced by sample composition and instrumental conditions. The objective of this work was to study the influence of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, and Na on the absorption of chromium in the air-acetylene flame, both separately and combined in solution, when acetylene flow and burner height vary. Dissolutions of the mixtures simulated the composition of four soils from the Quibu River Basin in Havana, Cuba. Chromium absorption first increased and then decreased with increment of acetylene flow for shorter burner heights (∼ 2-4 mm); while a continuous increase was observed for larger heights (> 4 mm). This behavior was the same in the presence and absence of interfering chemical element, mentioned above. On the other hand, the dependence of the magnitude of the interference with acetylene flow and burner height was complex and dependent on the interfering element, particularly at larger heights where the behavior of Al was remarkably different. The interference of the four mixtures of Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg and Na decreased in comparison to individual interfering effects and was less dependent on acetylene flow and burner height. Finally, a significant reduction of interference on chromium determination in soil samples was achieved by an adequate selection of acetylene flow and burner height.

  7. Gama-gama angular correlations in the 105Rh nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, V.A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The Directional Correlation of γ transitions in 105 Rh have been measured from the β - decay of 105 Ru using a Ge(Li) - Nal(Tl) spectrometers. The measurements were carried out for the (316-469), (500-469), (845-499), (875-469), (878-499), (907-469), (1017-469), (350-326), (393-263), (413-263), (489-149) and (575-149) KeV gama cascades. The present results confirm the spin assignments to several levels in 105 Rh obtained in previous studies. The multipole mixing ratios Δ(E2/M1) for several gama transitions have been calculated from the measured angular correlations. The results are Δ(149)=0.34+-0.01,Δ(262)=-1.27+-0.02 or -0.14+-0.01,Δ(326)=-1.79+-0.01 or 0.014+-0.002, Δ(393)=-7.1+-0.3 or -0.36+-0.01, Δ(489)=0.25+-0.002, Δ(500)=0.7+-0.3 and Δ(907)=-21.7 +8 -31.1 or 0.21+-0.03. The structure of nuclear levels in 105 Rh is discussed briefly in terms of models applicable for nuclide in this mass region [pt

  8. Ftir study of gamma irradiation LDPE film in air; Estudo por FTIR de filme de polietileno de baixa densidade submetido a radiacao gama na presenca de oxigenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Silva, Andre L.A.; Gouvea, Paulo H.D.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: eabmoura@ipen.br, andrebarra@mackenzie.com.br, paulohdg@hotmail.com, lgasilva@ipen.br; Ortiz, Angel V. [Unipac Embalagens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: angelv@unipac-pack.com.br; Gouvea, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo H.R.; Wiebeck, Helio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mails: dgouvea@usp.br; rhrcastro@hotmail.com; hwiebeck@usp.br; Rossini, Edvaldo L. [Universidade Metodista de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: didirossini@yahoo.com.br; Kawano, Yoshio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation for application in plastic packaging, to improve some of properties and for radiation sterilization, has been gaining popularity in the packaging industry. As a consequence of the irradiation, plastic packaging materials can undergo some chemical and physical alterations in their basic function, mainly concerning the protection characteristics. Since changes in physical properties of irradiated packaging films reflect radiation-induced chemical changes in molecular structure, in this work, an investigation was performed by Ftir analysis of LDPE film before and after radiation. Film samples were irradiated with doses between 0 Gy and 100 kGy, at room temperature and in the presence of air. The results showed alterations in the molecular structure, according to the absorbed radiation dose. (author)

  9. Luiz Gama: um abolicionista leitor de Renan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Fonseca Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O hisoriador e filósofo Ernest Renan exerceu grande influência, hoje um tanto esquecida, sobre uma boa parte da elite intelectual brasileira engajada em reformas e movimentos que caracterizam a transição da Monarquia para a República. Dentre eles, destaca-se o abolicionista Luiz Gama, caso único de um ex-escravo autodidata que alcança projeção no cenário político e na República das Letras. Leitor precoce de Vida de Jesus, obra seminal do pensador francês, o advogado dos escravos é um dos primeiros a referir-se à obra que contou com inédita tradução brasileira, pouco depois de sua publicação na França. Por fim, observamos a apropriação das idéias renanianas por parte de personalidades diversas do ponto de vista social e racial, estabelecendo um paralelo entre Luiz Gama e Joaquim Nabuco.Historian and philosopher Ernest Renan exerts great influence - today somewhat forgotten - on a large part of the Brazilian intellectual elite that is engaged in reforms and movements which characterize the transition of a Monarchy to a Republic. Among these, abolitionist Luiz Gama stands out as the sole case of a former autodidact slave, who achieves a projection in the political scenario, and in the Republic of Letters. An early reader of Vida de Jesus, a seminal work of the French philosopher, the slaves’ attorney is one of the first to refer to the work, which counted with a first-hand, unprecedented Brazilian translation, shortly after its publication in France. Finally, we shall see the appropriation of Renanian ideas on the part of various personalities from the social and racial point of view, while establishing a parallel between Luiz Gama and Joaquim Nabuco.

  10. Alimentos industrializados congelados gama III y IV

    OpenAIRE

    Tupone Reverter, Paula

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo, indagar sobre el consumo, el grado de información y contenido de sodio, grasas saturadas y colesterol de los principales alimentos congelados Gama III y V consumidos por los encuestados. A partir de esto, se realiza una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo y preguntas varias a 250 personas de entre 30 a 60 años, que concurren a cuatro supermercados de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, para determinar el conocimiento por parte de los encuestados e...

  11. Implementation of SQLite database support in program gama-local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Petras

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The program gama-local is a part of GNU Gama project and allows adjustment of local geodetic networks. Before realization of this project the program gama-local supported only XML as an input. I designed and implemented support for the SQLite database and thanks to this extension gama-local can read input data from the SQLite database. This article is focused on the specifics of the use of callback functions in C++ using the native SQLite C/C++ Application Programming Interface. The article provides solution to safe calling of callback functions written in C++. Callback functions are called from C library and C library itself is used by C++ program. Provided solution combines several programing techniques which are described in detail, so this article can serve as a cookbook even for beginner programmers.  This project was accomplished within my bachelor thesis.

  12. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  13. Instrumental analysis of low level of Cs-137 in marine samples by gamma spectrometry; Analise instrumental de baixos niveis de Cs-137 em amostras marinhas por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Silva, Luiz R.N.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Cunha, Ieda I.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica

    1997-12-31

    An instrumental method for low level Cs-137 analysis in marine samples is presented. The method consists in the detector calibration, as well as, determination of detector counting efficiency, accumulative counting of both background and sample and smoothing of 661.6 keV photopeak. The methodology was applied in reference samples and in sediments samples of south Brazilian coast 11 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: figueira at net.ipen.br

  14. Gamma spectrometric validation of measurements test of radionuclides in food matrices; Validacao do ensaio de medidas por espectrometria gama de radionuclideos em matrizes de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis G.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: Igcustodio@hotmail.com, E-mail: rodrigo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), de Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-10-01

    In a testing laboratory the quality system encompasses a set of activities planned and systematic, which ensure the traceability process of an analysis, which is based on the standards NBR ISO/TEC 17025. With the need for analysis of radionuclides in food products to meet the requirements of import and export, accreditation of testing on this standard becomes increasingly necessary. The Gamma Spectrometry is a technique used for direct determination of radionuclides in different matrices, among them the food, being possible the simultaneous determination of different radionuclides in the same sample without the need for a chemical separation. In the process of Accreditation the methodology validation is an important step that includes testing accuracy, traceability, linearity and recovery. This paper describes the procedures used to validate the assay for determining radionuclides using gamma spectrometry in food. These procedures were performed through analysis of a certificated reference material by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Soil 327), analysis of samples of milk powder prepared from the doping with certified liquid standards also by the results obtained in the participation of tests of proficiency in analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  15. Low-energy X-ray and gamma spectrometry using silicon photodiodes; Espectrometria de raios X e gama de baixa energia utilizando fotodiodos de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Iran Jose Oliveira da

    2000-08-01

    The use of semiconductor detectors for radiation detection has increased in recent years due to advantages they present in comparison to other types of detectors. As the working principle of commercially available photodiodes is similar to the semiconductor detector, this study was carried out to evaluate the use of Si photodiodes for low energy x-ray and gamma spectrometry. The photodiodes investigated were SFH-205, SFH-206, BPW-34 and XRA-50 which have the following characteristics: active area of 0,07 cm{sup 2} and 0,25 cm{sup 2}, thickness of the depletion ranging from 100 to 200 {mu}m and junction capacitance of 72 pF. The photodiode was polarized with a reverse bias and connected to a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, followed by a amplifier and multichannel pulse analyzer. Standard radiation source used in this experiment were {sup 241} Am, {sup 109} Cd, {sup 57} Co and {sup 133} Ba. The X-ray fluorescence of lead and silver were also measured through K- and L-lines. All the measurements were made with the photodiodes at room temperature.The results show that the responses of the photodiodes very linear by the x-ray energy and that the energy resolution in FWHM varied between 1.9 keV and 4.4 keV for peaks corresponding to 11.9 keV to 59 keV. The BPW-34 showed the best energy resolution and the lower dark current. The full-energy peak efficiency was also determined and it was observed that the peak efficiency decreases rapidly above 50 keV. The resolution and efficiency are similar to the values obtained with other semiconductor detectors, evidencing that the photodiodes used in that study can be used as a good performance detector for low energy X-ray and gamma spectrometry. (author)

  16. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  17. Development of a methodology for radionuclide impurity analysis in radiopharmaceuticals using gamma spectrometry; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para analise de impurezas radionuclidicas em radiofarmacos por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Eduardo Bonfim de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Poledna, Roberto; Lins, Ronaldo; Leiras, Anderson; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: bonfim@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: miriamtaina@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The LNMRI has sought to develop a methodology for the identification and accurate detection of gamma radiation impurities stations in metrological level, aiming to meet the recommendations not only of international pharmacopoeia, as well as the CNEN and ANVISA regarding the quality control can ensure patients the doses received by the practices are as low as feasible. As an initial target, it was possible to obtain an efficiency curve with uncertainty around 1% necessary to initiate future measurements of interest applied to nuclear medicine and to start the development of impurities analysis technique. (author)

  18. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para determinacao da atividade de radionuclideos por sistema de espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mariacc05@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the {sup 18}F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  19. Self-attenuation correction in the environmental sample gamma spectrometry; Correcao de auto-absorcao na espectrometria gama de amostras ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Luzia; Nisti, Marcelo B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Self-attenuation corrections were calculated for gamma ray spectrometry of environmental samples with densities from 0.42 g/ml up to 1.59 g/ml, measured in Marinelli beakers and polyethylene flasks. These corrections are to be used when the counting efficiency is calculated for water measured in the same geometry. The model of Debertin for Marinelli beaker, numerical integration and experimental linear attenuation coefficients were used. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Prototype-based analysis of GAMA galaxy catalogue data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, A.; Wang, L.; Biehl, M; Verleysen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We present a prototype-based machine learning analysis of labeled galaxy catalogue data containing parameters from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Using both an unsupervised and supervised method, the Self-Organizing Map and Generalized Relevance Matrix Learning Vec- tor Quantization, we

  1. Book collections in the library of the Gama Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, R.U.; Soeratman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Book collection in the library of Gama Atomic Energy Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency in December 1974 is grouped according to Universal Decimal Classification. In accordance with the function of the library most of the collections are on physics, mathematics, and engineering. Authors and subjects are alphabetically indexed in the last part of the catalog. (author)

  2. XML in Projects GNU Gama and 3DGI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar, Jan; Soucek, Petr; Cepek, Ales

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents our practical experiences with XML in geodetic and geographical applications. The main concepts and ideas of XML are introduced in an example of a simple web based information system, which exploits the XHTML language. The article further describes how XML is used in GNU Gama...... for structuring data for a geodetic network adjustment. In another application of XML, it is demonstrated how XML can be used for a unified description of data from leveling registration units. Finally, the use of XML for modelling 3D geographical features within the 3DGI project is presented and a relation...

  3. Identification from the Natural Response of Vasco Da Gama Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, A.; Caetano, E.; Brincker, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the reanalysis of the ambient vibration data of Vasco da Gama cable-stayed bridge with the purpose of testing the efficiency and accuracy of two recent and promising identification methods in a large application: the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and the Stochastic...... Subspace Identification (SSI) methods. The modal estimates obtained using these alternative approaches are compared, taking also into account the estimates previously obtained with the conventional Peak Picking technique from the free vibration test of the bridge, performed at the end of construction....

  4. California GAMA Special Study: Nitrate Fate and Transport in the Salinas Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hillegonds, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtz, Marianne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Sarah K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Under the GAMA program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carries out special studies that address groundwater quality issues of statewide relevance. The study described here is one in a series of special studies that address the fate and transport of nitrate in basins where groundwater is the main source of water for both irrigation and public drinking water supply.

  5. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  6. Possibilities for standardization of {sup 152}Eu by liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry; Possibilidades para padronização do {sup 152}Eu por cintilação líquida e por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Filho, A.L.; Cruz, P.A.L. da; Silva, R.L. da; Delgado, J.U., E-mail: alfredo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes; Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentação Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The {sup 152}Eu has a half-life of 13.5 years and a very complex decay scheme with two branches of decay. It disintegrates in {sup 152}Sm by electronic capture (72.1%) or by emission of positrons (0.027%) and in {sup 152}Gd by beta emission minus (27.9%). The child nucleus, {sup 152}Sm, has 19 excited levels, while {sup 152}Gd has 15. The direct decay of the parent nucleus to the fundamental state of the child nucleus does not exist. The decay of a {sup 152}Eu source results in emissions of 4 KX photons and 132 gamma rays, which is the reason for a lot of true coincidence-sum. The particular interest in this radionuclide is explained by its wide use in the calibration in energy and efficiency of gamma spectrometers with semiconductor detectors, since the range of energy of the emitted photons, varying from 40 to 1769 keV. But, because of such a complex decay scheme, the determination of {sup 152}Eu activity presents many difficulties. The CIEMAT / NIST liquid scintillation counting method and the peak-sum coincidence method, an absolute measurement technique using coincidence counts and photon spectrometry, have been tested in the LNMRI-IRD to standardize {sup 152}Eu solutions.

  7. Study on the natural radioactivity from the region of Presidente Figueiredo (AM), Brazil, using gamma spectrometry; Estudo da radioatividade natural da regiao de Presidente Figueiredo (AM) utilizando espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Jose Ribamar Silveira

    1999-07-01

    A gamma spectrometry profile was carried out along BR174 highway, that crosses some lithostratigraphic units of the North portion of the Sedimentary Basin of Amazon. Measurements in situ were realized in 116 points, 1 km apart, using a GAD-6 gamma-spectrometer and samples of rocks and soils were collected in geologically representative points, for gamma measurements using a shielded detector of NaI(Tl) available in the Nuclear Geophysics Laboratory of IAG/USP. The criterion used for evaluating the reliability degree of the concentration values of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and %K was to establish mathematically detection limits, for all measurement points. Every these points had been located using GPS with accuracy of 50 m to become possible a future detailed study. The purpose of matching portable gamma spectrometer and laboratory determinations was to compare the 2 techniques, using the criterion of detectability limits, and to verify the influence of {sup 222} Rn atmospheric radioactive gas in field measurements. In the case of portable detector, it allows fast measurements and the sensor 'sees' a big volume of material (rock, soil...), that makes it more representative. In some situations where atmospheric phenomena of thermal inversion occurs, measurement can be affected by the {sup 222} Rn cosmic background. Presence of radon daughter elements, associated with aerosols, in this tropical environment (high values of temperature and humidity), where the speed of the wind that could exhaust this gas is practically zero. It is observed that the values of concentration in the some points, got with these 2 techniques, have the same trend, and the stretches where peaks of concentration of K also occur and U and Th are associated with the presence of granite out corps, great boulders, and clay soils from weathering of these rocks. (author)

  8. Determination and quantification of impurities found in samples of {sup 124}I using gamma spectrometry; Determinacao e quantificacao de impurezas encontradas em amostra de {sup 124}I usando a espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ronaldo Lins da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Poledna, Roberto; Veras, Eduardo de; Almeida, Maria Candida M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braghirolli, Ana Maria S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 124}I, positron emitter is produced in the IEN/CNEN-RJ and used in diagnosis image of tumors. In this radioisotope production process impurities appear and health agency requires that the level of these characteristics is quantified. These radionuclides emit gamma and X-radiation, allowing the identification and quantitation by gamma spectrometry. With the use of HPGE detector, coupled with the efficiency curve, was identified {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I. The impurity levels measured in the sample were in the range of 0.5% to 90%, respectively, indicating the feasibility of the method for controlling the quality of the radiopharmaceutical.

  9. Determination of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis; Determinacao de {sup 226}Ra por espectrometria gama: estudo do recipiente de acondicionamento de amostra para analise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti

    2015-07-01

    Determination of radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, daughters of {sup 222}Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the {sup 226}Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand {sup 226}Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was {sup 222}Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  10. Annual report April 1974-March 1975 of the Gama Research Centre National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Activities at the Gama Research Centre for the period of April 1974-March 1975, covering works at the Laboratory of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, at the Reactor Laboratory, at the Laboratory of Chemistry, and at the Laboratory of Process Technology, are described. The Center's personnel and financial accounts are also given. (RUW)

  11. Distribution of gama-tubulin in cellulatr compartments of higher plant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binarová, Pavla; Cenklová, Věra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dryková, Denisa; Volc, Jindřich; Dráber, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2003), s. 167-169 ISSN 1065-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/1013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : sds - page * gama-tubulin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2003

  12. Análisis del riesgo microbiológico "listeria monocytogenes" en ensaladas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Elena

    2007-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se analiza el riesgo alimentario de listeriosis a través del consumo de ensaladas de IV gama. Listeria monocytogenes en un microorganismo patógeno prevalente en una amplia gama de alimentos, entre ellos, los vegetales, tanto crudos como tratados en forma de ensalada de IV gama o listas para consumo. En primer lugar, desde un enfoque tradicional de la seguridad alimentaria, se investigó la aplicación de criterios microbiológicos según el Reglamento (CE) Nº 2073/20...

  13. Análisis del riesgo microbiológico "listeria monocytogenes" en ensaladas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Jiménez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se analiza el riesgo alimentario de listeriosis a través del consumo de ensaladas de IV gama. Listeria monocytogenes en un microorganismo patógeno prevalente en una amplia gama de alimentos, entre ellos, los vegetales, tanto crudos como tratados en forma de ensalada de IV gama o listas para consumo. En primer lugar, desde un enfoque tradicional de la seguridad alimentaria, se investigó la aplicación de criterios microbiológicos según el Reglamento (CE) Nº 2073/20...

  14. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  15. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  16. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  17. A KiDS weak lensing analysis of assembly bias in GAMA galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornik, Andrej; Cacciato, Marcello; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo; Hoekstra, Henk; Nakajima, Reiko; van Uitert, Edo; Brouwer, Margot; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Farrow, Daniel J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; McFarland, John; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Peter; Sifón, Cristóbal; Valentijn, Edwin; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate possible signatures of halo assembly bias for spectroscopically selected galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey using weak lensing measurements from the spatially overlapping regions of the deeper, high-imaging-quality photometric Kilo-Degree Survey. We use GAMA groups with an apparent richness larger than 4 to identify samples with comparable mean host halo masses but with a different radial distribution of satellite galaxies, which is a proxy for the formation time of the haloes. We measure the weak lensing signal for groups with a steeper than average and with a shallower than average satellite distribution and find no sign of halo assembly bias, with the bias ratio of 0.85^{+0.37}_{-0.25}, which is consistent with the Λ cold dark matter prediction. Our galaxy groups have typical masses of 1013 M⊙ h-1, naturally complementing previous studies of halo assembly bias on galaxy cluster scales.

  18. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Tian, Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 μmol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with le...

  19. Evacuation Simulation in Kalayaan Residence Hall, up Diliman Using Gama Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridades, A. R. C.; Villanueva, J. K. S.; Macatulad, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS) with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  20. Estudo comparativo de flores casmógamas, cleistógamas e de frutos de Camarea affinis St.-Hil. (Malpighiaceae Comparative study of casmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and Camarea affinis St.-Hil. fruits (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Henrique Mamede

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Camarea pertence a tribo Gaudichaudieae caracterizada pela redução no número de elementos do androceu, gineceu parcialmente sincárpico, estilete único e ginobásico e pela ocorrência de flores cleistógamas. Neste trabalho é feito o estudo de Camarea affinis St-Hil. no que se refere à morfologia e á anatomia de flores casmógamas e cleistógamas, assim como de seus respectivos frutos.The genus Camarea belongs to the tribe Gaudichaudieae, which is traditionally characterized by a solitaiy gynobasic style, presence of veiy reduced cleistogamous flowers, an androecium of 6 staminal elements and carpels only partially united. This paper presents information about the morphology and the anatomy of chamosgamous and cleistogamous flowers and fruits of Camarea affinis St HiL

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  2. Implementação da Técnica de Dessorção Térmica Programada (TPD) usando Espectrometria de Massa Quadrupolo

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Ana Marta Fortunato

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Física O projecto “Implementação da Técnica de Dessorção Térmica Programada (TPD) usando Espectrometria de Massa Quadrupolo”, apresentado nesta Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Física, surgiu como uma proposta de requalificação ao aparelho de análise de superfícies Multitécnica. A dessorção térmica é o fenómeno que permite a separação física de ...

  3. Espectrometria de massas avançada em estudos estruturais de metabólitos de fármacos e proteínas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Ferreira Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho foi dividido em dois capítulos, tendo como temática geral a aplicação de técnicas modernas baseadas em espectrometria de massas (MS) no estudo da biotransformação de fármacos (capítulo I) e em proteômica estrutural por ligação cruzada e mobilidade iônica (capítulo II). No capítulo I, foram estudadas rotas de fragmentação por dissociação induzida por colisão (CID), perfis de metabólitos in vivo em ratos e farmacocinética de derivados de 4-anilinoquinazolina, candidatos a ...

  4. Marcadores séricos e espectrometria de massa no diagnóstico do câncer Serum markers and mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão abrange as principais técnicas, limitações e utilidades da espectrometria de massa aplicada à análise de fluidos biológicos para buscar biomarcadores com potencialidade de diagnóstico médico. Atualmente esse método é capaz de discernir, em segundos, padrões moleculares diferencialmente expressos entre indivíduos controles e com câncer. Resultados da literatura apontam a espectrometria de massa como metodologia promissora no futuro do diagnóstico.This manuscript reviews mass spectrometry methods and limitations for analisys of biological fluids in the search for biomarkers that can aid medical diagnosis. Currently, mass spectrometry has the ability to discriminate differentially expressed molecular patterns among cancer patients and control subjects. Results in the literature point mass spectrometry as having a major role in the future of medical diagnosis.

  5. Utilização da espectrometria de massas no estudo de produtos de transformação/degradação de fármacos de uso humano e veterinário

    OpenAIRE

    Jéferson Segalin

    2015-01-01

    A espectrometria de massas, acoplada ou não a outras técnicas, tem sido de grande utilidade na determinação de novos compostos, produtos de transformação/degradação, metabólitos e na quantificação em nível de traços nas mais diferentes matrizes, devido à grande versatilidade dessa técnica, especialmente em relação aos modos de análise. Neste trabalho foi sistematizada uma metodologia para a aplicação das técnicas de espectrometria de massas na identificação de produtos de transformação/degrad...

  6. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  7. Sebastião da Gama : milagre de vida em busca do eterno : uma leitura da sua obra

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alexandre Francisco Ferreira dos

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Estudos Portugueses Interdisciplinares apresentada à Universidade Aberta Resumo - Pela Poesia se vai até à verdade… (Sebastião da Gama) Sebastião da Gama (1924-52) legou-nos uma obra tão vasta como breve e intensa foi a sua vida. É o poeta da vida integral, pura e luminosa, tão amargamente ceifada pelo destino como alegremente vincada por um optimismo sem limites. O trabalho que se apresenta incide sobre um corpus textual restrito: obras publicadas em...

  8. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  9. Reunión de consenso para recomendaciones sobre la gama de productos Restylane Skinboosters ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Anido

    Full Text Available Con motivo del 10º aniversario de Restylane Skinboosters® se llevó a cabo una reunión de consenso entre un grupo de médicos españoles con el objetivo de aumentar el estándar de seguridad, mejorar y dar coherencia a los tratamientos, favorecer la buena praxis, posibilitar mejores resultados y aumentar la seguridad con esta gama de productos. Se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de los estudios clínicos publicados que demuestran cómo Restylane Skinboosters® mejora la calidad de la piel, disminuyendo la rugosidad, aumentando la firmeza e hidratación a largo plazo y reduciendo las cicatrices de acné, así como estimulando la creación de colágeno tipo I. Por último, los participantes pusieron en común su experiencia clínica para realizar un resumen de las indicaciones y los protocolos más empleados con esta gama de tratamientos.

  10. Dias en Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw en Camões (herbesoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Coetser

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dias and Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw and Camões (revisited. Although he was the first Portuguese explorer who rounded the southernmost cape of Africa, world history does not herald Bartholomew Dias as an important figure. His compatriot Vasco da Gama was the first mariner who reached the Orient by navigating around the Cape. Despite Dias’s relative historical unimportance, N.P. van Wyk Louw preferred to write a radio play about him and his journey around the South African coast. Luís Vaz de Camões, on the other hand, wrote an epic poem about da Gama’s journey, which he titled Os Lusíadas (1572, or The sons of Portugal. The question I set out to answer, relates to the position and importance that the playwright of Dias (1952 attaches to themes in Canto 5 of Os Lusíadas (1572. I assume that the two can be compared due to the presence of the mythical character Adamastor in both. As in Os Lusíadas (1572, Adamastor takes the form of a storm in Dias (1952. I conclude that, in spite of different origins, both texts are allegorical and national in character. The differences in origin inspired a revised reading of Dias (1952.

  11. Dias en Da Gama, Van Wyk Louw en Camões (herbesoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Coetser

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alhoewel Bartolomeus Dias die eerste Portugese ontdekker was wat om die suidelikste kaap van Afrika geseil het, neem hy in die wêreldgeskiedenis ’n geringe plek in. Sy landgenoot Vasco da Gama het, deur ook om die Kaap te vaar, die eerste seevaarder geword om die Ooste te bereik. Nieteenstaande Dias se geringer prestasie, het N.P. van Wyk Louw verkies om ’n radiodrama oor die gedeelte van Dias se vaart om die Suid-Afrikaanse kus te skryf. Daarteenoor is die geskiedenis van Da Gama se vaart in ’n epiese gedig deur Luís Vaz de Camões opgeteken in sy Os Lusíadas (1572, of Die seuns van Portugal. Die vraag wat ek wil beantwoord, gaan oor die plek en belang wat die dramaturg in Dias (1952 aan temas heg wat teruggevoer kan word tot kanto 5 van Os Lusíadas (1572. Ek neem aan dat die twee tekste met mekaar vergelyk kan word op grond van die teenwoordigheid van die mitiese karakter Adamastor in albei. Soos in Os Lusíadas (1572 neem Adamastor in Dias (1952 die vorm aan van ’n storm. My gevolgtrekking is dat albei tekste, ondanks verskillende oorspronge, ’n allegoriese en ’n nasionale aard vertoon. Die verskillende oorspronge maak dit moontlik om ’n hersiene interpretasie van Dias (1952 te gee.

  12. Instalación eléctrica para una industria de procesado de alimentos IV Gama

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ FLOR, ALEJANDRO

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Electrical installation LV for food industry. [ES] Instalación eléctrica en BT para industria alimentaria. Martínez Flor, A. (2017). Instalación eléctrica para una industria de procesado de alimentos IV Gama. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/88215. TFGM

  13. Synergism between Ni and W in the NiW/gama-Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spojakina, A.A.; Palcheva, R.; Jirátová, Květa; Tyuliev, G.; Petrov, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, 1-2 (2005), s. 45-52 ISSN 1011-372X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : NiW/gama-Al2O3 * Thiophene hydrodesulfurization * TPR, XPS Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2005

  14. APLICACIÓN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Méndez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa, zanahoria (Daucus carota L., radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. y escarola (Cichorium endivia L., destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercial de las ensaladas y garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para la población potencialmente consumidora. La aplicación combinada de soluciones de cloruro de calcio al 1%, acido cítrico a 0,1% y oxido de magnesio al 0,5% contribuyo a mantener la calidad de las ensaladas por un período de 16 días bajo refrigeración a 5 + 1 °C y 95 + 5% HR. En conclusión las técnicas ensayadas, posibilitaron extender el valor comercial de estos productos.The purpose of applying the fresh-cut technique in preparing vegetable salads ready for fresh consumption, was aimed to control the damage American lettuce (Lactuca sativa; carrot (Daucus carota L; Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L and endive (Cichorium endivia L.“ Mediterranean and Cheff” style salads were prepared for evaluation. The methodology allowed selecting and evaluating fresh-cut technique as well as good manufacturing practices, to extend the commercial life, and guarantee alimentary food safety to people. Use of 1% calcium chloride; 0.1% citric acid and 0.5% magnesium oxide solutions; allowed to maintain the quality of the salads for a period of 16 up to days, under refrigeration at 5± 1ºC and 95 ± 5 % RH. Finally the assays techniques let to extend the commercial value of these vegetables.

  15. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  16. Aktivitas Inhibitor Enzim Pengubah Angiotensin (ACE dan Antioksidan Peptida Kolagen dari Teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habbib Khirzin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teripang merupakan salah satu echinodermata yang memiliki kandungan protein tinggi dan sekitar 70% dari proteinnya merupakan kolagen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas inhibitor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dan antioksidan dari peptida kolagen teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus. Ekstraksi kolagen dilakukan menggunakan asam asetat 0,5 M. Peptida kolagen diperoleh melalui hidrolisis kolagen menggunakan enzim pepsin dengan konsentrasi 0,1 U/g kolagen, selama 0; 30; 60; 90; 120; 180; dan 240 menit. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE dan antioksidan peptida kolagen diuji dengan metode spektroskopi. Kolagen yang dihasilkan memiliki rendemen 16,40% dengan berat molekul 130,33 kDa. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE tertinggi dihasilkan dari proses hidrolisis selama 180 menit dengan penghambatan sebesar 82,31%, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi dihasilkan oleh peptida kolagen dari hidrolisis kolagen selama 120 menit dengan nilai IC50 1,9 mg/ml.

  17. Polpa de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia submetida à radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O fruto amazônico camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia, possui elevado teor de vitamina C, antocianinas, carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, fatores que fazem com este fruto venham se posicionando na preferência dos consumidores de frutas exóticas. A radiação ionizante tem sido utilizada para aumentar a vida útil dos produtos, além de preservar qualidades intrínsecas e nutricionais. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a radiação gama como método alternativo na conservação da polpa de camu-camu. As amostras de polpa do fruto foram submetidas às doses 0 (controle, 2, 4, e 6 kGy. Em seguida, foram armazenadas a 6 ºC e à temperatura ambiente (26 ºC, e avaliadas quanto a cor, pH, acidez titulável, teores de sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos e antocianinas nos períodos 1 e 15 dias de armazenamento. Os atributos pH, teor de sólidos solúveis, compostos fenólicos e acidez total, não foram afetados pela irradiação e pela temperatura de armazenamento nos dois períodos analisados. A vitamina C também não se alterou com a irradiação, porém o armazenamento refrigerado manteve os teores mais constantes. A cor foi o atributo mais afetado pela irradiação e pelo armazenamento à temperatura ambiente. Portanto, a radiação gama não se mostrou eficaz no armazenamento da polpa desta fruta em nenhuma das temperaturas propostas.

  18. California GAMA Special Study: Analysis of Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine and Metabolites as Wastewater Tracers in Water Resource Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vu, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA Special Studies project provides analyses and interpretation of constituents of concern that allow assessment of current groundwater conditions. In addition, the Special Studies project develops analyses that will enhance the monitoring and assessment effort by focusing on specific constituents of concern and water quality parameters, such as disinfection byproducts (DBP), wastewater indicators, and redox conditions, as it relates to irrigation and groundwater management. This study developed a robust analytical method for the quantitation of CBZ, OXC, CBZ-E, CBZ-DiOH, and CBZ-10-OH in wastewater treatement plant (WWTP) effluent and in groundwater in the parts per trillion range.

  19. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  20. California GAMA Program: Sources and Transport of Nitrate in Groundwater in the Livermore Valley Basin, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, H; Eaton, G F; Ekwurzel, B E; Esser, B K; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; McNab, W; Moody-Bartel, C; Moore, K; Moran, J E

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate concentrations approaching and greater than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) are impairing the viability of many groundwater basins as drinking water sources Source attribution and nitrate fate and transport are therefore the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the City of Livermore, where high nitrate levels affect both public supply and private domestic wells. Nitrate isotope data are effective in determining contaminant sources, especially when combined with other isotopic tracers such as stable isotopes of water and tritium-helium ages to give insight into the routes and timing of nitrate inputs to the flow system. This combination of techniques is demonstrated in Livermore, where it is determined that low nitrate reclaimed wastewater predominates in the northwest, while two flowpaths with distinct nitrate sources originate in the southeast. Along the eastern flowpath, (delta) 15 N values greater than 10(per t housand) indicate that animal waste is the primary source. Diminishing concentrations over time suggest that contamination results from historical land use practices. The other flowpath begins in an area where rapid recharge, primarily of low nitrate imported water (identified by stable isotopes of water and a tritium-helium residence time of less than 1 year), mobilizes a significant local nitrate source, bringing groundwater concentrations above the MCL of 45 mg NO 3 L -1 . In this area, artificial recharge of imported water via local arroyos induces flux of the contaminant to the regional aquifer. The low (delta) 15 N value (3.1(per t housand)) in this location implicates synthetic fertilizer

  1. GAMA/H-ATLAS: THE DUST OPACITY-STELLAR MASS SURFACE DENSITY RELATION FOR SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grootes, M. W.; Tuffs, R. J.; Andrae, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popescu, C. C.; Pastrav, B. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gunawardhana, M.; Taylor, E. N. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 206 (Australia); Kelvin, L. S.; Driver, S. P. [Scottish Universities' Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Liske, J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Graham, Alister W. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baldry, I. K. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, The School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brough, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L., E-mail: meiert.grootes@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); and others

    2013-03-20

    We report the discovery of a well-defined correlation between B-band face-on central optical depth due to dust, {tau}{sup f}{sub B}, and the stellar mass surface density, {mu}{sub *}, of nearby (z {<=} 0.13) spiral galaxies. This relation was derived from a sample of spiral galaxies taken from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, which were detected in the FIR/submillimeter (submm) in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. Using a quantitative analysis of the NUV attenuation-inclination relation for complete samples of GAMA spirals categorized according to stellar mass surface density, we demonstrate that this correlation can be used to statistically correct for dust attenuation purely on the basis of optical photometry and Sersic-profile morphological fits. Considered together with previously established empirical relationships of stellar mass to metallicity and gas mass, the near linearity and high constant of proportionality of the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation disfavors a stellar origin for the bulk of refractory grains in spiral galaxies, instead being consistent with the existence of a ubiquitous and very rapid mechanism for the growth of dust in the interstellar medium. We use the {tau}{sub B}{sup f} - {mu}{sub *} relation in conjunction with the radiation transfer model for spiral galaxies of Popescu and Tuffs to derive intrinsic scaling relations between specific star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and stellar surface density, in which attenuation of the UV light used for the measurement of SFR is corrected on an object-to-object basis. A marked reduction in scatter in these relations is achieved which we demonstrate is due to correction of both the inclination-dependent and face-on components of attenuation. Our results are consistent with a general picture of spiral galaxies in which most of the submm emission originates from grains residing in translucent structures, exposed to UV in the diffuse interstellar

  2. Studies on the rice seed (Oryza sativa) sensitivity to gama radiation, neutrons di-enthyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1978-04-01

    Dry rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce' variety were treated with gama-rays, thermal and fast neutrons, di-ethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). Biologial effects on survival, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophy 11 mutation frequency were studied in the M 1 generation. The data obtained were analysed by 'independent test'. Survival was not affected by increased gama ray dosage, but by increased DES and SA dosages, as well as by SA treatments with increased solution acidity for seeds pretreated in distilled water. Seedling height was decreased with the increase of gama-ray dosage, DES concentration. SA acidity and concentration. Plant fertility was reduced drastically with higher gama-ray and neutron dosages and with high SA acidity and concentrations. The maximum chlorophy 11 mutation frequency was obtained in the SA treatment. Seeds pretreated with distilled water showed larger physiological damages in the SA treatments and higher mutation frequencies. Regarding chlorophyll mutation frequency, thermal neutrons were more efficient than gama-rays. SA was the most efficient mutagen used . DES showed lower physiological damages in the M 1 plants, but did not induce mutations in the used conditions [pt

  3. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)).

  4. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Morphological transformation of galaxies across the green valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; Kelvin, L. S.; De Propris, R.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Bamford, S.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Häußler, B.; Holwerda, B.; Hopkins, A.; James, P. A.; Liske, J.; Percival, S.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    We explore constraints on the joint photometric and morphological evolution of typical low redshift galaxies as they move from the blue cloud through the green valley and on to the red sequence. We select Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey galaxies with 10.25 sensitive K-band profiles of red and green galaxy populations are very similar while g-band profiles indicate more disc-like morphologies for the green galaxies: apparent (optical) morphological differences arise primarily from radial mass-to-light ratio variations. Two-component fits show that most green galaxies have significant bulge and disc components and that the blue to red evolution is driven by colour change in the disc. Together, these strongly suggest that galaxies evolve from blue to red through secular disc fading and that a strong bulge is present prior to any decline in star formation. The relative abundance of the green population implies a typical time-scale for traversing the green valley ˜1-2 Gyr and is independent of environment, unlike that of the red and blue populations. While environment likely plays a rôle in triggering the passage across the green valley, it appears to have little effect on time taken. These results are consistent with a green valley population dominated by (early type) disc galaxies that are insufficiently supplied with gas to maintain previous levels of disc star formation, eventually attaining passive colours. No single event is needed to quench their star formation.

  5. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-04-01

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11 T , was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11 T belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098 T . Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11 T (=CGMCC 4.7304 T =DSM 101531 T ).

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  8. A qualidade de água como indicador de uso e ocupação do solo: bacia do Gama - Distrito Federal The water quality as an indicator of land use and occupation: Gama basin-DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Amorim Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spread of Brasília isn't accompanied by correct support of land occupation, situation that is reflected in water quality. Under the optics of land use and occupation, working with multivariate statistics as main tool, water physical and chemical quality of Gama Catchment were assessed. During two years samples were collected and analyzed for 24 parameters. The statistical analysis showed the influence of civil buildings, agricultural activities and the best statistical parameters to a quickly assessment: nitrate, ammonia, suspended solids and aluminium.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  10. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): deconstructing bimodality - I. Red ones and blue ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward N.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Colless, Matthew; Driver, Simon; Norberg, Peder; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Brough, Sarah; Cluver, Michelle E.; Gunawardhana, Madusha; Kelvin, Lee S.; Liske, Jochen; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croom, Scott; Foster, Caroline; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lara-Lopez, Maritza; Loveday, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We measure the mass functions for generically red and blue galaxies, using a z 8.7 field galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our motivation is that, as we show, the dominant uncertainty in existing measurements stems from how `red' and `blue' galaxies have been selected/defined. Accordingly, we model our data as two naturally overlapping populations, each with their own mass function and colour-mass relation, which enables us characterize the two populations without having to specify a priori which galaxies are `red' and `blue'. Our results then provide the means to derive objective operational definitions for the terms `red' and `blue', which are based on the phenomenology of the colour-mass diagrams. Informed by this descriptive modelling, we show that (1) after accounting for dust, the stellar colours of `blue' galaxies do not depend strongly on mass; (2) the tight, flat `dead sequence' does not extend much below log M* ˜ 10.5; instead, (3) the stellar colours of `red' galaxies vary rather strongly with mass, such that lower mass `red' galaxies have bluer stellar populations; (4) below log M* ˜ 9.3, the `red' population dissolves into obscurity, and it becomes problematic to talk about two distinct populations; as a consequence, (5) it is hard to meaningfully constrain the shape, including the existence of an upturn, of the `red' galaxy mass function below log M* ˜ 9.3. Points 1-4 provide meaningful targets for models of galaxy formation and evolution to aim for.

  12. Halo ellipticity of GAMA galaxy groups from KiDS weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Schneider, Peter; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Schrabback, Tim; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We constrain the average halo ellipticity of ˜2600 galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, using the weak gravitational lensing signal measured from the overlapping Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). To do so, we quantify the azimuthal dependence of the stacked lensing signal around seven different proxies for the orientation of the dark matter distribution, as it is a priori unknown which one traces the orientation best. On small scales, the major axis of the brightest group/cluster member (BCG) provides the best proxy, leading to a clear detection of an anisotropic signal. In order to relate that to a halo ellipticity, we have to adopt a model density profile. We derive new expressions for the quadrupole moments of the shear field given an elliptical model surface mass density profile. Modelling the signal with an elliptical Navarro-Frenk-White profile on scales R < 250 kpc, and assuming that the BCG is perfectly aligned with the dark matter, we find an average halo ellipticity of ɛh = 0.38 ± 0.12, in fair agreement with results from cold dark matter only simulations. On larger scales, the lensing signal around the BCGs becomes isotropic and the distribution of group satellites provides a better proxy for the halo's orientation instead, leading to a 3σ-4σ detection of a non-zero halo ellipticity at 250 < R < 750 kpc. Our results suggest that the distribution of stars enclosed within a certain radius forms a good proxy for the orientation of the dark matter within that radius, which has also been observed in hydrodynamical simulations.

  13. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  14. Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The geochemical conditions, occurrence of selected trace elements, and processes controlling the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater were investigated in groundwater basins of the Desert and Basin and Range (DBR) hydrogeologic provinces in southeastern California as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP is designed to provide an assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the aquifer systems that are used for public drinking-water supply. The GAMA PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  15. Determinação de compostos nitrogenados aromáticos em alcatrão de carvão através da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente acoplada à espectrometria de massas

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2014-01-01

    A cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GC×GC) é uma excelente técnica analítica para a determinação de diversos compostos em matrizes complexas, como é o caso do alcatrão de carvão, objeto deste estudo. O alcatrão foi obtido através do processo de pirólise e submetido à análise por GC×GC visando a especiação de compostos nitrogenados aromáticos. A GC×GC acoplada à espectrometria de massas com analisadores do tipo quadrupolar (qMS) e por tempo de voo (TOFMS) foram utilizados para a d...

  16. H-ATLAS/GAMA: magnification bias tomography. Astrophysical constraints above ∼1 arcmin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Nuevo, J.; Bonavera, L. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Federico García Lorca 18, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Lapi, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Negrello, M.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M.W.L.; Valiante, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourne, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham University, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ivison, R.J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Loveday, J., E-mail: gnuevo@uniovi.es [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    An unambiguous manifestation of the magnification bias is the cross-correlation between two source samples with non-overlapping redshift distributions. In this work we measure and study the cross-correlation signal between a foreground sample of GAMA galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2< z <0.8, and a background sample of H-ATLAS galaxies with photometric redshifts ∼>1.2. It constitutes a substantial improvement over the cross-correlation measurements made by Gonzalez-Nuevo et al. (2014) with updated catalogues and wider area (with S / N ∼> 5 below 10 arcmin and reaching S / N ∼ 20 below 30 arcsec). The better statistics allow us to split the sample in different redshift bins and to perform a tomographic analysis (with S / N ∼> 3 below 10 arcmin and reaching S / N ∼ 15 below 30 arcsec). Moreover, we implement a halo model to extract astrophysical information about the background galaxies and the deflectors that are producing the lensing link between the foreground (lenses) and background (sources) samples. In the case of the sources, we find typical mass values in agreement with previous studies: a minimum halo mass to host a central galaxy, M {sub min}∼ 10{sup 12.26} M {sub ⊙}, and a pivot halo mass to have at least one sub-halo satellite, M {sub 1∼} 10{sup 12.84} M {sub ⊙}. However, the lenses are massive galaxies or even galaxy groups/clusters, with minimum mass of M {sub min}{sup lens}∼ 10{sup 13.06} M {sub ⊙}. Above a mass of M {sub 1}{sup lens}∼ 10{sup 14.57} M {sub ⊙} they contain at least one additional satellite galaxy which contributes to the lensing effect. The tomographic analysis shows that, while M {sub 1}{sup lens} is almost redshift independent, there is a clear evolution of increase M {sub min}{sup lens} with redshift in agreement with theoretical estimations. Finally, the halo modeling allows us to identify a strong lensing contribution to the cross-correlation for angular scales below 30 arcsec. This

  17. Radiação gama e atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade de goiabas 'Pedro Sato'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André José de Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama associada à atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas 'Pedro Sato', verificando suas características físico-químicas. Foram utilizadas goiabas provenientes da região de Vista Alegre do Alto-SP,Brasil. Após a colheita, as goiabas foram imediatamente transportadas ao Laboratório de Frutas e Hortaliças, pertencente ao Departamento de Gestão e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu-SP, onde foram armazenadas a 10ºC e 90-95%UR, em câmara frigorífica, por 28 dias. Os tratamentos foram: controle 1 (sem embalagem e sem irradiação; controle 2 (embalagem de poliestireno (PS + polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e sem irradiação; tratamento 1 (PS+PEBD e 0,2kGy; tratamento 2 (PS+PEBD e 0,6kGy, e tratamento 3 (PS+PEBD e 1,0kGy. As análises realizadas foram: firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com esquema fatorial 5 x 5 (tratamento x tempo. Concluiu-se que as altas doses de irradiação promoveram efeito negativo nas características físico-químicas da goiaba 'Pedro Sato', e que apenas a menor dose utilizada (0,2kGy associada à atmosfera modificada conservou frutos com maior qualidade e aceitabilidade, indicado por maiores índice de maturação e teor de sólidos solúveis obtidos.

  18. IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA COMO ALTERNATIVA DE CONSERVAÇÃO DE POLPA DE ACEROLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. J. C. GONÇALVES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Esse trabalho objetivou estudar a irradiação gama como método de conservação para a polpa de acerola. A polpa foi tratada por irradiação gama. As amostras, divididas em alíquotas, receberam diferentes doses de radiação (2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 kGy para posterior comparação com a amostra controle (0,0 kGy. Testes microbiológicos para fungos filamentosos e leveduras, após 12 dias de estocagem à temperatura ambiente, evidenciaram uma redução de 3 ciclos logarítmicos para a dose de 2 kGy e de 4 a 5 ciclos para as doses de 3 e 4 kGy, tendo a amostra controle se deteriorado (> 106 UFC.mL-1. A perda de antocianinas logo após os tratamentos foi de 23,3%, 27,8% e 29,5% para as doses de 2, 3 e 4 kGy, respectivamente, em relação à amostra sem tratamento. No entanto, análises colorimétricas revelaram que a cinética do parâmetro a* (intensidade de vermelho teve menor constante de velocidade de degradação da cor para a dose de 4 kGy, indicando, para tal dose, maior estabilidade da cor durante a estocagem da polpa à temperatura ambiente. Assim, a irradiação gama apresentase como um método alternativo para eliminar o efeito negativo do calor frente à degradação das antocianinas, viabilizando a comercialização asséptica deste produto, reduzindo os custos com a eliminação da cadeia do frio no processo de comercialização.

  19. Gamma ray spectrometry and radon emissions in soils from the Piquiri Syenite Massif region (Encruzilhada do Sul e Cachoeira do Sul, RS); Espectrometria de raios gama e emissao de radonio em solos da regiao do Macico Sienitico Piquiri (Cachoeira do Sul e Encruzilhada do Sul, RS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Mujalli, Gibran, E-mail: gibran.romero.mujalli@uni-hamburg.de [Institute for Geology, University of Hamburg (Germany); Roisenberg, Ari, E-mail: ari.roisenberg@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Mineralogia e Petrologia

    2016-05-15

    This study was focused in performing a gamma radiation survey and measurements of radon concentration in soils from the Piquiri Syenite Massif, an intrusion located at central area of the Rio Grande do Sul State. This intrusion has alkaline affiliation with high concentrations of uranium in accessory minerals as zircon, sphene, apatite, and others. The gamma radiation measurements were made considering a grid with squares about 2 km side each, using the gamma spectrometer RS-125, obtaining counts per second (cps), dose rate (DR) and concentrations of K, eU and eTh. Moreover, measurements of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn in soil were made using the AlphaGUARD equipment. The counts per second values obtained in this study range from 130 to 1045, the dose rate from 28.9 nSv/h to 424.6 nSv/h, the K concentration from 0.5 % to 8.3 %, the eU concentration from 0.8 ppm to 25.8 ppm, and the eTh concentration from 3.0 ppm to 99.2 ppm. The distribution of K defines with relatively precision the lithological contacts of the Piquiri Syenite Massif and between the two main facies of the intrusion (Main and Marginal Facies). The Main Facies of the syenite contains the highest concentrations of eTh, while the highest concentrations of eU were measured in the north area of this facies. The {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations range from 10 kBq/m{sup 3} to 550 kBq/m{sup 3} and from 5 kBq/m{sup 3} to 400 kBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, in the Main and Marginal Facies. The high values of radon measured in Main Facies of the Piquiri Syenite Intrusion may indicate high potential risk to the health of inhabitants in the area. (author)

  20. Ação de raios gama sobre formas sanguícolas de Trypanosoma cruzi: estudo experimental em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentilda K. F. Takeda

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue de animais infectados com cepa Y de Trypanosoma cruzi foram submetidas, respectivamente, a 200 e 300 krad de radiação gama. Para verificar a eficácia do método na eliminação do parasita, o material foi inoculado em camundongos e os parâmetros utilizados na avaliação foram: parasitemia, cultura, xenodiagnóstico, subinoculação, reinoculação com cepa virulenta e exame anátomo-patológico das vísceras. Os sangues expostos às duas diferentes intensidades de radiação e inoculados em dois períodos após o processo, mostraram-se inócuos quanto a capacidade de produzir infecção nos animais

  1. Eficiência do uso de água em domicílios residenciais na cidade do Gama

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Paiva Scardua; Ricardo Silveira Bernardes; Rafael Lima de Almeida; Diego Gonçalves Duarte

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar os sistemas de descargas sanitárias e de chuveiros utilizados nos domicílios da cidade do Gama/DF. Foram selecionados 0,7% dos domicílios urbanos, distribuídos aleatoriamente, e aplicados questionários a fim de se avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e os sistemas de descarga e chuveiros utilizados. O consumo médio de água observado foi de 208,87 l/hab.dia, sendo que, 9,87% do consumo se deve ao uso de descarga sanitária, e 48,84%, ao uso do chuveiro, totalizan...

  2. [Antonio de Saldanha da Gama's proposals to improve the slave trade "for humanitarian and economic reasons," Rio de Janeiro, 1810].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Ana Carolina de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    In 1808, Dom João VI issued an edict which regulated the shipping and treatment of slaves on the transatlantic crossing from Africa. Two years later, Antonio de Saldanha da Gama, a member of the Treasury Council, drafted a letter discussing some points of the resolution. This key figure in the Portuguese administration of Brazil argued that his respectful considerations concerning the determinations of His Royal Highness were designed to improve them "for humanitarian and economic reasons." Safeguarded in the archives of Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino, this letter is transcribed, annotated, and contextualized here, supplying an interesting perspective on the prevailing concerns and justifications about the trafficking of African slaves to Brazil.

  3. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): small-scale anisotropic galaxy clustering and the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, J.; Christodoulou, L.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Liske, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    The galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion (PVD) can provide important tests of non-standard gravity and galaxy formation models. We describe measurements of the PVD of galaxies in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey as a function of projected separation and galaxy luminosity. Due to the faint magnitude limit (r PVD to smaller scales (r⊥ = 0.01 h - 1 Mpc) than previous work. The measured PVD at projected separations r⊥ ≲ 1 h - 1 Mpc increases near monotonically with increasing luminosity from σ12 ≈ 200 km s - 1 at Mr = -17 mag to σ12 ≈ 600 km s - 1 at Mr ≈ -22 mag. Analysis of the Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014) GALFORM semi-analytic model yields no such trend of PVD with luminosity: the model overpredicts the PVD for faint galaxies. This is most likely a result of the model placing too many low-luminosity galaxies in massive haloes.

  4. KiDS+GAMA: cosmology constraints from a joint analysis of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin; Joudaki, Shahab; Amon, Alexandra; Heymans, Catherine; Köhlinger, Fabian; Asgari, Marika; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Farrow, Daniel J.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kitching, Thomas D.; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Nakajima, Reiko; Schneider, Peter; Valentijn, Edwin; Viola, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints from a joint analysis of three cosmological probes: the tomographic cosmic shear signal in ˜450 deg2 of data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), the galaxy-matter cross-correlation signal of galaxies from the Galaxies And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey determined with KiDS weak lensing, and the angular correlation function of the same GAMA galaxies. We use fast power spectrum estimators that are based on simple integrals over the real-space correlation functions, and show that they are practically unbiased over relevant angular frequency ranges. We test our full pipeline on numerical simulations that are tailored to KiDS and retrieve the input cosmology. By fitting different combinations of power spectra, we demonstrate that the three probes are internally consistent. For all probes combined, we obtain S_8≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.800_{-0.027}^{+0.029}, consistent with Planck and the fiducial KiDS-450 cosmic shear correlation function results. Marginalizing over wide priors on the mean of the tomographic redshift distributions yields consistent results for S8 with an increase of 28 {per cent} in the error. The combination of probes results in a 26 per cent reduction in uncertainties of S8 over using the cosmic shear power spectra alone. The main gain from these additional probes comes through their constraining power on nuisance parameters, such as the galaxy intrinsic alignment amplitude or potential shifts in the redshift distributions, which are up to a factor of 2 better constrained compared to using cosmic shear alone, demonstrating the value of large-scale structure probe combination.

  5. Efeito de diferentes doses de radiação gama na solução de quitosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moraes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quitosana é um polissacarídeo adquirido da desacetilização da quitina, existente em insetos e invertebrados marinhos. Possui ação fungistática e não causa reações de toxicidade ao organismo humano. Ela é utilizada como revestimento de alimentos, prolongando a vida pós-colheita e melhorando a aparência do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de radiação gama na solução de quitosana. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à cor onde foi observado que a radiação gama induz a mudança da intensidade e na tonalidade da solução de quitosana. A análise de MEV mostrou que as partículas do pó de quitosana possuem formatos irregulares, e as amostras irradiadas apresentaram grânulos menores dando uma aparência mais fina e dispersa. A solução também foi analisada quanto à viscosidade e foi visto que a irradiação alterou a viscosidade da solução, deixando-a menos viscosa. Assim, dentre as doses, a de 5 kGy foi a que apresentou alteração mais relevante às características da solução e a futuras aplicações da mesma.

  6. Modelos de distribuição de diâmetros utilizando a função log gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a eficiência da função log gama para a descrição da estrutura diamétrica de povoamentos equiâneos, bem como propor um modelo de distribuição diamétrica utilizando esta função. A função foi ajustada a dados de parcelas permanentes de inventário, mensuradas em seis idades. A aderência da função aos dados foi comprovada pelo teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov. A análise gráfica de resíduos não apresentou tendenciosidade para os modelos construídos. A função log gama pode ser utilizada para a construção de modelos de distribuição diamétrica de eucalipto.

  7. Radiação gama e nitrito de sódio na composição química e textura de mortadelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Pereira Dutra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR foi conduzido para estudar os efeitos simultâneos da adição de nitrito (43,6; 150; 256,4; e 300 ppm e de doses de radiação gama (2,9; 10; 17,1; e 20 kGy nos atributos de textura e parâmetros físico-químicos de mortadelas. O pH, composição química e adesividade das mortadelas não foram afetados por nenhuma das variáveis estudadas, enquanto a dureza e a mastigabilidade foram influenciados pela aplicação da radiação gama. Modelos de regressão significativos (P<0,05 foram estabelecidos para a atividade de água, coesividade e flexibilidade das amostras. Estes modelos indicam que os efeitos da irradiação gama sobre estes parâmetros é dependente do nível de nitrito adicionado, sendo o comportamento diferente para amostras com níveis de adição menores que 150 ppm de nitrito daquelas com níveis de adição maiores.

  8. Caracterização da dose letal mínima por irradiação gama para Penicillium citrinum Characterization of minimum lethal dosis of gama irradiation to Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Norberg

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso das radiações ionizantes na destruição de microrganismos responsáveis pela deterioração de alimentos ou causadores de infecções ou toxinfecções alimentares, constituiu-se aplicação da energia nuclear, para fins verdadeiramente pacíficos. Penicillium citrinum é um fungo produtor de micotoxinas, responsáveis por intoxicações em humanos e animais que se utilizam de alimentos contaminados. Há escassez de informações sobre a resistência do P. citrinum à irradiação gama; assim esta pesquisa objetivou determinar a dose letal por irradiação gama para esse microrganismo. Foram irradiadas 76 suspensões, contendo aproximadamente 100.000 esporos por mililitro, com doses entre 0,2 e 2,2 KGy (KiloGray, sendo os sobreviventes re-irradiados com doses até 3,0 KGy. O fungo foi totalmente destruído com dose de 2,2 KGy. P. citrinum descendentes dos sobreviventes de 2,0 KGy, quando re-irradiados também foram totalmente destruídos com dose de 2,2 KGy. Observou-se um aumento da resistência às doses mais baixas em relação ao fungo não irradiadoThe use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microrganisms which cause food decay, and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Penicillium citrinum is a fungus which produce mycotoxins responsible for intoxication in humans and animals as a result of eating contaminated food. There is little informations on the resistance of P. citrinum to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the lethal dose of gama radiation for these microrganisms. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy (KiloGray, being one sample still alive re-irradiated with doses up to 3.0 KGy. The fungus were totally destroyed with a 2.2 KGy. Seventy six suspensions containing approximately 100,000 spores/ml received a dose of radiation between 0.2 and 2.2 KGy, being one sample still alive re

  9. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  10. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; da Cunha, E.; Davies, L. J. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Kelvin, L. S.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Phillipps, S.; Rowlands, K.; Taylor, E. N.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the low-redshift galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), inclusive of dust corrections, for the equatorial Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data set covering 180 deg2. We construct the mass function using a density-corrected maximum volume method, using masses corrected for the impact of optically thick and thin dust. We explore the galactic bivariate brightness plane (M⋆-μ), demonstrating that surface brightness effects do not systematically bias our mass function measurement above 107.5 M⊙. The galaxy distribution in the M-μ plane appears well bounded, indicating that no substantial population of massive but diffuse or highly compact galaxies are systematically missed due to the GAMA selection criteria. The GSMF is fitted with a double Schechter function, with M^\\star =10^{10.78± 0.01± 0.20} M_{⊙}, φ ^\\star _1=(2.93± 0.40)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3, α1 = -0.62 ± 0.03 ± 0.15, φ ^\\star _2=(0.63± 0.10)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3 and α2 = -1.50 ± 0.01 ± 0.15. We find the equivalent faint end slope as previously estimated using the GAMA-I sample, although we find a higher value of M^\\star. Using the full GAMA-II sample, we are able to fit the mass function to masses as low as 107.5 M⊙, and assess limits to 106.5 M⊙. Combining GAMA-II with data from G10-COSMOS, we are able to comment qualitatively on the shape of the GSMF down to masses as low as 106 M⊙. Beyond the well-known upturn seen in the GSMF at 109.5, the distribution appears to maintain a single power-law slope from 109 to 106.5. We calculate the stellar mass density parameter given our best-estimate GSMF, finding Ω _\\star = 1.66^{+0.24}_{-0.23}± 0.97 h^{-1}_{70} × 10^{-3}, inclusive of random and systematic uncertainties.

  12. California GAMA Program: Sources and transport of nitrate in shallow groundwater in the Llagas Basin of Santa Clara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J E; McNab, W; Esser, B; Hudson, G; Carle, S; Beller, H; Kane, S; Tompson, A B; Letain, T; Moore, K; Eaton, G; Leif, R; Moody-Bartel, C; Singleton, M

    2005-01-01

    A critical component of the State Water Resource Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is to assess the major threats to groundwater resources that supply drinking water to Californians (Belitz et al., 2004). Nitrate is the most pervasive and intractable contaminant in California groundwater and is the focus of special studies under the GAMA program. This report presents results of a study of nitrate contamination in the aquifer beneath the cities of Morgan Hill and Gilroy, CA, in the Llagas Subbasin of Santa Clara County, where high nitrate levels affect several hundred private domestic wells. The main objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the main source(s) of nitrate that issue a flux to the shallow regional aquifer (2) to determine whether denitrification plays a role in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin and (3) to assess the impact that a nitrate management plan implemented by the local water agency has had on the flux of nitrate to the regional aquifer. Analyses of 56 well water samples for major anions and cations, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, dissolved excess nitrogen, tritium and groundwater age, and trace organic compounds, show that synthetic fertilizer is the most likely source of nitrate in highly contaminated wells, and that denitrification is not a significant process in the fate of nitrate in the subbasin except in the area of recycled water application. In addition to identifying contaminant sources, these methods offer a deeper understanding of how the severity and extent of contamination are affected by hydrogeology and groundwater management practices. In the Llagas subbasin, the nitrate problem is amplified in the shallow aquifer because it is highly vulnerable with high vertical recharge rates and rapid lateral transport, but the deeper aquifers are relatively more protected by laterally extensive aquitards. Artificial recharge delivers low-nitrate water and provides a means of long

  13. Radiação gama na conservação do suco natural de laranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemma Juliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou o efeito da radiação gama na população microbiológica, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH and conteúdo de vitamina C do suco natural de laranja. A atividade microbiana pode causar a deterioração do suco de laranja. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação dos microrganismos, porém pode afetar algumas características do produto. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial 4x5 referentes ao controle mais 3 doses de radiação (2,0; 4,0 and 6.0 kGy e 5 períodos de armazenamento (1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias com 2 repetições. As amostras de suco natural foram extraídas de laranjas da variedade "Pêra", irradiadas a uma taxa de dose de 2,0 kGy por hora (cobalto-60, e em seguida foram armazenadas sob refrigeração (5 ± 3ºC. Os resultados mostraram pequenas variações no teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH, em relação aos tratamentos testados. A razão sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foi determinada e também mostrou pequena variação em todos os tratamentos. Com o aumento da dose de radiação e o prolongamento do período de armazenamento houve redução no conteúdo de vitamina C do suco. A radiação gama se mostrou eficaz na redução da população microbiana do suco de laranja.

  14. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  15. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from January to February 2011, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Santa Barbara study unit was the thirty-fourth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Santa Barbara study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the Santa Barbara study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the Santa Barbara study unit located in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, groundwater samples were collected from 24 wells. Eighteen of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and six wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds); constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]); naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The KLAM study unit was the thirty-third study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Klamath Mountains study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined by the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the KLAM study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the KLAM study unit, groundwater samples were collected from sites in Del Norte, Siskiyou, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama, and Shasta Counties, California. Of the 39 sites sampled, 38 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining site was non-randomized (understanding site). The groundwater samples were analyzed for basic field parameters, organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs] and pesticides and pesticide degradates), inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, total dissolved solids [TDS]), radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta

  17. Eficiência do uso de água em domicílios residenciais na cidade do Gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paiva Scardua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar os sistemas de descargas sanitárias e de chuveiros utilizados nos domicílios da cidade do Gama/DF. Foram selecionados 0,7% dos domicílios urbanos, distribuídos aleatoriamente, e aplicados questionários a fim de se avaliar o perfil socioeconômico e os sistemas de descarga e chuveiros utilizados. O consumo médio de água observado foi de 208,87 l/hab.dia, sendo que, 9,87% do consumo se deve ao uso de descarga sanitária, e 48,84%, ao uso do chuveiro, totalizando 58,72% do consumo de água das residências analisadas. Com a utilização de descargas e chuveiros mais eficientes a redução do consumo seria de 12,73% e 47,07%, respectivamente, e a redução total seria de 41,29% do consumo total de água. Mais de 86% dos entrevistados se mostraram interessados em trocar ou adaptar os sistemas avaliados para sistemas mais eficientes

  18. Gamma radiation effects on polycarbonate-Durolon; A interacao da radiacao gama com o policarbonato Durolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelina

    1996-12-31

    In this work, the commercial polycarbonate-Durolon, was characterized through measurements of its mechanical, optical viscosimetric and thermal properties, after being irradiated with a {sup 60} Co gamma-source at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These irradiations were carried out different doses and dose rates in air and in vacuum. From the results obtained it was shown that irradiation causes degradation in PC mainly by chain scission, leading to the formation of phenoxy and phenyl radicals which are associated with the yellowness of the material. Both, the concentration of radicals and yellowness of PC increase with the irradiation doses and dose rates. The irradiated PC-Durolon shown a good mechanical stability up to the doses analyzed, but on the other hand, its optical properties do not have the same performance. The viscosity and glass transition temperature of the Durolon decreases with the increase of dose and dose rates. This behavior indicates that main chain scission is the predominant process during irradiation. Furthermore in PC this degradation is higher when the material is irradiated in air, which shows that oxygen also plays an important role in this degradation process. (author). 37 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Galaxy-galaxy lensing in EAGLE: comparison with data from 180 deg2 of the KiDS and GAMA surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Schaye, Joop; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Sifón, Cristóbal; Schneider, Peter; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Brough, Sarah; Erben, Thomas; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuijken, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    We present predictions for the galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) profile from the EAGLE hydrodynamical cosmological simulation at redshift z = 0.18, in the spatial range 0.02 < R/(h- 1 Mpc) < 2, and for five logarithmically equispaced stellar mass bins in the range 10.3 < log10(Mstar/ M⊙) < 11.8. We compare these excess surface density profiles to the observed signal from background galaxies imaged by the Kilo Degree Survey around spectroscopically confirmed foreground galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Exploiting the GAMA galaxy group catalogue, the profiles of central and satellite galaxies are computed separately for groups with at least five members to minimize contamination. EAGLE predictions are in broad agreement with the observed profiles for both central and satellite galaxies, although the signal is underestimated at R ≈ 0.5-2 h- 1 Mpc for the highest stellar mass bins. When central and satellite galaxies are considered simultaneously, agreement is found only when the selection function of lens galaxies is taken into account in detail. Specifically, in the case of GAMA galaxies, it is crucial to account for the variation of the fraction of satellite galaxies in bins of stellar mass induced by the flux-limited nature of the survey. We report the inferred stellar-to-halo mass relation and we find good agreement with recent published results. We note how the precision of the GGL profiles in the simulation holds the potential to constrain fine-grained aspects of the galaxy-dark matter connection.

  20. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  1. Uso de la radiación UV-C en el proceso de elaboración de hortalizas de IV gama

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Diego; Ruiz López, Gustavo; Sgroppo, Sonia; Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los principales factores que limita la vida útil de las hortalizas frescas es el crecimiento de microorganismos durante el almacenamiento refrigerado. Es por ello que durante la etapa de procesamiento de hortalizas de IV gama siempre se incluye una etapa de lavado y sanitización para reducir la contaminación microbiana inicial. El uso de radiación ultravioleta artificial (UV) a una longitud de onda de 190 a 280 nm (UV-C) tiene poder germicida y puede ser eficaz para la descontaminación...

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FÍSICOS, MICROBIOLÓGICOS Y SENSORIALES DE RADICCHIOS (CHICHORIUM INTYBUS L. VAR. FOLIOSUM) ENVASADOS MEDIANTE IV GAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola López, Nelson; Calquín Correa, Paulina; Norambuena Aguayo, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo evaluó el comportamiento del envasado de radicchio (Chichorium intybus L. var. foliosum), con el sistema de IV Gama. Esta hortaliza fue donada por la Empresa Vital Berry S.A. y los envases por la Empresa HYC. El ensayo se realizó en el Laboratorio de la Universidad Católica del Maule, Curicó, y en el Centro de Estudios Postcosecha de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Los objetivos del ensayo fueron determinar la vida útil del radicchio al ser envasado en dos tipos de bols...

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  4. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  5. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  11. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  12. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  13. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 25,500-square-mile Sierra Nevada study unit was investigated in June through October 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Sierra Nevada study was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in the study unit, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for public and community drinking-water supplies. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. In the Sierra Nevada study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 84 wells (and springs) in Lassen, Plumas, Butte, Sierra, Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Alpine, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Madera, Mariposa, Fresno, Inyo, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The wells were selected on two overlapping networks by using a spatially-distributed, randomized, grid-based approach. The primary grid-well network consisted of 30 wells, one well per grid cell in the study unit, and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality throughout the entire study unit. The lithologic grid-well network is a secondary grid that consisted of the wells in the primary grid-well network plus 53 additional wells and was designed to provide statistical representation of groundwater quality in each of the four major lithologic units in the Sierra

  14. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  17. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  19. NOVOS GENÓTlPOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. OBTIDOS POR IRRADIAÇÃO GAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. de O. CAMARGO

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dezesseis linhagens mutantes tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio em solução nutritiva, uma linhagem mutante sensível e os cultivares Anahuac, IAC-60 e IAC-24, de trigo. As linhagens mutantes foram originárias de seleções realizadas em populações do cultivar Anahuac (sensível ao Al3+ cujas sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento de irradiação gama com as doses de 260 e 310 Gy. As comparações foram realizadas em dois locais através de seis experimentos em épocas diferentes, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e tolerância a solos ácidos. Quinze linhagens mutantes foram mais produtivas que o cultivar Anahuac e a linhagem mutante sensível ao Al3+, em Capão Bonito, em solo ácido e em condição de sequeiro. Nestas condições, o cultivar IAC-60 foi o que exibiu a maior produtividade, diferindo dos demais. Todos os genótipos estudados não diferiram entre si, quanto à produtividade de grãos, em Tatuí, em solo corrigido e com irrigação por aspersão. Irradiação gama no cultivar Anahuac foi eficiente possibilitando a seleção de linhagens mutantes com características agronômicas (altura de planta, ciclo da emergência ao florescimento, comprimento da espiga, número de espiguetas por espiga, número de grãos por espiga e espigueta e peso de 100 grãos similares às do cultivar original, porém com tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, tornando possível o seu cultivo em solos ácidos.Sixteen mutant lines tolerant to Al3+ toxicity in nutrient solutions, and a mutant line, sensitive to Al3+ originated from selections of a population of the cultivar Anahuac (sensitive to Al3+ previously submitted to gamma irradiation (260 and 310Gy, and the check cultivars Anahuac, IAC-24 and IAC-60, were evaluated in two locations and six trials, for grain yield, agronomic characteristics and tolerance to acid soils. ln Capão Bonito, in an acid soil and upland conditions, fifteen mutant lines

  20. GAMA/G10-COSMOS/3D-HST: the 0 history, stellar-mass, and dust-mass densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Davies, Luke J.; Lagos, Claudia; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Vinsen, Kevin; Wright, Angus H.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bourne, Nathan; Brough, Sarah; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Cluver, Michelle; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve A.; Gomez, Haley; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Loveday, Jon; Liske, Jochen; Maddox, Steve J.; Phillipps, Steven; Pimbblet, Kevin; Rowlands, Kate; Sansom, Anne E.; Taylor, Edward; Wang, Lingyu; Wilkins, Stephen M.

    2018-04-01

    We use the energy-balance code MAGPHYS to determine stellar and dust masses, and dust corrected star formation rates for over 200 000 GAMA galaxies, 170 000 G10-COSMOS galaxies, and 200 000 3D-HST galaxies. Our values agree well with previously reported measurements and constitute a representative and homogeneous data set spanning a broad range in stellar-mass (108-1012 M⊙), dust-mass (106-109 M⊙), and star formation rates (0.01-100 M⊙yr-1), and over a broad redshift range (0.0 history (CSFH), the stellar-mass density (SMD), and the dust-mass density (DMD) over a 12 Gyr timeline. The data mostly agree with previous estimates, where they exist, and provide a quasi-homogeneous data set using consistent mass and star formation estimators with consistent underlying assumptions over the full time range. As a consequence our formal errors are significantly reduced when compared to the historic literature. Integrating our CSFH we precisely reproduce the SMD with an interstellar medium replenishment factor of 0.50 ± 0.07, consistent with our choice of Chabrier initial mass function plus some modest amount of stripped stellar mass. Exploring the cosmic dust density evolution, we find a gradual increase in dust density with lookback time. We build a simple phenomenological model from the CSFH to account for the dust-mass evolution, and infer two key conclusions: (1) For every unit of stellar mass which is formed 0.0065-0.004 units of dust mass is also formed. (2) Over the history of the Universe approximately 90-95 per cent of all dust formed has been destroyed and/or ejected.

  1. The Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS): survey design, data catalogue and GAMA/WiggleZ spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Pracy, Michael B.; Couch, Warrick J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jurek, Russell J.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Radio Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Survey (LARGESS), a spectroscopic catalogue of radio sources designed to include the full range of radio AGN populations out to redshift z ˜ 0.8. The catalogue covers ˜800 deg2 of sky, and provides optical identifications for 19 179 radio sources from the 1.4 GHz Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey down to an optical magnitude limit of Imod point-like objects are included, and no colour cuts are applied. In collaboration with the WiggleZ and Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey teams, we have obtained new spectra for over 5000 objects in the LARGESS sample. Combining these new spectra with data from earlier surveys provides spectroscopic data for 12 329 radio sources in the survey area, of which 10 856 have reliable redshifts. 85 per cent of the LARGESS spectroscopic sample are radio AGN (median redshift z = 0.44), and 15 per cent are nearby star-forming galaxies (median z = 0.08). Low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) comprise the majority (83 per cent) of LARGESS radio AGN at z < 0.8, with 12 per cent being high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs) and 5 per cent radio-loud QSOs. Unlike the more homogeneous LERG and QSO sub-populations, HERGs are a heterogeneous class of objects with relatively blue optical colours and a wide dispersion in mid-infrared colours. This is consistent with a picture in which most HERGs are hosted by galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation as well as a classical accretion disc.

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 2,170-square-mile Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March to July 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The WSJV study unit was the twenty-ninth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Western San Joaquin Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the WSJV study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the WSJV study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 58 wells in 2 study areas (Delta-Mendota subbasin and Westside subbasin) in Stanislaus, Merced, Madera, Fresno, and Kings Counties. Thirty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 wells were selected to aid in the understanding of aquifer-system flow and related groundwater-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level fumigants, and pesticides and pesticide degradates

  3. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  4. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the G02 field, Herschel-ATLAS target selection and Data Release 3 arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I.K.; Brown, M.J.I.; Robotham, A.S.G.; Driver, S.P.; Dunne, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M.E.; Eardley, E.; Farrow, D.J.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hopkins, A.M.; Kelvin, L.S.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A.J.; Norberg, P.; Owers, M.S.; Taylor, E.N.; Wright, A.H.; Bamford, S.P.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.N.; Colless, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Croom, S.M.; Davies, L.J.M.; Foster, C.; Grootes, M.W.; Holwerda, B.W.; Jones, D.H.; Kafle, P.R.; Kuijken, K.; Lara-Lopez, M.A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.R.; Meyer, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Sutherland, W.J.; van Kampen, E.; Wilkins, S.M.

    We describe data release 3 (DR3) of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA survey is a spectroscopic redshift and multi-wavelength photometric survey in three equatorial regions each of 60.0 deg^2 (G09, G12, G15), and two southern regions of 55.7 deg^2 (G02) and 50.6 deg^2 (G23). DR3 consists of: the first release of data covering the G02 region and of data on H-ATLAS sources in the equatorial regions; and updates to data on sources released in DR2. DR3 includes 154809 sources with secure redshifts across four regions. A subset of the G02 region is 95.5% redshift complete to r<19.8 over an area of 19.5 deg^2, with 20086 galaxy redshifts, that overlaps substantially with the XXL survey (X-ray) and VIPERS (redshift survey). In the equatorial regions, the main survey has even higher completeness (98.5%), and spectra for about 75% of H-ATLAS filler targets were also obtained. This filler sample extends spectroscopic redshifts, for probable optical counterparts to H-ATLAS sub-mm sources, to 0.8 ma...

  6. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. Cenouras minimamente processadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas e tratadas com radiação gama: avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e química Minimally processed carrots in modified atmosphere packaging and gama irradiation treatment: microbiological, fisical-chemistry and chemistry evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cenouras são as principais fontes de origem vegetal em carotenóides provitamínicos A (a e o b-caroteno e podem ser transformados em vitamina A dentro do organismo animal. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. As cenouras minimamente processadas foram acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2/10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, e tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy. Os produtos após o emprego da radiação foram armazenados em refrigeração de 5°C durante 24 dias. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e microbiologia. Os resultados de microbiologia evidenciaram que os produtos tratados com as doses de 0,50, 0,75 e 1,0kGy apresentaram redução de 3 a 4 ciclos logarítmicos na contagem total de mesófilos (CTM logo após a irradiação e uma vida-útil de 20 dias. Não foram detectados coliformes totais e E. coli até o 24º dia. Os patógenos B. cereus, Salmonella e Estafilococos coagulase positivos em 0,1g do produto, também não foram detectados. As contagens de bactérias láticas mantiveram-se menores que 100UFC/g. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.Carrots are the mains vegetable sources of carotenoids provitamin A (a and b-carotene which might be transformed into vitamin A in animal organism. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991 carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The minimally processed carrots were packaging with 5% O2/10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air, and g ionizing radiation treatments was carried

  10. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  11. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the central-eastside San Joaquin Basin, 2006: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin (Central Eastside) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Central Eastside study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. During March through June 2006, samples were collected from 78 wells in Stanislaus and Merced Counties, 58 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 20 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along groundwater-flow paths (understanding wells). Water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database also were used for the assessment.An assessment of the current status of the groundwater quality included collecting samples from wells for analysis of anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The assessment of status is intended to characterize the quality of untreated-groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The primary aquifer system (hereinafter, primary aquifer) is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Central Eastside study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or

  12. Caracterização agronômica de mutantes de bananeira obtidos por meio da radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perito Amorim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bananeira é uma das fruteiras de maior importância econômica, explorada quase exclusivamente por pequenos produtores. Constitui-se em fonte contínua de alimento e renda. Embora o Brasil figure como um dos maiores produtores de banana, a bananicultura nacional enfrenta sérios problemas nas fases de produção e pós-colheita, que limitam sua inserção no mercado internacional. Um dos fatores que levam a grandes perdas na produção é o tombamento resultante da altura elevada da planta das principais cultivares comerciais. Uma estratégia para a solução deste problema é a redução do porte por indução de mutação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar mutantes de banana tipo Prata (cv´s Pacovan e Preciosa irradiadas, durante dois ciclos de produção, visando à seleção de plantas com porte baixo e boas características agronômicas. Plantas in vitro das duas cultivares foram irradiadas com raios gamas nas doses de 20 Gy ('Pacovan' - 200 mudas e 30 Gy ('Preciosa' - 200 mudas, subcultivadas por quatro vezes e posteriormente avaliadas em campo durante dois ciclos de produção. Foram selecionados quatro mutantes de cada cultivar com altura inferior à média de altura das testemunhas, após dois ciclos de avaliação. Observou-se que em alguns desses mutantes houve maior precocidade e maior massa do cacho quando comparados com as testemunhas. Pelos resultados, é possível selecionar plantas mutantes com características agronômicas superiores, tanto para a 'Pacovan' quanto para a 'Preciosa', submetidas à radiação gama.

  13. Uso da técnica de espectrometria de massas com ionização por eletrospray (ESI-MS) para o estudo do mecanismo de reações orgânicas e avaliação do perfil de fragmentação de bis-hidroxiiminas aromáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elisa Romanelli Diniz

    2011-01-01

    A Espectrometria de Massas com Ionização por Eletrospray (ESI-MS) foi utilizada na investigação dos mecanismos de duas reações orgânicas: Reação de Zincke e Reação de Aza Diels Alder. Um estudo sistemático sobre a fragmentação das formas protonadas de alguns ligantes do tipo Salofen (bis-hidroxiiminas aromáticas) foi conduzido também neste trabalho. No monitoramento da reação de Zincke foram observados, além dos produtos tradicionais, intermediários inéditos, cujas estruturas foram propostas ...

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  17. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  18. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  19. Carbonilação catalítica de alilaminoálcoois : síntese de hidróxi-gama-lactamas e oxazolidinas bicíclicas

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Limberger

    2006-01-01

    Gama-lactamas e oxazolidinas bicíclicas são compostos importantes sob o ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Uma forma de sintetizar estes heterociclos é através de reações de carbonilação/hidroformilação de aminas insaturadas catalisadas por complexos de ródio. As gama-lactamas e as oxazolidinas são formadas concomitantemente, as primeiras através de um mecanismo de carbonilação e as últimas através de uma rota de hidroformilação, sob as mesmas condições reacionais. No presente trabalho, ...

  20. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples Determinação isotópica de enxofre por espectrometria de massas (irms em amostras de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.O enxofre tem papel essencial em plantas, sendo um dos principais nutrientes em diversos processos metabólicos; ele apresenta quatro isótopos estáveis (32S, 33S, 34S e 36S, com abundância natural de 95,00, 0,76, 4,22 e 0,014 % em átomos, respectivamente. Desenvolver um método para determinação isotópica do S por espectrometria de massas de razão isotópica (IRMS em amostras de solo foi o objetivo deste trabalho. A oxidação de S orgânico a sulfato (S-SO4(2- foi avaliada utilizando a oxidação via seca com agentes oxidantes alcalinos. A concentração S-SO4(2- foi determinada pelo método turbidimétrico, e os resultados mostraram que o processo de conversão foi adequado. A obtenção do gás SO2 foi por decomposição térmica do BaSO4 em uma linha de vácuo a 900 ºC, em presença de NaPO3. A determinação isotópica do S (% em átomos de 34S foi realizada em um espectrômetro de massa (IRMS. Neste trabalho, a

  1. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz submetidas à radiação gama Physiological quality rice seed submitted to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lúcia da Cruz Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama (Co60 na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz. O estudo foi realizado em três ensaios. No primeiro ensaio, sementes de arroz foram irradiadas com doses de 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy e, para o segundo e o terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram submetidas a envelhecimento acelerado, antes da irradiação. No segundo ensaio, as sementes foram dividas em úmidas e secas após envelhecimento acelerado e, então, foram irradiadas nas doses 0; 1; 2,5 e 5Gy. No terceiro ensaio, as sementes foram secas após o envelhecimento acelerado e irradiadas com doses de 0, 10, 25 e 50Gy. Para avaliação dos efeitos fisiológicos da radiação gama, foram realizados teste de germinação - TG, índice de velocidade de germinação - IVG e crescimento de plantas (comprimento de parte aérea e sistema radicular e massa seca total, em todos os ensaios. Foram determinadas as atividades enzimáticas da fosfatase ácida e alfa amilase nas sementes secas, no segundo ensaio. Os resultados obtidos nos ensaios indicam que as doses de radiação gama estudadas não afetam a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de arroz.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation (Co60 on the physiological quality of rice seeds. The research was carried out through three tests; in the first test rice seeds were irradiated at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy, while for the second and third tests the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging before being irradiated. For the second test the seeds were divided into wet and dry and both groups subjected to accelerated aging previous to irradiation at dosages of 0; 1; 2.5 and 5Gy. For the third test the seeds were dried after being subjected to accelerated aging, and then irradiated at dosages of 0, 10, 25 and 50Gy. To assess the physiological effects of the gamma radiation, all seeds were tested for germination and their germination speed index recorded

  2. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  3. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas (BEAR) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The BEAR study unit was the thirty-first study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as the zones corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the BEAR study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallow or deep water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the BEAR study unit, groundwater samples were collected from two study areas (Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas) in San Bernardino County. Of the 38 sampling sites, 27 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining 11 sites were selected to aid in the understanding of the potential groundwater-quality issues associated with septic tank use and with ski areas in the study unit (understanding sites). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system. The depth of the primary aquifer system for the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was delineated by the depths of the screened or open intervals of wells in the State of California’s database of public-supply wells. Two types of assessments were made: a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and an understanding assessment that made evaluations of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors representing characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  6. Caracterización molecular de la cadena gama común y Jak3 en un individuo afectado con inmunodeficiencia severa combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Patiño Grajales

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada (IDSC es una enfermedad
    de origen genético, que se puede heredar de forma autosómica
    recesiva o ligada al cromosoma X. La IDSC se caracteriza por un
    defecto en el número y la diferenciación de los linfocitos T y NK. Los
    individuos afectados desarrollan diarrea crónica, infecciones persistentes y severas como neumonía, septicemia e infecciones fúngicas.
    Estos pacientes presentan retardo en el crecimiento y pueden morir a
    temprana edad si no se realiza una terapia de corrección genética o un
    trasplante de células hematopoyéticas. Las mutaciones responsables
    de la IDSC comprometen principalmente el gen de la cadena gama
    común (γc y la proteína Jak3 que son proteínas fundamentales en la
    transducción de señales de los receptores para varias citoquinas esenciales en la diferenciación y activación de células del sistema inmune, las cuales incluyen IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 e IL-15 (1,2.

     

     

  7. Estudio de arcillas peruanas por espectrometria mossbauer

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Rodriguez, Roberto; Salazar Rodriguez, Roberto

    1982-01-01

    El hecho de que las arcillas hayan sido y sean en la actualidad el material más fácil, útil, abundante y barato de obtener, explica la abundante bibliografía sobre este tema. La profusión de estas, sobre la superficie terres¬tre, permite obtenerla sin ninguna dificultad en cualquier lugar sobre la tierra. Desde tiempos remotos el hombre ha confeccionado utensilios a base de arci¬llas y probablemente desde que aprende a usar el fuego. Con la ayuda de es te construye primero utensilios rudim...

  8. Multidimensional Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and its Use in Biology; La Spectrometry Gamma Multidimensionnelle et son Application en Biologie; Mnogomernaya spektrometriya gamma-luchej i ee ispol'zovanie v biologii; La Espectrometria Gamma Multidimensional y su Empleo en Biologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J. M.; Kornberg, H. A. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    cause du rayonnement gamma de 1,47 MeV de cet element. La plupart des radionuclides se desintegrant en emettant deux ou plusieurs rayons gamma en cascade, la nouvelle methode permet de faire une mesure selective directe et se prete a maintes applications. C'est ainsi que {sup 22}Na (radionuclide normalement produit par les rayons cosmiques), {sup 134}Cs et {sup 137}Cs (produits de fission) peuvent etre facilement mesures a la concentration naturelle (dans certains cas dans des proportions inferieures a 1 dpmAg) dans la viande, le poisson et autres denrees alimentaires ainsi que dans l'urine, ce qui permet de faire des etudes sur les quantites fixees et excretees. Cette methode pourrait etre utilisee dans les etudes comportant l'emploi de traceurs et elle serait particulierement precieuse pour la mesure simultanee de l'absorption, de la fixation et de l'assimilation dans l'organisme animal de plusieurs composes marques de maniere appropriee. En utilisant cette methode avec l'analyse par activation neutronique on peut mesurer dans les tissus et dans le sang un groupe importantd'elements d'une concentration de quelques milliardiemes. (author) [Spanish] La espectrometria gamma multidimensional es una nueva tecnica de medicion de radionueclidos especialmente aplicable en biologia. Esta tecnica instrumental permite identificar y medir directamente los distintos emisores gamma de mezclas complejas de radionueclidos en diversas matrices, sin necesidad de un tiatamiento qufmico previo. El sistema detector esta ideado con miras a obtener una gran sensibilidad, utilizando dos grandes detectores de NaI(Tl) (6 pulg de diametro y 4 pulg de espesor), una elevada selectividad, gracias al empleo de tecnicas de recuento de coincidencias que separan ios espectros gamma aprovechando las caracterfsticas de desintegracitfn gamma de cada radionuclido, y una actividad de fondo sumamente baja, asi como una interferencia debida al efecto Compton muy atenuada. Esas propiedades se consiguen

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on the sterility and behavioral quality of the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew (Diptera:Tephritidae Efeitos da radiação gama na esterilização e comportamento da mosca-do-caribe, Anastrepha suspensa (Low (Diptera:Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.M. Walder

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew were irradiated 2 days before adult eclosión in an air atmosphere with 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 and 70 Gy of gamma radiation (Co-60. The radiation effects on sterility and other parameters of quality and behavior of males and females of caribfly were established. Males became fully sterile with a dose of 50 Gy and females laid no eggs when exposed to 25 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on adult eclosion, sex ratio, flight ability and irritability, but female mortality was affected significantly by radiation, showing higher survival rates in low dosage treatments. The mating behavior of the males was reduced significantly by increasing the radiation doses.Pupas de Anastrepha suspensa (Loew foram irradiadas dois dias antes da emergência dos adultos em atmosfera de ar com as doses de 15, 20, 25, 30, 50 e 70 Gy de radiação gama (Co-60. Foram avaliados os efeitos da radiação sobre a esterilidade e outros parâmetros de qualidade e comportamento de machos e fêmeas de mosca-do-caribe. Machos tornaram-se totalmente estéreis com uma dose de 50 Gy e as fêmeas não ovipositaram quando expostas a 25 Gy. A radiação não teve efeito significativo sobre a taxa de emergência de adultos, na razão sexual, na habilidade de vôo e na irritabilidade desses insetos. Somente a mortalidade das fêmeas foi afetada significativamente pela radiação, causando unia maior sobrevivência nas dosagens mais baixas. A atividade de acasalamento dos machos foi reduzida significativamente com o incremento da dosagem de radiação.

  10. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Barreto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago es una hortaliza muy valorada por sus propiedades, que ha experimentado un notable incremento durante los últimos años a nivel global, contando con una creciente demanda por parte de mercados muy exigentes respecto a su presentación y cada vez mas enfocados a adquirir productos listos para consumir. Con el objetivo de estudiar la productividad total (PBT y neta (PFN (kg/ha de espárrago verde bajo cubierta, el periodo de poscosecha (PPC y la pérdida de peso fresco diaria (PPFD promedio de turiones acondicionados en bandejas con film (B y atados sin film (A, se realizó un ensayo para comparar la producción de primicia en invernadero, de cuatro híbridos masculinos de espárrago verde, en la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la UCA, en Buenos Aires, Argentina. La mayor producción neta (PFN se obtuvo con el híbrido Italo: 8.925,00 kg/ha, seguido por Zeno: 5.558,68; UC-157: 5.267,02; Eros: 4.937,75 y Ercole: 3.099,02 kg/ha (p < 0,05. En general se observó una mayor precocidad en los híbridos de origen italiano respecto del UC-157, único de origen americano. El peso fresco de los turiones de espárrago verde, acondicionados en bandejas, se conservarían por más tiempo sin alterar su peso inicial significativamente respecto del uso de atados. Con el empleo de bandejas, el PPC resultó 22 días mayor (A: 13 y B: 35. La PPFD promedio para ambas presentaciones, fue inferior en Italo y Zeno (1,35 y 1,50 % diaria, respecto de Ercole y Eros (1,99 y 2,04 %, respectivamente. La conservación del peso fresco (CPP para los distintos híbridos, mediante A, a lo largo de los 13 días de poscosecha fue: Italo: 76,91 %; Zeno: 69,34 %; Ercole: 64,71 %; Eros: 61,51 %. En el caso de B, a lo largo de los 35 días fue de: Zeno: 77,63 %; Italo: 67,95 %; Eros: 61,15 %; Ercole: 55,38 %. Estos resultados demuestran la mayor productividad de primicia mediante el empleo de Italo, Zeno, UC-157, Eros y Ercole, y; en poscosecha, la conveniencia del

  11. Producción de primicia en invernadero de híbridos masculinos de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis y procesado IV Gama para optimización del posicionamiento en el mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago es una hortaliza muy valorada por sus propiedades, que ha experimentado un notable incremento durante los últimos años a nivel global, contando con una creciente demanda por parte de mercados muy exigentes respecto a su presentación y cada vez mas enfocados a adquirir productos listos para consumir. Con el objetivo de estudiar la productividad total (PBT y neta (PFN (kg/ha de espárrago verde bajo cubierta, el periodo de poscosecha (PPC y la pérdida de peso fresco diaria (PPFD promedio de turiones acondicionados en bandejas con film (B y atados sin film (A, se realizó un ensayo para comparar la producción de primicia en invernadero, de cuatro híbridos masculinos de espárrago verde, en la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la UCA, en Buenos Aires, Argentina. La mayor producción neta (PFN se obtuvo con el híbrido Italo: 8.925,00 kg/ha, seguido por Zeno: 5.558,68; UC-157: 5.267,02; Eros: 4.937,75 y Ercole: 3.099,02 kg/ha (p < 0,05. En general se observó una mayor precocidad en los híbridos de origen italiano respecto del UC-157, único de origen americano. El peso fresco de los turiones de espárrago verde, acondicionados en bandejas, se conservarían por más tiempo sin alterar su peso inicial significativamente respecto del uso de atados. Con el empleo de bandejas, el PPC resultó 22 días mayor (A: 13 y B: 35. La PPFD promedio para ambas presentaciones, fue inferior en Italo y Zeno (1,35 y 1,50 % diaria, respecto de Ercole y Eros (1,99 y 2,04 %, respectivamente. La conservación del peso fresco (CPP para los distintos híbridos, mediante A, a lo largo de los 13 días de poscosecha fue: Italo: 76,91 %; Zeno: 69,34 %; Ercole: 64,71 %; Eros: 61,51 %. En el caso de B, a lo largo de los 35 días fue de: Zeno: 77,63 %; Italo: 67,95 %; Eros: 61,15 %; Ercole: 55,38 %. Estos resultados demuestran la mayor productividad de primicia mediante el empleo de Italo, Zeno, UC-157, Eros y Ercole, y; en poscosecha, la conveniencia del

  12. Análise sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase e gama glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos adultos tratados com extrato bruto de própolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Diversos trabalhos têm atribuído a própolis inúmeras propriedades farmacológicas, dentre elas podemos citar, como exemplo, efeitos antibacteriano, antiviral, antiinflamatório, regenerador do tecido cartilaginoso, inibidor da formação de radicais livres e redutor de níveis sangüíneo de glicose e triacilglicerol. Alguns efeitos colaterais são atribuídos à própolis principalmente em doses elevadas. Muitos efeitos tóxicos da própolis são atribuídos ao álcool etílico presente no extrato.Dentre alguns efeitos tóxicos citados em literatura como realmente da própolis temos a dermatite e o aumento da uréia sangüínea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar se o extrato bruto de própolis ocasiona algum efeito adverso nos níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase de coelhos saudáveis. O experimento teve 30 dias de duração, sendo as dosagens dos constituintes do sangue (alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e gama – glutamiltranspeptidase realizadas a 0, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados indicaram que, de o extrato bruto de própolis na forma testadea, não ocasionou alteração relevante nos níveis séricos das enzimas marcadoras de metabolismo hepático. Palavras-chave: Própolis, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, gama glutamiltranpeptidase, toxicologia.

  13. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  15. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  18. Implementación del núcleo de un microcontrolador compatible con los PIC de la gama media en FPGA de Altera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Escartín

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} En este trabajo se describe, el diseño del núcleo de un procesador compatible con el juego de instrucciones de microcontroladores PIC de la gama media. La estructura utilizada posee un pipeline de dos etapas. Se utiliza el lenguaje de descripción de hardware VHDL con dispositivos programables de las familias Cyclone de Altera. La metodología de diseño empleada es un proceso recurrente que se inicia con la definición de la arquitectura a nivel de bloques funcionales del sistema a diseñar, se realiza la modelación estructural y la implementación de cada bloque. Finalizando con la simulación funcional y temporal. Todo este proceso tiene como objetivo lograr un dispositivo con la mayor velocidad posible en su funcionamiento y sintetizarlo con el  menor número de celdas.

  19. El mercado mediático de la belleza. Estudio de la estructura de ingresos en revistas femeninas de alta gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez Serrano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El sector de la comunicación no es ajeno a la crisis y sus correlatos. La bajada de la inversión publicitaria está teniendo consecuencias drásticas que se manifiestan, por ejemplo, en un reajuste en su estructura de ingresos. Además de esta crisis “coyuntural” –aunque larga-, hay otra que afecta significativamente a las empresas periodísticas: la reducción paulatina de lectores de medios impresos. En este estudio se parcela esta tipología de empresas de comunicación, centrándonos en aquellas que tienen como output las revistas. Y, para que el universo se reduzca aún más, abordaremos aquellas que se califican como “de alta gama”, que por su exclusiva idiosincrasia se sitúan ante el contexto económico imperante de una forma distinta.  De ellas, se analizará su estructura económica, en concreto, los ingresos provenientes de la publicidad, aunque de manera tangencial, se estudiará su precio de venta al número y su tirada. Con una metodología sustentada en el análisis cualitativo, con transposición cuantitativa, pretendemos conocer la cuantía de ingresos que perciben tres de estas arquetípicas revistas en un mes a través de la publicidad que muestra el prototipo de belleza actual. Para llegar a corroborar –o no- la siguiente hipótesis: “las revistas de alta gama, como medios de comunicación impresos no diarios, son un vehículo de la expresión de la belleza y, a través de ella, se consiguen ingresos sustanciales”.

  20. Evaluation of noni (Morinda citrifolia volatile profile by dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Avaliação do perfil de voláteis em noni (Morinda citrifolia por headspace dinâmico e cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Noni is a fruit that has interested the scientific community due to its medicinal and functional activities. Different products that contain noni are already in the market, but their consumption could be impaired by their distinctive unpleasant aroma and flavor. The aim of this work was to evaluate the noni pulp volatile profile by dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty seven volatile compounds were detected, mainly alcohols (63.3%, esters (26.9%, cetones (7.4%, and acids (1.2%.O noni é um fruto que tem interessado à comunidade científica por sua atividade funcional e medicinal. Já se encontram no mercado diferentes produtos que contêm noni em sua composição, mas seu consumo tem sido prejudicado por seu aroma e sabor desagradáveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o perfil de voláteis da polpa de noni pela técnica de headspace dinâmico e cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas. Foram detectados 37 compostos voláteis, sendo os principais: alcoóis (63,3%, ésteres (26,9%, cetonas (7,4% e ácidos (1,2%.

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  2. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  3. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  4. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  5. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  6. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed Study Unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed (BEAR) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit comprises two study areas (Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed) in southern California in San Bernardino County. The GAMA-PBP is conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA BEAR study was designed to provide a spatially balanced, robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater from the primary aquifer systems in the two study areas of the BEAR study unit. The assessment is based on water-quality collected by the USGS from 38 sites (27 grid and 11 understanding) during 2010 and on water-quality data from the SWRCB-Division of Drinking Water (DDW) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by springs and the perforation intervals of wells listed in the SWRCB-DDW water-quality database for the BEAR study unit.This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resource as of 2010 by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the BEAR study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers. Bear Valley study area and the Lake Arrowhead Watershed study area were also compared statistically on the basis of water-quality results and factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality.Relative concentrations (RCs

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2012–13: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Wright, Michael

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 7,820-square-kilometer (km2) Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer (MS-SA) study unit was investigated from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the second phase of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in the central coast region of California in the counties of Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The MS-SA study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems. The assessment was based on water-quality samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 100 groundwater sites and 70 household tap sites, along with ancillary data such as land use and well-construction information. The shallow aquifer systems were defined by the depth interval of wells associated with domestic supply. The MS-SA study unit consisted of four study areas—Santa Cruz (210 km2), Pajaro Valley (360 km2), Salinas Valley (2,000 km2), and Highlands (5,250 km2).This study had two primary components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first primary component of this study—the status assessment—assessed the quality of the groundwater resource indicated by data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the shallow aquifer system of the MS-SA study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. As opposed to the public wells, however, water from private wells, which often tap the shallow aquifer, is usually consumed without any treatment. The second

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  12. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  13. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  14. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da qualidade da polpa de amora-preta (Rubus spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Paula da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta é uma fruta que vem despertando a atenção de produtores e consumidores devido ao seu sabor agradável, cor atrativa e por apresentar em sua composição elevado teor de compostos bioativos. O grande entrave para consumo e a comercialização dos frutos da amoreira é sua elevada taxa respiratória, o que reduz sua vida útil. Uma alternativa viável para o aproveitamento econômico dessas frutas consiste em sua industrialização, podendo ser congeladas, enlatadas, processadas na forma de polpa, ou na forma de sucos e geleias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da polpa de amora. A irradiação foi realizada no laboratório de irradiação gama do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, em uma fonte de cobalto 60, com as seguintes doses de radiação: 0,75 kGy; 1,5 kGy e 3 kGy, sob uma taxa de dose de 3,24 kGy.h-1 . A polpa não irradiada foi utilizada como controle. As polpas de amora irradiadas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 4ºC, sendo avaliadas nos tempos de 0; 7; 15; 30 e 60 dias. Para verificar os efeitos da radiação gama no processamento na polpa, foi realizada a caracterização físico-química e química através das análises de acidez, pH, sólidos solúveis, sólidos totais, teor de antocianinas, atividade antioxidante e cor. Também foi feita análise microbiológica de acordo com a legislação brasileira vigente. O processo de irradiação aumentou a vida útil de prateleira da polpa em até 60 dias, sendo que o tratamento com uma dose de 1,5 kGy foi a que proporcionou a melhor qualidade microbiológica.

  15. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  16. Identificação de compostos orgânicos e farmacêuticos em esgoto hospitalar utilizando cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa Identification of organic and pharmaceutical compositions in hospital wastewater using a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vieira Paiva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos líquidos provenientes dos estabelecimentos assistenciais de saúde são mais complexos do que os esgotos domésticos. Sua composição contém inúmeros compostos farmacêuticos, saneantes, elementos radiativos e de laboratórios. O conhecimento desses compostos pode auxiliar na escolha do tratamento adequado para esses esgotos e diminuir os impactos ambientais nos corpos receptores. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando um sistema combinado (UASB e lodos ativados para tratar a água residuária de um hospital. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas análises físico-químicas para caracterização do esgoto e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa para identificação de compostos químicos farmacêuticos, podendo-se constatar a presença de inúmeros elementos residuais dos fármacos usados no hospital.Liquid waste residues from health care establishments are more complex than those from residential sewage. Their composition contains several pharmaceutical chemical composites, sanitizers, radioactive, and laboratorial elements. Knowing about these composites may aid in choosing the proper treatment for these sewages, and diminish the environmental impact in receptors. The study was carried out in a combined system (UASB and activated sludge to treat a hospital wastewater. In this experiment, material and chemical analyses were employed to trace sewage characteristics and gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry to identify pharmacologic chemical composites, where innumerous residual elements were found in chromatographs.

  17. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  19. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  20. Methodology for measuring surfaces using in situ gamma spectrometry in nuclear and radiological emergencies; Metodologia de medida de superficies mediante espectrometria gamma in sit en emergencias radiologicas y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yague, L.; Navarro, N.; Perez, C.; Perez-Cejuela, P.; Vico, A.; Maquez, J. L.; Alvarez, A.

    2013-07-01

    CIEMAT has an environmental mobile unit for measurements of ambient dose rate and activity concentration in air. In addition, recently it included the ability to surface concentration measurement. This measure is particularly useful for making decisions about emergency decontaminate surfaces according to the criteria of the DBRR. (Author)

  1. Conectividad entre comunidades de decápodos asociadas a fondos infralitorales de algas y fanerógamas marinas. "Cuando pequeños fragmentos hacen un todo"

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo-Ramírez, A. (Ángel); Urra, J. (Javier); Rueda, J.L. (José Luis); Marina-Ureña, P. (Pablo); García Raso, J.E. (José Enrique)

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad de especies es, de forma general, mayor en fondos con cobertura vegetal (p.e. fanerógamas marinas, algas fotófilas) que en fondos blandos sin vegetación, por lo que una pérdida parcial de pradera debería traer consigo una pérdida de diversidad. Sin embargo, el efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat dependerá de varios factores, incluyendo el número y tamaño de los parches, la distancia entre ellos y los tipos de hábitats próximos. En este trabajo se ha analizado este...

  2. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o conteúdo de tocoferóis em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliação sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sinigallia Taipina

    2009-01-01

    O conteúdo e o percentual de retenção de atividade de vitamina E, bem como, as características sensoriais foram analisados em amostras de alimentos fontes de vitamina E: nozes pecãs; biscoitos integrais e alimento fortificado em pó irradiados com doses de 1 e 3 kGy de radiação gama de 60Co. Para a determinação de vitamina E (como equivalentes em -tocoferol) foram utilizados três lotes dos produtos e aplicado método colorimétrico padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz de São Paulo. Para a anál...

  3. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  4. EFEITO DO TEOR DE GORDURA, VÁCUO E DOSE DE RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Salmonella TYPHIMURIUM ATCC 14028 EM CARNE BOVINA MOÍDA RESFRIADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. COSTA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho avaliou a sobrevivência de Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 em carnes bovinas, moída crua e resfriada (2 ºC, através do tratamento com radiação gama (Co60, utilizando doses de 0; 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 kGy. Além do fator dose de radiação foram avaliadas as influências do emprego de vácuo e de dois teores de gordura da carne bovina moída: baixo (2-4% e alto (11-13%, bem como a interação dos fatores, na redução ou eliminação da bactéria patogênica inoculada. Os resultados demonstraram que os teores de gordura da carne e o emprego de vácuo não influenciaram significativamente a sobrevivência da Salmonella. A dose de radiação gama influenciou a inativação de Salmonella de forma dose dependente até 2,5 kGy, com reduções de 4 ciclos logarítmicos. A dose de 2,5 kGy é suficiente para exercer um controle efetivo de Salmonella em carne bovina moída independentemente do seu teor de gordura e da presença de oxigênio.

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  6. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  7. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  8. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  9. Determination of Fallout Radionuclides in Environmental Samples by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry; Mesure Spectrometrique Gamma des Radionucleides de Retombee Presents dans des Echantillons du Millieu; Opredelenie radioizotopov radioaktivnykh osadkov v probakh iz okruzhayushchej sredy pri pomoshchi spektrometrii gamma-luchej; Determinacion, por Espectrometria Gamma, de los Radionuclidos de Precipitaciones en Muestras del Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G. M.; Johnson, J. E.; Wilson, D. W. [Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1965-10-15

    programme prepare pour la solution correspondant a la concentration de chacun des neuf nucleides mentionnes ci-dessus. Les auteurs ont utilise le meme programme pour resoudre la question de la teneur en {sup 137}Cs et en {sup 40}K du lait, de la viande et de l'urine, cette methode etant plus simple et les marges d'erreur plus reduites. (author) [Spanish] Desde mayo de 1962 los autores han venido reuniendo gran nfimero de muestras del medio ambiente en la granja de la Universidad del Estado de Colorado, a fin de estudiar el paso del {sup 137}Cs por una parte importante de la cadena alimentaria del hombre. Todas las muestras eran de baja actividad especffica y las determinaciones se hicieron con un especttometto de rayos gamma provisto de un cristal de Nal(Tl) de 8 pulg de diametro y 4 pulg de espesor, protegido de la actividad ambiente por una camara de paredes de acero de 12,7 cm de espesor y conectado a un analizador de amplitud de impulsos de 400 canales. Los autores procedieron al recuento directo, empleando una geometria constante, de la actividad de filtros de aire del tipo de almohadilla y de grandes muestras (1 kg) de forraje, grano y heces desecadas de bovidos. Las muestras de las precipitaciones se concentraron haciendolas pasar por columnas con resinas de intercambio cationico Dowex-50. Tambien se procedio al recuento de la actividad de muestras de leche, carne y orina contenidas en grandes recipientes anulares de Lucite. El {sup 137}Cs, el {sup 40}K, el {sup 131}I y el {sup 140}Ba-La fueron los unicos radionuclidos emisores de rayos gamma hallados en dichas muestras, ya que son los unicos productos de fision absorbidos en cantidades apreciables. Por otra parte, las demas muestras contenfan {sup 141,144}Ce, {sup 135}Sb, {sup 103,106}Ru, {sup 95}Zr-Nb y {sup 54}Mn. En estas muestras, reunidas en 1962 y 1963, solo era posible determinar con seguridad, por espectrometria gamma y durante un perfodo de unos 6 meses despues de recogida la muestra, el {sup 95}Zr

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. Development and validation of a method for detection and quantification of ochratoxin A in green coffee using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry Desenvolvimento e validação de metodologia na detecção e na quantificação de Ocratoxina A no café verde utilizando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte da Costa Cunha Bandeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A method using Liquid Chromatography Tanden Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with matrix-matched calibration curve was developed and validated for determining ochratoxin A (OTA in green coffee. Linearity was found between 3.0 and 23.0 ng.g-1. Mean recoveries ranged between 90.45% and 108.81%; the relative standard deviation under repeatability and intermediate precision conditions ranged from 5.39% to 9.94% and from 2.20% to 14.34%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.2 ng.g-1 and 3.0 ng.g-¹, respectively. The method developed was suitable and contributed to the field of mycotoxin analysis, and it will be used for future production of the Certified Reference Material (CRM for OTA in coffee.Um método utilizando Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência-Espectrometria de Massas Sequencial (CLAE-EM/EM com curva de calibração em matriz foi desenvolvido e validado para a determinação de ocratoxina A (OTA em café verde. A linearidade foi demonstrada entre 3,0 e 23,0 ng.g-1. As recuperações médias variaram entre 90,45% e 108,81%; o desvio padrão relativo sob condições de repetitividade e precisão intermediária foram de 5,39% e 9,94% e de 2,20% e 14,34%, respectivamente. Os limites de detecção e quantificação foram 1,2 ng.g-1 e 3,0 ng.g-, respectivamente. O método desenvolvido foi adequado, contribuiu para o campo de análises em micotoxinas e será usado para a futura produção de Material de Referência Certificado (MRC para OTA em café.

  14. Gama de hospedeiros e reação de genótipos de tomateiro a Pseudomonas cichorii Host range and genotypes reaction to Pseudomonas cichorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Antônio Fernandes da Silva Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, foi constatada em dois campos comerciais de tomate no Estado de São Paulo, a ocorrência da queima bacteriana, causada por Pseudomonas cichorii. Em vista disso, foram desenvolvidos estudos visando a determinação da gama de hospedeiros de isolados de Pseudomonas cichorii (IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323, obtidos de tomateiro, provenientes de campos comerciais localizados nos municípios de Bragança Paulista e Mogi Guaçú, SP. Plantas de abobrinha, alface, beldroega, berinjela, beterraba, cenoura, couvebrócolo, datura, fumo, girassol, jiló, melão, pepino, petúnia, pimentão, rabanete, repolho, rúcula, salsa e tomateiro foram inoculadas por pulverização, separadamente, com os dois isolados de P. cichorii de tomateiro e um isolado de girassol (GIR-1. Os isolados IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323 foram patogênicos à beldroega, datura, girassol, pimentão e tomate; GIR-1 foi patogênico apenas à beldroega, datura e girassol, não sendo patogênico ao pimentão e ao tomateiro. No Brasil não se conhecem fontes de resistência dentro do gênero Lycopersicon ou a reação de cultivares de tomateiros a esta bactéria. Vinte e oito genótipos de tomateiro provenientes do Banco de Germoplasma da empresa Sakata Seed Sudamerica Ltda., foram avaliados quanto a reação aos isolados IBSBF 2309 e IBSBF 2323 de P. cichorii, pelo método de inoculação nas folhas. Os maiores níveis de resistência foram observados em AF 11768, AF 2521, AF 11766, AF 11772, AF 229, AF 5719-1 e AF 8162. O genótipo AF 5719-1, que possui o gene Pto, que confere resistência a P. syringae pv. tomato, apresentou um bom nível de resistência a P. cichorii. A identificação de genótipos que apresentem bons níveis de resistência a este patógeno é importante para utilização em programas de melhoramento genético do tomateiro, visando a incorporação de genes de resistência a P. cichorii.The occurrence of the bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas cichorii, was observed

  15. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  16. Podridão por Fusicoccum em mangas submetidas a baixas doses de radiação gama Fusicoccum rot in mangoes submitted to low doses of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Gonçalves Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da radiação gama em doses baixas no controle pós-colheita da podridão por Fusicoccum em manga 'Tommy Atkins', bem como avaliar o efeito desse método sobre as características físico-químicas da fruta. Frutos aparentemente livres de doenças no estádio de maturação 1,5 foram inoculados com 10 μL de suspensão de Fusicoccum parvum a 10(6 conídios mL-1. Após a inoculação, os frutos foram irradiados com as doses de 0,24, 0,35 e 0,45 kGy e armazenados a 13ºC, durante 15 dias, seguidos de mais seis dias em temperatura ambiente, a 25ºC. A dose mais alta de radiação gama foi eficiente em retardar o desenvolvimento da doença em razão do atraso causado na maturação das frutas. Não houve efeito significativo da radiação sobre as características físico-químicas das frutas. Os frutos mantiveram características ideais para comercialização, mesmo após o armazenamento refrigerado, com a presença de filme plástico, por 15 dias.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in low doses on the postharvest control of 'Tommy Atkins' mango rot caused by Fusicoccum, and to evaluate the effect of this method on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. Fruits in ripening stage 1,5 and apparently free of disease were inoculated with 10 μL of a Fusicoccum parvum suspension at 10(6 conidia mL-1. They were gamma irradiated with the doses 0.24, 0.35 and 0.45 kGy, and stored under 13°C for 15 days, followed by a further six days at room temperature, 25°C. The higher dose of gamma radiation was effective in delaying the disease development due to fruit delayed maturation. No significant effect of radiation was observed on fruit physicochemical characteristics. Fruit maintained ideal commercialization features even after cold storage, in the presence of plastic film, for 15 days.

  17. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  18. Disponibilidad de agua-aire en sustratos para plantas Water-air availability in plant substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Beatriz Vence

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de los sustratos especialmente las relacionadas con la disponibilidad de agua-aire para las raíces de las plantas son las más importantes dentro del estudio de estos materiales usados en cultivos en contenedores. Para un óptimo crecimiento de la planta un sustrato debe contener suficiente cantidad de agua y aire y ambos estar disponibles. A nivel mundial el estudio de las propiedades que determinan esta disponibilidad comenzó desde las ciencias del suelo y fue adaptándose a las características propias de la amplia gama de productos que pueden ser utilizados, surgiendo así variables y métodos de medida específicos para la caracterización física de sustratos. En la Argentina el estudio de sustratos para plantas constituye un área de conocimiento nueva y en desarrollo, por ello exige un trabajo interdisciplinario donde hay que concordar un lenguaje común de términos técnicos, la elección de los métodos analíticos de referencia específicos y una legislación actualizada para sustratos. Haciendo un estudio crítico de la gran cantidad de información al respecto que proviene de otros países se podrán adaptar a nuestra realidad y a nuestros materiales. En esta revisión se enumeran resumidamente los más importantes conceptos a tener en cuenta para la evaluación física de sustratos a fin de que puedan servir de base para una mejor comprensión y discusión del tema.The study of the physical properties of substrates for container plant production is very important because the water and air availability for plant roots is involved. A substrate must contain a sufficient amount of available water and air to produce an optimum plant growth and development. Worldwide, the study of the properties that determine the water and air availability started from soil sciences and has been evolving to the present existence of a great variety of products that can be used, concomitant with the identification of parameters

  19. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  20. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  1. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  2. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  4. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  5. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  6. Pollution trends using bark of morus alba in the cities of buenos aires and mendoza (Argentina Tendências de poluição usando cascas de morus alba nas cidades de buenos aires e mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Perelman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of elements deposited on tree bark was carried out for urban and periurban areas of two of the most important cities in Argentina. The content of Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, Cd and Sb was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in Morus alba tree bark collected in the cities of Buenos Aires and Mendoza. The main air pollutants detected in the Buenos Aires urban area were Ba, Cr, Cu and Ni and indicate significative difference from the Mendoza urban and periurban areas. Significantly, higher concentrations of Zn, Ba, Cr and Cu were recorded in the periurban area of the city of Buenos Aires than in Mendoza. Bark samples were strongly influenced by dust and show Al, Fe, Mg and other element accumulations that indicate that soil particles were carried out by wind. Elements like Ba and Zn, commonly linked to traffic emissions, showed the highest concentrations in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, possibly due to more intensive vehicular traffic. Our results indicated that intensity of vehicular traffic and not city structure is responsible for air pollution.Um estudo comparativo dos elementos depositados nas cascas das árvores foi realizado nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de duas cidades das mais importantes da Argentina. Os índices do Fe, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni e do Sb foram determinados pela espectrometria da emissão atômica com plasma acoplado indutivamente (ICP-OES nas cascas da árvore Morus alba, coletados nas cidades de Buenos Aires e Mendoza. Os principais elementos da contaminação do ar detectadas na área urbana de Buenos Aires foram Ba, Cr, Cu e Ni, que indicaram diferenças significativas nas áreas urbanas e na periferia de Mendoza. Uma concentração do Zn, Ba, Cr e do Cu foi achada na periferia da cidade de Buenos Aires, significativamente mais elevada do que em Mendoza. As amostras da casca foram influenciadas fortemente pela poeira e

  7. Efeito da irradiação gama nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas de redes DGEBA/amina cicloalifática com potencial para aplicações médicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. Neves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização de sistemas epoxídicos a base do éter diglicidílico do bisfenol A (DGEBA, curado com dois co-monômeros do tipo amina cicloalifática - piperidina (Pip e 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimetildiciclohexilmetano (3DCM - antes e após a aplicação de irradiação com raios gama. Variações nas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas foram investigadas através de medidas do módulo elástico, da temperatura de transição vítrea e do perfil de degradação dos materiais. Foi possível observar que uma dose de irradiação de 50 kGy provoca variações sutis em propriedades como rigidez e estabilidade, que são relevantes do ponto de vista fundamental. Este trabalho permite afirmar que as variações de propriedades observadas não implicam em impacto negativo na utilização destes sistemas como biomaterial na área médica, considerando a etapa de esterilização por radiação de que são objeto.

  8. Relacionamentos entre as espécies autógamas de Cuphea P. Browne seção Brachyandra koehne (Lythraceae Relationships among autogamous species of Cuphea P. Browne section Brachyandra (Lythraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A Graham

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A seção Brachyandra, uma das 13 seções de Cuphea, é excepcional por compreender a maioria das espécies autógamas do gênero. A maior parte das outras espécies de Cuphea, embora autocompatíveis, são alógamas protândricas. A seção Brachyandra é definida pela presença de estames com filetes curtos e profundamente inseridos no tubo floral, caracteres diretamente relacionados à autogamia. Entre as espécies da seção, existem poucas diferenças na morfologia floral e os caracteres vegetativos são variáveis e sobrepostos. As similaridades poderiam ser atribuídas à recente especiação dentro de um grupo monofilético, definido pela aquisição do modo autógamo de reprodução, ou a seção poderia ser polifilética, com similaridades resultantes de convergência, dirigidas pela mudança de alógamas para autógamas. A morfologia do pólen e da semente, descrita agora para este grupo, sugere que a seção Brachyandra não seja monofilética, mas sim que compreenda um mínimo de três diferentes linhas evolutivas, representadas por: 1 quatro espécies com sementes aladas e pólen oblato, sincolporado e estriado, com poros proeminentes; 2 duas espécies com sementes grandes e não aladas e pólen psilado, sem poros proeminentes e leves espessamentos interaperturados; 3 oito espécies com sementes pequenas, não aladas e quase esferoidais, pólen não sincolpado, psilado a rugulado. A variação neste último grupo sugere que o mesmo seja derivado de mais do que um ancestral. Na análise cladística, as espécies da seção Brachyandra ocorrem dentro de ciados de espécies das seções Euandra, Pseudochvaea, Trispernuun e Amazoniana. Os resultados indicam que não existe base filogenética sólida para o reconhecimento da seção Brachyandra como presentemente definida.Section Brachyandra, one of 13 sections of Cuphea, is exceptional in comprising the majority of self-fertilizing species in the genus; most other Cuphea, although

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  10. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  11. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  12. (E-2-Nonenal determination in brazilian beers using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic coupled mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS Determinação de (E-2-nonenal em cervejas brasileiras utilizando microextração em fase sólida do headspace e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scherer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available (E-2-nonenal is considered an important off-flavor of beer, related to the flavor of beer staling. In this study, a new method for determination of (E-2-nonenal in beer using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic coupled mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS was developed and applied in Brazilian beer samples. The extractions were carried out in CAR-PDMS (carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber and the best results were found with 15 minutes of equilibrium and 90 minutes of extraction at 50 °C. The method was linear in the range from 0.02 to 4.0 μg.L-1 with correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.02 μg.L-1, respectively. 96.5% of recovery and 4% precision (RSD were obtained in the fortification of beer samples with 2.0 μg.L-1 of (E-2-nonenal. The developed method proved to be simple, efficient and highly sensitive to the determination of this analyte being easily applied in the quality control of the brewery. (E-2-nonenal was found in all beer samples analyzed with levels between 0.17 and 0.42 μg.L-1.O (E-2-nonenal é considerado um importante off-flavor da cerveja, sendo relacionado ao sabor de cerveja envelhecida. Neste estudo, um novo método para determinação de (E-2-nonenal em cerveja usando microextração em fase sólida do headspace e cromatografia a gás acoplada à espectrometria de massa (HS-SPME-GC-MS foi desenvolvido e aplicado em amostras de cerveja brasileira. As extrações foram realizadas utilizando a fibra CAR/PDMS (carboxen/polidimetilsiloxano, com 15 minutos de tempo de equilíbrio e 90 minutos de exposição da fibra a 50 °C. O método foi linear na faixa de 0,02 e 4,0 μg.L-1, com coeficiente de correlação de 0,9994. Os limites de detecção e quantificação foram 0,01 e 0,02 μg.L-1, respectivamente. Foram obtidos 96,5% de recuperação e 4% de variação entre replicatas de amostras de cerveja fortificadas com 2,0 μg.L-1 de (E-2-nonenal. O m

  13. Identificação de compostos voláteis da cúrcuma empregando microextração por fase sólida e cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas Identification of volatile compounds of turmeric using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana R. Mata

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Compostos voláteis da cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L. cultivada no Brasil foram isolados por microextração por fase sólida. Os rizomas foram cozidos em solução de bicarbonato de sódio 0,1%, fatiados, secos e triturados. Visando estabelecer o sistema ideal para a microextração, fibras de polidimetilsiloxano de 100µm de espessura foram expostas ao headspace de frascos de 10mL. Estudou-se a influência das seguintes variáveis sobre o rendimento dos compostos voláteis obtidos: amostras em pó (0,1 a 1,0g e em solução (40mg/L, diferentes temperaturas (40 a 70ºC e tempos (2 a 20min de partição. O efeito da temperatura (210 a 240ºC e do tempo (3 e 5min de dessorção também foi avaliado. As melhores condições para a partição dos compostos voláteis foram 0,1g do pó, 70ºC e 5min. A temperatura de 220ºC e o tempo de 5 minutos foram os de maior eficiência para a dessorção. A cromatografia gasosa foi conduzida em coluna capilar, detecção por ionização de chama e identificação por espectrometria de massas. A análise dos espectros de massas obtidos para os nove compostos voláteis predominantes indicou a presença de ar-curcúmeno, ar-turmerona, zingibereno, beta-sesquifelandreno, sabineno, 1,8-cineol e 1,4-terpineol.Volatile compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. cultived in Brazil were isolated by solid phase microextraction. The rhizomes were cooked in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution, sliced, dried and ground. Polydimethyldiloxanes fibers (100 mm diameter were exposed to the headspace of 10 mL flasks with the aim of establishing an ideal microextraction system. The influence of the following parameters on the volatile substances obtained was studied: powder samples (0.1 to 1.0 g and dissolved samples (40 mg/L, different temperatures (40 to 70ºC and partition periods (2 to 20 min. The effect of temperature (210 to 240ºC and time (3 to 5 min on desorption efficiency was also evaluated. Optimum conditions for the

  14. A gaseous scintillation counter filled with He{sup 3} for neutron spectrometry; Compteur a scintillateur gazeux rempli de {sup 3}He pour la spectrometrie des flux de neutrons; Gazovyj stsintillyatsionnyj schetchik napolnennyj He{sup 3} dlya spektrometrii potokov nejtronov; Contador de centelleador gaseoso cargado con helio-3 para la espectrometria neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, S A; Matveev, V V

    1962-04-15

    gaseoso, y se exponen los resultados de experimentos sobre el registro y la espectrometria de flujos neutronicos realizados mediante ese contador cargado con una mezcla de-10 por ciento de xenon y 9 por ciento de helio-3 a una presion de 20 atm. abs. Se proporcionan datos sobre la construccion del aparato de suministro que asegura el funcionamiento ininterrumpido del contador durante largo tiempo, proporciona las mezclas de gases necesarias a una presion de 60 atmosferas y permite proceder a una purificacion continua del gas. Se examinan, ademas, los resultados del estudio del poder de resolucion energetica y la linealidad del contador en funcion de la energia, su rendimiento con intensidades en campos gamma de hasta 3 roentgens/h, y algunas cuestiones relacionadas con la posibilidad de ampliar el intervalo energetico en el que pueden aplicarse los contadores de centelleador gaseoso cargados con helio-3. (author) [Russian] V doklade opisyvaetsya gazovyj agregat, gazovyj stsintillyatsionnyj schetchik, a takzhe rezul'taty ehksperimentov po registratsii i spektrometrii potokov nejtronov pri pomoshchi gazovogo stsintillyatsionnogo schetchika, napolnennogo smes'yu 10% ksenona i 90% geliya-3, pri obshchem davlenii 20 ata. Privodyatsya dannye ob ustrojstve gazovogo agregata, obespechivayushchego nepreryvnuyu rabotu schetchika v techenie dlitel'nogo vremeni, poluchenie neobkhodimykh smesej gazov s obshchim davleniem do 60 atm, i postoyannuyu ochistku gaza ot zagryaznenij. Krome togo v doklade obsuzhdayutsya rezul'taty issledovaniya ehnergeticheskogo razresheniya i linejnosti schetchika po ehnergii, ego rabotosposobnost' v gamma-polyakh moshchnost'yu do 3 r/chas, a takzhe voprosy, svyazannye s vozmozhnost'yu rasshireniya ehnergeticheskogo diapazona raboty gazovykh stsintillyatsionnykh schetchikov, napolnennykh geliem-3. (author)

  15. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  16. Aplicação da radiação gama na desinfestação de rações a base de grãos para alimentação de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Cristina Ramos Koike

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivos realizar um levantamento para identificar a entomofauna associada a rações na cidade São Paulo/SP bem como avaliar o efeito da radiação gama em rações para alimentação de animais domésticos infestadas por pragas. Amostras de 20 lojas Pet Shop de diferentes regiões da cidade São Paulo/SP foram submetidas a triagens de 1 e 45 dias para coleta de insetos com auxilio de aspirador entomológico e peneiras de diferentes granulometrias. As espécies Sitophilus z...

  17. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model Equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Fada dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. METHODS: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc99 radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. RESULTS: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of limphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. CONCLUSIONS: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement.OBJETIVO: Investigar o equipamento nacional de detecção gama intra-operatória na identificação de linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos machos, adultos jovens. Depois de anestesiados, os animais foram distribuidos em dois grupos de 15 animais cada. O grupo A recebeu radiofármaco dextran 500 - Tc99 e azul patente V e o grupo B, somente azul patente V para realização do mapeamento linfático. Foi realizada a medição da captação radioativa da região de fundo, do sítio de injeção e do linfonodo sentinela ex vivo do grupo A. Após a ex

  18. Comportamento balístico de compósito de polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular: efeito da radiação gama Ballistic behaviour of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: effect of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia L. S. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica (PMCs reforçados por fibras são considerados excelentes materiais de engenharia. Em aplicações estruturais, quando uma elevada relação resistência peso é fundamental para o projeto, os PMCs vêm substituindo com sucesso diversos materiais convencionais. Materiais têxteis são utilizados, desde a 2ª Guerra Mundial, como blindagens balísticas. Materiais fabricados com fibra do polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular (UHMWPE são empregados na produção de blindagens, para proteção pessoal e em carros de combate. Todavia, em virtude de terem sido desenvolvidos e comercializados mais recentemente, não existem informações suficientes sobre o desempenho balístico desses materiais após a sua exposição aos agentes ambientais. No presente trabalho foi estudado o comportamento balístico de placas compósitas fabricadas com fibra de polietileno de altíssimo peso molecular (UHMWPE, após sua exposição à radiação gama. Os resultados dos testes balísticos foram relacionados com as alterações macromoleculares induzidas pela irradiação por meio de ensaios mecânicos (dureza, impacto e flexão e físico-químicos (espectroscopia no infravermelho, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e análise termogravimétrica. Foi verificado que a irradiação gama provoca modificações nas cadeias macromoleculares do polímero, que alteram as propriedades mecânicas do compósito de UHMWPE, reduzindo, nas doses de radiação mais elevadas, o seu desempenho balístico. Estes resultados são apresentados e discutidos.The fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs are considered excellent engineering materials. In structural applications, when a high strength-to-weight ratio is fundamental for the design, PMCs are successfully replacing many conventional materials. Since World War II textile materials have been used as ballistic armor. Materials manufactured with ultrahigh molecular weight

  19. Resposta de sementes de amendoim a diferentes doses de radiação gama (60Co Response of peanut seeds to different levels of gamma radiation (60Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da S. Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A radiação gama, proveniente da fonte de 60Co, é bastante utilizada para esterilização, visando a prevenção da decomposição e a toxidez de origem microbiana em diversos produtos. O grau de radiossensibilidade de um embrião vegetal depende da espécie, do estágio de seu desenvolvimento durante a radiação, da dose empregada e do critério usado para medir o efeito biológico, sendo comumente utilizado o teste de germinação. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a sensibilidade do amendoim a radiação gama e seus efeitos na germinação, no vigor e na micoflora das sementes da cultivar BRS Havana, irradiadas com uma fonte de 60Co, tipo gammacell, com taxa de dosagem de 12,5 kGy h-1. As doses testadas em kGy foram as seguintes: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0; 12,0; 15,0; 18,0; 21,0 e 24,0. Com os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que as doses acima de 3,0 kGy prejudicaram a viabilidade das sementes e as doses acima de 12 kGy comprometeram totalmente o vigor e a germinação das sementes de amendoim. A radiação a partir da dose 2,0 kGy eliminou os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus niger e, a partir da dose 3,0 kGy, eliminou o Aspergillus glaucus. O Penicilium spp. permaneceu em mais de 30% das sementes em todos os tratamentos com radiação, não sendo eliminado até a dose de 24 kGy.The gamma radiation from 60Co source is widely used for sterilization aiming at preventing decomposition and toxicity from microbes in several products. The degree of radiosensitvity of a plant embryo depends on the species, the development stage during radiation, doses used and the criteria used to measure the biological effect, the germination test, being commonly used.This work aimed to study the peanut sensitivity to gamma radiation and its effects in the germination, in the vigour and seeds microflora of cultivar BRS Havana, irradiated with 60Co source, type gammacell with rate of dosage of 12.5 kGy h-1. The tested doses were the

  20. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  1. Disponibilidade de cálcio do leite de búfala irradiado por raios gama
    Calcium availability of buffalo milk irradiated by gamma rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DALLA DEA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O leite de búfala é composto por elevados teores de nutrientes, sendo importante, principalmente, como matéria-prima para elaboração de produtos lácteos e fonte de proteínas e cálcio. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito dos raios gama na disponibilidade de cálcio no leite de búfala. O leite integral foi irradiado nas doses 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0 kGy e também foi avaliado o controle, que não foi submetido ao processo de irradiação. Foram avaliadas composição centesimal e teor de cálcio total no primeiro dia para caracterização do leite utilizado. As análises de diálise de cálcio in vitro ocorreram no primeiro, terceiro, sexto e nono dias de armazenamento a 4ºC. Como resultados para a composição centesimal foram obtidos valores de 4,85% de proteína, 7,00% de gordura, 0,79% cinza e 4,45% carboidratos. O teor de cálcio foi 212,43mg/100mL. A irradiação do leite não alterou a disponibilidade de cálcio.

  2. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  3. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  4. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  5. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  6. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  7. Gamma probe-assisted brain tumor microsurgical resection: a new technique Ressecção microcirúrgica de tumor cerebral assistida por detector gama: uma nova técnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Vilela Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The pioneering performance of gamma probe-assisted surgery (GPAS for brain tumors, aiming not only an improvement of tumor detection, but mainly assurance of its complete removal and the study of the usual distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI in the brain SPECT of normal individuals. METHOD: Patient's informed consent and demonstration of the tumor by the preoperative MIBI SPECT were the inclusion criteria adopted for GPAS, which was performed in one patient with a right parietal lobe metastatic tumor. The radiotracer (99mTc-MIBI was injected in a peripheral vein 5 hours before the operation. A tumor to-normal tissue count ratio equal to or greater than 2/1 was considered indicative of tumor. MIBI SPECT was performed in five normal individuals in a pilot study. RESULTS: The gamma probe greatly facilitated intraoperative tumor detection (tumor to-normal brain count ratio was 5/1 and indicated a small piece of residual tumor after what was thought to be a complete tumor removal, allowing its resection, which, otherwise, would have been left behind. Postoperative CT confirmed complete tumor resection. The MIBI SPECT in normal individuals showed an increased uptake by the hypophisis, choroid plexus, skull, scalp and salivary glands and absence of uptake by the normal brain tissue. There were no complications. CONCLUSION: GPAS proved to be, in this single case, a safe and reliable technique to improve brain tumor detection and to confirm the presence or absence of residual tumor.OBJETIVOS: A realização pioneira de cirurgia assistida por detector gama (CADG para tumores cerebrais, objetivando-se não apenas a identificação do tumor, mas, sobretudo, assegurar-se quanto à sua completa ressecção e estudar a distribuição usual do 99mTc-MIBI no SPECT cerebral de indivíduos normais. MÉTODO: O consentimento informado do paciente e a demonstração do tumor pelo SPECT pré-operatório com MIBI foram os critérios de inclusão adotados para a

  8. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  9. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  10. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  11. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  13. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  14. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  15. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  16. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  17. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  18. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  19. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  20. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  1. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  2. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  3. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    served as a deputy maintenance group commander. Following Air War College he will take command of the 8th Maintenance Group, Kunsan Air Base, Korea ...discrimination in terms of 3 race, religion , sex, etc.: the demographics we have all heard about for years. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36

  4. ADAPTACIÓN PARA BUENOS AIRES DE LA ESCALA DE AUTOEFICACIA GENERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ELENA BRENLLA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo principal informar acerca de las características psicométricas y los datos normativos de la Adaptación Argentina de la Escala de Autoeficacia General (EAG de Jerusalem y Schwarzer (1992 a fin de poder contar con evidencias de validez y fiabilidad que permitan su uso idóneo en tareas de investigación. Incluye 10 ítemes con escalamiento tipo Likert de 4 puntos. La autoeficacia refiere a la percepción de los individuos para manejar adecuadamente una amplia gama de estresores de la vida cotidiana. Se analizaron los datos obtenidos de 292 sujetos, residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores (República Argentina. Se llevó a cabo un Análisis de Componentes Principales y se observó que, si bien emergen dos factores que explican el 44% de la variancia, el mayor porcentaje lo explica el primer factor con un 33%. En cuanto a la fiabilidad, los resultados indican una apropiada consistencia interna de los ítemes (¿ = .76 y, en relación a otras evidencias de validez, se obtuvieron correlaciones significativas con estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés de planeamiento (r = .459; p < .001 y actividad (r = .393; p < .001 y con medidas de locus de control externo (r = -.293; p < .001. Asimismo, se registraron diferencias en cuanto al sexo y la edad. En resumen, los resultados obtenidos indican evidencias de fiabilidad en términos de consistencia interna y de la validez de las puntuaciones obtenidas mediante la administración de la versión local de la EAG a residentes de Buenos Aires.

  5. Digital filters in spectrometry; Filtros digitales en espectrometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron B, J. I.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: israel_176@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work is presented the development and application of the digital signal processing for different multichannel analysis spectra. The use of the smoothing classic methods in applications of signal processing is illustrated by a filters discussion; autoregressive, mobile average and the ARMA filters. Generally, simple routines of lineal smoothing do not provide appropriate smoothing of the data that show the local ruggedness as the strong discontinuities; however the indicated development algorithms have been enough to leave adapting to this task. Four algorithms were proven: autoregressive, mobile average, ARMA and binomial methods for 5, 7, and 9 of data, everything in the domain of the time and programmed in Mat lab. (Author)

  6. Comparação do teste tuberculínico e do ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama para diagnóstico de tuberculose latente em agentes comunitários de saúde do Sul do Brasil, Rio Grande do Sul, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Corrêa Machado

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a capacidade de detecção de infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis em agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS com uso do teste tuberculínico (TT e do ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama (IGRA. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado no município de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com aplicação do TT e do IGRA em 47 ACS no período de março a junho de 2012; o TT foi considerado positivo na presença de uma induração ≥10 mm, assim como o IGRA, se houvesse concentração ≥0,35 UI/ml de interferon-gama. RESULTADOS: 12 ACS apresentaram TT positivo e 6 tiveram IGRA positivo; a concordância entre os testes foi avaliada como pobre (κ=0,063. CONCLUSÃO: apesar do número limitado de amostras, a alta discordância entre os testes evidencia a necessidade de desenvolver mais estudos que busquem encontrar uma explicação biológica para tais diferenças e avaliem a relação de custo-benefício na utilização do IGRA.

  7. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene; Efeitos da radiacao gama na estrutura e nas propriedades do poliestireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-12-31

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60`s as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with {gamma} rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx {approx} 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs {approx} 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex`s molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author) 43 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  9. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  10. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  11. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  12. Air filtration and air cooling in dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubzov, J A

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the maintenance of optimum temperatures and relative humidities, a continuous cleaning of the circulating air by means of suspended matter filters and regular disinfection of the spaces and equipment are required in the maturing and storage room for cheese. This contribution presents solutions to the use of suspended matter filters in air cooling plant for dairies in the U.S.S.R.

  13. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  14. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  15. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  16. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on country made polycarbonate Durolon FN2200; Efeito da radiacao gama no policarbonato nacional Durolon FN2200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence, Mauro Cesar

    1996-07-01

    Type II polycarbonate, PC II, manufactured with high purity reagents as used on medical fabrication was gamma irradiated by {sup 60} Co source with doses from 0 to 300 kGy. Dose effects on the tensile strength at break (TSb) and at yield (TSy), on the molecular weight by viscosity, on optical properties by yellowness index (YI) and transmittance (T), molecular structure by transmission spectroscopy on infrared region (IR). Radical formation and decay at 100 kGy was studied too by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance of proton (NMR {sup 1}H). T S alteration was not observed up to 100 kGy, but molecular weight already suffers alteration at low doses, as well optical properties suffer significant alteration at sterilization doses (25 kGy) by yellowness index of 90% that is not desirable by medical application point of view. Molecular scission degree was calculated from viscosity measurements which value found is 1 and the crosslinking was not observed at sterilization doses. The formation of three different radicals was observed phenoxy, phenyl and isopropyl when irradiated on vacuum and after being put in air contact, scission occurs on PC II on two sites of the polymeric chain, while on PC I scission occurs only in one site. The PC II can be used in sterilized medical devices by gamma radiation from R T point of view, but looking to optical properties in a incorporation of additives will be necessary to cover up this coloration, as an optical whitener. It is interesting to note although PC II has G{sub scission} = 1 and yellowness index of 17% and P C I has G{sub scission} = 16,7 and yellowness index of 27% this difference can be attributed to the large quantity of optical whitener added to PC I. At sterilization doses PC II has an excellent radiolytic stability considering the point of view TS but it is necessary to avoid the yellowness on the fabrication of medical devices that can be radio sterilized. (author)

  18. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  19. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  20. Use of Non Vascular Plant Organisms as Indicators of Urban Air Pollution (Tunja, Boyacá, Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Simijaca Salcedo

    2014-05-01

    Los líquenes y briófitos son organismos útiles en la determinación de la calidad del aire. En la ciudad de Tunja (departamento de Boyacá, Colombia, es evidente la escasez de zonas verdes por el aumento en las construcciones, lo que contribuye al detrimento de la pureza atmosférica y trae consigo el deterioro de la salud de la ciudadanía y la reducción de los hábitats y poblaciones de las plantas criptógamas. Mediante la determinación del Índice de Pureza Atmosférica (IPA se identificaron las zonas con mayor influencia de contaminantes del aire. Parmotrema  austrosinense corresponde a la especie más frecuencia; y la estación de la Normal Femenina, con IPA de 52,2196 es influenciada por los contaminantes atmosféricos; las estaciones de los Parques Santander y Semáforos son las más contaminadas (IPA 8,5333 con solo dos especies (Heterodermia albicans y Lobariaceae sp..Se destaca la evaluación en la Reserva Forestal Protectora El Malmo con un IPA de 34,0281 y 23 especies. Los valores de IPA se agruparon en zonas de isocontaminación para ser representados cartográficamente. El uso de organismos bioindicadores es una estrategia natural y económica que permite zonificar las urbes y enfocar planes para revegetalización de ciudades, generando la disminución del impacto de contaminantes en el aire con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de los pobladores

  1. Identificação e quantificação de voláteis de café através de cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução / espectrometria de massas empregando um amostrador automático de "headspace" Identification and quantification of coffee volatile components through high resolution gas chromatoghaph/mass spectrometer using a headspace automatic sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo César AMSTALDEN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Usando um amostrador automático, os "headspaces" de três marcas comerciais de café torrado e moído foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente quanto a composição dos voláteis responsáveis pelo aroma através da técnica de cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas. Uma vez que a metodologia não envolveu isolamento ou concentração dos aromas, suas proporções naturais foram mantidas, além de simplificar o preparo das amostras. O emprego do amostrador automático permitiu também boa resolução dos picos cromatográficos sem o emprego de criogenia, contribuindo para redução no tempo de análise. Noventa e um componentes puderam ser identificados, sendo que alguns compostos conhecidos como presentes em café como o dimetilsulfeto, metional e furfuril mercaptana não foram detectados. Os voláteis presentes em maior concentração puderam ser quantificados com o auxílio de dois padrões internos. A técnica se provou viável, tanto para caracterização como para quantificação de voláteis de café.Employing an automatic headspace sampler, the headspaces of three commercial brands of ground roasted coffee were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Since the methodology did not involve aroma isolation or concentration, their natural proportions were maintained, providing a more accurate composition of the flavors, and simplifying sample preparation. The automatic sampler allowed good resolution of the chromatographic peaks without cryofocusing the samples at the head of the column during injection, reducing analysis time. Ninety one compounds were identified and some known coffee volatiles, such as dimethyl sulphide, methional and furfuryl mercaptan were not detected. The more concentrated volatiles could be identified using two internal standards. The technique proved viable, for both characterization and for quantification of coffee volatiles.

  2. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  3. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  4. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  5. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  6. Air University Press Publications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Our publications program is designed primarily to help Air Force and other US war fighters, national leaders and policy makers, academicians, military historians, and other analysts understand...

  7. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Jaeger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  8. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  9. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luís Bamberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade do arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado em solos de várzea está alicerçada na utilização da rotação e sucessão de culturas, fundamentais para o controle do arroz-vermelho e preto. Os reflexos sobre os atributos dos solos de várzea merecem estudos em especial sobre a compactação do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar camadas compactadas em Planossolo submetido a diferentes sistemas de cultivo e preparo, avaliando-se a densidade do solo (Ds pela Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama (TC. A análise foi realizada em um experimento de longa duração, conduzido de 1985 a 2004, na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, num delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições (T1 - um ano de arroz com preparo convencional do solo seguido de dois anos de pousio; T2 - cultivo contínuo de arroz com preparo convencional do solo; T4 - rotação de arroz e soja (Glycine max L. com preparo convencional do solo; T5 - rotação de arroz, soja e milho (Zea maiz L. em preparo convencional do solo; T6 - plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. no inverno; T7 - rotação de arroz sob plantio direto e soja sob preparo convencional do solo; T8 - testemunha: solo sem cultivo. A Tomografia Computadorizada de Raios Gama permitiu detectar que o plantio direto de arroz no verão em sucessão do azevém no inverno não resultou na formação de camadas compactadas; a utilização de dois anos de pousio, no sistema de produção de arroz irrigado, não foi suficiente para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial compactada; e a rotação de arroz, soja e milho com preparo convencional do solo apresentou duas camadas compactadas (0,0 a 1,5 cm e 11 a 14 cm, indicando que essas podem limitar a produção agrícola nesse sistema de produção em Planossolos.The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. in

  10. Caracterização e avaliação de três grupos de arroz-de-sequeiro de diferentes procedências por meio da sensitividade à radiação gama Characterization and evaluation of three groups of rice upland of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto Franco Rodrigues

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e avaliação de variedades de arroz auxiliam na seleção dos parentais e na ampliação da base genética dos programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar e avaliar três grupos de arroz-de-sequeiro (Oryza sativa L. de diferentes procedências por meio da sensitividade à radiação gama. Sementes de 84 variedades procedentes do Japão, Filipinas e Brasil foram submetidas a v��rias dosagens de radiação gama e semeadas em caixas de madeira no delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso com três repetições. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, em 1991, no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA, da Universidade de São Paulo (USP. Mediu-se a sensitividade por meio dos efeitos fisiológicos produzidos na geração M1; determinaram-se as porcentagens de emergência, a sobrevivência e a altura das plântulas. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas de sensitividade à radiação gama entre grupos em todos os caracteres avaliados.The characterization and evaluation of varieties of rice aid in the parents selection and in the increase of the genetic base of breeding programs. The present work was carried out to characterize and to evaluate three groups of rice upland (Oryza sativa L. of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds of 84 varieties collected from Japan, Philippines and Brazil, were submitted to various doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes. The experiment was conducted in 1991 at greenhouse according to randomized complete block design with three replications. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M1 generation, such as seed emergency, seedling height and survival rate, were determined and evaluated. The results showed significant differences of sensitivity to the radiation among three groups for all traits evaluated.

  11. Maxwell Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    most effective style of leadership. (Courtesy Photo, Air University Press) Air University Press Directory Maxwell Links Welcome Leadership Joint Land Use Study Heritage Pamphlet Maxwell Driving Tour (No releases 'A Discourse on Winning and Losing' "Developing Your Full Range of Leadership" focuses

  12. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  13. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Sala, J.

    2000-01-01

    We present a fatal case of intracranial air embolism produced by the passage of intravenous air to the arteries owing to the existence of a patent foremen ovale associated with pulmonary hypertension, which permitted a right-left shunt (paradoxical embolism). The pathophysiological mechanisms of pneumcephalus and paradoxical embolism are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Dioxin in Danish air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoe, J.; Andersen, H.V. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    To gain more knowledge about dioxin levels, sources and emissions in Denmark, the Danish government year 2001 initiated the Danish Dioxin Monitoring Program. The program is a series of investigations, comprising soil, compost, percolate, bio-ash, incineration of municipal and hazardous waste, deposition, air, lake and fjord sediment as well as cows milk and human milk. The present paper describes the preliminary results for the continued investigation of air. Deposition of dioxin over land or sea is of major importance for the human exposure, which takes place mainly from food intake. The dioxin are emitted mainly to the atmosphere, therefore air measurements are well suited for tracking the transport and fate of dioxin from sources to exposure. Whereas measurements from chimneys has been frequently used to estimate the industrial emission from point sources such as incinerators, air measurements also include emission from diffuse sources such as larger urban or industrial regions, residential quarters, and from evaporation. Furthermore, emission measurements must be done on known sources, whereas air measurements include contribution from unknown source. The major drawbacks of air measurements are the long duration required (years), and the results depends on meteorological conditions, such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and direction. The purpose of the present study has been to measure dioxins in Danish air, emphasizing - background concentrations and annual variation - difference between urban, rural and residential zones - influence from local sources and long range transport - connection between dioxin in air and deposition.

  15. Protective air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases is described. An enclosure is sealed by a surrounding air lock, and an automatic mechanism partially evacuates the enclosure and air lock. The enclosure ventilating mechanism can be disconnected so that a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in the enclosure

  16. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  17. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  18. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  19. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  20. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  1. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  2. Air Force Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders

  3. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  4. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  5. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  6. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  7. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  8. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  9. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  10. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  11. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  12. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  13. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  14. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  15. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  16. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  17. Appendicitis with Intraluminal Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Alfredo; Ramirez, Sandra M; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Uriza, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    The presentation of acute appendicitis with intraluminal air is an uncommon presentation. Ultrasound is a widely used and accepted to establish the diagnosis of appendicitis, but its performance is limited in situations where there is interposition of air. Inflamed appendix which presents with distension by gas can be source of error in ultrasound to establish a false negative diagnosis. In this article we present three patients with appendicitis where the interposition of intraluminal air hid their diagnostic by ultrasound. In all three cases the definitive diagnosis was established by computed tomography and surgical confirmation.

  18. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  19. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  20. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  1. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency......This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  2. Air tight electrical box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.G.

    1990-08-14

    An air-impervious electrical box to facilitate air sealing a house comprises an integral, rigid box body having a continuous flange, integral with the body, circumscribing and outwardly extending from the sides of the body. This flange is rearwardly positioned behind the front edges of the sides of the body a predetermined distance so that the electrical box may be secured to framing by nailing through the flange. Drywall is then secured to the frame on top of and adjecent to the flange. Such box eliminates the necessity for solid backing and minimizes passage of air through the box and space between the drywall and the box.

  3. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  4. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V; Sadegh, Ali M

    2006-01-01

    .... Examples include air ships, weather balloons, inflatable antennas and radomes, temporary shelters, pneumatic muscles and actuators, inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags...

  5. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  6. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  7. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few sources. Even natural sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more ... Walks Cycling Events Donate a Car Memorial & Honor Gifts Planned Giving Christmas Seals ABOUT THE LUNG ASSOCIATION ...

  8. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  9. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you touch anything in your seat back pocket. The air pressure in the plane can change ... counter Products Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Health Tools Dictionary Symptom Checker BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient ...

  10. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  11. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  12. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  13. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  14. Operational air sampling report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Nevada Test Site vertical shaft and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed to measure these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. The current testing moratorium and closure of the Decontamination Facility has decreased the scope of the program significantly. Of the 118 air samples collected in the only active tunnel complex, only one showed any airborne fission products. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 206 air samples collected at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any Derived Air Concentration calculation standard. Laboratory analyses of these samples were negative for any airborne fission products

  15. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  16. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  17. Calidad del aire interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues including health risks and means by which human exposures can be reduced. Content on this site will be focused on Spanish translated resources for information about indoor air quality.

  18. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  19. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-06-01

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  20. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  1. Process air quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  2. Air void clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been identified as a potential source of : low strengths in concrete mixes by several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research was : carried out to (1) develop a quantitati...

  3. Metal pollution (Pb, Zn, Ni and Cr) in air, road and soil sediment in a high traffic area; Contaminacion por metales (Pb, Zn, Ni y Cr) en aire, sedimentos viales y suelo en una zona de alto trafico vehicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchado, Anali; Garcia, Neyma; Garcia, Cezar; Acosta, Lorena; Cordova, Alberto; Linares, Maria; Giraldoth, Debora [Centro de Investigaciones CEDEGAS, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: analimachado@yahoo.com; amachadop@luz.edu.ve; Velasquez, Harvi [Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2008-11-15

    sequia y de lluvia, empleando un muestreador de bajo volumen con filtros de fibra de cuarzo -para las muestras de PM10- con una frecuencia de una muestra cada tres dias para un total de 26; para los sedimentos viales y suelo fueron colectadas tres muestras con una frecuencia de 15 dias para un periodo de medicion de mes y medio en epoca seca. Todas las muestras fueron sometidas a un proceso de digestion y analizadas por espectrometria de absorcion atomica. Las concentraciones de las PM10 resultaron 2 veces mas altas en la zona de emision que en la zona de dispersion durante ambas epocas climatologicas, presentando una mejor correlacion entre las zonas para epoca de sequia. Todos los metales analizados presentaron diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre las zonas de muestreo. Por otra parte, para el periodo global existen diferencias significativas entre las zonas y las epocas climatologicas tanto para PM10 como para la totalidad de los metales. El Pb no excedio el estandar de calidad del aire establecido para Venezuela, pero su concentracion promedio en la zona de emision fue de 1.13 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, muy cercano al limite diario permitido en Venezuela y por la EPA; por su parte, tanto Pb como Ni sobrepasaron el limite permisible de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en ambas zonas durante todo el periodo de muestreo. Para las muestras de sedimento y de suelo se encontraron concentraciones significativamente elevadas de Pb, Zn, Ni y Cr en comparacion con la muestra testigo. Los niveles hallados de Pb y Zn estan por encima de los limites permitidos por el decreto 2635 de la normativa venezolana y la EPA, clasificandose la zona como suelo con alta contaminacion por metales pesados. Adicionalmente, el analisis estadistico demostro la adecuada seleccion de la zona de monitoreo, confirmando que la principal fuente de emision de los contaminantes es el parque automotor.

  4. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  5. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  6. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  7. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  8. The urban air; L'air de la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the abstracts of conferences proposed during the meeting on the urban air, organized by the French Meteorological Society in november 2002. These conferences dealt with the air quality monitoring, the public health impacts, the air pollution in function of the meteorological effects, the pollutants, the main factors of the air quality and the models of the meteorology. (A.L.B.)

  9. Moderation of Neutrons Emitted by a Pulsed Source and Neutron Spectrometry Based on Slowing-Down Time; Ralentissement des Neutrons Emis par une Source Pulsee et Leur Spectrometrie en Fonction du Temps de Ralentissement; Zamedlenie nejtronov, ispuskaemykh impul'snym istochnikom, i spektrometriya nejtronov po vremeni zamedleniya; Moderacion de Neutrones Emitidos por una Pitente Pulsada y Espectrometria Neutronica Basada en el Tiempo de Frenado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, A. A.; Isakov, A. I.; Kazarnovskij, M. V.; Popov, Ju. P.; Shapiro, F. L. [Fizicheskij Institut Im. P.N. Lebedeva AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-08-15

    ralentissement, les variations de la section efficace des reactions neutroniques en fonction de l'energie et ils examinent les possibilites d'application et de perfectionnement qu'offre cette methode de spectrometrie. Ils etudient brievement les resultats de deux sortes de mesures spectrometriques: 1. Mesures precises portant sur les variations, en fonction de l'energie, des rapports entre les sections efficaces des reactions He{sup 3}(n, p), Li{sup 6}(n, {alpha}), B{sup 10}(n, {alpha}) et N{sup 14}(n, p). Le resultat le plus interessant de ces experiences a ete de decouvrir une composante negative constante de la section efficace de ces reactions et de trouver des indices laissant supposer l'existence d'un niveau excite de {sup 4}He. 2. Mesures de la variation que subissent les valeurs moyennes des sections efficaces de capture radiative des neutrons par les noyaux, en fonction de l'energie. Ces mesures, qui ont ete faites pour un grand nombre de substances, notamment pour divers isotopes, ont permis de constater l'existence de plusieurs niveaux de resonance a faible largeur neutronique, auparavant inconnues, et de determiner pour beaucoup de noyaux la valeur de la fonction de force relative a la capture des neutrons a moment orbital 1= 1. (author) [Spanish] Durante los ultimos diez anos se han venido realizando en el Instituto de Fisica p. N. Lebedev investigaciones sobre la moderacion no estacionaria de neutrones en medios pesados, el desarrollo de un metodo de espectrometria neutronica basada en la medicion del tiempo de frenado y la aplicacion de este metodo al estudio de la relacion entre la energia y las secciones eficaces de las reacciones nucleares producidas por neutrones con niveles energeticos de hasta 30 keV, En la presente memoria los autores pasan revista a dichos trabajos y analizan los resultados obtenidos. Despues de exponer brevemente la teoria de la moderacion y termalizacion no estacionarias de neutrones, los autores presentan los resultados de estudios

  10. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  11. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  12. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  13. Advanced air detritiation dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic exchange principle has proved effective in increasing air detritiation factors of atmospheric dryers. A CFFTP/AECL Chalk River program has demonstrated detritiation factors of 100,000 in trials. The technology is designed for application on regenerating atmospheric dryers using molecular sieve desiccant beds, used in rooms likely to encounter airborne tritium contamination. Dryer design concepts for dryers at JET (Joint European Torus, England) and ITER have been prepared by Alan Dombra of AECL, using the isotopic exchange technology. The isotopic exchange method works by passing tritiated air over a detritiated desiccant bed. Airborne tritium atoms are exchanged in the bed for ordinary hydrogen atoms from the bed's residual moisture loading. Tritium remains on the bed until it is discharged in a regeneration cycle. During regeneration, the desiccant bed is first heated with hot, dry air to drive off collected tritiated moisture. Airborne tritium removed from the air is collected as a tritiated water distillate and stored for later processing. During the second part of the regeneration cycle, the desiccant bed is washed with clean moist air to elute remaining traces of tritium and to refresh the bed to ready it for another tritium absorption period

  14. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  15. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  16. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  17. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  18. Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    In recent years air-sea interaction has emerged as a subject in its own right, encompassing small-scale and large-scale processes in both air and sea. Air-Sea Interaction: Laws and Mechanisms is a comprehensive account of how the atmosphere and the ocean interact to control the global climate, what physical laws govern this interaction, and its prominent mechanisms. The topics covered range from evaporation in the oceans, to hurricanes, and on to poleward heat transport by the oceans. By developing the subject from basic physical (thermodynamic) principles, the book is accessible to graduate students and research scientists in meteorology, oceanography, and environmental engineering. It will also be of interest to the broader physics community involved in the treatment of transfer laws, and thermodynamics of the atmosphere and ocean.

  19. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  20. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-02-01

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  1. Air quality risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  2. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  3. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  4. Air condensation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelp, F.; Pohl, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this plant the steam is distributed by a ventilator from the bottom to symmetrically fixed, inclined cooling elements with tubes. The upper part of the current side of the cooling elements as well as the bottom part of the outflow side can be covered by cover plates via a control circuit. This way, part of the air amount is deviated and in case of unfavourable atmospheric conditions (cold) the air is heated. This heating is enough to prevent freezing of the condensate on the cooling tubes. (DG) [de

  5. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  6. Evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) blank data and application of study reporting levels to groundwater data collected for the California GAMA Priority Basin Project, May 2004 through September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed in quality-control samples collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. From May 2004 through September 2010, a total of 2,026 groundwater samples, 211 field blanks, and 109 source-solution blanks were collected and analyzed for concentrations of 85 VOCs. Results from analyses of these field and source-solution blanks and of 2,411 laboratory instrument blanks during the same time period were used to assess the quality of data for the 2,026 groundwater samples. Eighteen VOCs were detected in field blanks or source-solution blanks: acetone, benzene, bromodichloromethane, 2-butanone, carbon disulfide, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene, styrene, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m- and p-xylenes, and o-xylene. The objective of the evaluation of the VOC-blank data was to determine if study reporting levels (SRLs) were needed for any of the VOCs detected in blanks to ensure the quality of the data from groundwater samples. An SRL is equivalent to a raised reporting level that is used in place of the reporting level used by the analyzing laboratory [long‑term method detection level (LT-MDL) or laboratory reporting level (LRL)] to reduce the probability of reporting false-positive detections. Evaluation of VOC-blank data was done in three stages: (1) identification of a set of representative quality‑control field blanks (QCFBs) to be used for calculation of SRLs and identification of VOCs amenable to the SRL approach, (2) evaluation of potential sources of contamination to blanks and groundwater samples by VOCs detected in field blanks, and (3) selection of appropriate SRLs from among four potential SRLs for VOCs detected in field blanks and application of those SRLs to the groundwater data. An important conclusion from this study is that to ensure the

  7. Radiação gama na redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango Gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination of chicken steaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Filet SPOTO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da radiação gama na destruição dos microrganismos presentes em filés de frango armazenados sob refrigeração. Um dos possíveis fatores de deterioração da carne de frango é a atividade microbiana. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação de microrganismos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 5 fatores (períodos de armazenamento e 5 níveis (doses de radiação, com 3 repetições por tratamento. As amostras de filé de frango foram irradiadas com doses de 0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy e em seguida armazenadas sob refrigeração (± 5ºC por 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A contagem total dos microrganismos foi realizada por plaqueamento em profundidade em meio de cultivo PCA. As amostras não irradiadas permitiram um acréscimo de dois ciclos logarítmicos na contagem microbiana ao longo dos vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10(5 para 10(7UFC/g. As amostras irradiadas com dose de 2,0kGy permitiram acréscimo de um ciclo logarítmico durante os vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10³ para 10(4UFC/g. As doses de radiação de 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy reduziram a população microbiana a níveis de 10²UFC/g no vigésimo primeiro dia e 10¹UFC/g no vigésimo oitavo dia de armazenamento. A irradiação pode ser um processo eficiente para a redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango porque a dose de radiação de 4,0kGy foi suficiente para manter os filés de frango refrigerados com uma população microbiana de 10¹UFC/g até vinte e oito dias de armazenamento.This work evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination in chicken steaks stored under refrigeration. Microbial activity causes deterioration in poultry. Irradiation is a process of food preservation by reduction of the number of the microorganisms. The experimental design was in random blocks with 5 factors (storage periods and 5 levels

  8. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  9. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  10. Can you see Air?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Can you see Air? Andal Narayanan Joseph Samuel Supurna Sinha. Classroom Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 71-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/06/0071-0075 ...

  11. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  12. Ames Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  13. Modeling indoor air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepper, D. W; Carrington, David B

    2009-01-01

    ... and ventilation from the more popular textbooks and monographs. We wish to especially acknowledge Dr. Xiuling Wang, who diligently converted many of our old FORTRAN codes into MATLAB files, and also developed the COMSOL example files. Also we thank Ms. Kathryn Nelson who developed the website for the book and indoor air quality computer codes. We are grateful to ...

  14. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  15. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  16. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  17. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  18. Russia air management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, T.G.; Markin, S.; Kosenkova, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  19. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  20. Air quality conformity appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), because of the 8-hour ozone standard, Franklin, Delaware, Licking, Madison, Fairfield and Knox counties were designated as a basic nonattainment area for ozone in 2004. As a result of the PM 2.5 standar...

  1. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  2. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  3. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  4. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T G [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S V [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  5. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  6. Indoor air quality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The various types of pollutant found in indoor air are introduced and the effects on the health of the occupants of buildings summarized. The ''sick'' building syndrome is described in detail and the need for further investigation into its causes and remedies is stressed. 8 tabs

  7. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  8. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  9. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  10. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  11. Air Power's First Among Equals: Why Air Superiority Still Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawson, Andrew T

    2008-01-01

    .... History is replete with examples of successful or failed air superiority campaigns. This paper details air superiority's role in both the Battle of Britain, and the 1967 Six Day War's Operation MOKED...

  12. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops Efeito da radiação gama na inativação de aflatoxina B1 em alimentos e ração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghanem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn and feed (barley, bran, corn were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6 of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively correlated with the increase in the applied dose of gamma ray for each tested sample. At a dose of 10 kGy percentages of AFB1 degradation reached highest values at 58.6, 68.8, 84.6, 81.1 and 87.8% for peanuts, peeled pistachios, unpeeled pistachios, corn and rice samples, respectively. In feed samples percentages of AFB1 degradation were 45, 66, and 90% in barley, 47, 75, and 86% in bran, and 31, 72, and 84% in corn for the doses of 4, 6, and 10 kGy, respectively. AFB1 degradation in food samples correlated negatively with oil content in irradiated samples. Thus, in peanuts, which contained the highest oil content, percentage of AFB1 degradation at 10 kGy was not more than 56.6%, whereas, the corresponding value in corn, which contained the lowest oil content, reached as high as 80%. The above results indicate the possibility of using gamma radiation as a means of degradation of AFB1 in food and feed crops to levels lower than the maximum allowed levels.Amostras de alimentos (amendoim, pistache descascada, pistache com casca, arroz e milho e de ração (cevada, farelo de trigo e milho foram esterilizadas por autoclavação e inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos (10(6 de um isolado de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1. Após incubação por 10 dias a 27ºC para multiplicação do fungo, as amostras foram irradiadas com radiação gama nas doses de 4, 6 e 10 kGy. Os resultados indicaram que a degradação da AFB1 correlacionou-se positivamente

  14. Atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária, dosagens séricas de uréia e creatinina como meios diagnósticos auxiliares na nefrotoxicidade induzida por aminoglicosídeo em cães Urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, urinalysis, bun and creatinine serum dosages as a auxiliary diagnostic mean in dogs nephrotoxicity induced by aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosane de Aguiar Hennemann

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 11 cães, hígidos, com idade entre 1 e 5 anos. Inicialmente procedeu-se à determinação dos valores basais através de cinco colheitas diárias de urina e sangue, e realizou-se a urinálise, determinação da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária, dosagens sérica de uréia e creatinina. A nefrotoxicidade foi induzida com a utilização de10mg/kg de gentamicina, 3 vezes ao dia, durante 14 dias. As colheitas de urina foram realizadas a cada 24 hors e o sangue foi colhido a cada 48 horas, durante 14 dias. Após este período os cães foram submetidos à eutanásia, procedendo-se à necropsia, e estudo histopatológico dos rins. Os sinais clínicos apresentados foram apatia, anorexia, poliúria, oligúria, anúria, polidipsia, vômito e diarréia. Pela urinálise observou-se a ocorrência de proteinúria, glicosúria, hematúria, cilindrúria, celulúria e isostenúria; os valores de gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária elevaram-se de forma crescente a partir de 24 horas de administração da gentamicina até o final do experimento, a azotemia foi observada no 12° e 14° dias da pesquisa. Na avaliação histopatológica observou-se nefrose tubular aguda. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que a mensuração da atividade da gama glutamil transpeptidase urinária é um sensível indicador de lesão tubular renal possibilitando o diagnóstico precoce, juntamente com a urinálise.Eleven healthy dogs, ranging from one to five years old, were used for this study. Base line values were determined through five daily samples of urine for urinalysis and urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and blood for serum dosage of BUN and creatinine. Nephrotoxicity was induced using 10mg/kg of gentamicin, 3 times a day (tid, for 14 days. Urine samples were drawn every 24 hours and blood samples every 48 hours, for 14 days. After this period, the dogs were euthanized and necropsy was done for further

  15. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  16. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto. SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  17. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  18. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  19. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  1. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  2. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  3. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  4. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  5. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  6. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  7. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor

  8. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  9. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  10. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  11. Air cathode structure manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  12. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  13. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  14. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  15. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vincent M.

    Asserting that the air quality inside schools is often worse than outdoor pollution, leading to various health complaints and loss of productivity, this paper details factors contributing to schools' indoor air quality. These include the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; building…

  17. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  19. Air pollution and bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, J; Goldberg, C

    1954-01-01

    Bronchitis mortality in males and females 45 to 65 or over 65 years of age was compared with air pollution in the county boroughs of England and Wales in 1950 to 1952. There was significant association between SO/sub 2/ and bronchitis mortality for men but only occasionally significant for women. Association between particulate matter and bronchitis was less consistent. Socio-economic class had no association with pollutant levels suggesting this factor does not affect bronchitis mortality significantly.

  20. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  1. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  2. Air corrosion in storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, F.; Feron, D.; Baklouti, M.; Midoux, N.

    2001-01-01

    The air corrosiveness of a radioactive waste package has been estimated in a store inside which the environmental conditions are supposed to be rather close to the outside ones. It is expressed according to the ISO 9223 standard, from the humidification value and the amounts of sulfur dioxide and chlorine ions. A computer code has been perfected too; the thermal behaviour of the package can then been determined. (O.M.)

  3. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  4. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  5. DISKURSUS BAHAN BAKAR AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poempida Hidayatulloh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan akan energi bagi manusia adalah suatu keniscayaan. Oleh karena itu pencarian manusia dalam menemukan suatu energi yang berkelanjutan (sustainable adalah suatu proses alamiah yang terjadi secara terus-menerus. Keterbatasan manusia dalam mendapatkan energi selalu berkutat pada paradigma keberadaan hukum kekekalan energi yang menjadi basis pemikiran fisika klasik. Air adalah suatu senyawa yang senantiasa ada di sekitar kita dan tersedia dalam berbagai wujud. Senyawa Air (H2O terdiri dari atom hidrogen (H2 dan oksigen (O2 yang keduanya dapat dibakar dan membantu proses pembakaran. Di mana dalam pembakaran akan tercipta energi yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menjadi energi gerak seperti dalam mesin bakar (combustion engine. Proses penguraian senyawa air menjadi hidrogen dan Oksigen dapat dilakukan melalui proses elektrolisa. Proses elektrolisa secara langsung akan membutuhkan energi listrik dalam jumlah yang tidak sedikit. Namun proses elektrolisa yang tepat dapat menghasilkan Brown Gas (HHO yang mempunyai daya bakar yang cukup besar. Tulisan ini membahas dilema pemakaian Brown Gas dalam konteks energi yang dihasilkan dengan perbandingan energi yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkannya. Komparasi energi ini ditujukan untuk menunjukkan apakah kemudian Brown Gas dapat lebih lanjut digunakan untuk menjadi energi penggerak mesin yang ekonomis. Pembahasan tentang terjadinya pelanggaran terhadap hukum kekekalan energi berbasis fisika klasik secara filosofis pun termaktub.

  6. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  7. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  8. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  9. An experimental evaluation on air purification performance of Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Sun, Yuexia

    2018-01-01

    was 96.8%, which indicated that the most of gaseous pollutants were not accumulated in the CAHP. The regeneration temperature for the wheel could affect the air purification performance of CAHP. At 70 °C of regeneration temperature, the air-cleaning efficiency reached 96.7%. Up to 70% of the outdoor air......The escalation of energy consumption in buildings and heightened concerns about acceptable indoor air quality stimulate interest in the usage of air cleaner as an adjunct for indoor environmental conditioning. A regenerative desiccant wheel integrated into a ventilation system termed Clean-Air Heat...... Pump (CAHP) can improve the air quality during the process of dehumidification without using additional energy. An experimental study in a field lab was performed to investigate the air cleaning performance of CAHP. Photoacoustic gas analyzer-INNOVA was used to characterize chemical removal of indoor...

  10. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  11. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  12. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  13. Mass-Spectrometric Investigations of Isotopic Exchange Reactions of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Ions; Recherches, par Spectrometrie de Masse, sur les Echanges Isotopiques des Ions d'Hydrocarbures Gazeux; Mass-spektrometricheskie issledovaniya reaktsij izotopnogo obmena ionov gazoobraznogo uglevodoroda; Estudio del Intercambio Isotopico de Iones Hidrocarburo Gaseosos por Espectrometria de Masas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wexler, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-10-15

    }{sup +} + H{sub 2}; D{sub 2}{sup +} + CH{sub 4} ( North-East-Arrow CH{sub 2}D{sup +} + H + DH); ( South-East-Arrow CHD{sub 2}{sup +} + H + H{sub 2}) auxquelles est due la diminution rapide de l'espece primaire avec l'addition du constituant oppose, doivent etre de l'ordre de grandeur des vitesses des reactions concurrentes respectives CH{sub 3}{sup +} + CH{sub 4} -> C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup +} + H{sub 2}; D{sub 2}{sup +} + D{sub 2} --> D{sub 3}{sup +} + D pour lesquelles l'auteur a mesure des sections efficaces de 27 x 10{sup -16} et 56 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/molecule respectivement. Ces sections efficaces correspondent a de tres grandes constantes de vitesse de 9.9 x 10{sup -10} and 4.0 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule/s. Les ions methyle enrichis en isotope doivent aussi reagir tres rapidement avec D{sub 2} et CH{sub 4} pour former l'espece marquee C{sub 2}H{sub 5}{sup +} . (author) [Spanish] El autor ha empleado tecnicas de espectrometria de masas 'de alta presion' para estudiar el intercambio de isotopos de hidrogeno en productos carbonados de reacciones ionico-moleculares. En observaciones hechas a presiones de aproximadamente 0,1 torr en la fuente, H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4}, D{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} y T{sub 2} + CH{sub 4}, de carga positiva comparados con los espectros de los componentes individuales, los espectros de mezclas pusieron de manifiesto que el CH{sub 3}{sup +} y los iones primarios de hidrogeno molecular reaccionan rapidamente con el otro componente de la mezcla de gases para crear, mediante una serie de reacciones consecutivas, especies ionicas secundarias y terciarias en las cuales tiene lugar un intenso intercambio de isotopos de hidrogeno. Cuando se agrega metano al D{sub 2}, las especies principales de deuterio, D{sub 2}{sup +} y D{sub 3}{sup +} desaparecen casi por completo, formandose en cambio grandes cantidades de C{sub 2}H{sub 4}D{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}D{sub 2}{sup +} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}D{sub 3}{sup +} . Se comprueba, asimismo, que el ion CH{sub 3

  14. Tipologia de frutos e síndromes de dispersão de um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto da APA do Gama e Cabeça de Veado e montagem de Coleção Didática de frutos – Carpoteca - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v9i1.1385

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cátia Schaffer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de realizar um levantamento tipológico de frutos e síndromes de dispersão de um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto, e montar uma carpoteca, o presente trabalho partiu da premissa de que o Cerrado apresenta alta diversidade de frutos e estratégias de dispersão. Os frutos foram coletados na APA do Gama e Cabeça de Veado (Brasília-DF, entre os meses de agosto de 2009 a maio de 2010. A coleta foi feita pelo método de caminhamento com busca ativa por espécimes maduros. Os frutos foram classificados de acordo com a consistência, deiscência e as síndromes de dispersão, e divididos em grupos, tipos e subtipos. Foram coletados 79 frutos, sendo 70 frutos simples, 7 múltiplos e 2 compostos; 43 deiscentes e 36 indeiscentes; 53 secos e 26 carnosos. Anemocoria foi a síndrome de dispersão prevalecente. A diversidade florística encontrada no fragmento garantiu elevada variabilidade de formas de frutos para a carpoteca.

  15. La agricultura en la ciudad de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Araya, Nela Lena

    2012-01-01

    En diferentes lugares de la ciudad existe una amplia gama de experiencias vinculadas con la producción que incluye desde pequeñas macetas en los balcones hasta florecientes terrenos ubicados en espacios públicos y/o privados. Desde las ciencias agropecuarias, los fenómenos vinculados a la agricultura urbana son temas marginales; no obstante, se presentan valiosas discusiones que dan cuenta de la gran diversidad de prácticas y la importancia que tienen en el contexto actual. Uno de los aportes...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a...

  17. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams; Projeto, construcao e caracterizacao de camaras de ionizacao para utilizacao como sistemas padroes em feixes de radiacao X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  18. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  19. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  20. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  1. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  2. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  3. Air quality model guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, A.; Spurrell, F.

    2009-06-01

    Alberta Environment has developed a guidelines for operations and proposed operations that require approvals under the province's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act or that operate under a code of practice for emissions to the atmosphere. In an effort to ensure consistency in the use of dispersion models for regulatory applications in Alberta, this document provided detailed guidance on suitable methods and approaches that should be employed to assess air quality from emission sources, specifically, information required to demonstrate that a source meets the Alberta ambient air quality objectives. The document outlined the statutory authority and provided an overview of the approach. It provided detailed advice on the types and uses of dispersion models with particular reference to the modelling protocol, input data, and output interpretation. Guidance on the application of regulatory models were also presented. Various models were described and their intended uses were explained. Internet addresses for different modelling resources were also offered. Last, some information about regional modelling in the province of Alberta was discussed. 40 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.

  4. Building air exhaustion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Seijiro.

    1995-01-01

    An opening is formed on the side wall of a building such as of a nuclear power plant, and a blow out panel is held (supported) by a clip for closing the opening. A large-diameter pipeline is connected at one end to the opening so as to cover the blow out panel, and immersed at the other end in a pool water. When a pipeline such as of main steam pipelines is ruptured in the building, high temperature and high pressure coolants are flown out from the ruptured port, and the pressure in the building is elevated. The blow out panel falls off from the side of the building by the elevation of the pressure in the building. Steams or compressed air discharged from the opening is introduced to the pool through the large diameter pipeline, then the steams are condensed by the pool water and radioactive materials contained in the condensed steams are kept in the pool water. Radioactive materials contained in the released compression air are also removed into the pool water. (I.N.)

  5. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  6. Air Quality and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.; Rouil, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Schucht, S.; Szopa, S.; Vautard, R.; Menut, L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air quality are closely related: through the policy measures implemented to mitigate these major environmental threats but also through the geophysical processes that drive them. We designed, developed and implemented a comprehensive regional air quality and climate modeling System to investigate future air quality in Europe taking into account the combined pressure of future climate change and long range transport. Using the prospective scenarios of the last generation of pathways for both climate change (emissions of well mixed greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality in Europe. We find that ozone pollution will decrease substantially under the most stringent scenario but the efforts of the air quality legislation will be adversely compensated by the penalty of global warming and long range transport for the business as usual scenario. For particulate matter, the projected reduction of emissions efficiently reduces exposure levels. (authors)

  7. Improving and monitoring air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, André

    2018-05-01

    Since the authorization of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the air quality in the USA has significantly improved because of strong public support. The lessons learned over the last 25 years are being shared with the policy analysts, technical professionals, and scientist who endeavor to improve air quality in their communities. This paper will review how the USA has achieved the "high" standard of air quality that was envisioned in the early 1990s. This document will describe SO 2 gas emission reduction technology and highlight operation of emission monitoring technology. This paper describes the basic process operation of an air pollution control scrubber. A technical review of measures required to operate and maintain a large-scale pollution control system will be described. Also, the author explains how quality assurance procedures in performance of continuous emission monitoring plays a significant role in reducing air pollution.

  8. Air ions and aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammet, H.

    1996-01-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4 endash 1.8 nm. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  10. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  11. Indigenous high volume air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Setty, N.P.N.; Raghunath, B.; Sivasubrahmanyam, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis. It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. (M.G.B.)

  12. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  13. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  14. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  15. Monitoring of mass flux of catalyst FCC in a Cold Pilot Unit by gamma radiation transmission; Monitoramento da taxa de fluxo do catalisador FCC em uma unidade piloto a frio por medicao de transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marcio Fernando Paixao de

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a model for monitoring the mass flow of catalyst FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking - in a CPU - Cold Pilot unit - due to the injection of air and solid by gamma radiation transmission. The CPU simplifies the process of FCC, which is represented by the catalyst cycle, and it was constructed of acrylic, so that the flow can be visualized. The CPU consists of riser separation chamber and return column, and simulates the riser reactor of the FCC process. The catalyst is injected into the column back to the base of the riser, an inclined tube, where the compressed air means that there fluidization along the riser. When the catalyst comes in the separation chamber, the solid phase is sent to the return column, and the gas phase exits the system through one of the four cyclones at the top of the separation chamber. The transmission gamma of measures will be made by means of three test sections that have source and detector shielded. Pressure drop in the riser measurements are made through three pressure gauges positioned on the riser. The source used was Am-241 gamma ray with energy of 60 keV, and detector used was a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 2 {sup x} 2{sup .} Measures the mass flow of catalyst are made by varying the seal of the catalyst, and density of solid in the riser because with the combination of these measures can determine the speed of the catalyst in the riser. The results show that the transmission gamma is a suitable technique for monitoring the flow of catalyst, flow model in CPU is annular, tomography third generation is more appropriate to study the CPU and the density variation in circulation in the CPU decreases linearly with increasing air flow. (author)

  16. Air climate health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Dominique; Riottot, Michel; Leger, Karine

    2015-01-01

    'France Nature Environnement Ile de France' publishes, on occasion of the COP 21, a special paper about the air pollution in the Paris region, greenhouse gases and their influence on the environment. This document has been written in close cooperation with professionals and civil associations. Elected representatives from local and regional authorities also speak about their experiences. The first part emphasizes the urgency to accelerate preventive and corrective measures since the air pollution, after slightly decreasing in the 2000's, remains stable. Our work is a science based analysis of essential parameters and details the impact of local pollution and greenhouse gases on the climate. It is based on the GIEC 2013 and 2015 reports, as well as the work of National meteorology in association with the Climate agency of Paris. The threshold of not exceeding an average temperature of +2 deg. C in 2100 is almost reached. If consumption of fossil energies does not heavily decline in the next 10 years, the earth's thermal machine will enter, for several centuries, into an uncontrollable cycle which could endanger life on earth with average temperatures exceeding 4 to 6 deg. C above the current level. The second part reveals the impact of air pollution on the health of the Paris region's population, especially on women who are the most affected by respiratory diseases: obstructive pulmonary bronchitis and asthma. Four departments are particularly affected: Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. Even though we do not have the formal causal proof between gas concentration and disease, analysis of similar situations worldwide eliminate any doubts about the reality of the relationship. The third part proposes solutions which can be implemented by local government, companies, but also civil associations and citizens in order to quickly decrease greenhouse gas production. Solutions range from energy sobriety to change in travel

  17. Air effect on polycarbonate radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terence, Mauro C.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Guedes, Selma M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The formation and decay of radicals in the radiolysis of new type of polycarbonate (G scission = 0,73) was investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in the presence and absence of air at room temperature. The air does not interfere in the formation of radicals because they are formed as consequence of direct interaction of radiation. But the air interferes in their decays. During the irradiation the air reacts with all isopropyl radicals and with 2/3 of phenoxy + phenyl radicals. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...... pollutants. The maps show annual means of NO2, PM2.5 or PM10 for 2012. The user interface presents modelled air quality data on a map where the user can select map view, pan, zoom in and out, etc. It is also possible to get the air quality for a particular address by entering a specific address. Air quality...

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web site will educate the public about indoor environmental issues specific to educational facilities and the importance of developing and sustaining comprehensive indoor air quality management programs.

  20. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  1. metropolitana en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pírez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a description of some concrete processes that made up the transformations in the metropolitan configuration and functioning in Buenos Aires in the 1990s during the 20th Century. We are referring to components related to the impact of processes at the macro level (national and international pertaining to restructuring and globalisation. We aim to understand the “forces” that mediate between the global and the local arenas, identifying the actors and the relationships behind metropolitan changes as well as searching for the meaning that the city acquires and which is understood as “privatisation”. In the first section of the paper, this concept is made explicit.

  2. Change in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.

    1999-01-01

    Aviation has a key part to play in the future protection of the environment. Such issues as climate change raise serious questions for all of us, but particularly for energy-intensive industries such as aviation, which makes a small but identifiable contribution to man's impact on the global climate. Airlines, such as British Airways, must strive to meet ever-higher standards of environmental performance. Environmental challenges facing the aviation industry are categorized as: noise, emissions and fuel efficiency, waste of energy, water and material, congestion in the air and on the ground, tourism and conservation. These headings have proved to be robust and our environmental programmes have, accordingly, been deployed under them

  3. Air pollution test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, E; Sugano, S; Fukui, S

    1974-06-01

    Vanadium exists in heavy oil as a chelate with mesoporphiline methyl ester, and the combustion ash of the oil may contain up to 80 percent of its oxides. Air is sampled in a standard way and to each 50 ml of the sample and blank solutions, add 5 ml of phosphoric acid and 2 ml of 10 percent ammonium sulfamate solution. After 10 min, the solution is titrated with potassium permanganate until it becomes purple. Two ml of hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine benzene solution are added and shaken for 30 sec. The benzene layer is washed with several portions of 2 ml HCl until no coloration of the HCl solution is visible. The benzene layer is transferred to a colorimetric tube and dried with granular calcium chloride. The absorbance is measured near 530 nm and the concentration is determined from a calibration curve previously prepared.

  4. Comparison of personal air samplers and static air samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Lumsden, B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that radioactive air contamination levels calculated from PAS results will always be higher than air contamination levels calculated from SAS results, other conditions being equal. The most probable explanation seems to be in a relationship between the sampling velocity and the particle size of the dust sampled

  5. Clearing the air. Air quality modelling for policy support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis were performed to provide policy makers with more accurate information about the sources of air pollution and the possible consequences of future developments on air quality. This enables policy makers to make better informed decisions when formulating policies

  6. Air Quality | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  7. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  8. Danger in the Air: Air Pollution and Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Borin, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement for human health and well-being. To examine the relationship between cognitive performance and ambient pollution exposure. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Air pollution is a multifaceted toxic chemical mixture capable of assaulting the central nervous system. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on cognitive function in both adults and children. Consistent evidence showed that exposure to air pollution, specifically exposure to particulate matter, caused poor age-related cognitive performance. Living in areas with high levels of air pollution has been linked to markers of neuroinflammation and neuropathology that are associated with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease-like brain pathologies.

  9. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  10. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  11. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  12. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  13. Radioactive wastes in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Methods of preventing the pollution of air by radioactive waste from atomic centres were discussed in an Agency Symposium held in New York at the end of August. It was agreed that the atomic industry has a good safety record, and suggestions were made that there should now be a concerted effort to prevent air pollution by all industries. (author)

  14. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  15. State of the Air 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select Your State Health Risks Ozone Particle Pollution Children’s Health Disparities & Near Highways Protect Yourself Our Fight What We Do Our Story Personal Stories Clean Air Timeline Take Action Press Materials Press Releases Web Banners Social Media What's the State of Your Air ? Home > 2015 > ...

  16. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  17. Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  18. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  20. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service is...

  2. EFEITO DO ÁCIDO LÁTICO E DA RADIAÇÃO GAMA NA ELIMINAÇÃO DE Pseudomonas spp. E NA PRODUÇÃO DE AMÔNIA EM PEITO DE FRANGO DESOSSADO RESFRIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. S. ANTUNEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido lático e doses de radiação gama, bem como o efeito de suas interações, na eliminação de Pseudomonas spp. e nas concentrações de amônia, em peito de frango desossado e sem pele. As amostras foram inoculadas com 106UFC.g-1 de Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, imersas em soluções de ácido lático nas concentrações 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0% (v/v, embaladas em polietileno permeável ao oxigênio, processadas por radiação gama, utilizando 60Co nas doses 1,5, 2,5 e 3,5KGy, e armazenadas sob refrigeração (4ºC. Estabeleceu-se, também, a correlação entre as contagens de Pseudomonas spp. (logUFC.g-1 e as concentrações de amônia (mg.100g-1, determinadas pelo método colorimétrico de Nessler, no 5º, 12º, 19º e 26º dias de armazenamento. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,05, para eliminação de Pseudomonas spp., no fator dose de radiação de 2,5KGy, enquanto o uso isolado do ácido lático, nas três concentrações utilizadas, promoveu somente reduções inferiores a um ciclo log nas contagens iniciais desse microrganismo. Todos os tratamentos resultaram em níveis de amônia inferiores ao do controle (2,8mg.100g-1. A interação entre a dose de 3,5KGy e ácido lático a 1,5% (v/v, resultou no menor nível de amônia obtido e que foi igual a 1,1mg.100g-1. O coeficiente de correlação (r = 0,8752 obtido, entre as contagens de Pseudomonas spp. e as concentrações de amônia, demonstra a viabilidade de uso do método químico para estabelecer, de forma simples e rápida, o grau de deterioração de peito de frango durante o armazenamento aeróbio refrigerado.

  3. Efeitos do estádio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiação gama na formação de calos derivados de anteras de tomate Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina R. Brasileiro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando: (I determinar a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de anteras de tomate sobre a formação de calos e (II analisar o efeito da radiação gama no cultivo in vitro de anteras. No primeiro experimento, anteras de híbridos de tomate IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F1 foram cultivadas em três meios nutritivos. Apesar da formação de calos ter sido induzida em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, variando de prófase I à micrósporo mononucleado, a freqüência de calos produzidos decresceu com o avanço do estádio de desenvolvimento e se apresentou de forma semelhante nos meios testados. Anteras contendo meiócitos em estádio de prófase I mostraram maior freqüência de formação de calos. Tanto o comprimento da antera quanto o do botão floral apresentaram correlação significativa com o estádio de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, sementes e botões florais dos híbridos IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2, IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2 e IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2 foram submetidos à radiação gama e suas anteras foram cultivadas em dois meios descritos por Gresshoff & Doy (1972, contendo 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 de cinetina. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas, no que se refere à formação de calos, para os genótipos e doses estudadas - 200 Gy, para sementes e 20 Gy, para botões florais.Two experiments were carried (I to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4 - F1 were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mononucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest

  4. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  5. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  6. Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2018-04-01

    There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption. Elevation of the indoor air humidity may positively impact perceived IAQ, eye symptomatology, and possibly work performance in the office environment; however, mice inhalation studies do not show exacerbation of sensory irritation in the airways by low humidity. Elevated humidified indoor air appears to reduce nasal symptoms in patients suffering from obstructive apnea syndrome, while no clear improvement on voice production has been identified, except for those with vocal fatigue. Both low and high RH, and perhaps even better absolute humidity (water vapor), favors transmission and survival of influenza virus in many studies, but the relationship between temperature, humidity, and the virus and aerosol dynamics is complex, which in the end depends on the individual virus type and its physical/chemical properties. Dry and humid air perception continues to be reported in offices and in residential areas, despite the IAQ parameter "dry air" (or "wet/humid air") is semantically misleading, because a sensory organ for humidity is non-existing in humans. This IAQ parameter appears to reflect different perceptions among other odor, dustiness, and possibly exacerbated by desiccation effect of low air humidity. It is salient to distinguish between indoor air humidity (relative or absolute) near the breathing and ocular zone and phenomena caused by moisture

  7. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  8. Analysis of air safety in the European system of air traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Є. Луппо

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  Article describes air traffic safety provision requirements in the Air Traffic Management system of Europe. Consideration of air traffic variation which affecting the air traffic management operations have been reviewed.

  9. Estudo sobre a eventual utilidade de raios gama na profilaxia da malária transmissível por transfusão de sangue A study on the fortuitons advantage of gamma irradiation in the prophylaxis of transmissible malaria by blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Almeida Braz

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a eventual utilidade de raios gama na profilaxia da malária transmissível por transfusão de sangue, tendo sido, para isso, usados camundongos infectados pelo Plasmodium berghei. Na primeira fase, quando submetemos sangue deles retirado a 2.500 e 5.000rad, com associação ou não de metronidazol, não obtivemos sucesso, já que todos os animais antes sem a parasitose apresentaram parasitemia e morreram após inoculação do sangue irradiado. Porém, ocorreu êxito parcial na segunda fase, ao serem empregados 10.000 e 15.000rad, porquanto 20% e 40% dos roedores, respectivamente, embora tenham ficado infectados, sobreviveram, com posterior negativação quanto à presença do P. berghei.This study was carried out to evaluate the fortuitons advantage of using gamma irradiation in the prophylaxis of transmissible malaria by blood transfusion, with mice as the experimental model. In the first step, when the infected blood with Plasmodium berghei was submitted to 2,500rad and 5,000rad, with or without metronidazol, there was no success, because the animals presented parasitaemia and died after inoculation of irradiated blood. However, there was partial success in the second step, when the infected blood received 10,000 and 15,000rad, and was inoculated in mice, which showed infection, and presented a survival rate of 20% and 40%, respectively, with later negativation of blood infected by P. berghei.

  10. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  11. Writing in turbulent air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bominaar, Jeroen; Pashtrapanska, Mira; Elenbaas, Thijs; Dam, Nico; ter Meulen, Hans; van de Water, Willem

    2008-04-01

    We describe a scheme of molecular tagging velocimetry in air in which nitric oxide (NO) molecules are created out of O2 and N2 molecules in the focus of a strong laser beam. The NO molecules are visualized a while later by laser-induced fluorescence. The precision of the molecular tagging velocimetry of gas flows is affected by the gradual blurring of the written patterns through molecular diffusion. In the case of turbulent flows, molecular diffusion poses a fundamental limit on the resolution of the smallest scales in the flow. We study the diffusion of written patterns in detail for our tagging scheme which, at short (micros) delay times is slightly anomalous due to local heating by absorption of laser radiation. We show that our experiments agree with a simple convection-diffusion model that allows us to estimate the temperature rise upon writing. Molecular tagging can be a highly nonlinear process, which affects the art of writing. We find that our tagging scheme is (only) quadratic in the intensity of the writing laser.

  12. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  13. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyger, H.; Palmgren Jensen, F.; Kemp, K.

    1976-03-01

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  14. Geração eletroquímica do hidreto de selênio em sistema de injeção em fluxo com detecção por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama Ar-Glp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luís Fernando Rebel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for electrochemical hydride generation using flow-injection and atomic absorption spectrometry to determine selenium in biological materials. The electrolytic cell was constructed by assembling two reservoirs, one for the sample and the other for the electrolytic solution separated by a Nafion membrane. Each compartment had a Pt electrode. The sample and electrolyte flow-rates, acidic media, and applied current were adjusted to attain the best analytical performance and ensure the membrane lifetime. The atomisation system used a T quartz tube in an air-LPG flame. The composition of the flame, the observation height, and the argon flow rate used to carry the hydrides were critically investigated. The system allowed to perform thirty determinations per hour with a detection limit of 10 mug L-1 of Se. Relative standard deviations were in general lower than 1.5% for a solution containing 20.0 and 34.0 mug L-1 of Se in a typical sample digest. Accuracy was assessed analysing the certified materials: rice flour (NIST-1568 from National Institute of Standard and Technology and dried fish (MA-A-2, whole animal blood (A-2/1974 from the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  15. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies. PMID:29673227

  16. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  17. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  18. Air quality management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O. Akinola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines air pollution situation and the history of air quality management in Botswana. The current air quality management in Botswana is still largely underpinned by the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act of 1971, supplemented by the more recently enacted legislations such as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA Act of 2010 and the Ambient Air Quality - Limits for Common Pollutants of 2012 published by the Botswana Bureau of Standards. Though commendable efforts have been made toward legislating against air and other forms of pollution, these have not yielded expected results in view of the prevailing levels of air pollutants like sulphur dioxide and fine particulate matters in the country’s atmospheric environment. Legislation as a sole measure may not be effective in tackling this challenge. Rather, government should also address some root-causes of the problem by making policies and programmes that will reduce unemployment and increase the earning capacity of citizenry. This will, among other things, effectively check poverty-induced biomass burning in the country. The paper looks at some other challenges of air pollution management and suggestions are made to tackle the identified problems.

  19. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  20. Towards a Flexible Theater Air Warfare Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunzinger, Mark A

    1996-01-01

    "Billy Mitchell was right." These words hung in the foyer of the Air Force Air Command and Staff College during Desert Storm, reflecting the belief that air power had finally come of age in the skies over Iraq...

  1. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  2. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  3. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  4. Air University Style and Author Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bassett, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    The "Air University Style and Author Guide" is designed to unify the writing of faculty, staff, and students of Air University stylistically, and to give them information about publishing with Air University (AU) Press...

  5. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  6. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  7. The Warfighting Capacity of Air Combat Command's Numbered Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanser, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    ...) of the Air Combat Command (ACC), General Richard E. Hawley, the ACC Commander, asked if RAND could offer an analysis of the number of NAFs that were needed by ACC to meet warfighting requirements...

  8. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  9. Air leakage control in chief tunnel of uranium mines using air screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gengsheng

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the results of air leakage control are described using air screen in the chief tunnels of some uranium mines. The air leakage decreases by 79-91% after using air screen. On the basis of mathematical treatment, the formulas for calculating the air resistance efficiency of air screen are presented

  10. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...

  11. 14 CFR 399.86 - Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments for non-air transportation... Enforcement § 399.86 Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo. The Board considers that... air carriers for non-air transportation preparation of air cargo shipments are for services ancillary...

  12. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involving animals during air transport. 234.13 Section 234.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REPORTS § 234.13 Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport. (a) Any air... during air transport provided by the air carrier. (b) The report shall be made in the form and manner set...

  13. Air quality indices : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewings, J.

    2001-10-01

    Pollution Probe presents some background information that will help in the development of a national Air Quality Index (AQI) in Canada. This report examines the issues that should be addressed in revising the national Index of the Quality of Air (IQUA) or creating a new national Air Quality Index. The IQUA was devised in 1976 and provides Canadians with real-time information on the state of community air quality by including major pollutants and their synergies. It is currently being used for air quality management plans and air quality alert systems. At the same time that the IQUA was devised, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) produced a parallel air quality index known as the Pollution Standard Index (PSI) which incorporated 5 criteria pollutants (particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and ground level ozone) for which national health-based standards were devised. In 1999, the US EPA renamed their index the Air Quality Index (AQI) and made revisions to the primary health-based national ambient air quality standards for ground-level ozone and particulate matter. Separate values for PM2.5 and PM10 were incorporated and mandatory reporting was required for metropolitan areas with populations of 350,000 or more. Similarly, the IQUA has undergone major developments that affect the validity of the index, including: rejection by the Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines of the previous maximum desirable and maximum acceptable air quality criteria, recognition that standards for many of the contaminants are outdated, developing more sensitive instrumentation for real-time monitoring of contaminants. This report also describes the use of the national short term Air Quality Index by provincial, territorial and local authorities in Canada. Pollution Probe recommends setting up a mechanism to review and revise IQUA on a regular basis that would incorporate governments, the medical profession, special

  14. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  15. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  16. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  17. Prototype Pompa Air Portable Tenaga Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Taufik, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Makalah ini menyajikan purwarupa pompa air portable tenaga surya. Sistem pompa air portable terdiri atas pompa air, panel surya, solar charge controller, battery, solar frame, tiang, dan box. Sistem dapat dirangkai, sehingga bersifat portable. Pompa air portable ini berguna untuk kolam, irigasi, dan penyediaan air bersih. Hasil optimasi memberikan spesifikasi pompa air berdaya 50 Watt dan tegangan 12 VDC, solar panel berdaya 50 Wp, battery berkapasitas 50 Ah dan tegangan 12 VDC, da...

  18. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  19. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  20. Can a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) maintain air purification capability when using polluted air for regeneration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Clean Air Heat Pump (CAHP) was one type of rotary desiccant cooling system which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, dehumidifying and cooling in buildings. Using exhaust air from the conditioned room for regeneration of the silica gel rotor might have an advantage...... on reducing the regeneration air temperature and further improving the energy performance of the CAHP. However, the exhaust air carried a lot of indoor air pollutants. Whether using exhaust air for the regeneration of the silica gel rotor had an impact on the air cleaning performance of the CAHP...... was experimentally studied. The results showed that using the air contained acetone or toluene for regeneration reduced the pollutants removal capability of CAHP with a reduction of approx. 10% in air cleaning efficiency. The energy performance of the CAHP when using exhaust air for regeneration was also evaluated...