WorldWideScience

Sample records for air compressors

  1. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for...

  2. Efficient Vent Unloading of Air Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, Alvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Method for unloading one-and two-stage reciprocating air compressors increases energy efficiency and inhibits deterioration of components. In new unloader configuration, compressor vented to atmosphere on downstream side. Method implemented expeditiously as modification of existing systems.

  3. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  4. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  5. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pookongchai Kritsada; Nakornrat Prasit; Sookananta Bongkoj; Buasri Panhathai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point...

  6. 21 CFR 868.6250 - Portable air compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable air compressor. 868.6250 Section 868.6250...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6250 Portable air compressor. (a) Identification. A portable air compressor is a device intended to provide compressed air for medical purposes,...

  7. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  8. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  9. Sound reduction of air compressors using a systematic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Justin Tharp

    The noise emitted by portable electric air compressors can often be a nuisance or potentially hazardous to the operator or others nearby. Therefore, reducing the noise of these air compressors is desired. This research focuses on compressors with a reciprocating piston design as this is the most common type of pump design for portable compressors. An experimental setup was developed to measure the sound and vibration of the air compressors, including testing inside a semi-anechoic chamber. The design of a quiet air compressor was performed in four stages: 1) Teardown and benchmarking of air compressors, 2) Identification and isolation of noise sources, 3) Development of individual means to quiet noise sources, 4) Selection and testing of integrated solutions. The systematic approach and results for each of these stages will be discussed. Two redesigned solutions were developed and measured to be approximately 65% quieter than the previous unmodified compressor. An additional analysis was performed on the solutions selected by the participants involved in the selection process. This analysis involved determining which of the design criteria each participant considered most important when selecting solutions. The results from each participant were then compared to their educational background and experience and correlations were identified. The correlations discovered suggest that educational background and experience may be key determinants for the preference models developed.

  10. Air Compressor Driving with Synchronous Motors at Optimal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliu Petrica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method of optimal compensation of the reactive load by the synchronous motors, driving the air compressors, used in mining enterprises is presented, taking into account that in this case, the great majority of the equipment (compressors, pumps are generally working a constant load.

  11. Failure analysis of a compressor disc of an air craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compressor is an essential part of gas turbine engine producing power for both industrial plants and aircrafts. The primary function of the compressor is to supply enough air at high temperature and pressure to satisfy the requirements of the combustion of fuels. The compressor must increase the pressure of the mass of air received from the air inlet duct and then discharge it to the burners in the required quantity and pressure. A secondary function of the compressor, particularly in aircraft application, is to supply bleed air for various purposes for both the engine and aircraft. Compressor blades operate at relatively low temperature but are highly stressed. Compressor balding is made by forging, extrusion or machining. The recommended material for the blades is generally type 403 stainless steel. In a certain report it was reported that compressor disc of an aircraft engine failed after 320 hours service before completing the recommended life of 750 hours. In the present study it was required to find the reason of failure of the disc. Chemical analysis, macro examination, microscopic examinations were carried out along with micro hardness testing on the teeth portion and fractured surface were taken. After the work it was concluded that chemical composition did not match with the recommended composition and also machine marks, porosity were present near the fractured part which increased stress concentration and contributed to failure. Retained austenite were also present at the failed portion which reduces the hardness value and strength causing premature fracture due to fatigue. (author)

  12. Research on Energy-Saving Operation of Screw Air Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Chong liu; Dewen Kong; Maolin Cai

    2013-01-01

    Based on analysis of a screw air compressor volumetric efficiency under different discharge pressure conditions, this study establishes the mathematic model of the adiabatic compression power consumption. Under load/unload conditions, to change the offline pressure with step of 0.01 MPa, the power consumption floats up and down with the change of unloading and loading and then the screw compressor power consumption is simulated in MATLAB. The results shows that the optimal offline pressure ex...

  13. Air Conditioning Compressor Air Leak Detection by Image Processing Techniques for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookongchai Kritsada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents method to detect air leakage of an air conditioning compressor using image processing techniques. Quality of air conditioning compressor should not have air leakage. To test an air conditioning compressor leak, air is pumped into a compressor and then submerged into the water tank. If air bubble occurs at surface of the air conditioning compressor, that leakage compressor must be returned for maintenance. In this work a new method to detect leakage and search leakage point with high accuracy, fast, and precise processes was proposed. In a preprocessing procedure to detect the air bubbles, threshold and median filter techniques have been used. Connected component labeling technique is used to detect the air bubbles while blob analysis is searching technique to analyze group of the air bubbles in sequential images. The experiments are tested with proposed algorithm to determine the leakage point of an air conditioning compressor. The location of the leakage point was presented as coordinated point. The results demonstrated that leakage point during process could be accurately detected. The estimation point had error less than 5% compared to the real leakage point.

  14. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.52 Portable air compressor noise emission standard. (a) Effective January 1, 1978, portable air...

  15. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaji Assadi M.; Gilani S. I.; Jun Yen T. C.

    2016-01-01

    To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of...

  16. Research on Energy-Saving Operation of Screw Air Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of a screw air compressor volumetric efficiency under different discharge pressure conditions, this study establishes the mathematic model of the adiabatic compression power consumption. Under load/unload conditions, to change the offline pressure with step of 0.01 MPa, the power consumption floats up and down with the change of unloading and loading and then the screw compressor power consumption is simulated in MATLAB. The results shows that the optimal offline pressure exists at the given air consumption and meanwhile power consumption is minimal with the optimal offline pressure. It also reveals that the required optimal offline pressures will vary by air consumptions. Then, based on dynamic mechanical analysis for fluid motion in the pipe, considering that there is a causal relationship between pressure variation and gas flow variation, a method for measuring flow rate of one dimensional unsteady flow dynamically is proposed based on theory of linear approximation. In order to lower the online pressure and further reduce the energy consumption of screw air compressor, we propose a method is to calculate the rate of pressure drop and predict times for the discharge pressure dropping to the online pressure. And the further optimal control method of screw air compressor is given. It is correct and feasible, which proved by experiments.

  17. Operational test procedure for Bldg 241-A-701 air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an Operability Test Procedure (OTP) which will verify and record that the 241-A-701 air compressor and associated equipment operates within their intended design parameters. The activities defined in this OTP will be performed to ensure the daily operation of the new compressed air system can be reliable and efficient. The Compressed Air System (CAS) for 241-A-701 supplies process and instrument air to the A, AX, AY, and AZ tank farms. The primary use of the CAS is for tank farms instrumentation, air operated valves, and air lift circulators

  18. Estimation of Vapor Quality at Compressor Suction of Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Endoh, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate performance and reliability of an air conditioner, the states of its refrigeration cycle need to be understood. Since the isentropic exponent of the next-generation refrigerant R32 is larger than that of conventional refrigerant R410A, the compressor discharge temperature of R32 is higher than that of R410A. When a wet refrigerant is entered into a compressor suction line to decrease the discharge temperature, it is generally difficult to estimate the vapor quality at the suction....

  19. R-189 (C-620) air compressor control logic software documentation. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This relates to FFTF plant air compressors. Purpose of this document is to provide an updated Computer Software Description for the software to be used on R-189 (C-620-C) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started

  20. DESIGN a solar hybrid air conditioning compressor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaji Assadi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop and integrate solar hybrid system into conventional air conditioning system which provides the same cooling load with considerably less electricity demand. Solar evacuated tube and DC compressor are used for compressing the refrigerant in an air conditioning system, thus effectively reducing the air conditioning electricity consumption by up to 45%. For the flow through type selected geometry of the designed evacuated U-tube collector, a three dimensional simulation and analysis of the thermal performance was done, using the solar ray-tracing model provided by the ANSYS-FLUENT software.

  1. Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis of Twin Screw Air Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is proposed in this paper in order to study the performance of oil-less and oil-injected twin screw air compressors. Based on this model, a computer simulation program is developed and the effects of different design parameters including rotor profile, geometric clearance, oil-injected angle, oil temperature, oil flow rate, built-in volume ratio and other operation conditions on the performance of twin screw air compressors are investigated. The simulation program gives us output variables such as specific power, compression ratio, compression efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and discharge temperature. Some of the above results are then compared with experimentally measured data and good agreement is found between the simulation results and the measured data.

  2. Development and Testing of Supercharger Compressor for Cold Climate Air Source Heat Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Thomas; Jonas, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The on-going development of a compact centrifugal compressor as a first stage or pre-compressor for cold climate operation of heat pumps is described. Positioned in the low pressure vapor portion of the refrigerant loop, this compressor will, on cold days, operate automatically to boost refrigerant pressure, in a manner similar to the way an automotive supercharger pressurizes air. The single stage motor driven centrifugal compressor runs on oil-free bearings. It is being configured to work i...

  3. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  4. An Investigation of Refrigerant Oil Retention in an Air Conditioning System with Two Inverter Compressors in Parallel

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Cheng-Shu; Cheng, Wei-Yueh; Hsieh, Wen-Der; Liu, Yangguang

    2012-01-01

    A VRF (variable refrigerant flow) air conditioning, having a number of air handling units connected to an external condensing unit, commonly uses two or more compressors in the system. The complicated piping system of the VRF air conditioning causes difficulties for refrigerant oils to return back to each compressor, especially for compressors operating in different frequencies. Compressors need lubrication in operation process, otherwise the compressor will burn out because of wearing and ov...

  5. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  6. 30 CFR 57.13010 - Reciprocating-type air compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be set or adjusted to the compressor when the normal operating temperature is exceeded by more... over 10 horsepower if equipped with fusible plugs that were installed in the compressor discharge...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13010 - Reciprocating-type air compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be set or adjusted to the compressor when the normal operating temperature is exceeded by more... over 10 horsepower if equipped with fusible plugs that were installed in the compressor discharge...

  8. 241-U-701 new compressor building and instrument air piping analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building anchorage analysis is performed to qualify the design of the new compressor building foundation given in the ECN ''241-U-701 New Compressor Building.'' Recommendations for some changes in the ECN are made accordingly. Calculations show that the 6-in.-slab is capable of supporting the pipe supports, and that the building foundation, air compressor and dryer anchorage, and electric rack are adequate structurally. Analysis also shows that the instrument air piping and pipe supports for the compressed air system meet the applicable code requirements and are acceptable. The building is for the U-Farm instrument air systems

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  10. Evaluation of a natural gas compressor building with switch-back air inlet entrances and ventilated by compressor package coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Timothy G. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Inc. (United States)], email: tim.simmons@hfpacoustical.com

    2011-07-01

    The booming natural gas market in the Marcellus shale region has seen the appearance of many oil and gas processing stations, the latter generating a great deal of noise, which disturbs local residents. The oil and gas companies have therefore developed a patchwork of noise reduction techniques, from basic mufflers to engineered, sound-proof buildings. This paper focuses on a compromise: a gas compressor station, located in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, encased in a light-weight, metal building with switch-back air inlet openings for cooling and noise reduction. This case study aims to measure the noise emissions of the compressor, and possibly propose solutions for its mitigation. Since Lycoming County has a fairly stringent policy on noise disturbance, especially for low-frequency sounds, noise emission results showed that switch-back openings and the walls of the compressor building must be mitigated and that action must be taken by the gas company to meet the noise ordinance requirements.

  11. hermetically sealed compressor unit, temperature level, mathematical model, marine air conditioning syste

    OpenAIRE

    Lytosh, Olena V.; Dorosh, Vadym S.

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the temperature level of the hermetically sealed compressor unit for the marine self-contained air conditioners taking into account the operating conditions and machine design parameters have been given.

  12. New Energy-Efficient Electromagnetic Clutch for Automotive Air Conditioning Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Rico; van der Seylberg, Frank; Aurich, Joerg; von Unwerth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Even if the air conditioning is switched off, the internal combustion engine in today’s cars continues to drive the common compressor. To avoid resulting power losses, the automotive industry aspires to apply electromagnetic clutches. When the air conditioning is used, however, CO2-emission increases significantly because the electromag-netic coil consumes electricity. The CO2-reduction per year is consequently very low, which is why new compressor clutches were developed that do not require ...

  13. Aluminium matrix heterophase composites for air compressor pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Dyzia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of surface test of composite shaped in the permanent mould casting process. As part of the research anddevelopment project realized in the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology, a pilot plant scale stand was built to manufacture of more than 50 kg suspensions in a single technological cycle. Made in industrial conditions castings to form in the five inner core mould mounted in GM110 permanent mould casting machine confirmed the possibility of the shaping the composite pistons. Castings made from composite suspension AlSi7Mg/SiC and AlSi7Mg/SiC + Cg according to the technology procedure were classified as correct and devoted to the proper machining forming working surfaces of the piston to the air compressor. Comparative tests were performed for the casting of unreinforced AlSi7Mg alloy and composite castings. To assess the ability to fill the mold cavity and the accuracy of mapping used in contour shape FRT analysis of the distance between the grooves on the surface of the piston skirt. Studies have confirmed the differences in the fluidity of alloy matrix and composites suspensions. The difference in the accuracy of the dimensional mapping mould does not disqualify of composite materials, all castings are classified as correct and used for machining.

  14. Study of noise transmission from an air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathak, Subhro; Puranik, Anand; Schut, Jeffrey; Wells, Lee; Rao, M. D.

    2005-09-01

    The paper discusses the reduction of noise from a Porter Cable 4-gal, 135-psi air compressor. The objectives were to identify the major sources of noise, implement possible noise control measures, and evaluate their effectiveness. Sound measurements were taken according to a procedure that was developed and based on the standards for power tools. Broadband analysis (1/12 octave band) was done to determine the main sources of noise. Ranking of noise sources was done accordingly. The major source of noise was determined to be the piston cylinder assembly and efforts were taken to reduce this main source of noise. The noise control treatments included manufacturing of new parts, use of gasket made of cork between the housing and the cylinder sleeve to isolate the vibrations, implementing a silencer at the exhaust side of the piston and finally, an enclosure encircling the piston/cylinder assembly. The sound-pressure level measurements of the prototype were compared to the baseline measurements to test the effectiveness of the treatments. The overall sound pressure level was reduced from 101.5 to 94.3 dB with the implementation of enclosure around the piston/cylinder assembly and the silencer at the exhaust side of the piston.

  15. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  16. Performance Evaluation of an Air-Conditioning Compressor Part I: Measurement and Design Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas W. Bein; Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    In order to comply with legislation to eliminate the use of refrigerants that damage the ozone layer, it is necessary to redesign centrifugal compressors, used by the US Navy for shipboard air-conditioning systems, to use an environmentally acceptable refrigerant. This paper describes an evaluation of a 125-ton compressor designed to use HCFC-124 as the refrigerant. The objectives are not only conducting the performance evaluation, but also pinpointing the design problems for achieving a high...

  17. R32 Compressor for Air conditioning and Refrigeration applications in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Weihua; Ji, GaoFeng; Zhan, Honghong; Wang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the compressor performance and reliability impact by using R32 refrigerant for air conditioning (residential and commercial system); Performance and reliability impacts are compared with different popular refrigerants used in China, for example, R410A & R22 for AC. The design improvement on the scroll compressor will be discussed in order to reach required efficiency and reliability; these improvements include lubrication, internal heat management, motor design, and vapor...

  18. Performance Evaluation of an Air-Conditioning Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tai Lee; Thomas W. Bein

    1999-01-01

    A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect th...

  19. Development of a dynamic centrifugal compressor selector for large compressed air networks in the mining industry / Johan Venter.

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Various commercial software packages are available for simulating compressed air network operations. However, none of these software packages are able to dynamically prioritise compressor selection on large compressed air networks in the mining industry. In this dissertation, a dynamic compressor selector (DCS) will be developed that will actively and continuously monitor system demand. The software will ensure that the most suitable compressors, based on efficiency and posi...

  20. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Takano, Mizuki; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2015-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, for the suppression of surge phenomenon resulting in the extension of the stable operating range of centrifugal compressor to lower flow rate, the compressed air at the compressor exit was re-circulated and injected into the impeller inlet by using the double injection nozzle system. The experiments were performed to find out the optimum circumferential position of the second nozzle relative to the fixed first one and the optimum inner diameter of the injection nozzles, which are able to most effectively reduce the flow rate of surge inception. Moreover, in order to examine the universality of these optimum values, the experiments were carried out for two types of compressors.

  1. Integration of MACBETH and COPRAS methods to select air compressor for a textile company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Kundakcı

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection of air compressor is a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM problem including conflicting criteria and various alternatives. Selecting the appropriate air compressor is an important decision for the company as it affects the energy consumption and operating cost. To aid the decision making process in the companies, MCDM methods are proposed in the literature. In all MCDM methods, the main goal is to select the best alternative or to rank a set of given alternatives. In this paper, the air compressor is selected for a spinning mill of a textile company with an integrated approach based on MACBETH (Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation TecHnique and COPRAS (COmplex PRoportional ASsessment methods. MACBETH method is utilized to determine the weights of the criteria. Then COPRAS method is used to determine the ranking of the alternatives and select the best one.

  2. Interaction of temperature, humidity, driver preferences, and refrigerant type on air conditioning compressor usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, C; Younglove, T; Barth, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have shown large increases in vehicle emissions when the air conditioner (AC) compressor is engaged. Factors that affect the compressor-on percentage can have a significant impact on vehicle emissions and can also lead to prediction errors in current emissions models if not accounted for properly. During 1996 and 1997, the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) conducted a vehicle activity study for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the Sacramento, CA, region. The vehicles were randomly selected from all registered vehicles in the region. As part of this study, ten vehicles were instrumented to collect AC compressor on/off data on a second-by-second basis in the summer of 1997. Temperature and humidity data were obtained and averaged on an hourly basis. The ten drivers were asked to complete a short survey about AC operational preferences. This paper examines the effects of temperature, humidity, refrigerant type, and driver preferences on air conditioning compressor activity. Overall, AC was in use in 69.1% of the trips monitored. The compressor was on an average of 64% of the time during the trips. The personal preference settings had a significant effect on the AC compressor-on percentage but did not interact with temperature. The refrigerant types, however, exhibited a differential response across temperature, which may necessitate separate modeling of the R12 refrigerant-equipped vehicles from the R134A-equipped vehicles. It should be noted that some older vehicles do get retrofitted with new compressors that use R134A; however, none of the vehicles in this study had been retrofitted. PMID:11288304

  3. Development of High Speed Inverter Rotary Compressor for the Air-conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seoung-Min; Yang, Eun-soo; Shin, Jin-Ung; Park, Joon-Hong; Lee, Se-Dong; Ha, Jong-Hun; Son, Young-Boo; Lee, Byeong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the various operating loads of an air-conditioning system, an inverter compressor with a wide operational range is necessary. One of the ways to achieve a wide operation range is to drive a small capacity compressor at high speed. Moreover, it is possible to maximize the efficiency in part-load operation condition close to actual operating conditions and to reduce the cost by compact design of a small capacity compressor. In addition, the shortage of maximum capacity, due to the small rated capacity, is covered through high speed operation. However, in general, if the compressor operates at high speed, problems occurs such as reduced efficiency due to friction, increased noise, increased amount of oil discharge and decreased durability of the main components. In order to solve these problems the following have been investigated: optimized dimension parameters of the compression chamber, enhanced shaft design and the structure for the reduction of oil discharge and noise at high speed operation. Finally the high speed inverter rotary compressor with high efficiency and more compact size has been developed as compared with the conventional rotary compressor.

  4. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David Allen

    2001-01-01

    A combustion turbine may have a cooling circuit for directing a cooling medium through the combustion turbine to cool various components of the combustion turbine. This cooling circuit may include a compressor, a combustor shell and a component of the combustion turbine to be cooled. This component may be a rotating blade of the combustion turbine. A pressure changing mechanism is disposed in the combustion turbine between the component to be cooled and the combustor shell. The cooling medium preferably flows from the compressor to the combustor shell, through a cooler, the component to the cooled and the pressure changing mechanism. After flowing through the pressure changing mechanism, the cooling medium is returned to the combustor shell. The pressure changing mechanism preferably changes the pressure of the cooling medium from a pressure at which it is exhausted from the component to be cooled to approximately that of the combustor shell.

  5. Reliability and Maintainability Analysis of a High Air Pressure Compressor Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Ring, Robert W.; Cole, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) independent assessment conducted to support the refurbishment of the Compressor Station at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The paper discusses the methodologies used by the assessment team to derive the repair by replacement (RR) strategies to improve the reliability and availability of the Compressor Station (Ref.1). This includes a RAPTOR simulation model that was used to generate the statistical data analysis needed to derive a 15-year investment plan to support the refurbishment of the facility. To summarize, study results clearly indicate that the air compressors are well past their design life. The major failures of Compressors indicate that significant latent failure causes are present. Given the occurrence of these high-cost failures following compressor overhauls, future major failures should be anticipated if compressors are not replaced. Given the results from the RR analysis, the study team recommended a compressor replacement strategy. Based on the data analysis, the RR strategy will lead to sustainable operations through significant improvements in reliability, availability, and the probability of meeting the air demand with acceptable investment cost that should translate, in the long run, into major cost savings. For example, the probability of meeting air demand improved from 79.7 percent for the Base Case to 97.3 percent. Expressed in terms of a reduction in the probability of failing to meet demand (1 in 5 days to 1 in 37 days), the improvement is about 700 percent. Similarly, compressor replacement improved the operational availability of the facility from 97.5 percent to 99.8 percent. Expressed in terms of a reduction in system unavailability (1 in 40 to 1 in 500), the improvement is better than 1000 percent (an order of magnitude improvement). It is worthy to note that the methodologies, tools, and techniques used in the LaRC study can be used to evaluate

  6. Contribution to the modeling and control of the compressors. Apply to the management of the Fuel Cells air sypply systems

    OpenAIRE

    M'Boua, Jérémie

    2010-01-01

    The fuel cell is presented as one of the reliable sources in the futur energy mix. However some improvements have to be done before a large market introduction on many aspects, including the subsystems such as the air compressor providing air to the fuel cell. The air compressor consumes nearly 20% of the fuel cell system energy's. Better control of the system compressor will increase energy efficiency. The work presented in this thesis deals with the modeling and the simulation of a air comp...

  7. R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor control logic, computer software description. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started

  8. Model analysis and nonlinear control of air compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Gholam-Reza

    For decades, gas turbines have been important, widespread, and reliable devices in the field of power generation, petrochemical industry, and aeronautics. They employ centrifugal and axial compressors which suffer from aerodynamic instabilities, namely, surge and rotating stall. These performance limiting instabilities can cause component stress, lifespan reduction, noise, and vibration. Furthermore, in variable speed axial compressors (VSACs), speed variations affect the system stability and can lead to surge and rotating stall. This limits the rate of speed variations and results in important performance penalties. The present work firstly addresses the bifurcation analysis of VSACs' model to investigate the impact of speed dynamics on the stability of efficient operating points. Here, the rate of speed variations (acceleration rate) is defined as a new parameter of the model and a detailed numerical bifurcation analysis is provided. The results of time-domain simulations not only validate the results of bifurcation analysis, but also broaden our knowledge about the transient response of the model, which is a matter of importance as well. The analysis reveals that speed variations can lead to a fully developed rotating stall as well as the previously reported temporary stall developments. The results show that the developed instabilities depend to a great extent on the acceleration rate. The impact of other key issues such as throttle gain, viscosity factor, initial speed, final speed, and the contribution of stall modes are also explored. From the control point of view, despite reported achievements, robust control design for compression systems remains a challenging problem. In this work, at first, two nonlinear approaches are proposed to tackle the stability problem of constant-speed axial compressors (CSACs). The first approach is a robust passivity-based control and the second one is a second order sliding mode control. The approaches tackle the challenging

  9. Technical Requirements and Principles for the Standards Development of the Key Parts for Rotor Air-conditioning Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min; Wen Yun; Fan Zhangzeng

    2011-01-01

    ntroductionSince 2000,air-conditioning sales continues to grow,and the development of air-conditioning market makes a booming market of compressor.At the present time,compressor production rising all the way,and the sales steps up the new steps constantly.Tendency chart is shown in figure 1.Rotor compressor with its simple structure,small volume,light weight,easy processed mechanical parts,reliable operation and other excellent characteristics occupied the dominant position in the market.Compared with reciprocating compressor on the same application situation,decreased in the size by 40%~50%,weight was reduced by 40%~50%.But there were also disadvantages,mainly large friction loss,friction power consumption was about 10%of compressor's total power input.

  10. Experimental evidence of the thermal effect of lubricating oil sprayed in sliding-vane air compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valenti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A way to increase the efficiency of positive-displacement air compressor is spraying the lube oil to exploit it not only as lubricating and sealing agent but also as thermal ballast. This work seeks the experimental evidence in sliding-vane compressors by measuring the air standard volume flow rate and the electrical power input of three diverse configurations. The first configuration, taken as the reference, employs a conventional injection system comprising calibrated straight orifices. The other two, referred to as advanced, adopt smaller orifices and pressure-swirl full-cone nozzles designed for the purpose; the third configuration utilizes a pump to boost the oil pressure. The laser imagining technique shows that the nozzles generate sprays that break-up within a short distance into spherical droplets, ligaments, ramifications and undefined structures. Tests on the packaged compressors reveal that the advanced configurations provide almost the same air flow rate while utilizing half of the oil because the sprays generate a good sealing. Moreover, the sprayed oil is acting as a thermal ballast because the electrical input is reduced by 3.5% and 3.0%, respectively, if the pump is present or not , while the specific energy requirement, accounting for the slightly reduced air flow, by 2.4% and 2.9%, respectively.

  11. Comparison and Evaluation of a New Innovative Drive Concept for the Air Conditioning Compressor of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Danzer, Christoph; Ackermann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of an energy efficient air conditioning system for electric vehicles is an ever increasing challenge, because the cooling as well as the heating of the passenger cell reduces the cruising range dramatically. Almost always the compressor of the air conditioning system in electric cars is a scroll compressor with a separate electric motor and appropriate power electronics. However, this solution is critical in terms of the installation space, the weight and also the costs. There...

  12. Indirect Evaporative Pre-Cooled Compressor Cooling System Performance under Various Outdoor Air Humidity Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmanis, A; Lešinskis, A

    2013-01-01

    The present study is devoted to efficiency evaluation of a combined indirect evaporative – compressor cooling system under various outdoor air humidity conditions of temperate climate. The investigated system is located in the recently restored historical building, The Art Museum Riga Bourse, which was initially built in the middle of the 19th century. The indirect adiabatic chiller supplies cooled fluid to the conventional cooling system, consisting of ventilation cooling coils and fan-coil ...

  13. A dangerous joke: Colon perforation by an air compressor

    OpenAIRE

    HAZAR, Erkan; Kayipmaz, Afsin Emre; Coskun, Abuzer; Ozbay, Sedat; Okur, Osman Mahir; Ozkan, Ilham; Eren, Sevki Hakan; Kavalci, Cemil

    2015-01-01

    The most dangerous complication of air entry into rectum at a high volume and velocity in a short time are sigmoid colon rupture and pneumoperitoneum.We present a 28-year-old male was brought to emergency with abdominal nausea, vomiting, pain, and abdominal swelling for 4 hours. Based on physical examination and laboratory data the patient was taken to operating theatre for suspected acute appendicitis. On exploration an excessive amount of gas distention was observed in whole colon with caec...

  14. Thermal effect of lubricating oil in positive-displacement air compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isentropic efficiency of positive-displacement compressors may be improved in order to follow an increasing demand for energy savings. This work analyzes the thermal effect of the lubricating oil presence in the air during compression with the scope of exploiting it as a thermal ballast to mitigate both the gas temperature rise and its compression work. The bibliographic review shows that other authors suggested that oil can have positive effects if properly injected. Here an energy balance analysis is executed with the scope of deriving relations for the gas–liquid compression in analogy with those typical for the gas-only compression and of confirming that ideally the liquid presence may have beneficial effects, making the gas–liquid compression even better than 1- and 2-time intercooled gas compressions. Given these positive results, a heat transfer analysis is conducted to model the thermal interaction between gas and oil droplets within a mid-size rotary vane air compressor. A droplet diameter of the order of 100 μm leads to large reductions of both temperature increase and compression work: air can exit the discharge port at a temperature as low as 60 °C and compression work can be lowered by 23–28% with respect to conventional compressors. Finally, a test rig is constructed and operated to investigate a large-flow and large-angle oil nozzle taken from the market showing that, at the operating conditions of a compressor, oil breaks up into small droplets and undefined structures with large exchange surfaces. -- Highlights: ► Exploitation of thermal effect of oil in gas compressors is assessed numerically. ► Oil in 100 μm-diameter droplets mitigates effectively the gas temperature rise. ► Discharge temperature and compression work result to be much smaller than typical. ► An experimental setup is used to investigate oil atomization via commercial nozzles. ► A tested nozzle creates fine oil droplets and structures at conditions of

  15. Air compressor battery duration with mechanical ventilation in a field anesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Giberman, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Compressed air to power field anesthesia machine ventilators may be supplied by air compressor with battery backup. This study determined the battery duration when the compPAC ventilator's air compressor was powered by NiCd battery to ventilate the Vent Aid Training Test Lung modeling high (HC = 0.100 L/cm H2O) and low (LC = 0.020 L/cm H2O) pulmonary compliance. Target tidal volumes (VT) were 500, 750, and 1,000 mL. Respiratory rate = 10 bpm, inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio = 1:2, and fresh gas flow = 1 L/min air. N = 5 in each group. Control limits were determined from the first 150 minutes of battery power for each run and lower control limit = mean VT - 3SD. Battery depletion occurred when VT was below the lower control limit. Battery duration ranged from 185.8 (±3.2) minutes in the LC-1000 group to 233.3 (±3.6) minutes in the HC-750 group. Battery duration of the LC-1000 group was less than all others (p = 0.027). The differences among the non-LC-1000 groups were not clinically significant. PMID:25939102

  16. Operational test report for the 241-A-701 air compressor upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description and safety class designation of the accumulator and 701-A compressor system is contained in VTHC-SD-at sign-DA-137, Safety Classification (of the 241-A-70) Compressed Air System and shown on drawings H-2-62895, Sheet 2 and H-14-20308, Sheet 3. The design basis for the 241-A-702 Ventilation System Accumulator is contained in at sign-C-SD-at sign-DB-016, 241-A-702 Ventilation System Accumulator Design Basis

  17. Girth welding system for vortex type refrigeration compressor of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaowen; Ma Caixia; Yang Siqian; Hu Jisheng

    2006-01-01

    According to the requirements of welding process for vortex type compressor of air conditioner manufactured in product line, a special girth welding machine with PLC as control core was developed, which had both upright and 45 ° incline service positions. And some key technologies were researched, such as structural design of machine body, reliable conduction of rotary weldments and quality control of welding process and so on. The experimental results showed that this machine could satisfy the requirements of welding quality and girth welding technology, results also proved the machine was a high-efficiency and low-cost automatic welding device.

  18. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, Kenji (Energy International, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of Refrigerant Charge, Compressor Speed and Air Flow Through the Evaporator on the Performance of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Santanu Prasad; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    During last few decades research on Automotive Air Conditioning System (AACS) reached a milestone in terms of comfort, safety and economy. However investigation on system performance due to AACS’s variable operating conditions is limited. The performance of any AACS mostly depends on compressor speed, blower speed, refrigerant charge level and ambient condition. However, the combined effect of these parameters on the performance of AACS could be non-intuitive. Reduction in compressor speed an...

  20. Maryland air toxics regulation applicable to a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation submitted an air permit application to the Maryland Department of the Environment to construct a natural gas compressor station near Rutledge, Maryland. The station consists of three natural gas-fueled internal combustion reciprocating engines, each rated at 3200 horsepower. Maximum potential pollutant emissions associated with the station operation did not trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration review or nonattainment area New Source review. However, a minor source air permit cannot be issued without addressing Maryland's toxic air regulations. Columbia initiated a detailed investigation of toxic air pollutants, including a stack test of an identical engine. Based on this information, the proposed station was subject to the toxic air regulation for acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, crotonaldehyde, and formaldehyde. Compliance with the toxic air regulation for crotonaldehyde was demonstrated by having an emission rate less than the threshold emission rate, specified in the regulation. The ambient air quality impact of the other four pollutants was determined using the Industrial Source Complex dispersion model and resulted in predicted concentrations below the pollutant-specific acceptable ambient level. A carcinogenic impact analysis was performed for acetaldehyde, benzene, and formaldehyde to demonstrate compliance with the accepted risk of one in one hundred thousand

  1. The Mechanism of Stall Margin Improvement in a Centrifugal Compressor with the Air Bleeding Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P.; Chu, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.

    The air bleeding circumferential grooves casing treatment has the potential to extent the operating range of centrifugal compressor with no loss in efficiency. A time accurate 3-dimentional numerical simulation was performed in a low speed centrifugal compressor with the air bleeding circumferential grooves casing treatment. The numerical results agreed well with experimental test data for the global performance. Detailed analyses of the flow visualization at the tip of blades have exposed the different tip flow topologies between the cases with casing treatment and with untreated smooth wall, and the reasons how the second flow vortex is retrained. The mechanism of stall margin improvement is gained finally.

  2. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Mumpower, Kevin [Bristol Compressors International, Inc.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  3. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  4. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  5. Aging of control and service air compressors and dryers used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    This report was produced under the Detection of Defects and Degradation Monitoring of Nuclear Plant Safety Equipment element of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. This element includes the identification of practical and cost-effective methods for detecting, monitoring, and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation (aging) of control and service air compressors and dryers in nuclear power plants. These methods are to provide capabilities for establishing degradation trends prior to failure and developing guidance for effective maintenance. The topics of this Phase 1 assessment report are failure modes and causes resulting from aging, manufacturer--recommended maintenance and surveillance practices, and measurable parameters (including functional indicators) for use in assessing operational readiness, establishing degradation trends, and detecting incipient failure. the results presented are based on information derived from operating experience records, manufacturer-supplied information, and input from plant operators. For each failure mode, failure causes are listed by subcomponent, and parameters potentially useful for detecting degradation that could lead to failure are identified. 13 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Experimental Research of Variable Operating Performance on Water Source Multi-Connected Air-Conditioning System with Digital Scroll Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Xingwang Zhu; Xueli Nie; Yanli Lv; Chaoxin Wang; Yugui Su

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we study the water source heat pump and digital scroll compressor and experimentally in the multi-connected air-conditioning system. Variable performance is developed when the unit operates in refrigerating and heating mode. The maximum of refrigerating capacity is 36519.95W when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 32°C, at the same time the maximum of EER is 4.33 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 20°C and dr...

  7. Energy saving avoiding the centrifugal motor-compressors air vents discharge to the surrounding atmosphere; Ahorro de energia evitando venteo de aire a la atmosfera en motocompresores centrifugos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Alex [Compressor Controls Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The motor-compressors are a key part of the industrial processes. The reliability and efficient operation of a compressor is critical. The surge phenomenon is a threat in the reliability of a compressor and therefore for the process. Surge, in a centrifugal compressor is defined as a dramatic flow and pressure drop, including back-flow. This is always a significant process disturbance. Continuous surge results into costly process shutdowns and mechanical damages. To prevent surge, and control the discharge pressure with simple or obsolete controls it is needed to vent air to the surrounding atmosphere. This form of control is very inefficient and costly. An advanced control with leading technology, besides providing an economical value preventing surge damages, offers substantial energy saving reducing or eliminating the venting of air to the atmosphere. [Espanol] Los motocompresores son un aparte clave de los procesos industriales. La confiable y eficiente operacion de un compresor es critica. El fenomeno de surge es una amenaza a la confiabilidad de un compresor y por lo tanto del proceso. El surge en un compresor centrifugo es definido como una dramatica caida de flujo y presion, incluyendo flujo inverso. Esto es siempre un significante disturbio del proceso. El surge continuo resulta en costosos paros de proceso y danos mecanicos. Para prevenir el surge y controlar la presion de descarga con controles simples u obsoletos, es necesario ventear aire a la atmosfera. Esta forma de control es muy ineficiente y costosa. Un control avanzado con tecnologia de punta ademas de proveer valor economico previniendo danos por surge, provee sustanciales ahorros de energia reduciendo o eliminando el venteo de aire a la atmosfera.

  8. Experimental Research of Variable Operating Performance on Water Source Multi-Connected Air-Conditioning System with Digital Scroll Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we study the water source heat pump and digital scroll compressor and experimentally in the multi-connected air-conditioning system. Variable performance is developed when the unit operates in refrigerating and heating mode. The maximum of refrigerating capacity is 36519.95W when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 32°C, at the same time the maximum of EER is 4.33 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 20°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 27°C. The unit operates in heating mode, the maximum of heating capacity and EER is 33275.73W and 3.86 when inlet water temperature of the condenser is 30°C and dry-bulb temperature of indoor air is 20°C.

  9. Performance Measurement of Revolving Vane Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kok Ming; Choo, Wei Chong; Chee, Michael; Law, Ken; Iswan, Ismail; Ooi, Kim Tiow

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, rotary compressors have gained popularity and widely used in household and automotive air-conditioning applications because of the compact nature and silent characteristics. By engaging a revolutionary concept to elevate the rotary compressor efficiency, a novel compressor mechanism, named the Revolving Vane compressor is invented. The prototype R134a compressor was designed, fabricated, instrumented and tested. Compressor tests were conducted for varying suction pressures, su...

  10. Meeting 2006, outdoor noise directive (OND) noise levels for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David F.

    2005-09-01

    In January 2006, the noise limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor Noise Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing noise on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the noise reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND noise limit of 100 LwA.

  11. 容积式空压机用空气滤清器技术水平现状综述%Overview of Current Technical Level of Air Filter for Displacement Air Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭强

    2012-01-01

    评述空压机用空气滤清器的作用,对压缩机机组能效水平\\辅助部件的性能和寿命的影响;对比国内空气压缩机产品技术标准中对空气滤清器的性能和技术要求;概述当前空气滤清器主导产品的使用现状,以及空气滤清器产品标准和试验标准的现状;列出压缩机用空气滤清器要求进行规范化管理的技术条款.期望建立健全压缩机行业空气滤清器产品的技术标准和验收准则,满足压缩机制造厂和最终用户的要求.%This paper reviews the function of air filter for air compressor,the effect on compressor unit energy efficiency level,and the effect on performance and service life of auxiliary parts of the compressor, and contrasts the performance and technical requirements of air filter in domestic air compressor product technical standards and summarizes the current application situation of leading air filter products and the present situation of air filter product standards and test standards.This paper lists the technical items for standardized management of compressor air filter.It is expected to establish and perfect the air filter product technical standards and acceptance criteria of the compressor industry,to meet the compressor manufacturers and end-users requirements.

  12. Study on Improvement of the Suction Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Eitaro; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshito; Sato, Taizo

    The simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner, which is developed in the previous study, is used to measure the displacement of the suction valves using as train gauge and to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the valves using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. This paper is focused on the effects of shape of the suction valve on the vibration-reduction. First, the size of the conventional valve hole and the width of the tip of the conventional valve are changed and seven new valves are manufactured to reduce the vibration of the valve. Consequently, it is found that one of the new valves is the most effective for the vibration-reduction. Next the influence of the natural frequency on the vibration-reduction is investigated using one of the new valves by changing the material and the thickness of the valve. Finally, the reason of the vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is discussed from the results of the flow analysis around the valve. The vibration-reduction for one of the new valves is confirmed by measurement of the displacement of the valve in the reciprocating compressor for the automotive air-conditioner.

  13. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  14. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Compressors. 264.1053... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each compressor.... (b) Each compressor seal system as required in paragraph (a) of this section shall be: (1)...

  15. Numerical Simulation of Wrap Scroll Temperature for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira, Jordi; Rigola, Joaquim; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Oliva, Assensi

    2012-01-01

    Being part of a model which simulates the whole consecutive overall compression process in a scroll compressor by solving equations of mass, momentum and energy balance for fluid refrigerant (Rovira et al.,2006), an updated version is presented. In this new model, an energy balance over the scroll wraps is implemented; where temperatures and heat fluxes are obtained dividing the wall into 36 parts (slices) each turn. The scroll wrap is divided into different solid slices; energy balance is ca...

  16. Numerical simulation of wrap scroll temperature for refrigeration and air conditioning compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira Casals, Jordi; Rigola Serrano, Joaquim; Pérez Segarra, Carlos David; Oliva Llena, Asensio

    2012-01-01

    Being part of a model which simulates the whole consecutive overall compression process in a scroll compressor by solving equations of mass, momentum and energy balance for fluid refrigerant (Rovira et al. ,2006), an updated version is presented. In this new model, an energy balance over the scroll wraps is implemented; where temperatures and heat fluxes are obtain ed dividing the wall into 36 parts (slices) each turn. The scroll wrap is divided into different solid slices; energy balan...

  17. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with an improved rotation of air flow from the compressor to the turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Schilp, Reinhard; Ross, Christopher W.

    2016-03-22

    A midframe portion (313) of a gas turbine engine (310) is presented and includes a compressor section with a last stage blade to orient an air flow (311) at a first angle (372). The midframe portion (313) further includes a turbine section with a first stage blade to receive the air flow (311) oriented at a second angle (374). The midframe portion (313) further includes a manifold (314) to directly couple the air flow (311) from the compressor section to a combustor head (318) upstream of the turbine section. The combustor head (318) introduces an offset angle in the air flow (311) from the first angle (372) to the second angle (374) to discharge the air flow (311) from the combustor head (318) at the second angle (374). While introducing the offset angle, the combustor head (318) at least maintains or augments the first angle (372).

  18. A novel defrosting method using heat energy dissipated by the compressor of an air source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel defrosting method using heat energy dissipated by the compressor was developed and examined. • During the defrosting process, mean temperature difference between the air entering and leaving the indoor coil reached 4.1 °C. • Compared to the traditional method, defrosting time was shortened by 65% while the resuming heating period disappeared. • For the defrosting operation, the total energy consumption was less than 27.9% compared to the traditional method. - Abstract: When an air source heat pump (ASHP) unit is used for space heating at low ambient temperatures in winter, frost may form on its outdoor coil surface. Since the accumulated frost adversely affects its performance and energy efficiency, periodic defrosting of the outdoor coil is necessary. Currently, the reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD) method is widely used for the defrosting of ASHP. However, this operation interrupts space heating during the defrosting process. A time lag occurs to resume heating at end of the defrosting cycle. Moreover, frequent reversing of the 4-way valve may cause mass leakage of the refrigerant, even make the system unsafe. Furthermore, some amount of heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through the compressor casing. To improve the defrosting process and use this waste heat, a novel ASHP unit is developed. The space is heated during the defrosting process using the heat dissipated by the compressor. Experiments using both the RCD method and the novel reverse cycle defrosting (NRCD) method developed in this study are conducted on an ASHP unit of 8.9 kW nominal heating capacity. The experimental results indicated that in the NRCD method, the discharge and suction pressures are increased by 0.33 MPa and 0.14 MPa, respectively, the defrosting time is shortened by 65% while the resuming heating period vanished with the NRCD method, and that the total energy consumption in comparison to RCD method is reduced by 27.9% during the period which is composed

  19. Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue of in-service air-engine blades, compressor and turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanyavskiy, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In-service Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue (VHCF) regime of compressor vane and turbine rotor blades of the Al-based alloy VD-17 and superalloy GS6K, respectively, was considered. Surface crack origination occurred at the lifetime more than 1500 hours for vanes and after 550 hours for turbine blades. Performed fractographic investigations have shown that subsurface crack origination in vanes took place inspite of corrosion pittings on the blade surface. This material behavior reflected lifetime limit that was reached by the criterion VHCF. In superalloy GS6K subsurface fatigue cracking took place with the appearance of flat facet. This phenomenon was discussed and compared with specimens cracking of the same superalloy but prepared by the powder technology. In turbine blades VHCF regime appeared because of resonance of blades under the influenced gas stream. Both cases of compressor-vanes and turbine blades in-service cracking were discussed with crack growth period and stress equivalent estimations. Recommendations to continue aircrafts airworthiness were made for in-service blades.

  20. Improvement and Application of Reciprocating Air Compressor%浅谈往复式空压机的改进及运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何湘岳

    2014-01-01

    介绍贵冶动力车间事故柴油发电机房往复式空压机对全厂停电时柴油机能否成功启动的重要性,对改进前往复式空压机所存在的问题及结构原理进行分析。阐述了通过对往复式空压机逐步改进实践后,对事故柴油机的成功启动、往复式空压机的运行效率、节能降耗、安全环保等方面带来的改善。%he importance of GuiYe diesel generator room reciprocating air compressor to successfully restart diesel engine during the accidents in power workshop is introduced. The problems and structure principle of reciprocating air compressor before the improve-ment are analyzed. The reciprocating air compressor gradually improved after practice, the success of the diesel engine is started for the accident, the operation of the reciprocating compressor efficiency, saving energy and reducing consumption, safety and environmental improvement are expounded in this article.

  1. Compressed air of water-injected screw compressors is clean; Druckluft von wassereingespritzten Schraubenkompressoren ist sauber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Volker

    2010-08-09

    The oil content of compressed air has become an issue in industrial compressed air supply, especially from the view of environmental protection and waste management. The article specifies requirements on compressed air systems that are to ensure clean compressed air supply. (orig.)

  2. Benchmark performance analysis of an ECM-modulated air-to-air heat pump with a reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    A benchmark analysis was conducted to predict the maximum steady- state performance potential of a near-term modulating residential- size heat pump. Continuously variable-speed, permanent-magnet electronically commutated motors (ECMs) were assumed to modulate the compressor and the indoor and outdoor fans in conjunction with existing modulating reciprocating compressor technology. A modulating heat pump design tool was used to optimize this ECM benchmark heat pump, using speed ranges and total heat exchanger sizes per-unit-capacity equivalent to that used by the highest SEER-rated variable-speed unit presently on the market (SEER = 16.4). Parametric steady-state performance optimization was conducted at a nominal design cooling ambient of 95 F (35 C) and at three off-design ambients of 82 F (27.8 C) cooling and 47 F and 17 F (8.3 C and minus 8.3 C) heating. In comparison to the reference commercially available residential unit, the analysis for the ECM benchmark predicted steady-state heating COPs about 35 percent higher and a cooling EER almost 25 percent higher at the nominal design cooling condition. The cooling EER at 82 F (27.8 C) was 13 percent higher than that of the reference unit when a comparable sensible heat ratio of 0.71 was maintained, while an EER gain of 24 percent at the 82 F (27.8 C) rating point was predicted when the sensible heat ratio was relaxed to 0.83.

  3. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  4. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  5. Measurement and Calibration of Centrifugal Compressor Pressure Scanning Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Jose R; Lou, Fangyuan; Harrison, Herbert "Trey"; Key, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The compressor is a key component of a jet engine necessary to compress air for the combustion process. Research to optimize compressor efficiency through the understanding of air flow behavior has led to increased efforts in creating modern compressor test facilities. In collaboration with Honeywell, the High Speed Compressor facility at Zucrow Laboratories has built a centrifugal compressor test cell with instrumentation to measure the temperatures and pressures of the air flow. This facili...

  6. Exergetic analysis of a double stage LiBr-H{sub 2}O thermal compressor cooled by air/water and driven by low grade heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M. [Instituto C.C. Eduardo Torroja (CSIC), Edificacion y Habitabilidad, Madrid (Spain); Venegas, M.; Garcia, N. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y Fluidos; Palacios, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Mecanica Industrial

    2005-05-01

    In the present paper, an exergetic analysis of a double stage thermal compressor using the lithium bromide-water solution is performed. The double stage system considered allows obtaining evaporation temperatures equal to 5{sup o} C using solar heat coming from flat plate collectors and other low grade thermal sources. In this study, ambient air and water are alternatively used as cooling fluids without crystallization problems up to condensation-absorption temperatures equal to 50 {sup o}C. The results obtained give the entropy generated, the exergy destroyed and the exergetic efficiency of the double stage thermal compressor as a function of the absorption temperature. The conclusions obtained show that the irreversibilities generated by the double stage thermal compressor will tend to increase with the absorption temperature up to 45 {sup o}C. The maximum value corresponds to 1.35 kJ kg{sup -}1{sup K-1}. The entropy generated and the exergy destroyed by the air cooled system are higher than those by the water cooled one. The difference between the values increases when the absorption temperature increases. For an absorption temperature equal to 50 {sup o}C, the air cooled mode generates 14% more entropy and destroys 14% more exergy than the water cooled one. Also, the results are compared with those of previous studies for single and double effect air cooled and water cooled thermal compressors. The conclusions show that the double stage system has about 22% less exergetic efficiency than the single effect one and 32% less exergetic efficiency than the double effect one. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 63.164 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Compressors. 63.164 Section... for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.164 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Compressors. 265.1053... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that...

  9. 40 CFR 65.112 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Compressors. 65.112 Section...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.112 Standards: Compressors. (a) Compliance schedule. The....1(f). (b) Seal system standard. Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes...

  10. 空压机冷却器结垢原因分析及清洗%Cause Analysis and Cleaning of Air Compressor Cooler Scale Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀成; 臧克培; 任彦峰

    2014-01-01

    针对空压机长时间运行会在冷却器中产生水垢,使冷却器堵塞导致进、排气温度升高,空气不能被冷却到预定温度,将严重影响空压机运行效率,分析了屯兰矿空压机房的2台ZH10000离心式空压机冷却器结垢的原因,阐述了其清洗原理、清洗溶液的配置浓度、搭建循环清洗冷却器的装置及清洗流程等。通过清洗,除垢效果、腐蚀率等指标均达到了空压机运行要求,确保了空压机的安全经济运转,为该矿井下压风系统的可靠稳定运行提供了保障。%The long running of air compressor can lead to water scale in cooler,to the cooler blocking,the tem-perature of inlet and exhaust increment.The air can not be cooled to the predetermined temperature,will seriously in-fluence the operational efficiency of air compressor.Analyzes the scale formation reason of Tunlan coal mine two ZH10000 centrifugal air compressor cooler,expounds the cleaning principle,concentration of the cleaning solution configuration,build cleaning cycle cooler devices and cleaning processes and so on.By cleaning the indicators such as descaling effect,corrosion rate all reach the compressor operating requirements,It ensures the safe and economic operation of air compressor,provides guarantee for the reliable and stable operation of downhole pressure wind system.

  11. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G.; McCabe, Niall; Gee, Mark

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  12. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Masayasu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  13. 40 CFR 204.57-3 - Test compressor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test compressor preparation. 204.57-3... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-3 Test compressor preparation. (a) Prior to the official test, the test compressor selected in accordance with §...

  14. 40 CFR 204.57-2 - Test compressor sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test compressor sample selection. 204... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-2 Test compressor sample selection. (a) Compressors comprising the batch sample which are required to...

  15. Modelling and simulation of a Three-Stage Air Compressor Based on Dry Piston Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Mahbod; Barrade, Philippe; Rufer, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    The core of this modelling is to study heat transfer and fluid dynamics processes for a compression expansion system, and the main particularity is that heat transfer and air movement are due to the movement of the piston. We have implemented a "moving mesh" solver to compute the volume changes of the compression chamber followed by a "Fluid dynamics" type solver. It allows correct computation of the fluid behavior in the system and enable us to identify the pressure change of the fluid, and ...

  16. Development of Refrigeration Oil for Rotary Vane Compressor of Automobile Air Conditioner%旋叶式汽车空调冷冻机油的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美名

    2013-01-01

      介绍旋叶式汽车空调压缩机对冷冻机油的性能要求,研制一种适用于以R134a为制冷剂的压缩机的聚醚类合成冷冻机油,并分析其理化性能,通过台架试验评价其润滑性能和抗氧化性能。结果表明,研制油具有较好的理化性能,很好的润滑性能及抗氧化能力,满足旋叶式压缩机使用要求。%The requirement for performance of refrigeration oil for rotary vane compressor of automobile air conditioner was introduced,and a PAG refrigeration oil was developed for rotary vane compressor with R134a as refrigerant. The physi-cochemical properties of the refrigeration oil were analyzed,and the lubricating performances and antioxidant properties were evaluated through bench tests. The results show that the refrigeration oil has good physicochemical properties,good lu-bricating performances and excellent antioxidant properties,meeting the application requirement of the rotary vane compres-sor.

  17. Frequency controlled scroll compressor in R410A air/water heat pumps; Drehzahlgeregelter Scroll-Verdichter in R410A Luft/Wasser Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, Dina; Fraccari, Enrico [Emerson Climate Technologies GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of air/water heat pumps with fixed speed compressors is not sufficient for a market breakthrough. This may change with speed-controlled compressors and blowers with high flexibility and high part-load efficiency. Speed-controlled scroll compressors with steam injection ensure higher water temperatures which are better suited for modernisation of older buildings and ensure higher efficiency. The presentation uses a simulation based on prEN14825 to illustrate the effects of steam injection and speed control on the efficiency at different operating temperatures. The best results were achieved by a combination of matched components and optimised control. [German] Die Effizienz von Luft/Wasser-Waermepumpen mit An/Aus-Regelung beim Einsatz von Verdichtern mit fester Drehzahl erreicht nicht die Werte, die fuer eine wesentlich verbesserte Marktdurchdringung notwendig sind. Eine kontinuierliche Anpassung der gelieferten Heizungskapazitaet an die benoetigte Waermelast wuerde die Effizienz jedoch betraechtlich erhoehen. Notwendige Voraussetzung hierfuer ist der Einsatz von drehzahlgeregelten Verdichtern und Lueftern mit einem weiten Anwendungsbereich und hoher Teillasteffizienz. Durch drehzahlgeregelte Scroll Verdichter mit Dampfeinspritzung werden hoehere Wassertemperaturen erreicht, die die Altbausanierung erleichtern und zudem zu einer verbesserten Effizienz fuehren. Diese Praesentation erlaeutert anhand einer Simulation basierend auf der prEN14825 den jeweiligen Einfluss von Dampfeinspritzung und Drehzahlregelung auf... das Effizienzniveau/ die Effizienz bei verschiedenen Anwendungstemperaturen. Die besten Resultate werden durch die Kombination effizient aufeinander abgestimmter Komponenten mit einer optimaler Steuerung erreicht.

  18. Electrical drive for compressor on turbocharged engine

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Jaroslav; Čeřovský, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Turbochargers are usually driven by turbine powered by exhausted gases. This conception is relatively simple but the compressor is not able to overcharge the compressed air or fuel-air mixture into the cylinder in the total revolution range and power regimes. Next disadvantage of turbine driven compressor is the low dynamic response of the turbine and compressor at quick fuel supply increase. There are two possible solutions. First - the “electrocharger”, that is the fully electric driv...

  19. CFD Analysis of Oil Discharge Rate in Rotary Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Liying; Liang, Shebing; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Xu, Jia

    2012-01-01

    Oil discharge rate in rotary compressor has a significant influence on heat transfer performance of condenser and evaporator in air conditioning system. In order to find out the influence which caused by the structure of rotary compressor on the oil discharge rate, the flow field of rotary compressor has been calculated by VOF method and the lubricant distribution in rotary compressor can be obtained. At the same time, Oil discharge rate in rotary compressor at different operating conditions ...

  20. Analysis on the Process of Link Technology of Piston Air Compressor%活塞式空气压缩机的连杆工艺浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇

    2015-01-01

    本文主要以某活塞式压缩机的连杆为研究对象,对其工艺进行较为全面的分析研究,从而保障了设计的连杆经久耐用,符合实际生产的需要。%Taking a piston air compressor's link as the research object , this paper mainly analyzes its crafts , so as to ensure the designed connecting rod durable and meet the need of actual production .

  1. Air conditioning in a CINEMAXX cinema. Innovative solution involving a screw compressor and direct evaporation; Klimatisierung in einem CINEMAXX-Kino. Innovative Loesung mit Schraubenverdichter und Direktverdampfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    The new CINEMAXX cinema building in the Trier city centre has fully glazed walls and a modern air conditioning system. The system was installed by local organisations. Its key components are two Comer-Dorin screw compressors. [German] Im Trierer Stadtzentrum befindet sich ein neues CINEMAXX-Kino, hinter dessen glaeserner Fassade die Klimaanlage diskret verborgen bleibt. Oertliche Firmen der Branche konnten die Ausschreibung der Klimaanlage zu ihren Gunsten entscheiden und mit Erfahrung und handwerklichem Koennen unter Verwendung zweier Comer-Dorin-Schraubenverdichter eine nachahmenswerte Loesung planen und installieren. (orig.)

  2. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    OpenAIRE

    Luňáček O.; Syka T.

    2013-01-01

    Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  3. Experimental Study About An Amount Of Oil Charge On Electric Driven Scroll Compressor For Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Donglim; Lee, Poyoung; Lee, Geonho; Kwon, Yunki; Lee, Jinho

    2014-01-01

    The main roles of the oil in scroll compressor are to lubricate the friction parts, and to reduce the compressor driving power and to improve the durability of the compressor consequently. However, it has another side that could make decrease the efficiency of the heat exchanger and whole air-conditioning system. In the case of compressor, if the oil is charged too much, the compressor driving power will be increased and the compressor overall efficiency will be decreased. Therefore, the init...

  4. Seal Mechanism of Tip Seal in Scroll Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuta, Mitsuhiro; Ogi, Daisuke; Motozawa, Masaaki; Yanagisawa, Tadashi; Iwanami, Shigeki; Hotta, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Scroll compressors are widely used in room air conditioning cycles, package air conditioning cycles, refrigeration, water heater and automobile air conditioning cycles as well as air compressors, helium compressors and vacuum pump. There are two main leakage paths in a compression chamber formed by a fixed scroll and an orbiting scroll. One is the leakage path through a radial clearance between the wraps of fixed and orbiting scroll. The leakage through the radial clearance is prevented by pr...

  5. Numerical Calculation and Analysis of Lubricating Water Film Cavitation of A Water Flooded Air Single Screw Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Rui; Li, Ting; Feng, Quanke; Wu, Weifeng

    2012-01-01

    Reynolds equations and one-phase model with N-S (Navier Stocks) equations are widely used to calculate pressure distribution in the liquid film. In most cases, negative pressure exits in the obtained results. In a water-flooded single screw compressor, it is necessary to investigate the pressure of water film along the whole tooth flank. A negative pressure may not be right, because that when the pressure is lower than the saturated vapor pressure, cavitation occurs. In this paper, we investi...

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Emission Characteristics of a Dual – Fuel Micro Gas Turbine by Injecting Ethanol into Compressor Inlet Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Authors: Suhad A. R. Al-Jumaily

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants generation is strongly dependant on the firing temperature and reaction rates of the gaseous reactants in the gas turbine combustion chamber. An experimental study is conducted on a two-shaft T200D micro-gas turbine engine in order to evaluate the impact of injecting ethanol directly into the compressor inlet air on the exhaust emissions. The study is carried out in constant speed and constant load engine tests. Generally, the results showed that when ethanol was added in a concentration of 20% by volume of fuel flow; NOx emission was reduced by the half, while CO and UHC emissions were almost doubled with respect to their levels when burning conventional LPG fuel alone.

  7. Air-source heat pump coupled with economized vapor injection scroll compressor and ejector:Design and experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ejector can utilize high pressure energy from liquid mechanism,it can be used in heat pump system coupled with economized vapor injection(EVI)scroll compressor.When running under low temperature conditions,the performance of the EVI system with ejector can be improved further.In this paper,the design method of the heat pump system with ejector is presented,and the process for designing the heat pump with ejector(EVIe)was summarized.One prototype heat pump was designed under the condition of the evaporation temperature of -20oC,and an experimental setup was established to test the prototype.The measured results demonstrated that the heating EER(energy efficiency ratio)of the EVIe could reach about 4%higher than that of the system without the ejector when the heating capacity remained nearly constant.The design method is helpful to development of a heat pump system coupled with scroll compressor and ejector.

  8. A Novel Structure of High Efficiency Rotary Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Linbo; Ren, Liping; Xu, Jia; Hu, YuSheng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, various frequency compressors are developed rapidly and successfully in household air conditioner area. However, it is difficult to make advance progress on compressor performance, noise and reliability. The innovation of structure and technique are indispensable impetus to make a breakthrough. This paper presents a novel structure of high efficiency rotary compressor, which focuses on the connection mode between roller and vane of a compressor. On the one hand, the leakage g...

  9. Supersonic compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having an axially oriented compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which forms a supersonic shockwave axially, between adjacent strakes. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the gas compression ramp on a strake, the shock capture lip on the adjacent strake, and captures the resultant pressure within the stationary external housing while providing a diffuser downstream of the compression ramp.

  10. Hydride compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James R.; Salzano, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  11. Flow Analysis of Upstream Fluid Flow using Simulation for Different Positions of Optimized Inlet Guide Vane in Centrifugal Air Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok P. Tibrewala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Inlet Guide Valve is optimized with designing new efficient mechanism for their actuation. Inlet Guide Valve is an umbrella term which comprises both inlet Guide Vanes and the mechanism to actuate them. Guide vanes not only provide the inlet pressure drop but also impart a whirl motion to the gas as it enters the compressor impeller. Since this whirl motion is in the rotational direction of the impeller, it reduces the amount of work the impeller is required to do on the gas. This paper contains the basic concept behind Inlet Guide Vane, their working & importance. Also included is the new designed mechanism. The results of various positions of Inlet Guide Vane on Upstream Fluid Flow are analyzed & include in this paper.

  12. Case Study regarding the test of the new screw compressor with high delivery pressure - 45 bara - on the test bench (with air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PETRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Screw compressors, which are part of positive displacement compressors, can find an increasing use in gas industry and beyond due to their advantages. Maximal parameters of these devices, done by Comoti under GHH-Rand license stop at a maximum flow of 3000 Nm3/hour and 26 bara discharge pressure. The needs of potential beneficiaries have imposed the necessity to design and manufacture a new family of screw compressors and oil injection able to develop a discharge pressure of 45 bara with flow rates up to 5000 Nm3/hour. This paper presents the design and experimental test phases – for the first screw compressor with discharge of pressure up to 45 bara – CU90 HP. Continue research and development have allowed to this type of screw-compressor – to find a market position, diversifying its size range in the last decade in a manner more explosive, if we refer to other types of compressors.

  13. Air cooled heat pumps with mono-screw compressors. A good alternative; Luchtgekoelde warmtepompen met mono-schroefcompressoren. Een goed alternatief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, W. [Daikin Airconditioning Netherlands, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Heat pumps are becoming increasingly popular. Often water/water heat pumps are used that are linked to heat/cold storage systems or another source system. The air-cooled alternatives are advancing in house construction and are also applied in small-scale utility and schools sometimes. In the larger utility projects and the industry, however, the air-cooled heat pump has not quite yet found its way, while it can be a good alternative for the heat/cold storage systems that are much more expensive to purchase. This is due to new compressor techniques. [Dutch] Warmtepompen worden steeds populairder. Veelal wordt gebruikgemaakt van water/water-warmtepompen, die gekoppeld worden aan een koude/warmte-opslagsysteem (KWO) of ander bronsysteem. De luchtgekoelde alternatieven zijn in de woningbouw in opmars en worden soms ook in kleinschalige utiliteit en scholen toegepast. In de grotere utiliteitsprojecten en industrie heeft de luchtgekoelde warmtepomp echter zijn weg nog niet echt gevonden, terwijl het een goed alternatief kan zijn voor de in aanschaf veel duurdere KWO-systemen. Dit mede dankzij nieuwe compressortechnieken.

  14. Visualization of Flow in Scroll Compressor by Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Chikano, Masatsugu; SHIMIZU Hayato; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Tojo, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Saving energy and resources in the air conditioning industry is required in order to protect the global environment. To save resources, miniaturization of the compressor in air conditioners is necessary. This miniaturization will increase the oil circulation rate (OCR) of the compressor because the oil separation space will be reduced. To improve the oil separation efficiency, it is necessary to understand the appearance of the flow of oil and refrigerant in the compressor chamber. This paper...

  15. Supersonic compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.; Breidenthal, Robert E.

    2016-04-12

    A supersonic compressor including a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a diffuser. The diffuser includes a plurality of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions, for deceleration of gas to subsonic conditions and then for expansion of subsonic gas, to change kinetic energy of the gas to static pressure. The aerodynamic ducts include vortex generating structures for controlling boundary layer, and structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when the aerodynamic ducts are designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of in excess of two to one, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  16. Discussion on Control Model of Air Compressors Based on Multi-Agent%基于Multi-Agent的压风机组控制模型的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史志鹏; 雷汝海

    2011-01-01

    针对当前矿井压风系统由于采用滞后控制方式而导致的耗能问题,通过比较当前几种压风机组控制方式的优劣,提出了一种基于Multi-Agent的压风机组控制模型,给出了Multi-Agent模型框架,阐述了模型框架中的每个Agent的功能以及各个Agent之间的交互方式;并对模型仿真的可行性进行了探讨,提出了以面向对象技术和ACL语言对模型进行仿真的思路.%For the problem of power consumption caused by delay of control mode of current aircompressed system used in mine, a control model of air compressors based on Multi-Agent was proposed by comparing with advantages and disadvantages of several control modes. Model framework of MultiAgent was given, function and interaction mode of each Agent in the framework was described, feasibility of the model simulation was discussed, and a simulation way was put forward which uses object-oriented technology and ACL to simulate model.

  17. 汽车空调压缩机吸入管钎焊工艺设计%Design of soldering process for suction pipe in automobile air conditioning compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红宾; 白钢; 付春坤

    2012-01-01

    吸入管与压缩机连接处的制冷剂泄漏是汽车空调系统的常见问题,制冷剂泄漏严重影响压缩机效率,并增加能耗、污染环境.在现有钎焊工艺的基础上,结合生产实际,设计和优化钎焊工艺参数,改善钎焊接头性能,提高焊接质量,解决汽车空调压缩机吸入管的泄漏问题.利用UG三维软件设计效率更高、更便捷的钎焊工装夹具,以提高生产效率.%The leakage of refrigerants which seriously impact on the compressor efficiency and increase energy consumption and environmental pollution is the common problems of automotive air conditioning system in the place that the suction pipe and compressor connection.Based on the existing brazing process,combining with practices,this paper designs and optimizes brazing process parameters to improve the performance of brazing joint and brazing quality and solve problems that the suction pipe of automobile air-conditioner compressor leaks.Using UG 3D software,designs brazing jig that is more efficient and convenient to improve production efficiency.

  18. Improved Regenerative Sorbent-Compressor Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual regenerative sorbent-compressor refrigerator attains regeneration efficiency and, therefore, overall power efficiency and performance greater than conventional refrigerators. Includes two fluid loops. In one, CH2FCF3 (R134a) ciculates by physical adsorption and desorption in four activated-charcoal sorption compressors. In other, liquid or gas coolant circulated by pump. Wave of regenerative heating and cooling propagates cyclically like peristatic wave among sorption compressors and associated heat exchangers. Powered by electricity, oil, gas, solar heat, or waste heat. Used as air conditioners, refrigerators, and heat pumps in industrial, home, and automotive applications.

  19. THERMODYNAMIC DESIGN OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR FOR TURBOCHARGER

    OpenAIRE

    Sonawane Shubham*, Sondkar Pratik, Qasim Siddiqui, Phirke Indraneel, Prof. R. P. Kakde

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of a turbocharger is to increase the power output of an engine by supplying compressed air to the engine intake manifold so that fuel can be burnt efficiently. In this work, thermodynamic design of a high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor, for 75 kW class engines, was carried out. A pressure ratio of 2.8 was considered with a compressor rotational speed of 60,000 RPM. The compressor was designed for vane less diffuser. The impeller designs were obtained using ci...

  20. Refrigeration system having dual suction port compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guolian

    2016-01-05

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  1. Energy Saving Potential in Existing Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Cipollone, Roberto; Vittorini, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Air Sector (CAS) is responsible for a relevant part of energy consumption, accounting for a mean 10% of the world-wide electricity needs. This ensures about the importance of the CAS issue when sustainability, in terms of energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, is in question. Since the compressors alone account for a mean 15% of the industry overall electricity consumption, it appears vital to pay attention towards machine performances. The paper deals with compressor techn...

  2. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  3. Coatings for Fuel Cell Propulsion Compressor Bearings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fuel cell air handling systems require clean and contaminant-free inlet air, which dictates that oil-free, motorized, compressor/expander systems should be used....

  4. Centrifugal reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Efficient compressor uses centrifugal force to compress gas. System incorporates two coupled dc motors, each driving separate centrifugal reciprocating-compressor assembly. Motors are synchronized to accelerate and decelerate alternately.

  5. The New S-RAM Air Variable Compressor/Expander for Heat Pump and Waste Heat to Power Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jestings, Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Conde, Ricardo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-23

    S-RAM Dynamics (S-RAM) has designed an innovative heat pump system targeted for commercial and industrial applications. This new heat pump system is more efficient than anything currently on the market and utilizes air as the refrigerant instead of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, leading to lower operating costs, minimal environmental costs or concerns, and lower maintenance costs. The heat pumps will be manufactured in the United States. This project was aimed at determining the feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing to make the heat exchanger device for the new heat pump system. ORNL and S-RAM Dynamics collaborated on determining the prototype performance and subsequently printing of the prototype using additive manufacturing. Complex heat exchanger designs were fabricated using the Arcam electron beam melting (EBM) powder bed technology using Ti-6Al-4V material. An ultrasonic welding system was utilized in order to remove the powder from the small openings of the heat exchanger. The majority of powder in the small chambers was removed, however, the amount of powder remaining in the heat exchanger was a function of geometry. Therefore, only certain geometries of heat exchangers could be fabricated. SRAM Dynamics evaluated a preliminary heat exchanger design. Although the results of the additive manufacturing of the heat exchanger were not optimum, a less complex geometry was demonstrated. A sleeve valve was used as a demonstration piece, as engine designs from S-RAM Dynamics require the engine to have a very high density. Preliminary designs of this geometry were successfully fabricated using the EBM technology.

  6. 基于ANSYS的往复式空气压缩机活塞杆的强度分析%Strength Analysis of Piston Rod of Reciprocating Type Air Compressor Based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 武伟

    2015-01-01

    活塞杆是往复式空气压缩机的核心部件和易损件,活塞杆断裂造成的设备故障占重大安全事故的1/4以上。在往复式空气压缩机的运行过程中活塞杆推动活塞做往复运动并承受拉、压两种工况交变载荷,因此活塞杆的断裂与频繁的交变作用力密切相关。本文以大型往复式空气压缩机活塞杆为研究对象,应用有限元分析软件ANSYS对其进行结构强度分析以确定能否满足静强度及疲劳强度安全系数要求。其结论对往复式空气压缩机活塞杆的设计与优化具有一定的理论指导意义。%Piston rod is the core and vulnerable component of reciprocating type air compressor. The equipment failure ratio caused by piston rod fracture is more than 1/4. During the operational process of reciprocating type air compressor, the pistons were propelled by piston rods to do alternative motion. The piston rod was beard cyclic loading in push and pressure working conditions, so the piston rod fracture is closely related to the frequent alternating force. In this paper, the piston rod of large scale reciprocating type air compressor was researched as subject, the structure strength of piston rod was analyzed by finite element analysis software ANSYS. The simulated results were used for evaluating static strength and fatigue strength request. The analysis results provide some theoretical guidance for designing and improving piston rod of reciprocating type air compressor.

  7. 空调压缩机铝合金连杆的液态模锻%Hydraulic Forging of the Al Alloy Connection Rod of the Air-Conditioner Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈华昌

    2001-01-01

    分析了空调压缩机用铝合金连杆的工艺特点和技术要求,介绍了液态模锻的模具结构和工作过程,同时还介绍了铝合金连杆液态模锻的工艺参数。%The processing characteristics and the technical requirement of the aluminum alloy connection rod for the air-conditioner compressor were analyzed. The structure and working process of the hydraulic forging die were introduced. And the processing data for hydraulically forging the aluminum alloy connection rod were stated.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Flow in a Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Yu. A.; Bakulin, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    With the use of the domestic software suite of computational hydrodynamics Flow Vision based on application of the method of control volumes, numerical simulation of air composition and delivery by a centrifugal compressor employed for supercharging a piston engine has been carried out. The head-flow characteristics of the compressor, as well as the 3D fields of flow velocity and pressure distributions in the elements of the compressor flow passage, including the interblade channels of the impeller, have been obtained for various regimes. In the regimes of diminished air flow rate, surging phenomena are identified, characterized by a return flow. The application of the technique of numerical experiment will make it possible from here on to carry out design optimization of the compressor flow passage profile and thus to improve its basic characteristics — the degree of pressure increase, compressed air flow rate, and the efficiency — as well as to reduce the costs of the development and production of compressors.

  9. Application and Energy-saving Effect of Adjustable Air Flow on Reciprocating Compressor%可调余隙调节气量在往复式压缩机上的应用及节能效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰生; 宁德君

    2014-01-01

    可调余隙调节气量是在固定余隙调节气量的基础上,对往复压缩机气量调节系统进行改造。通过实际应用表明,该系统较往复式压缩机传统的气量调节方法具有输出气量的稳定性好、气量无级调节、系统维护费用低、参数设置灵活、节能、系统可靠的特点。%Adjustable air flow is defined as transformation of reciprocating compressor system on the basis of fixed air flow.It is shown through application that this system has merits of great stability , free air flow adjustment , low cost, reliability and flexible parameter setting .

  10. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  11. Research and Development of R290 Less Oil Rotary Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bin; Qian, Canyu; Chen, Zhenhua; Liang, Shuangjian

    2014-01-01

    Less oil technique is one of the most important directions of rotary compressor development. This less oil technique research is based on R290 rotary compressor for the purpose of decrease R290 charge amount in room air conditioner to satisfy the demand of IEC standard 60335-2-40. Firstly, the less oil rotary compressor was designed to resolve the oil supply issue, and the CFD simulation of the oil supply structure was validated. Secondly, the oil supply test, compressor performance and relia...

  12. 新型直线往复式空压机的结构及其运动特性分析%Constitution of a kind of linear reciprocating air compressor and its motion characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿爱农

    2011-01-01

    为了减少往复式空压机活塞对气缸的侧压力,提出一种新型齿轮约束直线往复活塞式空气压缩机,该机利用一对规格相同、面对面布局并且转向相反的锥齿轮,各自驱动一个连杆,并由这2个连杆共同驱动活塞作纯粹的直线往复运动。与传统的往复活塞式空压机相比,新型空压机可以实现活塞与气缸的无侧压运动配合,而且活塞往复运动派生的往复惯性力、连杆摇摆运动派生的摇摆惯性力矩均可以有效平衡。%A new type of gear-restrained linear reciprocating air compressor is proposed to reduce the sidepressure between the piston and the cylinder, m winch two bevel gears wlm same size are setface to and rotates in opposite direction, as well as respectively drive two connecting rods that jointly drive the piston to make pure linear reciprocation. Compared with the conventional reciprocating air compressor, the new-type compressor can realize movement fit of the piston and the cylinder without side pressure, and the reciprocating inertia force produced from the piston's reciprocating movement and the swing inertia torque produced from the connecting rod's swing movement can be easily eliminated.

  13. Double-yoke balanced compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-yoke balanced compressor for a cryogenic cooler that has only linear motion imparted to balanced piston and cylinder masses. A piston yoke is driven in the linear stroke direction by a piston axially offset crankshaft cam and a cylinder yoke is driven linearly by a cylinder axially offset crankshaft cam that is exactly offset 1800 from the other cam. A large circular bushing in the compressor housing covers the entire outer cylinder head during linear operation to prevent blow by and to guide the cylinder linearly. The lower portion of the piston and cylinder connecting rods fit into linear guides that are further comprised of low molecular weight gas filled cavities to provide additional air bearing smoothness to the linear motion of the piston and cylinder

  14. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  15. Study on Mechanism Analysis and Motion Simulation of the Scroll Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Donghai; Wang, Zhijun

    In this paper, according to the application practice of scroll compressor for refrigeration and air-conditioning, various factors affecting the whole refrigeration effect of the compressor are studied, the influence of scroll wrap's different forms on compressor exhaust angle and the compression ratio is stated, and it establishes the working principle simulation of the compressor's main parts, and further corrects the form of vortex lines according to simulation results.

  16. Treating energy saving as a resource to exploit: successful application of recovering the waste heat of air compressor%把节能当作一种资源去开发:空压机余热回收的成功应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇

    2012-01-01

    介绍了空气压缩系统的运行和耗能情况,针对其中存在的节能空间进行了改造,分析了压缩机的余热利用产生的经济效益。%The running and energy consumption situations of air compressor system were intro- duced. Aiming at the possibility of energy saving, modifications were carried out. Economic bene- fits produced from recovering the waste heat of air compressor were analyzed.

  17. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  18. Gravity Independent Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  19. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  20. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  1. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Sameh M.; Khalil, Mohamed I.; Abouel-seoud, Shawki A. [Automotive and Tractors Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.

  2. Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh M. Metwally, Mohamed I. Khalil, Shawki A. Abouel-seoud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.

  3. 离心压缩机气流激振实例分析%Example Analysis of Air Excitation of Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓刚; 陈俊风; 周运超; 李文涛; 张亚飞; 武云鹏

    2014-01-01

    During the operation of the centrifugal compressor, owing the rotation of gas flow in seal chamber, the change of the circumferential pressure distribution is not completely correspondent with the change of the clearance between rotor and seal chamber. The highest pressure point lags behind the smallest clearance of the seal chamber to a certain degree. Particularly, when the centrifugal compressor unit is to be expanded and renovated, the clearance of seal is narrowed to a large extent so as to improve efficiency. Therefore, gas excitation turns out to be more intensified. By analyzing the gas excitation phenomenon of a certain compressor, this paper suggests basic methods to resolve gas excitation and successfully completes technical reform in regard to the above-mentioned compressor.%离心压缩机在运行过程中由于密封腔中的气流有旋转,使周向压力分布的变化与转子和密封腔之间的间隙变化不完全对应,最高压力点滞后密封腔最小间隙一定角度。特别是在一些扩容改造的离心压缩机组,为了提高效率,将密封的间隙降得很低,使得气流的激振更加突出。本文结合某台离心压缩机出现的气流激振故障,指出了解决气流激振的基本方法并成功完成了对该压缩机的技术改造。

  4. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  5. Bidirectional grating compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Zhaoyang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Yanqi; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin

    2016-07-01

    A bidirectional grating compressor for chirped pulse amplifiers is presented. It compresses a laser beam simultaneously in two opposite directions. The pulse compressor is shown to promote chirped pulse amplifiers' output energy without grating damages. To verify the practicability, an experiment is carried out. In addition, a crosscorrelation instrument is designed and set up to test the time synchronization between these two femtosecond pulses.

  6. Supersonic gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2007-11-13

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies of water injection scroll compressor in automotive fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanyang Zhao; Liansheng Li; Huagen Wu; Pengcheng Shu [Xian Jiaotong University (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2005-06-01

    A water injection scroll compressor to supply clean compressed air to an automotive fuel cell system is researched. The water is used as both the lubricant and coolant in the compressor. A thermodynamic model of the water injection scroll compressor considering leakage and heat exchange for use with an automotive fuel cell system was developed using the conservation of energy and mass equations and the equation of state. The results show that the scroll compressor has nearly isothermal compression when injecting water in it. Increasing the compressor rotation speed increases the discharge loss and the volumetric efficiency of the scroll compressor. The difference between the calculated power and the isothermal power increases as the compressor rotation speed rises, which means the efficiency of the compressor decreases. Increasing the flow rate of water injected increases the indicated isothermal efficiency and decreases the discharge temperature. Under the condition studied, the mass flow rate of water has the greatest effect on the discharge temperature. (author)

  8. 空调压缩机油粘度与油温过热度的测试研究%Experimental Study on the Oil Viscosity and Oil Superheat Temperature of Air Conditioner Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏会军; 刘靖

    2015-01-01

    A method which can test the viscosity of the refrigerating oil on line is used to measure the air conditioner of 1.5HP. Combined with the actual working condition of rotary compressor, the situations which probably lead to a failure without lubricating enough is found. It can provide the data and theory basis to the study of the reliability of the rotary compressor lubrication and the evaluation standard.%通过自行建立的压缩机油粘度与油温过热度在线测试方法,对1.5HP家用变频空调系统进行测试分析,并结合滚动转子式压缩机的实际工作情况,分析了可能导致压缩机润滑失效的情况,为滚动转子式压缩机润滑可靠性的研究及评价提供了数据支持及理论依据。

  9. Flow Analysis around the Suction Valve and the Effect of the Flow on the Vibration-Reduction of the Valve in a Reciprocating Compressor for an Automotive Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taizo; Tsukiji, Tetsuhiro; Koyabu, Eitaro; Nakamura, Yusuke

    In the present study the simplified test model of the commercial reciprocating compressor for an automotive air-conditioner is designed to investigate the velocity distributions of the discharge flow from the suction valve using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique and to measure the displacement of the valve. The displacement of the conventional valve in the test model is observed using the high speed video camera and is also measured using a strain gauge. On the other hand the velocity distributions around the suction valve are measured using PIV and the relation between the velocity distributions and the movement of the valve is investigated. Furthermore the new valve with the shape improved from the conventional valve is designed and the results of the flow visualization and the measurement of the valve displacement for the new valve are compared with those of the conventional valve. We found that the vibration of the new valve can be suppressed compared with the conventional one from the experiment using both the present test model and the commercial reciprocating compressor. The reason of the vibration-reduction for the new valve is discussed from the results of the present flow analysis.

  10. Thermal compressor of cascade exchange by pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander KRAJNIUK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of organization of working cycle of device of direct transformation of heat in the located work of compression of air, based on principle of cascade exchange by pressure, is exposed; the results of pre-selection of basic dimensional and structural parameters of thermal compressor of cascade exchange by pressure are adduced; some special features of its working process are considered; main directions of perfection of working cycle of thermal compressors of cascade exchange of pressure are shown.

  11. Similarity and cascade flow characteristics of a highly loaded helium compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bin, E-mail: jiangbin_hrbeu@163.com [College of Power & Energy Engineering of Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Zhongliang [College of Power & Energy Engineering of Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Hang [AVIG Shenyang Engine Design and Research Institute, Shenyang 110015 (China); Zhang, Hai; Zheng, Qun [College of Power & Energy Engineering of Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The deviation of different similarity criteria is analyzed theoretically. • Flow difference between helium and air compressor cascades is analyzed numerically. • The analysis of calculated results validates the theoretical derivation. • Flow characteristics of highly loaded helium compressor blade profile are computed. - Abstract: Helium compressor is a major component of the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) used in a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Because the high cost of closed cycle test and leakage problem of helium gas, air could be used as working fluid instead of helium in compressor performance tests. However, the properties of Helium are largely different from those of air, e.g. the adiabatic exponent of Helium is 1.6, while the adiabatic exponent itself is a criterion of similarity between the two compressors. The characteristics of compressor will be different due to the effect of the adiabatic exponent of working fluid, especially for highly loaded compressor working at higher inlet Mach number. In this paper, a theoretical study on the similarity between air compressor and a highly loaded helium compressor is carried out and the deviation of similarity is analyzed. Numerical simulations are then used to confirm the theoretical analysis. The results indicate that the similarity deviation could not be neglected for highly loaded compressor cascade, which means the experience and experimental results of those conventional air compressor cannot be applied directly to the design of highly loaded helium compressor. The flow characteristics of a highly loaded helium compressor at different Reynolds numbers, attack angles, Mach numbers and cascade geometries are then investigated.

  12. Similarity and cascade flow characteristics of a highly loaded helium compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The deviation of different similarity criteria is analyzed theoretically. • Flow difference between helium and air compressor cascades is analyzed numerically. • The analysis of calculated results validates the theoretical derivation. • Flow characteristics of highly loaded helium compressor blade profile are computed. - Abstract: Helium compressor is a major component of the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) used in a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Because the high cost of closed cycle test and leakage problem of helium gas, air could be used as working fluid instead of helium in compressor performance tests. However, the properties of Helium are largely different from those of air, e.g. the adiabatic exponent of Helium is 1.6, while the adiabatic exponent itself is a criterion of similarity between the two compressors. The characteristics of compressor will be different due to the effect of the adiabatic exponent of working fluid, especially for highly loaded compressor working at higher inlet Mach number. In this paper, a theoretical study on the similarity between air compressor and a highly loaded helium compressor is carried out and the deviation of similarity is analyzed. Numerical simulations are then used to confirm the theoretical analysis. The results indicate that the similarity deviation could not be neglected for highly loaded compressor cascade, which means the experience and experimental results of those conventional air compressor cannot be applied directly to the design of highly loaded helium compressor. The flow characteristics of a highly loaded helium compressor at different Reynolds numbers, attack angles, Mach numbers and cascade geometries are then investigated

  13. Axial compressor stability enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, Timothy Oliver.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines must operate in a stable manner at all times. One source of instability is compressor stall. Stall problems can be reduced by machining cavities into the compressor casing adjacent to the rotor blades. This ?casing treatment? is the focus of the present work. Two treatment configurations are tested: circumferential grooves cut into the casing above the rotor blades, and axial slots cut into the casing adjacent to the rotor blade leading edges. The performance of a single ...

  14. Wet Gas Compressor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Natås, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The world’s energy demand is increasing and more attention is given to increase the recovery of gas fields. Installing a compressor near the wellhead can contribute to this. Constantly changing reservoir conditions requires the system to handle small amounts of liquid water and condensate. Wet gas compression is a cost efficient and compact alternative to liquid separation on the seabed. A wet gas compressor test facility exists at NTNU`s thermal laboratory and research on wet gas fundam...

  15. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  16. Oil-Less Swing Compressor Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hugenroth, Jason James

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an oil-less swing compressor. The swing compressor, also known as a rotary piston pump, is a rotary compressor technology that is akin to the well know rolling piston compressor. The swing compressor differs from the rolling piston compressor in that the vane, which divides the suction and compression chambers is an integral part of the piston. The vane is both rotatably and slidingly supported by bushings in the compressor cylinder. Oil-less compressor...

  17. Experimental verification of compressor performance for an ultra-microgasturbine

    OpenAIRE

    Peirs, Jan; Waumans, Tobias; Liu, Kun; Ferraris, Eleonora; Verstraete, Tom; Van den Braembussche, Rene; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental verification of a 20 mm compressor prototype developed for a 1 kWe ultra-microgasturbine. The gasturbine has a nominal speed of 500 krpm, a nominal air flow of 20 g/s and a nominal pressure ratio of 3. The compressor is tested in a turbo-shaft setup containing compressor, turbine and aerostatic bearings. The test speed is currently limited to 261 krpm due to bearing instability. At this reduced speed, the generated relative static pressure reaches 0.41 bar...

  18. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  19. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  20. Experimental Testing of an Oil-Flooded Hermetic Scroll Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Ian; Groll, Eckhard; Braun, James; W. Travis, Horton

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a residential air conditioning compressor designed for vapor injection has been modified in order to inject large quantities of oil into the working chamber in order to approach an isothermal compression process. The compressor was tested with oil injection mass flow fractions of up to 45%. At an evaporating temperature of -10C and condensing temperature of 30C, the overall isentropic efficiency was up to 70% at the highest oil injection rate. Overall, over the testing envelo...

  1. Experimental Testing of Oil-Flooded Hermetic Scroll Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Ian H.; Eckhard A. Groll; Braun, James E.; Horton, W. Travis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a residential air conditioning compressor designed for vapor injection has been modified in order to inject large quantities of oil into the working chamber in order to approach an isothermal compression process. For a range of different oil injection scenarios, the result is a monotonic decrease in compressor discharge temperature as the oil injection rate is increased. In addition, the pumped refrigerant mass flow rate tends to increase as the oil injection rate is increased.

  2. Performance Investigation of Linear Compressor With One Side Springs

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Huiming; Shao, Shuangquan; Tang, Mingsheng; ZHANG, Liqin; Peng, Guohong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a linear compressor prototype with a set of cylindrical coil springs connected to one side of the trestle is developed. The initial position of piston head is near to the top dead center and coil springs are on free status. The experiments on the prototype are carried out by compressing air on different working conditions. The experimental results show that the linear compressor with one side springs can take good advantage of the gas springcharacteristics of the compressed work...

  3. Compressor map prediction tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Arjun; Sznajder, Lukasz; Bennett, Ian

    2015-08-01

    Shell Global Solutions uses an in-house developed system for remote condition monitoring of centrifugal compressors. It requires field process data collected during operation to calculate and assess the machine's performance. Performance is assessed by comparing live results of polytropic head and efficiency versus design compressor curves provided by the Manufacturer. Typically, these design curves are given for specific suction conditions. The further these conditions on site deviate from those prescribed at design, the less accurate the health assessment of the compressor becomes. To address this specified problem, a compressor map prediction tool is proposed. The original performance curves of polytropic head against volumetric flow for varying rotational speeds are used as an input to define a range of Mach numbers within which the non-dimensional invariant performance curve of head and volume flow coefficient is generated. The new performance curves of polytropic head vs. flow for desired set of inlet conditions are then back calculated using the invariant non-dimensional curve. Within the range of Mach numbers calculated from design data, the proposed methodology can predict polytropic head curves at a new set of inlet conditions within an estimated 3% accuracy. The presented methodology does not require knowledge of detailed impeller geometry such as throat areas, blade number, blade angles, thicknesses nor other aspects of the aerodynamic design - diffusion levels, flow angles, etc. The only required mechanical design feature is the first impeller tip diameter. Described method makes centrifugal compressor surveillance activities more accurate, enabling precise problem isolation affecting machine's performance.

  4. Equivalent Linkages of Compressor Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bukac, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, the dynamics of a compressor’s mechanism can be simplified and better understood by analyzing compressor’s equivalent linkage. Although the equivalent linkage of a reciprocating piston compressor is well known, the equivalent linkages of other types of compressors are not. For example, it is not well understood that the equivalent linkage of a rolling piston compressor is also the same slider-crank mechanism as the one of a reciprocating piston compressor. The difference between r...

  5. Wet Gas Compressor Surge Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jellum, Marie Rennemo

    2013-01-01

    The development of wet gas compressors for installation subsea is key to increase the recovery of oil and gas from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Safe operation of the compressor depends on understanding of how wet gas affects the behavior of the machine. The compressor operating range is limited by stall and surge, and it is therefore particularly important to determine how liquid will affect the inception of these phenomena. Measuring pressure transients within the compressor or in the in...

  6. Decade Developments of Rotary Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin K. Katare; Vilayat M. Kriplani

    2012-01-01

    Compressor is the single largest consumer of primary energy (usually electricity) in an industrial refrigeration system and often become a focal point for energy efficiency improvement strategies. This is achieved either through the improvement of existing compressor designs, or by the introduction of new designs that is expected to overcome the drawbacks of existing compressors. This paper presents the summery of development and innovations made in rotary compressors used in refrigeration in...

  7. Standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  8. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  9. Study on an Oscillating Rod Restrained Oil--free Lubrication Reciprocating Piston Air Compressor%摆杆约束往复活塞式无油润滑空气压缩机的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿葵花; 耿爱农; 李辛沫; 陈君立; 阮勤江

    2012-01-01

    A new oil--free--reciprocating piston air compressor was proposed. In the new type of compressor, an oscillating rod mechanism was used to ensure the connecting rod and piston working in closely straight reciprocating motion, so that the knocking and side pressure between the cylinder and the piston were decreased significantly. Compared with traditional compressor, the height of the new compressor is reduced by 24% while the noise and friction power are decreased by 7.4% and ldB (A) respectively and the seal ring lifetime is increased by about 10%. A mathematic model was established and the operation characteristics of the oscillating rod were analyzed. The theoretical studies show that the swing amplitude of the piston and seal ring are decreased significantly and the knocking strength and side pressure of cylinder wall are reduced because of the restriction of the oscillating rod, and that the rod's loading condition can be improved by setting the mechanism's quick-return trip correspondence to the compressor's suction stroke.%提出一种新型往复活塞式无油润滑空气压缩机,在传统曲柄连杆机构的基础上增设一个摆杆机构,以此约束连杆和活塞以近乎直线往复的方式进行工作,从而缓解活塞及密封环对气缸的侧压力与敲击强度。与传统机型相比较,新型压缩机摩擦功减小了7.4%,噪声下降约1dB(A),密封环寿命提高约10%,高度降低24%。建立了新型压缩机的数学模型,对其摆杆约束机构的特性进行了分析。研究表明:增设摆杆可以大幅度地减小活塞及密封环相对于气缸的摆动幅度,有利于降低它们对气缸的侧压力和敲击强度;另外,曲柄的运转方向对摆杆机构的运动学特性和动力学特性影响较为明显,将机构的急回行程与压缩机的进气行程呼应设置有利于改善摆杆的受力状况。

  10. Hyperbolically Shaped Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Romuald Puzyrewski; Pawel Flaszy(n)ski

    2003-01-01

    Starting from the classical centrifugal compressor, cone shaped in meridional cross section, two modifications are considered on the basis of results from 2D and 3D flow models. The first modification is the change of the meridional cross section to hyperbolically shaped channel. The second modification, proposed on the basis of 2D axisymmetric solution, concerns the shape of blading. On the strength of this solution the blades are formed as 3D shaped blades, coinciding with the recent tendency in 3D designs. Two aims were considered for the change of meridional compressor shape. The first was to remove the separation zone which appears as the flow tums from axial to radial direction. The second aim is to uniformize the flow at exit of impeller. These two goals were considered within the frame of 2D axisymmetric model. Replacing the cone shaped compressor by a hyperbolically shaped one, the separation at the corner was removed. The disc and shroud shape of the compressor was chosen in the way which satisfies the condition of most uniform flow at the compressor exit. The uniformity of exit flow from the rotor can be considered as the factor which influences the performance of the diffuser following the rotor. In the 2D model a family of stream surfaces of S1 type is given in order to find S2 surfaces which may be identified with the midblade surfaces of compressor blading. A computation of 3D type has been performed in order to establish the relations between 2D and 3D models in the calculation of flow parameters. In the presented example the 2D model appears as the inverse model which leads to 3D shape of blading whereas the 3D model has been used for the direct solution. In the presented example the confrontation of two models, 2D and 3D, leads to a better understanding of the application of these models to the design procedure.

  11. HFC-compatible rotary compressor mounting new-type DC motor; Shingata DC motor torsai HFC taio rotory compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A DC motor based on the first concentrated winding system in the world that is used as an air-conditioning compressor was employed to spread an energy-saving household air conditioner. Moreover, a high-efficiency compressor corresponding to HFC (new coolant that does not destroy an ozone layer) was developed. This motor is directly wound to the teeth of a stator core as compared with the conventional distributed winding system. In this system, the amount of the electric wire used can be reduced about 35%. As a result, a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight, and low-cost motor was obtained. This rotary compressor is not only installed in our company's air conditioner 'Daiseikai' in the refrigeration year of 2000, but also externally sold to the other air conditioner manufacturers. It will aim at the de facto standards in the world. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Compressor surge counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  13. Wet Gas Compressor Transients

    OpenAIRE

    Owren, Bjørn Berge

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis considers three subtasks related to transient operation of wet gas compressors.HYSYS Dynamics is used to establish a dynamic simulation model in the first subtask. The model is designed to predict transient behavior of the compressor test facility at NTNU during dry and wet gas trip scenarios. Its steady state performance has been validated against test data. The deviation of polytropic head and suction volume flow is less than 1% for all test points but one.Dry and wet gas...

  14. Whispering Gallery Pulse Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A barrel-like cavity resonant at a whispering gallery mode is known as capable to provide a SLED-like rf pulse compression. To enhance the power handling capacity of the compressor, we propose to use a coupler based on a wave tunneling through a continuous slot. A modeling low power 11.4 GHz experiment proved to be consistent with theory. A preliminary technical design for an evacuated high-power compressor has also been developed. According to a theory, a twin-cavity version of the device can efficiently compress microwave pulses produced with sources of limited bandwidth, in particular frequency-chirped pulses

  15. Modeling magnetic pulse compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author considers the problem of modeling the dynamic performance of high-average-power, high repetition-rate magnetic pulse compressors. The author is particularly concerned with developing system models suitable for studying output pulse stability in high repetition rate applications. To this end, the author presents a magnetic switch model suitable for system studies and discusses a modeling tool being developed to perform these studies. The author concludes with some preliminary results of efforts to simulate the MAG1D compressor performance

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of Gas Turbine Compressor Washing to Combat Fouling

    OpenAIRE

    Abass, Kabir Oliade

    2015-01-01

    Among the major deterioration problems a gas turbine encountered while in operation is compressor blade fouling. This is the accumulation and adhesion of dirt and sediment on the compressor blade which contributes between 70 to 85% of gas turbine performance loss. Fouling reduces turbine air mass flow capacity, compressor pressure ratio and overall gas turbine efficiency. In most cases, its effect does not manifest immediately in gas turbine power output and efficiency since they are not meas...

  17. Development of DC Inverter Scroll Compressor used for Marine Container Refrigeration Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Tomomi; Kato, Katsumi; Nojima, Nobuhiro; Yoshimura, Keiji; Kitaura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy saving of a container ship is becoming one of the most important issues from the point of environmental protection of the global marine transportation business. To solve this problem, we have developed a new gas injection inverter scroll compressor for marine container refrigeration unit. The new compressor is based on a conventional scroll compressor, which has been used in various industrial air conditioners for a long time, with some greatly improved technologies. F...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS EFFECTING THE NOISE REDUCTION IN HERMITICALLY SEALED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

    OpenAIRE

    G.Laxmaiah; Dr.P.Ravinder Reddy; M N S V Kiran Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hermetic reciprocating compressors are most commonly used in the refrigeration industry. The main source of noise in refrigerating and air conditioning machinery is the compressor. Reduction of noise in compressors is a complex criterion as many factors such as Shell Thickness, Shell Material, Suction Port Area and Discharge Port Area etc. contribute its effect on the noise and they also interact in a complex manner. In this work a screening test is carried out to find the relative effect of ...

  19. Shaking and Balance of a Convertible One- and Two-Cylinder Reciprocating Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Chin Guan

    2000-01-01

    This research involves the study of a one- and two-cylinder convertible reciprocating Freon compressor for air conditioning or refrigeration purposes. The main concern is the reduction of the vibration (noise) caused during the operation of the compressor. Vibration is a main concern when the compressor is shifted from the one-cylinder operation to the two-cylinder operation mode and the reverse of this shift. The objectives for this research are (1) to investigate the shaking force due t...

  20. Energy saving screw compressor technology; Energiebesparende schroefcompressortechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, A. [RefComp, Lonigo (Italy); Neus, M. [Delta Technics Engineering, Breda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Smart solutions to reduce the energy consumption are continuously part of investigation in the refrigeration technology. This article subscribed the technology on which way energy can be saved at the operation of screw compressors which are used in air conditioners and refrigerating machinery. The combination of frequency control and Vi-control (intrinsic volumetric ratio) such as researched in the laboratory of RefComp is for the user attractive because the energy efficiency during part load operation is much better. Smart uses of thermodynamics, electric technology and electronic control are the basics of these applications. According to the manufacturer's information it is possible with these new generation screw compressors to save approx. 26% energy in comparison with the standard screw compressor. [Dutch] In dit artikel wordt de technologie omschreven waarmee veel energie bespaard kan worden bij schroefcompressoren die worden gebruikt in airconditioningsystemen en koel- en vriesinstallaties. De combinatie van frequentieregeling en Vi- regeling (Vi is de intrinsieke volumetrische verhouding) zoals onderzocht in het laboratorium van RefComp biedt de gebruiker veel voordelen doordat de energie-efficintie van de compressor tijdens deellast enorm wordt verbeterd. Slim gebruik van thermodynamika, elektrotechniek en elektronica vormen de basis van deze toepassing. Volgens de fabrikant kan met deze nieuwe generatie schroefcompressoren circa 26 procent op het energiegebruik tijdens deellast worden bespaard in vergelijking met de standaard serie schroefcompressoren.

  1. Compressor reliability survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lier, L.J. van

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for economic plant operation has led to a critical discussion of the equipment as to selection, design, maintenance and automation. The well-known advantages of the reciprocating compressor such as high efficiency under many different operating conditions, comparatively easy re

  2. TM600-2型离心式空气压缩机喘振故障分析及解决措施研究%Study on the Cause of TM600-2 Centrifugal Air Compressor Surge and Scheme to Solve the Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建

    2013-01-01

      离心式压缩机是生产过程中十分重要的设备,解决离心式压缩机运行的质量和效率具有重要意义。笔者通过对日常工作的总结,分析了TM600-2型离心式空气压缩机喘振故障原因,并提出了几点自己关于解决改故障的方案,实践证明很好地改善了喘振的问题。%Centrifugal air compressor is very important in the production process, so it is of great significance to solve its problem of quality and efficiency. Through the summary of the day-to-day work, the author analyzed the cause of TM600-2 centrifugal air compressor surge, and put forward a few of own schemes to solve the problem, and practice has proved that it well improved the surge of TM600-2 centrifugal air compressor.

  3. Analyses of the Integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, Compressor, Accumulator and Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Lafuse, Sharon; Smith, Frederick D.; Lu, Sao-Dung; Knox, James C.; Campbell, Mellssa L.; Scull, Timothy D.; Green Steve

    2010-01-01

    A tool has been developed by the Sabatier Team for analyzing/optimizing CO2 removal assembly, CO2 compressor size, its operation logic, water generation from Sabatier, utilization of CO2 from crew metabolic output, and Hz from oxygen generation assembly. Tests had been conducted using CDRA/Simulation compressor set-up at MSFC in 2003. Analysis of test data has validated CO2 desorption rate profile, CO2 compressor performance, CO2 recovery and CO2 vacuum vent in CDRA desorption. Optimizing the compressor size and compressor operation logic for an integrated closed air revitalization system Is being conducted by the Sabatier Team.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented

  5. Application of OxidationAir Compressor in Flue Gas Desulfurization Engineering in Power Plant%浅析氧化风机在电厂烟气脱硫工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓曼

    2012-01-01

      作为整个脱硫运行中比较关键的大型设备,氧化风机的选型是否合理,直接关系整个工程的投资及运营。本文从罗茨鼓风机和离心鼓风机各自的工作原理和特点分析了两种风机在实际脱硫工程中的优缺点,同时在风机效率、噪声大小及风机传动设施方面进行了比较说明。%  As a key equipment in al flue gas desulfurization engineering, the selection of oxidation air compressor shows a direct bearing on the investment and operation in project. The paper explicates the concept of the working principle and char-acteristics and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages on the areas of fan efficiency, noise and transmission facilities of the Root`s blower and centrifugal blower.

  6. 永磁无刷直流电动机在微型空压机中的应用%Application of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor in Miniature Air Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌永骧; 张华宗; 余仁田

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the traditional DC motor and induction motor,permanent magnet brushless DC(BLDC) motor has more superior performance,widely used in many fields,and has a tendency to gradually replace other motors.In this paper,the development and application of permanent magnet brushless DC motor in the miniature air compressor are analyzed.%永磁无刷直流电动机(简称BLDC)与传统的直流电机及感应电动机相比,永磁无刷直流电动机具有更多优越的性能,在许多领域得到了广泛应用,有逐步取代其它电动机的趋势.本文对永磁无刷直流电动机在微型空压机中的应用和发展情况进行分析.

  7. Rotating flux compressor for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotating flux compressor (RFC) converts rotational kinetic energy into an electrical output pulse which would have higher energy than the electrical energy initially stored in the compressor. An RFC has been designed in which wedge-shaped rotor blades pass through the air gaps between successive turns of a solenoid, the stator. Magnetic flux is generated by pulsing the stator solenoids when the inductance is a maximum, i.e., when the flux fills the stator-solenoid volume. Connecting the solenoid across a load conserves the flux which is compressed within the small volume surrounding the stator periphery when the rotor blades cut into the free space between the stator plates, creating a minimum-inductance condition. The unique features of this design are: (1) no electrical connections (brushes) to the rotor; (2) no conventional windings; and (3) no maintenance. The device has been tested up to 5000 rpm of rotor speed

  8. Engineering task plan for BX/BY compressor upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Task Plan outlines the remaining work to be completed for the BX/BY Instrument Air upgrade. Initial work efforts were guided by Engineering Work Plan, ''BX-BY Compressor Upgrade'' dated 1-25-93 (see Attachment A) which is provided for information. The overall engineering task is to provide a permanent replacement for the instrument air supply system for the 241-BX/BY Tank Farms. The existing system consists of a 25 horsepower Worthington non-lube compressor and an Oriad air dryer. The existing equipment is dated, requires high maintenance and is located in a contaminated zone making it unusable. The BX/BY instrument air replacement unit will be one of the 100 SCFM generic air stations. This station will be permanently sited with the addition of drawing changes to provide a concrete foundation, air piping to existing lines and electrical power supply tie-ins

  9. Performance in Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sato

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D unsteady thin-layer Navier-Stokes code has been used to calculate the flow through a centrifugal compressor stage. The validation of the code for steady flows in centrifugal compressors was conducted for the Krain’s impeller with a vaneless diffuser as a test case and the numerical results were compared with the experimental results. The predicted flow field and performance agreed well with the experimental data. An unsteady stage solution was then conducted with this impeller followed by a generic low-solidity vaned-diffuser to examine the unsteady effects on the impeller performance. The computational results showed a stabilising effect of the blade row interaction.

  10. Cooling system at the compressors air inlet of the gas turbines from the Tula`s combined cycle central; Sistema de enfriamiento en la succion del compresor de las turbinas de gas de la central de ciclo combinado de Tula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez F, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tula (Mexico); Romero Paredes, Hernando; Vargas, Martin; Gomez, Jose Francisco [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    It has been formerly evaluated that it is possible to enhance notably the electric power generation in gas turbine power plants by cooling the air at the compressor inlet. It has been pointed out that provided a source of waste heat is available it can be very attractive the use of absorption refrigeration systems. In this paper the technical and the economical benefits of bringing the air inlet temperature down 8 Celsius degrees of the four gas turbines of the Combined Cycle Central of Tula, in the State of Hidalgo (combined cycle central-Tula) are evaluated. The results show that it is possible to achieve an efficiency enhancement of at least 1%, and that in very warm days up to 48 additional Megawatts can be generated, or about 10% of the installed capacity. The final economic result is very encouraging and an annual economical benefit in the order of 50 million pesos can be obtained and the refrigeration units can be amortized in approximately one year. [Espanol] Se ha evaluado anteriormente que es posible mejorar notablemente la capacidad de generacion electrica en plantas que utilizan turbinas de gas, mediante el enfriamiento del aire de succion del compresor. Se ha senalado que en la medida en que se encuentre disponible una fuente termica de desecho puede ser muy atractivo el uso de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion. En el presente trabajo se evaluan los beneficios tecnicos y economicos que puede tener el llevar el aire de succion hasta una temperatura de 8 grados Celsius, de las cuatro unidades de gas de la Central de Ciclo Combinado de Tula, Hidalgo (CCC-Tula). Los resultados muestran que es posible alcanzar un aumento en la eficiencia de al menos 1% y que se pueden generar, en dias muy calurosos, hasta 48 MW extras, equivalente al 10% de la capacidad instalada. El resultado economico final es muy alentador y puede llegar a tenerse un beneficio economico del orden de los 50 millones de pesos anuales y las unidades de refrigeracion podran pagarse en

  11. Compressor leading edges

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhand, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Compressor blades often have a small 'spike' in the surface pressure distribution at the leading edge. This may result from blade erosion, manufacture defects or compromises made in the original design process. In this thesis it is shown that these spikes will increase the loss generated by a blade only when they become large enough to initiate boundary layer transition at the leading edge through a separation bubble; this process increases profile loss by about 30%. A criterion is presen...

  12. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Kurz; Matt Lubomirsky; Klaus Brun

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  13. Gas path diagnostics for compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Salamat, Reza

    2012-01-01

    The use and application of compressors cannot be overemphasized in the aeronautical and oil & gas industries. Yet research works in sufficient depth has not been conducted previously to analyze their actual behaviour under degraded or even new conditions in operation. For the purpose of degradation modeling and simulation, a compressor model was set up using thermodynamic equations and affinity laws representing the characteristics of a clean compressor. HYSYS was used for degradation mode...

  14. Light intensity compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  15. A New Type of Underground Air Compressor Artificial Refrigeration System%一种井下新型空气压缩人工制冷系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任森

    2012-01-01

    以工程热力学与传热学的理论为基础,结合并下实际情况提出一种新型人工制冷系统.该制冷系统由一套空气压缩制冷装置及换热水袋组成,袋内有蛇形布置的空气管,工质空气在管内流动,并借助其他制冷装置完成工作循环.巷道围岩上覆盖一层保温隔热材料,换热水袋安装在这层保温材料之上.该系统不仅能通过井下风流与换热水袋的对流换热降低风流温度,而且有效阻隔了围岩散热,并将高温围岩与人体间的辐射换热转变成低温的换热水袋与人体间的辐射换热,因此制冷效果更好.制冷工质空气本身廉价且无毒害.%A new type of artificial refrigeration system is proposed based on engineering thermodynamics and heat transfer theory,it combined with the actual situation of underground mine. The cooling system consists of a set of air-compression refrigeration device and many heat exchanger hydrations. There is an air pipe in the hydration in serpentine way,and air flows in the pipe,with other cooling device to complete the work cycle. Surrounding rock covered by a layer of thermal insulation materials,and the heat exchanger hydrations installed on the top of this layer of insulation material. The system not only reduces the airflow temperature through convective heat transfer between underground airflow and the heat exchanger hydrations,but also effective barrier surrounding rock heat Change radioactive heat transfer between the high-temperature surrounding rock and the human bodies into radioactive heat transfer between the low temperature heat exchanger hydrations and the human bodies. Therefore,the cooling effect is good. Refrigerant air itself is cheap and non-toxic.

  16. Comparative Study of the Driving Mode of Air Compressor Unit of ASU in an IGCC Plant%用于IGCC电站空分系统空气压缩单元驱动方式的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆延非; 史绍平; 闫姝; 陈新明; 周贤; 方芳

    2014-01-01

    在IGCC电站中,空气分离系统(空分系统)的能耗最高。如果能降低空分系统的能耗,将显著提高IGCC电站的供电效率。该文依托某IGCC示范电站,对IGCC电站独立空分系统空气压缩单元的2种驱动方式进行了分析比较,认为相比于电动机驱动方式,小型汽轮机驱动空气压缩单元的方式不仅有利于电站的启动,而且能使电站的供电效率提高0.47%,在低负荷工况下运行,提高的幅度会更加显著。为进一步提升电站经济效益,通过改造IGCC电站的余热锅炉,增加补燃装置,使其可以在空分系统启动时为小型汽轮机提供启动蒸汽,从而大大降低电站的初期投资。%ABSTRACT:The energy consumption of the air separation unit (ASU) in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant dominates the overall auxiliary power usage. Reducing the energy consumption of the ASU will greatly reduce the power consumption rate of the IGCC plant thus dramatically increasing the IGCC efficiency. Using a commercialized IGCC demonstration power plant as an example, a comprehensively comparative analysis was conducted for an isolated air separation unit. The results show that using a small steam turbine as the driving force for the air compressor unit of ASU has clear advantage over electric motor, since it is not only convenient for start-up but also more efficient in power generation. It may increase the power output efficiency by 0.47%. When operated at a lower load, the efficiency increase will be even higher. If the technology of supplementary fired heat recovery boiler is used in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to provide the necessary steam for the ASU steam turbine during start-up, the initial investment will be reduced.

  17. 空压机压力控制系统建模与动态特性研究%Research on System Modeling and Dynamic Characteristics of Air Compressor Pressure Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵前程; 戴巨川; 覃业军; 袁贤松

    2013-01-01

    The gas supply system of screw type air compressor is researched in this paper.Based on the analysis of system composition, the air compressor pressure control system is divided into the gas tank sub-system, motor sub-system and pressure control sub-system.In the gas tank sub-system,the P-V-T relationship is described using real gas equation of state (Van Derwal equation);in the motor sub-system,three phase induction motor rotor field oriented control model is employed;the pressure control sub-system is three closed-loop control structure of current feedback, velocity feedback and pressure feedback (variable frequency control).The numerical simulation analyses are carried out both under variable frequency mode and normal load/unload mode.The research results show that using the constructed variable frequency strategy,the system has good dynamic,static performance which means that the motor speed can adjust automatically to assure the gas pressure near a given value according to the variation of gas consumption.Under normal load/unload mode,the gas pressure fluctuates in the range of pmin~Pmax;in occasions with large variation of gas consumption,not only the motor start and stop frequently, but also the pressure fluctuation significantly increases.%以螺杆式空压机供气系统为研究对象,在对其系统组成分析基础上,将空压机压力控制系统划分为储气罐子系统、电机子系统、压力控制子系统.空压机储气罐子系统采用实际气体状态方程式描述储气罐中气体P-V-T关系(范德瓦尔方程式),电机子系统采用三相感应电机转子磁场定向控制模型,储气压力控制子系统为电流反馈、速度反馈和压力反馈的三闭环控制结构(电机变频控制).分别进行了电机变频控制和普通加、卸载控制模式下的数值仿真分析,结果表明对于文中构建的变频控制策略,系统具有良好的动、静态性能,能够根据用气量的变化自动调节转速

  18. 无油润滑空压机活塞连杆组件结构改进设计%Improved Design on the Piston-rod Assembly Structure of the Oil-free Lubricating Air Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿爱农; 李辛沫; 陈君立; 阮勤江

    2011-01-01

    In view of the current existing defects of the piston-rod assembly for the wobble piston oil-free lubricating air compressor, the article presents the design improvements, including the fastening means of the piston cover,assembly structure of bearing for the connect rod and so on,which eliminate the hidden dangers that the piston cover loose by using expansion bolt fastening way instead of the original way of screw thread fastening.The loose proof and anti-rotating ability of the piston cover are enhanced by using offsetting screw fastening instead of the original way of center screw fastening, and the working life of the connect rod bearing is effectively improved by using heating fastening bearing way instead of the original way of screw fastening bearing.%针对当前摇摆活塞式无油润滑空压机活塞连杆组件存在的一些缺陷提出改进设计,包括活塞盖板的紧固方式、连杆大头轴承的装配结构等,通过采用膨胀栓紧固方式替代原来的螺钉螺纹紧固方式,消除了活塞盖板的松脱隐患.采用偏置螺钉紧固替代原来的正中螺钉紧固,增强了活塞盖板的防松转能力,采用完整轴承座孔,结合加热法紧固轴承替代原来的裂槽式轴承座孔结合螺钉紧固轴承,有效地提高了连杆大头轴承的使用寿命.

  19. NASA Glenn's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility Upgraded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokopp, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility was upgraded in fiscal year 2003 to expand and improve its research capabilities for testing high-speed fans and compressors. The old 3000-hp drive motor and gearbox were removed and replaced with a refurbished 7000-hp drive motor and gearbox, with a maximum output speed of 21,240 rpm. The higher horsepower rating permits testing of fans and compressors with higher pressure ratio or higher flow. A new inline torquemeter was installed to provide an alternate measurement of fan and compressor efficiency, along with the standard pressure and temperature measurements. A refurbished compressor bearing housing was also installed with bidirectional rotation capability, so that a variety of existing hardware could be tested. Four new lubrication modules with backup capability were installed for the motor, gearbox, torquemeter, and compressor bearing housing, so that in case the primary pump fails, the backup will prevent damage to the rotating hardware. The combustion air supply line for the facility inlet air system was activated to provide dry air for repeatable inlet conditions. New flow conditioning hardware was installed in the facility inlet plenum tank, which greatly reduced the inlet turbulence. The new inlet can also be easily modified to accommodate 20- or 22-in.-diameter fans and compressors, so a variety of existing hardware from other facilities (such as Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel) can be tested in the Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility. An exhaust line was also installed to provide bleed capability to remove the inlet boundary layer. To improve the operation and control of the facility, a new programmable logic controller (PLC) was installed to upgrade from hardwired relay logic to software logic. The PLC also enabled the usage of human-machine interface software to allow for easier operation of the facility and easier reconfiguration of the facility controls when

  20. A study on the oil flow characteristics in the inverter rotary compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to secure the reliability of the oil in the inverter rotary compressor used in the system multi-air conditioners in heating and cooling modes, it is necessary to study the oil flow characteristics which affect to the compressor efficiency. In this study, sight glasses were installed at the compressor and accumulator for oil flow measurements, and various experiments were performed to measure the amount of discharged oil for different refrigerant pipe lengths. On the basis of the experimental measurements, we compared the OCR (Oil Circulation Rate) results of the system multi-air conditioner for various operating conditions. The results are graphically depicted

  1. QRFXFreeze: Queryable Compressor for RFX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Radha; Nandagopal, Gomathi; Ronald, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    The verbose nature of XML has been mulled over again and again and many compression techniques for XML data have been excogitated over the years. Some of the techniques incorporate support for querying the XML database in its compressed format while others have to be decompressed before they can be queried. XML compression in which querying is directly supported instantaneously with no compromise over time is forced to compromise over space. In this paper, we propose the compressor, QRFXFreeze, which not only reduces the space of storage but also supports efficient querying. The compressor does this without decompressing the compressed XML file. The compressor supports all kinds of XML documents along with insert, update, and delete operations. The forte of QRFXFreeze is that the textual data are semantically compressed and are indexed to reduce the querying time. Experimental results show that the proposed compressor performs much better than other well-known compressors. PMID:26065027

  2. QRFXFreeze: Queryable Compressor for RFX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The verbose nature of XML has been mulled over again and again and many compression techniques for XML data have been excogitated over the years. Some of the techniques incorporate support for querying the XML database in its compressed format while others have to be decompressed before they can be queried. XML compression in which querying is directly supported instantaneously with no compromise over time is forced to compromise over space. In this paper, we propose the compressor, QRFXFreeze, which not only reduces the space of storage but also supports efficient querying. The compressor does this without decompressing the compressed XML file. The compressor supports all kinds of XML documents along with insert, update, and delete operations. The forte of QRFXFreeze is that the textual data are semantically compressed and are indexed to reduce the querying time. Experimental results show that the proposed compressor performs much better than other well-known compressors.

  3. Practical experience with unstable compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Using analytical mathematical modeling techniques for the system components, an attempt is made to gauge the destabilizing effects in a number of compressor designs. In particular the overhung (or cantilevered) compressor designs and the straddle-mounted (or simply supported) compressor designs are examined. Recommendations are made, based on experiences with stable and unstable compressors, which can be used as guides in future designs. High and low pressure compressors which operate well above their fundamental rotor-bearing lateral natural frequencies can suffer from destructive subsynchronous vibration. Usually the elements in the system design which contribute to this vibration, other than the shafting and the bearings, are the seals (both gas labyrinth and oil breakdown bushings) and the aerodynamic components.

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE NETWORK GEOMETRY ON THE SURGECHARACTERISTICS OF A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR.

    OpenAIRE

    Toussaint, Michel; Elkamel, Chiheb

    2012-01-01

    International audience During the use of centrifugal compressor for turbocharging diesel engines, the compressor is connected to one circuit, more or less complex including capacities and lengths pipes (air filter, RAS : supercharger air cooler, bends, resonator…) These different network geometries have a very high influence on the « surge line » position (see figure 1), as well as on the surge loop (figure 2). Figure 1 Figure 2. This surge loop area (pressure ratio vs mass flow-rate fluct...

  5. Centrifugal-reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, W. H. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor is described which includes at least one pair of cylinders arranged in coaxial alignment and supported for angular displacement about a common axis of rotation normally disecting a common longitudinal axis of symmetry for the cylinders. The cylinders are characterized by ported closures located at the mutually remote ends thereof through which the cylinders are charged and discharged, and a pair of piston heads seated within the cylinders and supported for floating displacement in compressive strokes in response to unidirectional angular displacement imparted to the cylinders.

  6. Comparison and Selection of Centrifugal Compressor in Large Air Separation Plant%大型空分装置配套离心压缩机组的综合选评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱水金; 朱俊豪

    2015-01-01

    通过对多轴齿轮式多级离心式压缩机组和单轴多级离心式压缩机组的压缩机组型式、驱动机型式、外形尺寸和厂房空间需求、投资费用等方面的综合技术选评比较可知,本次4.2万系列空分项目所选用的原料空压机组和增压机组,应优先选用多轴齿轮式多级离心压缩机组。%With the comprehensive comparison of integrally geared centrifugal compressor and single shaft multistage compressor, including layout of machine set, type of driver, out contour size and space needed in workshop, and investment cost, for the feed alr tubo-compressor set and booster alr tubo-compressor set used in the large alr separation plant, it is determined that integrally geared centrifugal compressor should be selected in priority.

  7. 30 CFR 75.344 - Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressors. 75.344 Section 75.344 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.344 Compressors. (a) Except compressors that are components of equipment such as locomotives and rock dusting machines and compressors of less than...

  8. Hermetic compressor and block expansion valve in refrigeration performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Susilo, Didik Djoko; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2016-03-01

    Vehicle cabin in tropical countries requires the cooling during the day for comfort of passengers. Air conditioning machine is commonly driven by an internal combustion engine having a great power, which the conventional compressor is connected to crank shaft. The stage of research done is driving the hermetic compressor with an electric motor, and using block expansion valve. The HFC-134a was used as refrigerant working. The primary parameters observed during the experiment are pressure, temperature, and power consumption for different cooling capacities. The results show that the highest coefficient of performance (COP) and the electric power of system are 6.3 and 638 Watt, respectively.

  9. Centrifugal Compressor Aeroelastic Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Centrifugal compressors are very widely used in the turbomachine industry where low mass flow rates are required. Gas turbine engines for tanks, rotorcraft and small jets rely extensively on centrifugal compressors for rugged and compact design. These compressors experience problems related with unsteadiness of flowfields, such as stall flutter, separation at the trailing edge over diffuser guide vanes, tip vortex unsteadiness, etc., leading to rotating stall and surge. Considerable interest exists in small gas turbine engine manufacturers to understand and eventually eliminate the problems related to centrifugal compressors. The geometric complexity of centrifugal compressor blades and the twisting of the blade passages makes the linear methods inapplicable. Advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are needed for accurate unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of centrifugal compressors. Most of the current day industrial turbomachines and small aircraft engines are designed with a centrifugal compressor. With such a large customer base and NASA Glenn Research Center being, the lead center for turbomachines, it is important that adequate emphasis be placed on this area as well. Currently, this activity is not supported under any project at NASA Glenn.

  10. Development of a miniature Twin Rotary Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong-Bae; Lee, Ui-Yoon; Chung, Jin-Ah; Lee, Un-Seop

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the miniature compressor, which is designed for various applications. Twin rotary compressor structure was adopted to reduced in size and minimize vibration. The weight of the miniature rotary compressor is about 20% that of the reciprocating compressor which has equivalent cooling capacity. To minimize the noise and vibration, the muffler and the cylinder are optimized and torque control algorithm is used for the compressor controller. For a variety of applic...

  11. Theoretical Analysis of Revolving Vane Compressor Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Aw, Kuan Thai; Ooi, Kim Tiow

    2014-01-01

    The revolving vane (RV) compressor is a relatively new rotary compressor design and many of its performance characteristics would have to be evaluated. Vibration of compressors is one of these aspects and this paper presents the theoretical analysis for the vibration characteristics of the RV compressor. The analysis is done by dividing the compressor into two components – the rotational vibration of the cylinder-rotor assembly, and the resulting torsional twist of the stationary shell housin...

  12. Empirical Design Considerations for Industrial Centrifugal Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Xu; Amano, Ryoichi S.

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in centrifugal compressor design. CFD provides further optimisation opportunities for the compressor design rather than designing the centrifugal compressor. The experience-based design process still plays an important role for new compressor developments. The wide variety of design subjects represents a very complex design world for centrifugal compressor designers. Therefore, some basic information for centrifugal design is still ...

  13. Characterization of Multiflux Axial Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the results of analytical models of performance are compared with experimental data acquired in the multi flux axial compressor test facility, built in The Pilcaniyeu Technological Complex for the SIGMA project.We describe the experimental circuit and the data of the dispersion inside the axial compressor obtained using a tracer gas through one of the annular inlets.The attained results can be used to validate the design code for the multi flux axial compressors and SIGMA industrial plant

  14. Journal bearings design for a novel revolving vane compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.M.; Ooi, K.T. [Thermal and Fluids Division, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents the theoretical details of the journal bearing design for Revolving Vane (RV) rotary type compressor. The mathematical models, force analysis, and the theoretical design analysis for the dynamically loaded journal bearing of the compressor are presented. The variations of the minimum oil film thickness and the maximum film pressure developed are shown and the influences of design parameters, compressor configurations, and operating conditions on the journal bearing performance are described. For an air-conditioning compressor of 1.5 kW cooling capacity, the lowest minimum oil film thickness for lower and upper journal bearings is 6.6 {mu}m and 4.3 {mu}m respectively, when the cylinder is simply supported and the rotor is cantilever-supported. The lowest minimum oil film thickness for the journal bearing, which supports the cylinder, reduces to 4.0 {mu}m if the cantilever-type support is used. Besides that, a short-fat configuration of RV compressor is favorable in the interest of lowering bearing forces. (author)

  15. A Blast of Cool Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  16. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  17. Free piston inertia compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D. C.; Bilodeau, Denis; Marusak, Thomas; Dutram, Jr., Leonard; Brady, Joseph

    1981-01-01

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to excape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  18. Free piston inertia compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W.D.C.; Bilodeau, D.; Marusak, T.; Dutram, L. Jr.; Brady, J.

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to escape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  19. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  20. Semi-active compressor valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Klaus; Gernentz, Ryan S.

    2010-07-27

    A method and system for fine-tuning the motion of suction or discharge valves associated with cylinders of a reciprocating gas compressor, such as the large compressors used for natural gas transmission. The valve's primary driving force is conventional, but the valve also uses an electromagnetic coil to sense position of the plate (or other plugging element) and to provide an opposing force prior to impact.

  1. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  2. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  3. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  4. Method of Matching Performance of Compressor Systems with that of Aircraft Power Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Robert O.; Keetch, Robert C.; Moses, Jason J.

    1945-01-01

    A method is developed of easily determining the performance of a compressor system relative to that of the power section for a given altitude. Because compressors, reciprocating engines, and turbines are essentially flow devices, the performance of each of these power-plant components is presented in terms of similar dimensionless ratios. The pressure and temperature changes resulting from restrictions of the charge-air flow and from heat transfer in the ducts connecting the components of the power plant are also expressed by the same dimensionless ratios and the losses are included in the performance of the compressor. The performance of a mechanically driven, single-stage compressor in relation to the performance of a conventional air-cooled engine operating at sea-level conditions is presented as an example of the application of the method.

  5. Research on the performance of water-injection twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the development of the automotive fuel cell systems, the study on water-injection twin screw compressor has been aroused again. Twin screw compressors with water injection can be used to supply the clean compressed air for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. In this research, a thermodynamic model of the working process of water-injection twin screw compressor was established based on the equations of conservation of mass and energy. The effects of internal leakage and air-water heat transfer were taken into account simultaneously in the present mathematical model. The experiments of the performance of a prototype compressor operating under various conditions were conducted to verify the model. The results show that the predictions of the model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  6. A Semi-Empirical Prediction Model for the Discharge Line Temperature of Hermetic Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Myszka, David; Guan, Chen; Murray, Andrew; Hodapp, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the discharge line temperature (DLT) of air conditioning and refrigeration compressors is important to ensure sufficient lubricant properties and proper performance of components that are positioned in the exhaust stream. Understanding the DLT is also necessary for the design of waste heat recovery systems, which are of increasing interest. However, compressor performance information published by manufacturers does not typically include DLT values. Assumptions made in established t...

  7. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stages with seals and technological holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syka Tomáš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of an air flow in radial compressor stages in the NUMECA CFD software. Four different radial compressor stages were solved in this article. During the tasks evaluating the stepped and straight impeller seals and technological holes influence on working characteristics and the flow field was observed. Also the CFD results comparison with results from the empiric design tool is described.

  8. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Bloomfield; Brian S. MacKenzie

    2006-05-01

    The Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor EHC was evaluated against DOE applications for compressing hydrogen at automobile filling stations, in future hydrogen pipelines and as a commercial replacement for conventional diaphragm hydrogen compressors. It was also evaluated as a modular replacement for the compressors used in petrochemical refineries. If the EHC can be made inexpensive, reliable and long lived then it can satisfy all these applications save pipelines where the requirements for platinum catalyst exceeds the annual world production. The research performed did not completely investigate Molybdenum as a hydrogen anode or cathode, it did show that photoetched 316 stainless steel is inadequate for an EHC. It also showed that: molybdenum bipolar plates, photochemical etching processes, and Gortex Teflon seals are too costly for a commercial EHC. The use of carbon paper in combination with a perforated thin metal electrode demonstrated adequate anode support strength, but is suspect in promoting galvanic corrosion. The nature of the corrosion mechanisms are not well understood, but locally high potentials within the unit cell package are probably involved. The program produced a design with an extraordinary high cell pitch, and a very low part count. This is one of the promising aspects of the redesigned EHC. The development and successful demonstration of the hydraulic cathode is also important. The problem of corrosion resistant metal bipolar plates is vital to the development of an inexpensive, commercial PEM fuel cell. Our research suggests that there is more to the corrosion process in fuel cells and electrochemical compressors than simple, steady state, galvanic stability. It is an important area for scientific investigation. The experiments and analysis conducted lead to several recommended future research directions. First, we need a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of experimental cells with titration to

  9. Research on characteristics of air flow in corrugated tube for reciprocating compressor%往复式压缩机进气软管内气体流动特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏奇; 万小刚; 吴晴

    2011-01-01

    This paper gave the CFD simulation of the flowing in corrugated tube for reciprocating compressor. Simulation result shows that reverse flow exists along the flowing area and getting worse along with the increase of the tubes length or the flowing speed, which greatly influences the gas - intake of compressor.%采用CFD方法来对压缩机进气波纹软管内氦气流动问题进行数值模拟研究.结果表明:波纹软管内气体流动存在明显的回流区,并随着流速和管长的增加而愈加明显,对压缩机的进气量影响较大.

  10. Structure Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor Wheel Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Mohammad Rafi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When people talk about race cars or high-performance sports cars, the topic of turbochargers usually comes up. Turbochargers also appear on large diesel engines. A turbo can significantly boost an engine's horsepower without significantly increasing its weight, which is the huge benefit that makes turbos so popular. Turbochargers are a type of forced induction system. They compress the air flowing into the engine. The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be added. Therefore, you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. Here in this project we are designing the compressor wheel by using Pro-E and doing analysis by using FEA package. The main aim of the project is to increase the performance of the compressor wheel for this we are changing the material and also we are changing the existing design. By comparing the results we will get the best model from this data we suggests the design modifications to the company to improve the performance of the compressor wheel.

  11. 往复压缩机气流脉动和机械振动的工程控制%Engineering Control for Air Flow Pulsation and Mechanical Vibration in Reciprocating Compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保江

    2012-01-01

    This paper has mainly specified the reasons of causing reciprocating compressors pipeline vibration, the interactional factors and the methods of design, calculation and control in engineering.%叙述了往复压缩机管道振动引起的原因和相互影响的因素,以及工程上设计计算和控制的方法.

  12. Empirical Design Considerations for Industrial Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has been extensively used in centrifugal compressor design. CFD provides further optimisation opportunities for the compressor design rather than designing the centrifugal compressor. The experience-based design process still plays an important role for new compressor developments. The wide variety of design subjects represents a very complex design world for centrifugal compressor designers. Therefore, some basic information for centrifugal design is still very important. The impeller is the key part of the centrifugal stage. Designing a highly efficiency impeller with a wide operation range can ensure overall stage design success. This paper provides some empirical information for designing industrial centrifugal compressors with a focus on the impeller. A ported shroud compressor basic design guideline is also discussed for improving the compressor range.

  13. Air filtration technologies for gas turbines. Example of the measurement regarding the effect of HEPA filter to improve performance of gas turbine with radial flow compressor; Enshinshiki asshukuki wo motsu gas turbine no koseino kyuki filter no koka sokutei jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, C.; Fujita, J. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    An example of improvement of a radial compressor for higher performance is introduced. A two-stage system consisting of a coarse dust removing filter and a high efficiency filter is adopted to elongate the life of filter. A filter having large dust holding capacity and high dust removal efficiency is selected, and a filter with little initial pressure drop and large allowable pressure drop is selected. The performance is so improved that a two-stage system can provide the performance of a three-stage system. The decrease of the power output due to the fouling of the compressor is reduced by about 3% as compared with the case of using conventional filters without cleaning the compressor. In addition, the system has high efficiencies such as decrease in the frequency of filter changing and increase of steam generation. The merit of the high efficiency filter introduction is calculated to be equivalent to ten million yen-year, and the filter contributes greatly to the improvement of economical efficiency and the reliability of cogeneration facilities. Moreover, it is considered to curtail the maintenance cost. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Designing compressor installations for reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, S.D.; Howes, B.C.; Robinson, A.; Eckert, W.

    2000-07-01

    The best approach to the design of a new centrifugal or reciprocating compressor that will ensure reliability, performance and maintenance of the equipment involves the use of analytical tools. One must understand the sources of the potential problems and consequences along with the availability of design services. At that point risk assessment can be performed. The objective is to keep pulsations, vibration levels and dynamic stresses low, so as to minimally impact on the performance and reliability and maintain control over costs. The consideration of forcing functions, natural frequencies, mode shapes and dynamic stiffness is essential, as they apply to rotor dynamics, torsional vibration, piping vibration, skid and foundation vibration. It also applies to the interaction of the piping geometry with pressure pulsations which can produce significant forces and stresses for both reciprocating and centrifugal compressors and lead to a decrease in performance. The authors described the considerations that help determine which analytical tool is best to develop a computer model that can be used to avoid problems. Three cases were introduced to better illustrate the advantages of adequate design modeling and optimization. Each case deals with a different problem: (1) a lateral critical and a structural resonance in a centrifugal compressor installation, (2) a piping failure in a reciprocating compressor installation, and (3) a torsional failure in a reciprocating compressor installation. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  16. Positive Displacement Compressor Technology for Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    Trends of compressor technologies for refrigerators, freezers and condensing units are presented in this paper. HFC refrigerants such as R134a and R404C are promising candidates as an altemative for R12. Performance of reciprocating and rotary compressors in the operation with R134A is described. In addition, compressor technologies such as efficiency improvement are described in the cases of reciprocating, rotary and scroll compressors.

  17. New coatings extend compressor service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R. [Novacor Chemicals, Red Deer, Alberta (Canada); McMordie, B. [Sermatech International, Inc., Limerick, PA (United States); Wiegand, R. [Elliot Company, Jennetta, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    To lengthen production runs, a Canadian ethylene operator experimented with a coating system to protect a critical compressor`s rotor from hydrocarbon-polymerization/fouling. In ethylene manufacturing, compressor fouling is an accepted ``fact of life.`` Past attempts to minimize fouling in the crack-gas compression train were unsuccessful or marginally cost-effective. Applying protective coatings to a critical-service ethylene compressor rotor slowed oiling, thus lengthening the production run time by one year.

  18. Meridional Considerations of the Centrifugal Compressor Development

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, C.; Amano, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor developments are interested in using optimization procedures that enable compressor high efficiency and wide operating ranges. Recently, high pressure ratio and efficiency of the centrifugal compressors require impeller design to pay attention to both the blade angle distribution and the meridional profile. The geometry of the blades and the meridional profile are very important contributions of compressor performance and structure reliability. This paper presents some ...

  19. Investigation Of Compressor Heat Dispersion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Da; Tao, Hong; Yang, Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents a method for calculate the heat dissipation capacity and discharge temperature for rotary compressors. The proposed heat dissipation model is used for calculating heat dissipating capacity of compressor in forced-convection/natural-convection and radiation heat transfer mode. The comparison between calculated result and experimental result for both constant speed compressors and variable speed compressors shows that the average heat dissipating capacity error is below 20...

  20. An analytical approach to predicting particle deposit by fouling in the axial compressor of the industrial gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T.W.; Sohn, J.L.; Kim, T.S.; Kim, J.H.; Ro, S.T.

    2005-03-15

    The gas turbine performance deteriorates with increased operating hours. Fouling in the axial compressor is an important factor for the performance degradation of gas turbines. Airborne particles entering the compressor with the air adhere to the blade surface and result in the change of the blade shape, which directly influences the compressor performance. It is difficult to exactly understand the mechanism of compressor fouling because of its slow growth and different length scales of compressor blades. In this study, an analytical method to predict the particle motion in the axial compressor and the characteristics of particle deposition onto blade is proposed as an approach to investigating physical phenomena of fouling in the axial compressor of industrial gas turbines. Calculated results using the proposed method and comparison with measured data demonstrate the feasibility of the model. It was also found that design parameters of the axial compressor such as chord length, solidity, and number of stages are closely related to the fouling phenomena. Likewise, the particle size and patterns of particle distributions are also important factors related to fouling phenomena in the axial compressor. (Author)

  1. Small Radial Compressors: Aerodynamic Design and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. R. Ismail; Rosolen, C. V. A. G.; Benevenuto, F. J.; Lucato, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a computational procedure for the analysis of steady one-dimensional centrifugal compressor. The numerical model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and has been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of compressor blades, both straight and curved.

  2. Small Radial Compressors: Aerodynamic Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. R. Ismail

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational procedure for the analysis of steady one-dimensional centrifugal compressor. The numerical model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and has been utilized to predict the operational and aerodynamic characteristics of a small centrifugal compressor as well as determining the performance and geometry of compressor blades, both straight and curved.

  3. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  4. Frequency regulated compact screw compressors. The new solution; Drehzahlgeregelte Kompakt-Schraubenverdichter. Die neue Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, Heinz [BITZER Kuehlmaschinenbau GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compact screw compressors have been used for many years in liquid chilling packages for comfort air conditioners, process cooling or heat pumps with mechanical power control. Standard frequency inverters offer the possibility to adjust the performance of a conventional screw compressor, piston compressor or scroll compressor in a small range of frequency. Furthermore, frequency inverters contain a number of additional functions. This combination of existing frequency inverters and compressors - as actually offered in many cases - allows only a limited improvement of the part-load performance in the system. Due to the high cost for the frequency inverters, this combination becomes economically questionable. An integrated package of newly developed compact screw compressors and a specially developed liquid-cooled frequency inverter is required in order to come to a new level of system efficiency at part load. In addition to the increased control range of the compressor, new possibilities can be opened up in terms of application and communication. The monitoring of various values such as the compliance with the application limits for pressure and temperature and especially the early warning against exceedance facilitates a more simply implementation of a secure machine because the setting of the relevant protection functions of the integrated type-specific components already is made in the factory.

  5. Aerodynamic Losses in an Aero Engine Centrifugal Compressor with a Close-Coupled Pipe-Diffuser and a Radial-Axial Deswirler

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkosz, Benjamin Eduard

    2015-01-01

    In the work presented here, a detailed aerodynamic analysis of an aero engine centrifugal compressor is given. Steady and unsteady 3D-RANS simulations, as well as extensive experimental data have been used for the analysis. The compressor investigated contains a close-coupled pipe-diffuser. A radial-axial deswirler guides the air into the combustion chamber.The investigation presented gives a detailed insight in the loss mechanisms as well as their origin within the centrifugal compressor. In...

  6. Modulation method of scroll compressor based on suction gas bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air conditioners and heat pumps tend to work in much mild environments and part load situations rather than provide the rated full capacity under severe rated testing conditions. Both the capacity and inner compression ratio of the compressor should be regulated according to the working condition for higher energy efficiency and occupants’ comfort. A potential modulating technology of the scroll compressor, suction gas bypass, is investigated in this paper. The principle and operation method are illuminated and the adaptability is validated by experiments and simulations. As a conclusion, an appropriate suction gas bypass can reduce the inner compression loss of the scroll compressor under over compression conditions, enhance the system COP and also largely decrease the heating/cooling capacity of the refrigeration/heat pump system. - Highlights: ► Suction gas bypass (SGB) is an effective regulating method of scroll compressor. ► SGB reduces the inner compression loss under over compression conditions. ► SGB largely decreases the heating/cooling capacity of the refrigeration system.

  7. Study of torque matching of revolving vane compressor and expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiantoro, A.; Ooi, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to find the most optimum configuration, particularly the torque matching characteristics, of an integrated Revolving Vane compressor- expander. To carry out the study, a mathematical model of the integrated compressor-expander was developed. An open cycle air refrigeration system was adopted. The controlled parameter was the angle shift between the compressor and the expander. The observed parameters were the peak torque requirement and the bearing load. The results show that when properly matched, the peak torque can be reduced by more than 65% while the bearing loads can be reduced by up to 25%, depending on operating conditions. Unfortunately, the optimum angle shifts for peak torque do not always coincide with those for bearing load. When the pressure and inertial components of the torques are comparable or when the inertial component is dominant, the optimum angle shifts for peak torque and bearing load are around 180° and 330°, respectively. When the pressure component is dominant, the optimum angle shift for peak torque is equal to the angle difference between the pressure peak torques of the compressor and the expander while for bearing load is around 150°.

  8. New technology of subsea and offshore compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Subsea compressor is a hot topic. Subsea compressor offers tremendous potentials, but also some obstacles. Active magnetic bearings installed inside the process gas allow the elimination of lubrication and seal systems. High-speed permanent- magnet motor directly drives centrifugal compressor to meet optimum speed, eliminating gear box. This design offers inherent machinery health monitoring features and very compact and reliable train. New technology of hermitically sealed direct drive centrifugal compressor for offshore and subsea applications are discussed and case studies for horizontal and vertical compressor train arrangements are presented. (orig.)

  9. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternative: R-32/134a Mixture Using a Scroll Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of lower-GWP alternative refrigerant R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-410A and having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that the discharge temperature of the alternative refrigerant was higher than that of R-410A at all test conditions. Also, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of compressor using the alternative refrigerant were slightly lower in comparison to that of R-410A.

  10. Performance test of 100 W linear compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present test results of developed 100 W class linear compressor for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. The fabricated linear compressor has dual-opposed configuration, free piston and moving magnet type linear motor. Power transfer, efficiency and required pressure waveform are predicted with designed and measured specifications. In experiments, room temperature test with flow impedance is conducted to evaluate performance of developed linear compressor. Flow impedance is loaded to compressor with metering valve for flow resistance, inertance tube for flow inertance and buffer volumes for flow compliance. Several operating parameters such as input voltage, current, piston displacement and pressure wave are measured for various operating frequency and fixed input current level. Behaviors of dynamics and performance of linear compressor as varying flow impedance are discussed with measured experimental results. The developed linear compressor shows 124 W of input power, 86 % of motor efficiency and 60 % of compressor efficiency at its resonant operating condition.

  11. Performance test of 100 W linear compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J; Ko, D. Y.; Park, S. J.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H. K. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we present test results of developed 100 W class linear compressor for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. The fabricated linear compressor has dual-opposed configuration, free piston and moving magnet type linear motor. Power transfer, efficiency and required pressure waveform are predicted with designed and measured specifications. In experiments, room temperature test with flow impedance is conducted to evaluate performance of developed linear compressor. Flow impedance is loaded to compressor with metering valve for flow resistance, inertance tube for flow inertance and buffer volumes for flow compliance. Several operating parameters such as input voltage, current, piston displacement and pressure wave are measured for various operating frequency and fixed input current level. Behaviors of dynamics and performance of linear compressor as varying flow impedance are discussed with measured experimental results. The developed linear compressor shows 124 W of input power, 86 % of motor efficiency and 60 % of compressor efficiency at its resonant operating condition.

  12. Meridional Considerations of the Centrifugal Compressor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressor developments are interested in using optimization procedures that enable compressor high efficiency and wide operating ranges. Recently, high pressure ratio and efficiency of the centrifugal compressors require impeller design to pay attention to both the blade angle distribution and the meridional profile. The geometry of the blades and the meridional profile are very important contributions of compressor performance and structure reliability. This paper presents some recent studies of meridional impacts of the compressor. Studies indicated that the meridional profiles of the impeller impact the overall compressor efficiency and pressure ratio at the same rotational speed. Proper meridional profiles can improve the compressor efficiency and increase the overall pressure ratio at the same blade back curvature.

  13. Plasma Spraying Reclaims Compressor Housings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-spraying process used to build up material in worn and pitted areas. Newly applied material remachined to specified surface contours. Effective technique for addition of metal to out-of-tolerance magnesium-alloy turbine-engine compressor housings.

  14. Technical aspects of a large size industrial process turbo compressor revamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świder, Piotr; Kozanecki, Zbigniew, Jr.; Graczykowski, Marek; Kryłłowicz, Władysław

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes several modernization aspects of the process 8 MW air compressor and its driver. The main aim of the revamp was to increase internal efficiencies of both the compressor and turbine and increase the load of the compressor without additional power consumption. The original pressure ratio was preserved. To meet these requirements a redesign of the flow path of both machineswas necessary.Moreover, the turbineworking conditions were changed from extraction-condensing to condensing. In terms of compressor, impeller blade redesign, adaptation of diffusers and Abradable seals were a part of the scope. The revamp was completed in April 2014 with all the requirements met. This paper covers the general outline and a comparison of the original and modernized machine operating parameters, design and technical assumptions and also describes some problematic issues which occurred during the realization of the project.

  15. Finite element model based fault prognosis on key components of the reciprocating compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenqing; Zhang, Laibin [Research Center of Oil and Gas Safety, Engineering Technology, China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing 102249 (China); Liang, Wei; Li, Shuguo [Research Center of Oil and Gas Safety Engineering Technology, China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2010-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, the reciprocating compressor is an important piece of equipment. Its safety and reliability need therefore to be closely monitored through study of its vibration, unfortunately its complex structure makes this difficult and experimental solutions are both costly and time consuming. The aim of this paper is to present a finite element analysis (FEA) to predict and locate breakage on various elements of the reciprocating compressor. A 3D model of the reciprocating compressor was built with SolidWorks and the ANSYS FE model was created; analyses were performed on crankshaft, connecting-rod, crosshead and air valve. Results revealed weaknesses on each component and means of strengthening the sites vulnerable to failure can thus be applied. These results are consistent with the problems noticed during normal operations. This study proved that the FEA is an effective and non-destructive method to diagnose faults in a reciprocating compressor.

  16. Electrical Driven Means for Reciprocating Piston Compressor(Ⅰ)%往复活塞压缩机的电力驱动之一斑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高其烈

    2013-01-01

    This paper has specified the issues in electrical driven for air compressors with large and medium power in reciprocating piston compressors.%扼要论及往复活塞压缩机中的大功率者,及中等功率空压机的电力驱动若干问题.

  17. Performance Improvement of Axial Compressors and Fans with Plasma Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lemire

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of plasma actuator to suppress boundary layer separation on a compressor blade suction side to increase axial compressor performance. Plasma actuators are a new type of electrical flow control device that imparts momentum to the air when submitted to a high AC voltage at high frequency. The concept presented in this paper consists in the positioning of a plasma actuator near the separation point on a compressor rotor suction side to increase flow turning. In this computational study, three parameters have been studied to evaluate the effectiveness of plasma actuator: actuator strength, position and actuation method (steady versus unsteady. Results show that plasma actuator operated in steady mode can increase the pressure ratio, efficiency, and power imparted by the rotor to the air and that the pressure ratio, efficiency and rotor power increase almost linearly with actuator strength. On the other hand, the actuator's position has limited effect on the performance increase. Finally, the results from unsteady simulations show a limited performance increase but are not fully conclusive, due possibly to the chosen pulsing frequencies of the actuator and/or to limitations of the CFD code.

  18. Avoiding compressor surge during emergency shutdown hybridturbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paolo [University of Genova, Italy; Tucker, David [U.S. DOE; Traverso, Alberto [University of Genova, Italy

    2013-01-01

    A new emergency shutdown procedure for a direct-fired fuel cell turbine hybrid power system was evaluated using a hardware-based simulation of an integrated gasifier/fuel cell/turbine hybrid cycle (IGFC), implemented through the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (NETL). The Hyper facility is designed to explore dynamic operation of hybrid systems and quantitatively characterize such transient behavior. It is possible to model, test, and evaluate the effects of different parameters on the design and operation of a gasifier/fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system and provide a means of quantifying risk mitigation strategies. An open-loop system analysis regarding the dynamic effect of bleed air, cold air bypass, and load bank is presented in order to evaluate the combination of these three main actuators during emergency shutdown. In the previous Hybrid control system architecture, catastrophic compressor failures were observed when the fuel and load bank were cut off during emergency shutdown strategy. Improvements were achieved using a nonlinear fuel valve ramp down when the load bank was not operating. Experiments in load bank operation show compressor surge and stall after emergency shutdown activation. The difficulties in finding an optimal compressor and cathode mass flow for mitigation of surge and stall using these actuators are illustrated.

  19. Experimental and theoretical investigation of timing jitter inside a stretcher-compressor setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, Sandro; Ahmad, Izhar; Wandt, Christoph; Skrobol, Christoph; Trushin, Sergei A; Major, Zsuzsanna; Krausz, Ferenc; Karsch, Stefan

    2012-02-13

    In an optically synchronized short-pulse optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system, we observe a few-100 fs-scale timing jitter. With an active timing stabilization system slow fluctuations are removed and the timing jitter can be reduced to 100 fs standard deviation (Std). As the main source for the timing fluctuations we could identify air turbulence in the stretcher-compressor setup inside the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) pump chain. This observation is supported by theoretical investigation of group delay changes for angular deviations occurring between the parallel gratings of a compressor or stretcher, as they can be introduced by air turbulence. PMID:22418103

  20. Aerosolization of tobramycin (TOBI) with the PARI LC PLUS reusable nebulizer : which compressor to use? Comparison of the CR60 to the PortaNeb compressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Elsbeth M; Boer, Anne H De; Touw, Daan J; Brun, Paul P H Le; Roldaan, Albert C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Heijerman, Harry G M

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol output, aerosol output rate, and aerosol size distribution are influenced by the compressed air flow rate through the nebulizer cup. Testing a nebulizer-compressor with a drug for inhalation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is mandatory prior to starting therapy. Tobramycin solution for inha

  1. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

  2. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhovcak Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

  3. QRFXFreeze: Queryable Compressor for RFX

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The verbose nature of XML has been mulled over again and again and many compression techniques for XML data have been excogitated over the years. Some of the techniques incorporate support for querying the XML database in its compressed format while others have to be decompressed before they can be queried. XML compression in which querying is directly supported instantaneously with no compromise over time is forced to compromise over space. In this paper, we propose the compressor, QRFXFreez...

  4. Diffusion models for Knudsen compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kazuo; Degond, Pierre; Takata, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    A rarefied gas in a long straight pipe with a periodic structure consisting of alternately arranged narrow and wide pipes and with periodic temperature distribution, which is known as the Knudsen compressor (or pump), is considered. Under the assumption that the pipe is much thinner than the period, a diffusion model that describes the pressure distribution and mass flux of the gas in each pipe element is derived, together with the connection conditions at the junctions of the narrow and wide...

  5. Subsea Wet Gas Compressor Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Aguilera, Luber Carlui

    2013-01-01

    In this Thesis the Aspen HYSYS dynamic functionalities were explored in order to build a dynamic Wet Gas Compressor model. In particular the Automation feature was used to implement two different correction methods, interpolation and Wood?s correction, that accounts for wet gas impact on compression performance, in dynamic-state. This was done through the creation of a VBA script in Microsoft Excel. The implementation of the correction methods showed to be fast and effective.The HYSYS dynamic...

  6. Update on Scroll Compressor Chamber Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Ian; Groll, Eckhard; Braun, James; King, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The geometry of the scroll compressor determines the efficiency of the scroll compressor and controls all elements of its operation. It is therefore critical to be able to accurately model the volumes of the compressor over the course of a revolution. This paper proposes a novel quasi-analytic formulation of the suction, compression and discharge chambers based on a change of variables from involute angle to polar integration angle. This solution has been compared against a reference polyg...

  7. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  8. Linear Motor Free Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, David P.

    1995-02-01

    A Linear Motor Free Piston Compressor (LMFPC), a free piston pressure recovery system for fuel cell powerplants was developed. The LMFPC consists of a reciprocating compressor and a reciprocating expander which are separated by a piston. In the past energy efficient turbochargers have been used for pressure large (over 50 kW) fuel cell powerplants by recovering pressure energy from the powerplant exhaust. A free piston compressor allows pressurizing 3 - 5 kW sized fuel cell powerplants. The motivation for pressurizing PEM fuel cell powerplants is to improve fuel cell performance. Pressurization of direct methanol fuel cells will be required if PEM membranes are to be used Direct methanol oxidation anode catalysts require high temperatures to operate at reasonable power densities. The elevated temperatures above 80 C will cause high water loss from conventional PEM membranes unless pressurization is employed. Because pressurization is an energy intensive process, recovery of the pressure energy is required to permit high efficiency in fuel cell powerplants. A complete LMFPC which can pressurize a 3 kW fuel cell stack was built. This unit is one of several that were constructed during the course of the program.

  9. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  10. Comparative assessment of energy efficiencies of compressors in environmental engineering; Vergleich der Energie-Effizienz von Kompressoren in der Umwelttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammeyer, Ingo [Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Aerzen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    In communal sewage plants with blow-in depths of 8 mWS at most, rotary piston blowers and screw compressors have proved to be more efficient for compressed air generation. Turbocompressors have a narrower control range and thus may require too much energy in part-load operation; they are therefore often retrofitted with rotary piston blowers or screw compressors. The contribution outlines the advantages of all three types of compressors and presents an exemplary calculation to show how much money can be saved by careful consideration prior to deciding on a system to buy. (orig.)

  11. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been...

  12. Development of Scroll Compressor for 16HP VRF System

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaoka, Fumikazu; Myogahara, Masashi; Kato, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Usage of multiple compressors is applied for general VRF system at more than 12HP capacity because it is difficult to keep capacity and performance by usage of one compressor for such large capacity system. But usage of multiple compressors has problem controlling cost and keeping oil level in each compressor. In this paper, new scroll compressor which can reduce oil circulation in refrigerant circuit, keep oil level in the compressor, keep high capacity and performance and operate in a wide ...

  13. Twenty Years of Compressor Innovation at NTU, Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Kim Tiow

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, innovations in refrigeration compressors and their mechanisms which were conceptualised (and some of these were commercialised) at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore over the past twenty years are discussed and presented. These innovations include piezo compressor [1-3], sliding cam compressor [4], rotaprocating compressor [5], revolving vane compressor and its variants [6-14], revolving vane expander [15] and cross-vane mechanism for expander-compressor unit [16]. T...

  14. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  15. Experimental investigation of hinged and spring loaded rolling piston compressors pertaining to a turbo rotary engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinged rolling piston compressor of a new thermodynamic cycle Pars engine promises high performance figures such as single stage high compression levels and higher volume flow discharge with competitively low input power and torque. The pumping characteristic of the present engine compressor unit has been increased by the implementation of a spring less vane configuration. The reciprocating vane which is usually operated by spring compression in air conditioning and refrigeration unit has been replaced by a hinge vane mechanism. At high speeds, the conventional spring loaded vane which is forced against the eccentrically moving rotor periphery does disconnect and starts rocking. With the new configuration, this mishap has been eliminated and subsequently resulting compressor pressure leaks have been avoided. Compressor experiments have been carried out at predetermined rotor speeds and compressed volume flow amounts and required shaft powers have been measured and derived accordingly. Experimentally determined pressure-volume relations have been compared with isentropic, isothermal, isochoric compressions as well as isobaric process. It is seen that at lower speeds, hinged vane compression is half way between isentropic and isochoric compressions whereas at high speed the compression process approaches further isochoric compression behavior. The isentropic compression efficiency of the hinged vane compressor is around 85% for pressures reaching 9 atm. - Research highlights: → Volume flow rate of rotary vane compressor unit has been increased by a hinged vane mechanism. → Hinged compressor pressure output is almost twice the performance of a spring loaded compressor. → The slipping and rocking of the spring loaded vane against the rolling piston have been eliminated.

  16. Experimental Investigations of Micro Air Injection to Control Rotating Stall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoqun Nie; Zhiting Tong; Shaojuan Geng; Junqiang Zhu; Weiguang Huang

    2007-01-01

    Steady discrete micro air injection at the tip region in front of the first compressor rotor has been proved to be an effective method to delay the inception of rotating stall in a low speed axial compressor. Considering the practical application a new type of micro injector was designed and described in this paper, which was imbedded in the casing and could be moved along the chord. In order to verify its feasibility to other cases, such as high subsonic axial compressor or centrifugal compressor, some other cases have been studied. Experimental results of the same low speed axial compressor showed that the new injector could possess many other advantages besides successfully stabilizing the compressor. Experiments performed on a high subsonic axial compressor confirmed the effectiveness of micro air injection when the relative velocity at the blade tip is high subsonic. Meanwhile in order to explore its feasibility in centrifugal compressor, a similar micro injector was designed and tested on a low speed centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser. The injected mass flow was a bit larger than that used in axial compressors and the results showed micro injection could also delay the onset of rotating stall in the centrifugal compressor.

  17. Thermal analysis of car air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzebiński, Daniel; Szczygieł, Ireneusz

    2010-10-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of car air cooler is presented in this paper. Typical refrigerator cycles are studied. The first: with uncontrolled orifice and non controlled compressor and the second one with the thermostatic controlled expansion valve and externally controlled compressor. The influence of the refrigerant decrease and the change of the air temperature which gets to exchangers on the refrigeration efficiency of the system; was analysed. Also, its effectiveness and the power required to drive the compressor were investigated. The impact of improper refrigerant charge on the performance of air conditioning systems was also checked.

  18. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  19. Compressor Flow Control Concepts. 2; UEET Compressor Flow Control Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2001-01-01

    Several passive flow control devices have been modeled computationally in the Swift CFD code. The models were applied to the first stage rotor and stator of the baseline UEET compressor in an attempt to improve efficiency and/or stall margin. The devices included suction surface bleed, tip injection, self-aspirated rotors, area-ruled casing, and vortex generators. The models and computed results will be described in the presentation. None of the results have shown significant gains in efficiency; however, casing vortex generators have shown potential improvements in stall margin.

  20. Vibration analysis of compressor piping system with fluid pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A piping system connected to a rotary compressor is an essential component for refrigerant transport in air-conditioning systems. The vibration of the pipes has been thought to be generated only by the mechanical forces due to the compressor operation. In this study, the fluid pulsation in the pipe is considered to be a source of the vibration, as well as the mechanical forces by the compressor operation. The mechanical force was first identified experimentally using measured acceleration signals over the shell. The calculation of the fluid force resulting from the pulsating fluid in the pipe was then derived theoretically. The estimation used the pressure pulsation signal in the pipe measured by a pressure transducer. Both sources of the vibration were finally applied to the finite element model of the piping system. Conclusively, the prediction of the vibration response to both sources showed better agreement with the experimental results than prediction considering only the mechanical force. Therefore the theoretical process deriving the fluid force was valid

  1. Vibration analysis of compressor piping system with fluid pulsation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Hyeon; Ryu, Sang Mo; Jeong, Weui Bong [Pusan National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A piping system connected to a rotary compressor is an essential component for refrigerant transport in air-conditioning systems. The vibration of the pipes has been thought to be generated only by the mechanical forces due to the compressor operation. In this study, the fluid pulsation in the pipe is considered to be a source of the vibration, as well as the mechanical forces by the compressor operation. The mechanical force was first identified experimentally using measured acceleration signals over the shell. The calculation of the fluid force resulting from the pulsating fluid in the pipe was then derived theoretically. The estimation used the pressure pulsation signal in the pipe measured by a pressure transducer. Both sources of the vibration were finally applied to the finite element model of the piping system. Conclusively, the prediction of the vibration response to both sources showed better agreement with the experimental results than prediction considering only the mechanical force. Therefore the theoretical process deriving the fluid force was valid.

  2. Capturing fugitive methane emissions from natural gas compressor buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litto, R; Hayes, R E; Liu, B

    2007-08-01

    Fugitive methane emissions account for about 50% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian conventional oil and gas sector. Sources include leaks in natural gas transmission facilities such as pipelines and compressor stations. There are three sources of methane emissions in a compressor station. The first is emissions resulting from incomplete combustion in the engine; the second is leaks in valves, flanges and other equipment in the building; and the third results from instrument venting. Fugitive methane emissions may be in low concentration relative to air, and thus cannot be destroyed by conventional combustion (below flammability limits of about 5-16%). The present study investigates the feasibility of capturing methane emissions from a compressor station. Computer modelling of the flow patterns of lean methane emissions inside the building is used to show the influence of doors, vents and leak location. Simulations show that for a typical building most fugitive methane exits through the ridge vent provided that the main doors remain closed. When the extraction rate through the ridge vent is controlled, the methane concentration is at acceptable levels for destruction in a catalytic flow reverse reactor, that is, in the range of 0.1-1% by volume. PMID:16891053

  3. Tolerances of TTF-2 First Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In bunch compressors for SASE-FEL facilities, the projected transverse emittance can be diluted by magnetic multipole component errors in dipoles and dipole misalignments as well as by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this paper, we describe the multipole field tolerances and the misalignment tolerances of the first bunch compressor (BC2) for the TESLA Test Facility Phase-2 (TTF-2)

  4. 40 CFR 63.1012 - Compressor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measured during each compliance test. (g) Reciprocating compressor exemption. Any existing reciprocating... CFR 60.14 or 60.15 is exempt from paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section provided the owner or... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor standards. 63.1012...

  5. Two-stage coaxial gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. S.; Wright, H. W., Jr.; Huniu, S.

    1972-01-01

    Compressor raises pressure of gases from low ambient supply during space experiments by a system of low weight, size, and power input. Dc rotary-torque motor and ball-screw drive shaft activate first and second stage of compressor, utilizing inertia forces to operate check valves.

  6. High frequency dynamics in centrifugal compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twerda, A.; Meulendijks, D.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Handel, R. van den; Lier, L.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Problems with centrifugal compressors relating to high frequency, i.e. Blade passing frequency (BPF) are increasing. Pulsations and vibrations generated in centrifugal compressors can lead to nuisance, due to strong tonal noise, and even breakdown. In several cases the root cause of a failure or a n

  7. The intrinsic equation of planar curves and the geometry of the scroll compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The scroll compressor is an ingenious machine used for compressing air or refrigerant, which was originally invented in 1905 by Léon Creux. The classical design consist of two nested identical scrolls given by circle involutes, one of which is rotated through 180° with respect to the other. By...

  8. Hub and shroud fillets influence on the radial compressor stage efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syka Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of an air flow in the radial compressor stage in the NUMECA CFD software. During the tasks evaluating the stepped and straight impeller seals and hub and shroud fillets influence on working characteristics and flow field was observed. Also the CFD results comparison with results from the empiric design tool and the measurement is described.

  9. Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.

  10. Centrifugal compressor design for electrically assisted boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Yang, M.; Martinez-Botas, R. F.; Zhuge, W. L.; Qureshi, U.; Richards, B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrically assisted boost is a prominent method to solve the issues of transient lag in turbocharger and remains an optimized operation condition for a compressor due to decoupling from turbine. Usually a centrifugal compressor for gasoline engine boosting is operated at high rotational speed which is beyond the ability of an electric motor in market. In this paper a centrifugal compressor with rotational speed as 120k RPM and pressure ratio as 2.0 is specially developed for electrically assisted boost. A centrifugal compressor including the impeller, vaneless diffuser and the volute is designed by meanline method followed by 3D detailed design. Then CFD method is employed to predict as well as analyse the performance of the design compressor. The results show that the pressure ratio and efficiency at design point is 2.07 and 78% specifically.

  11. Centrifugal compressor design for electrically assisted boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrically assisted boost is a prominent method to solve the issues of transient lag in turbocharger and remains an optimized operation condition for a compressor due to decoupling from turbine. Usually a centrifugal compressor for gasoline engine boosting is operated at high rotational speed which is beyond the ability of an electric motor in market. In this paper a centrifugal compressor with rotational speed as 120k RPM and pressure ratio as 2.0 is specially developed for electrically assisted boost. A centrifugal compressor including the impeller, vaneless diffuser and the volute is designed by meanline method followed by 3D detailed design. Then CFD method is employed to predict as well as analyse the performance of the design compressor. The results show that the pressure ratio and efficiency at design point is 2.07 and 78% specifically

  12. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  13. Scroll Compressor Oil Pump Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, S.

    2015-08-01

    Scroll compressors utilize three journal bearings to absorb gas, friction and inertial loads exerted on the crankshaft. To function properly, these bearings must be lubricated with a certain amount of oil. The focus of this paper will be to discuss how computational fluid dynamics can be used to predict oil flow out of a single-stage oil pump. The effects of speed and lubricant viscosity on pump output will also be presented. The comparisons will look at mass flow rates, differences in pressure, and torque at various speeds and dynamic viscosities. The computational fluid dynamic analysis results will be compared with actual lab testing where a crankshaft bench tester was built.

  14. Subsynchronous instability of a geared centrifugal compressor of overhung design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. H.; Wittman, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The original design analysis and shop test data are presented for a three stage (poster) air compressor with impellers mounted on the extensions of a twin pinion gear, and driven by an 8000 hp synchronous motor. Also included are field test data, subsequent rotor dynamics analysis, modifications, and final rotor behavior. A subsynchronous instability existed on a geared, overhung rotor. State-of-the-art rotor dynamics analysis techniques provided a reasonable analytical model of the rotor. A bearing modification arrived at analytically eliminated the instability.

  15. A Thermodynamic Study of Air Cycle Machine for Aeronautical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, A.P.P.; C.R. Andrade; Zaparoli, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on a thermodynamic study of an air cycle machine (ACM) for aircraft air-conditioning purposes. The ACM configuration mainly includes two compact heat exchangers, a compressor and an expander. The energy to drive this machine comes from the compressed air bleed from the compressor of the aircraft propulsion turbine. Some design features that affect the ACM performance will be studied: aircraft Mach number, cabin altitude, cabin recirculated air temperature and the percentage ...

  16. 49 CFR 192.163 - Compressor stations: Design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Design and construction. 192... Pipeline Components § 192.163 Compressor stations: Design and construction. (a) Location of compressor building. Except for a compressor building on a platform located offshore or in inland navigable...

  17. 49 CFR 192.736 - Compressor stations: Gas detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Gas detection. 192.736... Compressor stations: Gas detection. (a) Not later than September 16, 1996, each compressor building in a compressor station must have a fixed gas detection and alarm system, unless the building is— (1)...

  18. 49 CFR 192.169 - Compressor stations: Pressure limiting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Pressure limiting devices... Pipeline Components § 192.169 Compressor stations: Pressure limiting devices. (a) Each compressor station... compressor station must extend to a location where the gas may be discharged without hazard....

  19. 49 CFR 192.167 - Compressor stations: Emergency shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Emergency shutdown. 192.167... Components § 192.167 Compressor stations: Emergency shutdown. (a) Except for unattended field compressor stations of 1,000 horsepower (746 kilowatts) or less, each compressor station must have an...

  20. 49 CFR 230.71 - Orifice testing of compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orifice testing of compressors. 230.71 Section 230... Locomotives and Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.71 Orifice testing of compressors. (a) Frequency of testing. The compressor or compressors shall be tested for capacity by orifice test as often as...

  1. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment... Pipeline Components § 192.171 Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment. (a) Each compressor station... operation may not be affected by the emergency shutdown system. (b) Each compressor station prime...

  2. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles... system acceptable to the Commandant (CG-522). (b) If a reciprocating or screw-type compressor...

  3. 3-D Transient CFD Model For A Rolling Piston Compressor With A Dynamic Reed Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hui; Gao, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Rolling pistons are widely used as compressors in air conditioning systems due to their small size, low cost, and high performance. Reed valves, a special type of check valve driven by hydraulic forces, are commonly used with many types of compressors to restrict the flow to one direction. Reed valves are typically made of a thin layer of metal or plastic materials. The valve will bend in response to fluid pressure forces to open up the flow channel at the proper moment within the compression...

  4. Experimental investigation of a forced response condition in a multistage compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William Louis, III

    The objective of this research is twofold. Firstly, the design, development, and construction of a test facility for a Honeywell APU-style centrifugal compressor was implemented, as well as the design and construction of an inlet flow experiment. Secondly, the aeromechanical response of an embedded stage in the Purdue 3-Stage axial research compressor was analyzed through a suite of different measurement techniques in the fulfillment of the end of the GUIde IV Consortium contract. The purpose of the first phase of Honeywell work was to comprehensively measure the flow field of an APU-style centrifugal compressor inlet through the use of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). A portion of a Honeywell supplied inlet was modified to provide optical access to the elbow, and a gas ejector system was designed and constructed to provide the same suction to the inlet that it would see during operation with the compressor. A performance and health monitoring electronics system was designed and purchased to support the testing of the Honeywell inlet ejector system and eventually it will be used for testing with a centrifugal compressor. Additionally, a secondary air and oil system has been designed and is currently being constructed in the test cell in preparation for the arrival of the Honeywell compressor this summer. An embedded rotor stage in the Purdue 3-stage compressor, with a Campbell diagram crossing of the 1T vibratory mode was analyzed with a suite of measurement systems. In addition to steady state compressor performance measurements, other types of measurements were used to characterize the aerodynamic forcing function for this forced response condition including: NSMS, high-frequency pressure transducers mounted in the casing and in a downstream stator, and cross-film thermal anemometry. Rotor geometry was measured by Aerodyne using an in-situ laser scanning technique. Vibrometry testing was performed at WPAFB to characterize safe operating speeds for stator

  5. The NLC L-Band Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first stage bunch compressor in the NLC injector complex compresses the e+/e- beams from a bunch length of 5 mm rms to 0.5 mm rms at the beam energy of 2 GeV. To obtain this compression ratio, the compressor rf section operates with an rf frequency of 1.4 GHz and a voltage of about 140 MV while a magnetic wiggler is used to generate an R56 = 0.5 m. The bunch compressor is designed to operate with a beam from the damping ring that has a bunch spacing slew of 20ps across the bunch train due to the transient loading in the damping rings. The compressor RF section is required to produce a specific energy profile along the bunch train so that the bunch spacing can be corrected in the compressor bending section. Further, the 1-amp beam heavily loads the compressor linac and beam loading compensation is essential to prevent a phase variation along the bunch train in the downstream linacs. In this paper, we will present simulation results of the beam loading compensation using a ΔT scheme assuming various initial bunch spacing arrangements. We will study the impact of the different compressor energy profiles on the beam energy, energy spread, and bunch length at the IP

  6. A Comprehensive Model of a Novel Rotating Spool Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Craig; Kemp, Greg; Orosz, Joe; Groll, Eckhard A.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive simulation model of a novel rotating spool compressor is presented. The spool compressor provides a new rotating compression mechanism with easily manufactured components. Compared with other rotary compressors, the spool compressor presents the additional advantage of relocating the face sealing surfaces to the outer radius of the device. A detailed analytical geometry model of the spool compressor is presented which includes the geometry of the vane. This geometry model is i...

  7. Volumetric Efficiency Improvement by Overflow in Rolling Piston Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen; Huang, Gensheng; Zhang, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    The rotary compressor with rolling piston is a widely used compressor with less clearance volume, while it is minimized from normal scale to meso or micro scale, the input and exit ports dimension is limited by port requirement and lead to a certain clearance volume, therefore, keeping or improving its volume efficiency is an important issue. Although rolling piston compressor is a kind of compact structure compressor, the existence of the clearance volume is inevitable in a compressor, the m...

  8. Sensor placement for active control of surge in multi-stage axial compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a methodology is presented to determine the optimal sensor choice for active control of surge in multi-stage axial flow compressors. In this method, the compression system is modeled based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy. The model is then linearized at unstable steady-state points, and the Linear Quadratic Gaussian controllers are designed to stabilize the compression system. The effects of different sensor types and locations on active stabilization process are then investigated for both low and high compressor speeds. Based on this sensor placement methodology, the sensor location and type are selected in order to minimize the estimation error and air bleed mass flow. The results are presented to show the effectiveness of the methodology. These results show that the proper sensor location is dependent on the compressor rotational speed and the instability origination

  9. Energy-optimal speed control of fans and compressor in a refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    Use of variable speed compressors and variable speed fans for both the evaporator and the condenser makes the refrigeration system more flexible, adds to the degree of freedom of the control system and therefore makes it possible to (on-line) optimise the various speeds involved. Say, for example...... that the cooling capacity must be increased due to increased cooling load. This can be done by increasing the compressor speed and/or the evaporator fan speed and also to some extent by increasing the condenser fan speed. The general control problem is to obtain the desired temperature of the cooled...... air, while choosing the combination of compressor speed, evaporator fan and condenser fan speeds which minimises the total power consumption of the motors involved. A system and integrated control viewpoint is necessary as a “component-oriented” and “single-loop-control” approach will not lead to the...

  10. Design and Prototyping of Micro Centrifugal Compressor for Ultra Micro Gas Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shimpei MIZUKI; Toshiyuki HIRANO; Yoshiyuki KOIZUMI; Gaku MINORIKAWA; Hoshio TSUJITA; Mitsuo IWAHARA; Ronglei GU; Yutaka OHTA; Eisuke OUTA

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish the design methodology of an ultra micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component of an ultra micro gas turbine unit, a 10 times size of the final target compressor (impeller outer diameter 40 mm, corrected rotational speed 220,000 r/min) was designed. The problems to be solved for downsizing were examined and a 2-dimensional impeller was chosen as the first model due to its productivity.The conventional 1D prediction method and CFD were used. The prototyped compressor was tested by using cold air at the reduced speed of 110,000 r/min. Following to the 10 times model, a 5 times size of the final target model having fully 3-dimensional shape (impeller outer diameter 20mm, corrected rotational speed 500,000r/min) was designed and tested by using hot gas at the reduced speed of 250,000 r/min.

  11. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  12. Analysis of reciprocating compressor piston rod failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, H.A.; Drosjack, M.J.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the analysis of five piston rod failures which occurred on reciprocating compressors. Calculations are shown for rod stress which includes nominal rod loading sources as well as additional loads due to unusual pressure losses in the compressor valves, flexure of the rods due to misalignment, and manufacturing errors. The additional loads were incorporated on the basis of field measurements. The stress values are used with Baquin's equation to produce fatigue life curves for the rods. Based on the calculations, recommendations for modified rods were made. The calculation procedures are described in a manner which will permit their application to other reciprocating compressors.

  13. Commissioning of the SPPS Linac Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First results and beam measurements are presented for the recently installed linac bunch compressor chicane. The new bunch compressor produces ultra-short electron bunches for the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source (SPPS) and for test beams such as the E164 Plasma Wakefield experiment. This paper will give an overview of the first experiences with tuning and optimizing the compressor together with a description of the beam diagnostics and beam measurements. These measurements form the basis for further detailed study of emittance growth effects such as CSR and wakefields in a previously unmeasured regime of ultra-short bunch lengths

  14. CSR instability in a Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coherent synchrotron radiation of a bunch in a bunch compressor may lead to the microwave instability producing longitudinal modulation of the bunch with wavelengths small compared to the bunch length. It can also be a source of an undesirable emittance growth in the compressor. We derive and analyze the equation that describes linear evolution of the microwave modulation taking into account incoherent energy spread and finite emittance of the beam. Numerical solution of this equation for the LCLS bunch compressor gives the amplification factor for different wavelengths of the beam microbunching

  15. Compressor Part I: Measurement and Design Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Bein

    1999-01-01

    method used to design the 125-ton compressor is first reviewed and some related performance curves are predicted based on a quasi-3D method. In addition to an overall performance measurement, a series of instruments were installed on the compressor to identify where the measured performance differs from the predicted performance. The measurement techniques for providing the diagnostic flow parameters are also described briefly. Part II of this paper provides predictions of flow details in the areas of the compressor where there were differences between the measured and predicted performance.

  16. High Speed Compressor for Subcooling Propellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propellant densification systems for LH2 require compression systems that develop significant head. In the past this has required multiple stages of compressors...

  17. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural...

  18. Surge and Choke Capable Compressor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Leufven, Oskar; Eriksson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    A compressor model is developed. It is capable of representing mass flow and pressure characteristic for three different regions: surge, normal operation as well as for when the compressor acts as a restriction, i.e. having a pressure ratio of less than unity. Different submodels are discussed and methods to parametrize the given model structure are given. Both the parametrization and validation are supported extensively by measured data. Dynamic data sets include measurements from engine and...

  19. Preliminary aerothermal design of axial compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Piscopo, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation documents a compressor preliminary design study conducted by the author in fulfilment of his MSc thesis requirements. The compressor is intended for a new development engine within the 20Klbf thrust category, planned to be used on a short-haul aircraft, namely the ERJ-190. A market research suggests that there exists a definite opportunity for a commercially profitable engine within this thrust class. Furthermore, the proposed new engine is projected to out...

  20. Towards Centrifugal Compressor Stages Virtual Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Guidotti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Flow features inside centrifugal compressor stages are very complicated to simulate with numerical tools due to the highly complex geometry and varying gas conditions all across the machine. For this reason, a big effort is currently being made to increase the fidelity of the numerical models during the design and validation phases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) plays an increasing role in the assessment of the performance prediction of centrifugal compressor stages. Historically, CFD wa...

  1. Aerodynamic instabilities in transonic centrifugal compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Buffaz, Nicolas; Trébinjac, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper presents the analysis of the instabilities inception in a transonic centrifugal com-pressor for different rotation speeds. The analysis was conducted from experimental results obtained with unsteady pressure sensors implanted in the inducer, vaneless diffuser and vaned diffuser. Beyond the stability limit the compressor enters into a deep surge without any precursor, whatever the speed. The surge process is initiated in the vaned diffuser by a massive boun...

  2. Thermal Equilibrium and Wet Gas Compressor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aalvik, Marthe

    2011-01-01

    The wet gas performance model established for this master s thesis is based on results achieved from a single stage, low pressure ratio, centrifugal compressor set up at NTNU. Water droplets are injected to the flow right before the inlet. The GMF varies from 0.9 to 0.65 throughout the experiments preformed. Compressor performance is achieved by simulations in HYSYS with atmospheric inlet conditions. The importance of accurate measurements is evident to achieve the correct performance. A lite...

  3. RELAP5-3D Compressor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power

  4. Rotating Pip Detection and Stall Warning in High-Speed Compressors Using Structure Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Qammar, Helen; Vhora, Hanif; Schaffer, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A statistic for both rotating pip and incipient stall detection, called Structure Function is introduced for use in high speed research compressor environments. Experimental studies on stall inception processes have long observed two types of pre-stall compressor activity. Presently there exist methods for indicating modal stall precursive events in the compressor. This is a first application of a new method to detect rotating pip activity prior to stall in research compressors. The algorithm requires a very short sample of data to distinguish pip activity prior to stall, and thus may be used in a real time application. Additionally, this Structure Function algorithm is also used as a single sensor stall warning method under a variety of operating conditions, including clean inlet conditions, radially and circumferentially distorted inlet conditions, and in examples of steady air injection along the casing, and controlled air injection conditions. Structure Function provides a potential advantage over linear spectral techniques and wavelet algorithms for stall detection due to the simplicity of the algorithm and because it does not rely on a priori knowledge of frequency content.

  5. Lumped model of MEMS diaphragm compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Model of MEMS compressors, subjected to maximum actuation pressure, is developed. ► Model predicts performance and temporal variation of chamber pressure and volume. ► Pressure rise and flow rate of MEMS compressors are inversely related. ► Reduction in the Young’s modulus improves the performance of MEMS compressor. ► The temporal variation of chamber displacement is not a scaled replica of actuation pressure. - Abstract: This article presents a quasi-static lumped model of MEMS circular and square/rectangular diaphragm compressors subjected to a specified peak actuation pressure. In this work equations necessary for determining the pressure rise vs. flow rate relationship for a specific peak actuation pressure are provided. In addition, equations are also presented for determining the temporal variation of chamber pressure and volume. The results of the quasi-static lumped model are found to be in good agreement with that of the results of a transient three-dimensional model studied using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a. The independent variables of this model are the geometric, material and operating parameters associated with the MEMS compressor. The geometric parameters are compressor chamber dimensions while the material properties include the diaphragms Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio and the ratio of specific heats of the gas. The operating parameters are the operating frequency and peak actuation pressure; actuation pressure is assigned a sinusoidal form. The performance of MEMS compressors improves with increase in peak actuation pressure when all other parameters are held constant. With increase in the depth of the compression chamber the performance characteristics of MEMS compressors degrade provided all parameters are maintained constant. The model also predicts that increase in just the planar dimensions of the diaphragm reduces the maximum achievable pressure ratio. It is found that the performance of the MEMS compressor

  6. The Effect of Rotor Blade Speed to the Best Efficiency Point of Single Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Mohamad Firdaus; Wasbari, Faizil; Mat, Shafizal

    2010-06-01

    The best efficiency point is ideal operational point for any turbomachinery. Selections of turbomachines in industry such as pump, turbine, compressor, etc are basically based on their operating point. The best efficiency point is a point at the highest efficiency. Therefore, turbomachines with nearest operating point to best efficiency point will be chosen due to higher efficiency thus produce great reduction in cost saving. Different speed of rotor blade will cause effect to the best efficiency point, as well as different in rotor and stator blade angle. If angle of rotor and stator blade constant while speed of rotor blade increased, the net head produced by the compressor will also increased. Thus, it will increase the brake horse power and fluid horse power. Although the efficiency of the compressor increases if fluid horse power increased, the increasing in brake horse power will produce lower efficiency. In this paper, the effect of rotor blade speed on best efficiency point of an axial flow compressor will be investigated and discussed. Through this paper, the highest efficiency is only 73 %, achieved at rotor blade speed of 750 rpm with net head of 9.4 mmWG, and air volumetric flow rate of 0.56m3/s. For higher net head, the rotor blade speed must be increased, but the efficiency will decrease simultaneously. The type of compressor used in this research is single stage axial flow compressor; model Dixson FM36, manufactured by Dixson FA Engineering Sdn. Bhd.

  7. Shape memory alloy adaptive control of gas turbine engine compressor blade tip clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetky, Lawrence M.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    1998-06-01

    The ambient air ingested through the inlet of a gas turbine is first compressed by an axial compressor followed by further compression in a centrifugal compressor and then fed into the combustion chamber where ignition and expansion take place to produce the engine thrust. The axial compressor typically has five or more stages which consist of revolving blades and stators and the overall performance of the turbine is strongly affected by the compressor efficiency. When the turbine is turned on, to accommodate the rapid initial increase in the compressor blade length due to centrifugal force, the cold turbine has a built in clearance between the turbine blade tip and the casing. As the turbine reached its operating temperature there is a further increase in the blade length due to thermal expansion and, at the same time, the diameter of the casing increases. The net result is that when these various components have reached their equilibrium temperatures, the initial cold build clearance is reduced, but there remains a residual clearance. The magnitude of this clearance has a direct effect on the compressor efficiency and can be stated as: Δη/Δ CLR equals 0.5 where η is efficiency and CLR is the tip clearance. The concept of adaptive tip clearance control is based on the ability of a shape memory alloy ring to shrink to a predetermined diameter when heated to the temperature of a particular stage, and thus reducing the tip clearance. The ring is fabricated from a CuAlNi shape memory alloy and is mounted in the casing so as to be coaxial with the rotating blades of the particular stage. When cold, the ring dimensions are such as to provide the required cold build clearance, but when at operating temperature the reduced diameter creates a very small tip clearance. The clearance provided by this concept is much smaller than the clearance normally obtained for a turbine of the size being studied.

  8. Performance evaluation of high speed compressors for high speed multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes high speed compressors for high speed parallel multipliers like Booth Multiplier, Wallace Tree Multiplier in Digital Signal Processing (DSP. This paper presents 4-3, 5-3, 6-3 and 7-3 compressors for high speed multiplication. These compressors reduce vertical critical path more rapidly than conventional compressors. A 5-3 conventional compressor can take four steps to reduce bits from 5 to 3, but the proposed 5-3 takes only 2 steps. These compressors are simulated with H-Spice at a temperature of 25°C at a supply voltage 2.0V using 90nm MOSIS technology. The Power, Delay, Power Delay Product (PDP and Energy Delay Product (EDP of the compressors are calculated to analyze the total propagation delay and energy consumption. All the compressors are designed with half adder and full Adders only.

  9. Axial Compressor Stall and Surge Prediction by Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hönen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with experimental investigations and analyses of unsteady pressure distributions in different axial compressors. Based on measurements in a single stage research compressor the influence of increasing aerodynamic load onto the pressure and velocity fluctuations is demonstrated. Detailed measurements in a 14-stage and a 17-stage gas turbine compressor are reported. For both compressors parameters could be found which are clearly influenced by the aerodynamic load.For the 14-sta...

  10. Non Adiabatic Centrifugal Compressor Gas Dynamic Performance Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatova, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Most centrifugal compressors operate in conditions with negligible heat transfer (adiabatic compression). Their plant tests conditions are similar or close to adiabatic conditions. Test regulations establish measures to diminish influence of a heat transfer “compressor body – atmospheric air” to an exit temperature. Therefore a temperature rise in a compressor is used to calculate a work input coefficient and efficiency. Unlike it high pressure centrifugal compressors of gas turbines and supe...

  11. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Huadong Yang; Hong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section in...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-15 - Pumps and compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and compressors. 178.337-15 Section 178.337... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-15 Pumps and compressors. (a) Liquid pumps or gas compressors, if used, must be of suitable design, adequately...

  13. 49 CFR 192.173 - Compressor stations: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Ventilation. 192.173 Section 192.173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS....173 Compressor stations: Ventilation. Each compressor station building must be ventilated to...

  14. 49 CFR 192.165 - Compressor stations: Liquid removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Liquid removal. 192.165... Components § 192.165 Compressor stations: Liquid removal. (a) Where entrained vapors in gas may liquefy under the anticipated pressure and temperature conditions, the compressor must be protected against...

  15. 40 CFR 61.242-3 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under 40 CFR part 60, shall not be in VOC service. (d) Each barrier fluid system as described in... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Compressors. 61.242-3... Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-3 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each compressor shall...

  16. 21 CFR 870.5200 - External cardiac compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External cardiac compressor. 870.5200 Section 870.5200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... compressor. (a) Identification. An external cardiac compressor is an external device that is...

  17. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and cargo compressors must shut-down automatically when the quick-closing shut-off valves under §§...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor discharge pipes. 56.13017 Section 56.13017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Boilers § 56.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon build-up may...

  19. 49 CFR 178.338-17 - Pumps and compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and compressors. 178.338-17 Section 178.338... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-17 Pumps and compressors. (a) Liquid pumps and gas compressors, if used, must be of suitable design, adequately...

  20. 30 CFR 57.13017 - Compressor discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor discharge pipes. 57.13017 Section 57.13017 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Boilers § 57.13017 Compressor discharge pipes. Compressor discharge pipes where carbon...

  1. 40 CFR 60.482-3a - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator. (j) Any existing reciprocating compressor in a process unit which becomes an affected facility... compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier fluid system and that prevents... this section. (b) Each compressor seal system as required in paragraph (a) of this section shall be:...

  2. 40 CFR 60.482-3 - Standards: Compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designation, annually, and at other times requested by the Administrator. (j) Any existing reciprocating... Standards: Compressors. (a) Each compressor shall be equipped with a seal system that includes a barrier... paragraphs (h), (i), and (j) of this section. (b) Each compressor seal system as required in paragraph...

  3. Ferroelectric Switch For An Active RF Pulse Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles and preliminary design for a microwave active pulse compressor using an electrically-controlled ferroelectric switch are presented. The design of an 11.4 GHz, 500 MW pulse compressor with a pulse width of about 40 nsec and a compression ratio of 10 is described. It is planned to test this compressor using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon

  4. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  5. Compressor optimization with compressor-based multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, B; Easter, J H; Nees, J A; He, Z; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K

    2012-04-15

    The multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) technique is modified to optimize the compressor settings of a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system. Here, we use the compressor itself to perform the phase scan inherent in MIIPS measurement . A frequency-resolved optical gating measurement shows that the pulse duration of the compressor optimized using the modified MIIPS technique is 33.8 fs with a 2.24 rad temporal phase variation above 2% intensity. The measured time-bandwidth product is 0.60, which is close to that of transform-limited Gaussian pulse (0.44). PMID:22513694

  6. 5600kW空气压缩机电机磁平衡保护应用%Application of 5 600 kW Air Compressor Motor Magnetic Balance Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利武; 史涛涛; 孙军威

    2013-01-01

    针对大功率空压机电机后备保护装置中传统纵联差动保护的缺陷,提出采用磁平衡式差动保护.详细描述了该保护装置的基本原理和特性,并将两种保护措施做了比较.在实际应用中,磁平衡式差动保护体现了巨大的经济效益和社会效益,并验证了该方法的灵敏度和可靠性.%Considering the defects of traditional longitudinal differential protection device in high power air comressor motor,a method of magnetic balanced differential protection was proposed.The basic principles and characteristics of this protective device were described in detail and compared with traditional longitudinal differential protection device.In practical applications,the magnetic balance differential protection reflects enormous economic and social benefits,and the sensitivity and reliability of the method were validated.

  7. On heat transfer in screw compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heat transfer in a screw compressor does not much influence on its performance. • It may be detrimental to operational reliability because thermal deformation. • CFD is a suitable tool for estimation of thermal deformation due to heat transfer. • One-dimensional analysis can also provide useful information. - Abstract: Heat transfer between the working fluid and machine parts within a screw compressor does not affect its performance significantly because the thermal energy dissipation is usually less than 1% of the compressor power input. However, it can be detrimental to the machine reliability because the fluid compression creates a non-uniform three dimensional temperature field leading to local distortions, which may be larger than the clearances between the machine parts. This phenomenon is widely known and special control procedures are required to allow for start-up and shut down, as well as for steady running operation. These measures are usually derived only from test-bench data and may result in larger clearances than necessary, thereby reducing the optimum performance. This paper gives an outline of two methods of computing heat transfer in a screw compressor; namely: by means of a quasi-one dimensional differential model and by three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Both methods enable the clearance size for start-up and steady running conditions to be determined. The 3D CFD procedure is more accurate but requires a far longer running time. Two cases are considered: heat transfer in a dry screw compressor where fluid temperatures are high, and an oil-flooded screw compressor where fluid temperatures are relatively low but the convective heat transfer coefficient is substantially higher

  8. APPLICATION OF A PLC TO A LABORATORY COMPRESSOR WORKSHOP CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech GÓRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a control system of air compressors in a university laboratory is presented. The control system, which is built using the Astraada RCC972 and the GE 90-20 drivers, is an extension of the two states’ inputs and outputs of Astraada. To visualize the work stand, the PC computer class and the Proficy Machine Edition (ME View software were applied. Selected results from the tests of the built control system are presented.

  9. The Simple Performance Evaluation Method of VRF System Using Volumetric Efficiency of Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, Naruhiro; Furuhashi, Yuma; Kametani, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simple performance evaluation method of variable refrigerant flow (hereafter VRF) system using volumetric efficiency of compressor. Generally, it is very difficult to evaluate the actual performance of VRF system, and it is a matter of urgency to establish the performance evaluation method on the actual condition. Especially, the simple method which can be used by user is essential to sound development of the air conditioning system. The refrigerant mass flow and the...

  10. Centrifugal Compressor Performance Deviations with Various Refrigerants, Impeller Sizes and Shaft Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuanjie; Thilges, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Under the pressure of the Montreal Protocol originally written in 1987, the current popularly used HCFC and HFC refrigerants for comfortable air conditioning, such as low pressure refrigerant R123, will have to be phased out in the near future. This forces companies in centrifugal chiller industry to redesign and retest new centrifugal compressors which can accommodate alternative refrigerants. Keeping the present flow path designs is an economic design process for the alternative refrigerant...

  11. Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Riblets on Compressor Cascade Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenflue, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of adding riblets to the blades of a subsonic, linear compressor cascade were investigated at the Air Force Institute of Technology. Three blade configurations were tested, including a set of unmodified NACA 64- A905 series blades, a set with riblets applied to the suction surface, and a set with riblets on the pressure surface. Performance was evaluated over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and at low and high free stream turbulence levels. Cascade performance was evaluated in t...

  12. Alignment of chirped-pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An original method of alignment of grating compressors for ultrahigh-power CPA laser systems is proposed. The use of this method for adjustment of the grating compressor of a PEARL subpetawatt laser complex made it possible to align the diffraction gratings with a second accuracy in all three angular degrees of freedom, including alignment of the grooves, and to adjust the angles of beam incidence on the grating with a high accuracy. A simple method for measuring the difference in the groove densities of gratings with accuracy better than 0.005 lines mm-1 is proposed and tested. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  13. Compressor Lattice Design for SPL Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M

    2007-01-01

    A compressor ring providing very short proton bunches of a few ns has been designed as a component of a proton driver in the neutrino factory. Proton beams accelerated with the SPL (Superconducting Proton Linac) are stored in an accumulator ring before being transported to a compressor ring. The bunch compression is then performed with longitudinal phase rotation. For the neutrino factory, a special pulse structure of the primary proton beam is required. In the SPL based proton driver, the specification imposes that six (or five) bunches of a few ns length and about 12μs bunch spacing are formed in one cycle.

  14. ELECTRODYNAMIC LOUDSPEAKER-DRIVEN ACOUSTIC COMPRESSOR

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Šoltés; Milan Červenka

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic compressor is  built  using the acoustic resonator which shape was optimized for a maximum acoustic pressure amplitude and a low-cost compression driver.  Acoustic compressor is built  by installing  a suction port in the resonator wall where the standing wave has its pressure node and a delivery port with a valve in the resonator wall where the standing wave has its pressure anti-node. Different reeds, serving  as delivery valves, are tested and their performance is investigated....

  15. Alignment of chirped-pulse compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-30

    An original method of alignment of grating compressors for ultrahigh-power CPA laser systems is proposed. The use of this method for adjustment of the grating compressor of a PEARL subpetawatt laser complex made it possible to align the diffraction gratings with a second accuracy in all three angular degrees of freedom, including alignment of the grooves, and to adjust the angles of beam incidence on the grating with a high accuracy. A simple method for measuring the difference in the groove densities of gratings with accuracy better than 0.005 lines mm{sup -1} is proposed and tested. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  16. Design and Prototyping of Micro Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shimpei Mizuki; Gaku Minorikawa; Toshiyuki Hirano; Yuichiro Asaga; Naoki Yamaguchi; Yutaka Ohta; Eisuke Outa

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish the design methodology of ultra micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component of ultra micro gas turbine unit, a 10 times of the final target size model was designed, prototyped and tested. The problems to be solved for downsizing were examined and 2-dimensional impeller was chosen as the first model due to its productivity. The conventional 1D prediction method, CFD and the inverse design were attempted. The prototyped compressor was driven by using a turbocharger and the performance characteristics were measured.

  17. Misalignment study of NLC bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of computer simulations of the misalignments in the 180 degree-bend angle second-stage bunch compressor for the NLC are described. The aim of this study was to evaluate alignment and production error tolerances. Three versions of the second stage, differing in their minimum obtainable bunch length (44 μ, 60 μ, and 86 μ) were studied. Simulations included orbit correction produced by errors and misalignments of the compressor elements. The orbit correction itself was done within some error margins. The effects of misalignments on transverse emittance growth were found. Recommendations for alleviating alignment tolerances are discussed

  18. Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency 'rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS EFFECTING THE NOISE REDUCTION IN HERMITICALLY SEALED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Laxmaiah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic reciprocating compressors are most commonly used in the refrigeration industry. The main source of noise in refrigerating and air conditioning machinery is the compressor. Reduction of noise in compressors is a complex criterion as many factors such as Shell Thickness, Shell Material, Suction Port Area and Discharge Port Area etc. contribute its effect on the noise and they also interact in a complex manner. In this work a screening test is carried out to find the relative effect of the parameters and their interaction, which can be used as an initial step for further investigations concentrating on the most influencing parameters and their interactions using Taguchi Technique. Here Shell Thickness (ST, Shell Material (SM, Suction Port Area (SPA and Discharge Port Area (DPA are chosen as input parameters and the noise is the output parameter. L8 orthogonal array is selected, the factors are assigned and experiments are carried out. Column effect method is used to find the most effective parameters for the noise reduction in the compressor.

  20. Performance of vapor compression systems with compressor oil flooding and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Ian H.; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E. [Purdue University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 140 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Vapor compression refrigeration technology has seen great improvement over the last several decades in terms of cycle efficiency through a concerted effort of manufacturers, regulators, and research engineers. As the standard vapor compression systems approach practical limits, cycle modifications should be investigated to increase system efficiency and capacity. One possible means of increasing cycle efficiency is to flood the compressor with a large quantity of oil to achieve a quasi-isothermal compression process, in addition to using a regenerator to increase refrigerant subcooling. In theory, compressor flooding and regeneration can provide a significant increase in system efficiency over the standard vapor compression system. The effectiveness of compressor flooding and regeneration increases as the temperature lift of the system increases. Therefore, this technology is particularly well suited towards lower evaporating temperatures and high ambient temperatures as seen in supermarket refrigeration applications. While predicted increases in cycle efficiency are over 40% for supermarket refrigeration applications, this technology is still very beneficial for typical air-conditioning applications, for which improvements in cycle efficiency greater than 5% are predicted. It has to be noted though that the beneficial effects of compressor flooding can only be realized if a regenerator is used to exchange heat between the refrigerant vapor exiting the evaporator and the liquid exiting the condenser. (author)

  1. Advanced electric heat pump dual-stroke compressor and system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S. E.; Fagan, T. J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of an advanced electric heat pump is discussed. A two-capacity, residential, advanced electric heat pump utilizing a unique dual-stroke compressor was developed. Two nearly identical preprototype split systems of nominally 3.5 tons maximum cooling capacity were designed, built and laboratory tested. The estimated annual energy efficiency of this advanced system is 20 percent better than a two-speed electric heat pump available at contract inception in 1979. This superior performance is due to the synergism of a high-efficiency, dual-stroke reciprocating compressor, a dual-strength high-efficiency single-speed single-phase hermetic drive motor, a single-width, single-entry high-efficiency indoor blower with backward curved cambered plate blades, a high-efficiency multivane axial flow outdoor fan, high-efficiency two-speed air mover motors and a microprocessor control system. The relative proportions of heat exchangers, air flows and compressor size as well as the ratio between high and low capacity were optimized so as to minimize the annual cost of ownership in a northern climate. Constraints placed upon the optimization and design process to ensure comfort provide heating air with a temperature of at least 90(0)F and provide cooling with a sensible-to-total capacity ratio of not more than 0.7. System performance was measured in the laboratory in accordance with applicable codes and procedures. Performance data plus hardware details are provided.

  2. Roles and expectations of cold compressor for helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since around 1970, cryogenic systems have required the use of cold compressors. The requirement appeared for two reasons. The first was reduce the pressure of liquid helium with the intention of realizing the stable operation of large superconducting magnets with the best superconducting ability by decreasing operating temperature. The other was to improve the reliability of helium refrigerator compressors by introducing a turbo-compressor with oil-free bearings. This paper describes the circumstances and particular development of cold compressors, requirements related to helium refrigeration systems and cold compressors and future prospects. (author)

  3. Development of C-band RF pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-band RF compressor is a device that generates high peak RF-power by saving, and compressing the RF-power output from the klystron. In SCSS: The SPring-8 Compact SASE Source, Q-factor of C-band RF compressor is lower than theoretical figure. To improve Q-factor of C-band RF compressor, we changed the production method of C-band RF compressor from Electron Beam Welding (EBW) to the brazing in XFEL: X-ray Free Electron Lasers. As a result, Q-factor of C-band RF compressor has been improved, and it succeeded in the work improvement. (author)

  4. Modeling the Deterioration of Engine and Low Pressure Compressor Performance During a Roll Back Event Due to Ice Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip, C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) of NASA Glenn Research Center. A data point was selected for analysis during which the engine experienced a full roll back event due to the ice accretion on the blades and flow path of the low pressure compressor. The computational tool consists of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine system thermodynamic cycle code, and an Euler-based compressor flow analysis code, that has an ice particle melt estimation code with the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor blade rows. Decreasing the performance characteristics of the low pressure compressor (LPC) within the NPSS cycle analysis resulted in matching the overall engine performance parameters measured during testing at data points in short time intervals through the progression of the roll back event. Detailed analysis of the fan-core and LPC with the compressor flow analysis code simulated the effects of ice accretion by increasing the aerodynamic blockage and pressure losses through the low pressure compressor until achieving a match with the NPSS cycle analysis results, at each scan. With the additional blockages and losses in the LPC, the compressor flow analysis code results were able to numerically reproduce the performance that was determined by the NPSS cycle analysis, which was in agreement with the PSL engine test data. The compressor flow analysis indicated that the blockage due to ice accretion in the LPC exit guide vane stators caused the exit guide vane (EGV) to be nearly choked, significantly reducing the air flow rate into the core. This caused the LPC to eventually be in stall due to increasing levels of diffusion in the rotors and high incidence angles in the inlet guide vane (IGV) and EGV stators. The flow analysis indicating

  5. Study on Efficiency Improvement of Hermetic Rotary Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Masatoshi; Nomura, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Koichi

    This research was conducted in order to better identify the torque loss of a hermetic rotary compressor for one revolution, and to directly obtain the actual shaft power of the compressor. A testing compressor and a gas cycle type simplified calorimeter were developed for direct measurement of the compressor torque. A strain gauge was stuck on the shaft between a compressor and a motor. Thus, the compressor torque could be measured directly by the strain gauge and data were transmitted to out of the compressor's vessel through a slip ring. Rotational speed of the compressor was measured by using a gap sensor also. From these measurement results, actual shaft power was calculated experimentally. On the other hand, effective compressive torque for compressing refrigerant gas was predicted theoretically. From both experimental and theoretical results, torque loss of the compressor was determined as the difference of the compressor torque from the effective compressive torque. Consequently, a loss of over-compression could be revealed from the torque loss experimentally. Furthermore, overall adiabatic efficiencies of compressors obtained by the actual shaft power were 1.1∼3.5% higher than former overall adiabatic efficiencies obtained by the motor output.

  6. Measurements of satellite refrigerator compressor power consumption and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each of the thirty compressors installed around the ring and at switchyard is an oil-injected, two-stage, Mycom screw compressor, driven by either a 350 hp or 400 hp motor. The reader is referred to TM1198 by John Satti for a detailed description of these compressors and the associated equipment. Since the power consumed by these compressors is a major operating expense for our accelerator, we were interested in measuring the power consumption and efficiency of our compressors. Two compressors were studied in detail - one having a GE 350 hp motor (F0 No. 2) and one a new GE 400 hp high efficiency motor (F0 No. 1). Data were taken for each compressor with the high stage always fully loaded. These data and values calculated from the data are tabulated

  7. Compressor Foundation Analysis Tool(COFANTO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lentzen, S.S.K; Zuada Coelho, B.E.; Galanti, F.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocating compressors are generally supported on a heavy concrete foundation. In spite of the large inertia and stiffness of the foundation, problems can occur due to interaction between the mechanical installation and the foundation. Two types of problems may occur. In the first type, the inter

  8. Bunch Compressor for Beam-Based Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, A; Schulte, D

    2007-01-01

    Misalignments in the main linac of future linear colliders can lead to significant emittance growth. Beam-based alignment algorithms, such as Dispersion Free Steering (DFS), are necessary to mitigate these effects. We study how to use the Bunch Compressor to create the off-energy beams necessary for DFS and discuss the effectiveness of this method.

  9. Computation of Flow in Screw Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitzin, Georgi; Cai, Xiaodan; Reba, Ramons; Medic, Gorazd

    2015-08-01

    A CFD model enabling accurate and computationally affordable simulation of unsteady flow in screw compressors has been developed. This paper focuses on computational aspects, including real-gas CFD using hybrid structured/unstructured moving grids, and specifics of grid generation for moving rotors and their communication with the discharge plenum.

  10. Knowledge Based Design of Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh kumar.R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry with highly competitive market the time to design and delivery is shortening every day. Pressure on delivering robust product with cost economy is in demand in each development. Even though technology is older, it is new for each customer requirement and highly non-liner to fit one in another place. Gas turbine is considered one of a complex design in the aircraft system. It involves experts to be grouped with designers of various segments to arrive the best output. The time is crucial to achieve a best design and it needs knowledge automation incorporated with CAD/CAE tools. In the present work an innovative idea in the form of Knowledge Based Engineering for axial compressor is proposed, this includes the fundamental design of axial compressor integrated with artificial intelligence in the form of knowledge capturing and programmed with high level language (Visual Basis.Net and embedded into CATIA v5. This KBE frame work eases out the design and modeling of axial compressor design and produces 3D modeling for further flow simulation with fluid dynamic in Ansys-Fluent. Most of the aerospace components are developed through simulation driven product development and in this case it is established for axial compressor.

  11. Positive feedback stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frank; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Jager, de Bram; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    2002-01-01

    Stable operation of axial and centrifugal compressors is limited towards low mass flows due to the occurrence of surge. The stable operating region can be enlarged by active control. In this study, we use a control valve which is fully closed in the desired operating point and only opens to stabiliz

  12. Effect of self recirculation casing treatment on the performance of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Matthieu

    Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred

  13. Odessa pumps now certified on Blackmer compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-09-15

    Some quantity of product recovered from wellheads and tank batteries will undoubtedly escape, be vented or flared off into the atmosphere. In order to solve this problem, field operators are considering the use of vapour-recovery units (VRUs) at the wellhead. To date, only 7,000 to 9,000 VRUs have been installed in the oil and natural gas production sector in the United States. Blackmer, a global supplier of reciprocating-compressor technology, is working through Odessa Pumps to promote the use of its HD and NG Series Oil-Free Reciprocating Gas Compressors. Odessa Pumps is a specialist in providing turnkey solutions for many types of pump and compressor applications. Blackmer's non-lubricated designs provide a full distance piece compartment between the cylinder and crankcase. This allows the user maximum control of any vapours that would normally vent into the crankcase uncontrollably on other designs. Blackmer conducted onsite product training at Odessa offices throughout Texas to introduce the key features and benefits that the units can offer in the field. In addition to their environmental advantages in the oilfield for vapour recovery, there is also an economic benefit. Some operators who have installed Blackmer compressors at their wellheads have made back the cost of the unit from the sale of recovered gas and increased oil production in less than 11 days. Blackmer HD and NG Series Reciprocating Gas Compressors are available in either single- or two-stage configurations. They have been designed for maximum performance and reliability under the most severe operating conditions. 1 fig.

  14. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  15. Prediction of Cracking Gas Compressor Performance and Its Application in Process Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍军; 李凤

    2012-01-01

    Cracking gas compressor is usually a centrifugal compressor. The information on the performance of a centrifugal compressor under all conditions is not available, which restricts the operation optimization for compressor. To solve this problem, two back propagation (BP) neural networks were introduced to model the performance of a compressor by using the data provided by manufacturer. The input data of the model under other conditions should be corrected according to the similarity theory. The method was used to optimize the system of a cracking gas compressor by embedding the compressor performance model into the ASPEN PLUS model of compressor. The result shows that it is an effective method to optimize the compressor system.

  16. Commande d'un compresseur centrifuge à vitesse ultra-haute pour la gestion de l'air du système de piles à combustible

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dongdong

    2013-01-01

    Air compressor supplying the oxygen to the stack is an important component in the fuel cell systems. The compressor can consumes up to 20 % of the generated power in the most severe cases. The selecting of the compressor and corresponding control are directly related to the performance of the fuel cell. The size and weight of the air compressor has to be reduced to make them more feasible for automotive applications. Moreover, the control of the air compression system is also an important iss...

  17. Modelling and measurement of a moving magnet linear compressor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel moving magnet linear compressor with clearance seals and flexure bearings has been designed and constructed. It is suitable for a refrigeration system with a compact heat exchanger, such as would be needed for CPU cooling. The performance of the compressor has been experimentally evaluated with nitrogen and a mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of the linear compressor. The results from the compressor model and the measurements have been compared in terms of cylinder pressure, the ‘P–V’ loop, stroke, mass flow rate and shaft power. The cylinder pressure was not measured directly but was derived from the compressor dynamics and the motor magnetic force characteristics. The comparisons indicate that the compressor model is well validated and can be used to study the performance of this type of compressor, to help with design optimization and the identification of key parameters affecting the system transients. The electrical and thermodynamic losses were also investigated, particularly for the design point (stroke of 13 mm and pressure ratio of 3.0), since a full understanding of these can lead to an increase in compressor efficiency. - Highlights: • Model predictions of the performance of a novel moving magnet linear compressor. • Prototype linear compressor performance measurements using nitrogen. • Reconstruction of P–V loops using a model of the dynamics and electromagnetics. • Close agreement between the model and measurements for the P–V loops. • The design point motor efficiency was 74%, with potential improvements identified

  18. Aerodynamic reconfiguration and multicriterial optimization of centrifugal compressors – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the recent research of the author, with application to 3D computational fluid dynamics multicriterial optimization of turbomachinery parts. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been an ubicuous tool for compressor design for decades, helping the designers to test the aerodynamic parameters of their machines with great accuracy. Due to advances of multigrid methods and the improved robustness of structured solvers, CFD can nowadays be part of an optimization loop with artificial neural networks or evolutive algorithms. This paper presents a case study of an air centrifugal compressor rotor optimized using Numeca's Design 3D CFD suite. The turbulence model used for the database generation and the optimization stage is Spalart Allmaras. Results indicate a fairly quick convergence time per individual as well as a good convergence of the artificial neural network optimizer.

  19. Analysis of the Thermodynamical Efficiency of an Air Handling Unit with a Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Vytautas Martinaitis; Paulius Bareika; Violeta Misevičiūtė

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the seasonal thermodynamic efficiency of the air-to-air heat pump used for a heat recovery ventilation system and several modulations of compressors affecting the thermodynamic efficiency of the heat pump. A variable speed and on/off-type compressors have been selected. In order to evaluate the thermodynamic potential of the device, energy analysis has been performed. Along with modelling the operation of the air handling unit during the cold time of the year, variations ...

  20. Cooling Performance Characteristics on Mobile Air-Conditioning System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Seong Lee; Moo-Yeon Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the cooling performance characteristics of the mobile air-conditioning system using R744 (CO2) for the hybrid electric vehicle as an alternative to both the R-134a and the conventional air-conditioning system. The developed air-conditioning system is operated with an electric driven compressor in the battery driving mode and a belt driven compressor in the engine driving mode. The cooling performance characteristics of the developed system have been analyzed by experim...

  1. Analysis and developpment of a Turbivo compressor for MRV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ksayer, Elias Boulawz

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical vapor recompression is an efficient process to decrease energy consumption of drying processes. In order to use the mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) in residential clothe dryers, the volumetric Turbivo technology is used to design a dry water vapor compressor. The Turbivo volumetric machine is composed mainly of a rotor with one blade, a stator, and a mobile oscillating thrust. The advantages of Turbivo(R) technology are the absence of contact between rotor and stator as well as the oil-free operation. A model of the Turbivo compressor, including kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic analysis is presented. The compressor internal tightness is ensured by a surface treatment of the compressor components. Using the model, a water vapor Turbivo compressor of 12m3/h and compression ratio of 5 has been sized and realized. The compressor prototype will be tested on a dedicated test bench to characterize its volumetric and isentropic efficiencies.

  2. Using Data Compressors to Construct Rank Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabko, Daniil

    2007-01-01

    Nonparametric rank tests for homogeneity and component independence are proposed, which are based on data compressors. For homogeneity testing the idea is to compress the binary string obtained by ordering the two joint samples and writing 0 if the element is from the first sample and 1 if it is from the second sample and breaking ties by randomization (extension to the case of multiple samples is straightforward). $H_0$ should be rejected if the string is compressed (to a certain degree) and accepted otherwise. We show that such a test obtained from an ideal data compressor is valid against all alternatives. Component independence is reduced to homogeneity testing by constructing two samples, one of which is the first half of the original and the other is the second half with one of the components randomly permuted.

  3. High stability design for new centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, H.; Katayama, K.; Morii, S.; Mouri, Y.; Umemura, S.; Ozawa, U.; Oda, T.

    1989-01-01

    It is essential that high-performance centrifugal compressors be free of subsynchronous vibrations. A new high-performance centrifugal compressor has been developed by applying the latest rotordynamics knowledge and design techniques: (1) To improve the system damping, a specially designed oil film seal was developed. This seal attained a damping ratio three times that of the conventional design. The oil film seal contains a special damper ring in the seal cartridge. (2) To reduce the destabilizing effect of the labyrinth seal, a special swirl canceler (anti-swirl nozzle) was applied to the balance piston seal. (3) To confirm the system damping margin, the dynamic simulation rotor model test and the full load test applied the vibration exciting test in actual load conditions.

  4. Kinetic characteristic for a synchronal rotary compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Zongchang; Feng Jianmei; Zhou Hui; Yang Hua

    2007-01-01

    An angular speed, acceleration and tangential leakage of a synchronal rotary compressor in which both bladed rotor and a cylinder are discussed. The calculation formulae of revolving speed of cylinder and relative speed between the cylinder and bladed rotor are deduced detailedly in this paper. The variation of tangential speed and cylinder acceleration with angular position is investigated for a complete cycle. And some key parameters affected the relative speed are found out, viz, the relative speed depends on the radius of the cylinder and rotary speed of the axis, and the ratio of the cylinder to bladed rotor has not too much influence. It is the theoretic basis of designing and optimizing of structure characteristic of a synchronal rotary compressor. Also a computing formula of leakage related with rotary speed is deduced. It could supply

  5. DESIGN PARAMETERS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR INDUCER

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇAK, Saim

    1998-01-01

    Design characteristics of centrifugal compressor impellers working with compressible fluids are analyzed, and the design parameters of inducer are defined. The effects of incidence, deviation and deflection angles, relative eddy, rotating stall and Mach number are investigated. The relation between minimum relative Mach number of inducer and flow angle is investigated and it is observed that the minimum Mach number occurs for flow angle values between -680 and -520 . In the design, the effect...

  6. Review of Wet Gas Compressor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rofiqi, Zaenuddin Ar

    2014-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression without preliminary separation give an opportunity to develop mature and remote gas/condensate field. Predicting wet gas compressor performance is important to develop those fields. Currently there is no standard exist for wet gas compression performance calculation (Hundseid et al., 2008). The current standards (ISO 5389:2005) exist only for dry gas by utilizing Schultz method. In wet gas compression, fluid properties are changing as fluid being compressed. Schult...

  7. Properties of Refrigerant Affect Compressor Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bukac, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines selected thermodynamic properties of commonly used refrigerants and how they may affect design of a compressor. Among those properties are volumetric capacity, system pressure difference, system compression ratio, isentropic coefficient of performance, gas density, temperature of discharge gas, velocity of sound etc. The is made on the scale of evaporating temperatures from –40 oC to 30 oC, and condensing temperature 40.5 oC. The temperature of gas entering suction port is ...

  8. Axial Flow Characteristics within a Screw Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, J. M.; Guerrato, D.; Stosic, N.; Arcoumanis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Angle-resolved axial mean flow and turbulence characteristics were measured inside the working chamber of the male rotor of a screw compressor with high spatial and temporal resolution using laser Doppler velocimetry at two rotor speeds, 750 and 1000 rpm. Measurements were performed through a transparent window near the discharge port to allow the application of various laser techniques. The results showed that an angular resolution up to 2° could fully describe the flow variation inside the ...

  9. Probabilistic performance analysis of eroded compressor blades

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.; Nair, P.B.; Keane, A. J.; Shahpar, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic analysis of the effect of erosion on the performance of compressor fan blades. A realistic parametric CAD model is developed to represent eroded blades. Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques are employed to generate a set of candidate points, which are combined with a parametric geometry modeling and grid generation routine to produce a hybrid mesh. A multigrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solver HYDRA with Spalart Allmaras turbulence model is us...

  10. XGRIND: A Query-friendly XML Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Tolani, Pankaj M; Haritsa, Jayant R.

    2002-01-01

    XML documents are extremely verbose since the "schema" is repeated for every "record" in the document. While a variety of compressors are available to address this problem, they are not designed to support direct querying of the compressed document, a useful feature from a database perspective. In this paper, we propose a new compression tool called XGrind, that directly supports queries in the compressed domain. A special feature of XGrind is that the compressed document retains the structur...

  11. Surge and stall in centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbraembussche, R.

    Surge and stall are defined, and experimental and theoretical investigations of surge in compressors, stall in vaned flow passages, and stall in vaneless flow passages are reviewed. Ways to delay surge and stall are outlined. Actions to influence the surge limit during design or to correct for an eventual misprediction often decrease efficiency when the range has to be increased. The main action to avoid surge and stall is a safe design of impeller and diffuser and a correct matching of both components.

  12. Risk Based Maintenance for Compressor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marquesin De Oliveira, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reviewed part of the maintenance activities in a compressor system using the risk based maintenance philosophy. The goal was to verify if a contribution could be made to the maintenance plan of the system. The risk based maintenance philosophy is applied according to the recommendations in NORSOK Z-008. A reliability model is proposed to verify the impact of the new maintenance approach and to make better informed decisions in the maintenance management process. The model used...

  13. Amplifier/compressor fiber Raman lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M N; Mollenauer, L F; Stolen, R H; Simpson, J R; Shang, H T

    1987-10-01

    We show that the chirp from cross-phase modulation (XPM) dominates the operation of fiber Raman lasers (FRL's). Thus a FRL in the anomalous group-velocity regime is best described as a XPM-chirped Raman amplifier followed by a linear fiber compressor. While the output of such a laser is generally a narrow pulse with a broad pedestal, we show both experimentally and by computer simulation that negligible background is achievable. PMID:19741882

  14. High order limit in bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the high order effect in bunch compressing. There exists the limit of high order effect which is from RF accelerating field and bunch compressor, the bunch length obtained from high order theory is longer than that from linear theory, the initial uniform distribution bunch is easier to compress than the initial Gaussian distribution. Finally, a numerical simulation has been carried out, and the results agree with the theory well. (authors)

  15. Numerical simulation of piston leakage over hermetic reciprocating compressors behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Rigola Serrano, Joaquim; Pérez Segarra, Carlos David; Oliva Llena, Asensio

    2009-01-01

    Instantaneous flow leakage between piston and cylinder is numerically evaluated. Reynolds equation is solved to calculate the pressure leakage distribution through the piston in the compressor. Piston movement inside the cylinder is simulated from kinematic analysis of the connecting rod mechanical system and the respective force balances. An updated version of this model is here presented for different working range compressors and fluid refrigerants compressor chamber pressures distribution...

  16. A Low Friction Thrust Bearing for Reciprocating Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Shuhei; Kousokabe, Hirokatsu; Sekiyama, Nobuya; Ono, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    A thrust bearing with a micro texture on its sliding surface that produces hydrodynamic pressure was developed for use in reciprocating compressors. Evaluation using an elemental friction test showed that its friction loss was 20–60 % lower than that of the current design. Measurement of the efficiency of a compressor with the developed thrust bearing showed that the coefficient of performance was 1.4 % higher than that of a compressor with a conventional thrust bearing.

  17. Performance and Operating Characteristics of a Novel Rotating Spool Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Joe; Kemp, Greg; Bradshaw, Craig; Eckhard A. Groll

    2012-01-01

    The basic mechanism of the novel rotary spool compressor has been described previously by Kemp et al. (2008, 2010). The device combines various aspects of rotary and reciprocating devices currently well understood to achieve high efficiency at a low manufacturing cost. A dimensionless variable, the Zsoro number, is developed which represents the ratio of the geometric configuration of the compressor relative to the potential friction components of the compressor. This number allows for rapid ...

  18. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    OpenAIRE

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane; Natarajan Alagumurthy; Krishnaraj Palaniradja; G Selvaraj Gunasegarane

    2010-01-01

    Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive...

  19. Centrifugal Compressor Load Sharing with the use of MPC

    OpenAIRE

    Overvåg, Thomas Ferstad

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis examines the possibilities of having compressors running in an optimal manner which can result in energy savings. This research looks at how a compressor operates and the problems which can occur when connecting several machines, both in series and parallel. It is mainly focused on using Model Predictive Control (MPC), as a setup for controlling each compressor to a fixed operating point on the characteristic with relation to mass flow and pressure. Constrain...

  20. On the Development of an Efficient Regenerative Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Griffini, D.; Salvadori, S.; Carnevale, M.; A. Cappelletti; Ottanelli, L.; Martelli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative compressors are attractive machines used in several industrial processes. Their main characteristic is the highly three-dimensional development of the flow. Consequently, usual approach for axial or centrifugal compressors design are not an affordable strategy. The analysis of the rotor/stator coupling is the main issue in the design of regenerative compressors because of the vane-less nature of the stator and the characteristic trajectory of the flow. This paper describes the de...

  1. Study on the Oil Supply System for Rotary Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Makoto; Murata, Nobuo

    Research has been undertaken to clarify the shaft oil pump mechanisms and oil supply network systems for rotary compressors. Numerical expressions were developed for each part of the rotary compressor,(such as drive shaft,oil pump and journal bearing grooves)in order to confirm that the calculated values agree with the experimental results. Finally,a computer program has been developed to evaluate the oil supply system performance under steady conditions for rotary compressors.

  2. A Valve Design Methodology For Improved Reciprocating Compressor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, Aditya; Dhar, Sandeep; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Angadi, Shruti; Dey, Subhrajit

    2012-01-01

    The current work directly relates valve dynamics to the compressor energy efficiency. Majority of the previous studies have focused on reducing pressure losses due to valve geometry, towards improved compressor performance. On a complimentary note, analyzing the valve ‘flutter’ leads to a holistic valve development methodology. Traditionally, pressure actuated reed valves have been used in reciprocating hermetic compressors on the suction and discharge ports. A characteristic of these valve ...

  3. Object-oriented Technology for Compressor Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, C. K.; Follen, G. J.; Cannon, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    An object-oriented basis for interdisciplinary compressor simulation can, in principle, overcome several barriers associated with the traditional structured (procedural) development approach. This paper presents the results of a research effort with the objective to explore the repercussions on design, analysis, and implementation of a compressor model in an object oriented (OO) language, and to examine the ability of the OO system design to accommodate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for compressor performance prediction. Three fundamental results are that: (1) the selection of the object oriented language is not the central issue; enhanced (interdisciplinary) analysis capability derives from a broader focus on object-oriented technology; (2) object-oriented designs will produce more effective and reusable computer programs when the technology is applied to issues involving complex system inter-relationships (more so than when addressing the complex physics of an isolated discipline); and (3) the concept of disposable prototypes is effective for exploratory research programs, but this requires organizations to have a commensurate long-term perspective. This work also suggests that interdisciplinary simulation can be effectively accomplished (over several levels of fidelity) with a mixed language treatment (i.e., FORTRAN-C++), reinforcing the notion the OO technology implementation into simulations is a 'journey' in which the syntax can, by design, continuously evolve.

  4. An analysis of air-turborocket performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, Giuseppe; Colasurdo, Guido; Pastrone, Dario

    1993-06-01

    In order to assess the capabilities of the air-turborocket, an off-design analysis of a representative LOX-LH2 fed engine is carried out. Working lines on an envisageable compressor map are drawn for different flight conditions along a typical transatmospheric vehicle flight path. Characteristic aspects of the air-turborocket behavior in the spontaneous and controlled mode are highlighted. Specific thrust and propellant consumption at full throttle are computed, both in the dry and augmented mode. Performance achievable by exploiting the permissible mass flow range of the compressor map via the variation of the nozzle throat area, is shown.

  5. Aerosolization of tobramycin (TOBI) with the PARI LC PLUS reusable nebulizer: which compressor to use? Comparison of the CR60 to the PortaNeb compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Elsbeth M; Boer, Anne H De; Touw, Daan J; Brun, Paul P H Le; Roldaan, Albert C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Heijerman, Harry G M

    2008-09-01

    Aerosol output, aerosol output rate, and aerosol size distribution are influenced by the compressed air flow rate through the nebulizer cup. Testing a nebulizer-compressor with a drug for inhalation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is mandatory prior to starting therapy. Tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI), TOBI, is licensed in Europe with a recommendation for a "suitable" compressor connected to the PARI LC Plus nebulizer. To select a compressor, five devices were tested in a previous in vitro study and this resulted in a subsequent in vivo study. Two compressors [CR60 and PortaNeb (PN)] were compared in an open, randomized, crossover single dose pilot study in 10 CF patients to assess the most suitable device for inhalation of a tobramycin solution (TSI), TOBI, with the PARI LC Plus nebulizer. Lung function (FEV1 and FVC), pharmacokinetics [PK; safety (Cmax, Ctrough)], lung deposition (indirect method AUC0-6), nebulization time, and patients' experiences (questionnaire) were determined and compared. It was found that values of Cmax and AUC0-6 were higher with the CR60 than with the PortaNeb: 0.70 versus 0.54 mg/L, p = 0.005, and 2.54 versus 2.01 h.mg/L, p = 0.017, respectively. Tmax after use of the CR60 appeared earlier (0.64 vs. 0.85 h, p = 0.005). Transient airway narrowing was measured in three patients (2 x PN;1 x CR60) versus subjective chest tightness in seven patients (CR60 > PN). A shorter nebulization time for CR60 of 13.2 min compared to PN 16.1 min (p = 0.022) was observed, which was the main reason why patients preferred the CR60 (n = 7). No toxic serum levels were reached after inhalation of TSI. The CR60 compressor may seem advantageous based on a higher lung deposition and a shorter nebulization time, but a study in a large CF population to provide information on a possible higher risk of toxicity of TSI is called for. PMID:18759658

  6. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making...

  7. A study of occupant cooling by personally controlled air movement

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, Edward A.; Xu, T.; Miura, K; Zhang, H.; Fountain, M.; Bauman, Fred

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the effectiveness of air movement cooling, an alternative to compressor-based cooling of the air itself. Subjects in an environmental chamber were exposed to a range of warm temperatures and allowed to adjust air movement to suit their individual preferences, while answering a series of questions about their comfort. Air movement was from the subject's side, in two modes of turbulent flow. The air speeds chosen by the subjects, and their subjective responses, are evaluate...

  8. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  9. Design and simulation of a C-band pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and optimization procedure of a pulse compressor is presented. A C-band (5712 MHz) pulse compressor using a TE0,1,15 mode cylindrical cavity with dual side-wall coupling irises has been designed. Also the coupling coefficient, position of the short plane and size of the bottom groove have been optimized by using HFSS. (authors)

  10. 78 FR 1162 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Cardiac Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... (44 FR 13424), FDA published a proposed rule for classification of external cardiac compressors as... external cardiac compressors (74 FR 16214; April 9, 2009). In response to that order, FDA received... effectiveness. No comments were received on the proposed rule and on February 5, 1980 (45 FR 7966), a final...

  11. Compressor Study to Meet Large Civil Tilt Rotor Engine Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    A vehicle concept study has been made to meet the requirements of the Large Civil Tilt Rotorcraft vehicle mission. A vehicle concept was determined, and a notional turboshaft engine system study was conducted. The engine study defined requirements for the major engine components, including the compressor. The compressor design-point goal was to deliver a pressure ratio of 31:1 at an inlet weight flow of 28.4 lbm/sec. To perform a conceptual design of two potential compressor configurations to meet the design requirement, a mean-line compressor flow analysis and design code were used. The first configuration is an eight-stage axial compressor. Some challenges of the all-axial compressor are the small blade spans of the rear-block stages being 0.28 in., resulting in the last-stage blade tip clearance-to-span ratio of 2.4 percent. The second configuration is a seven-stage axial compressor, with a centrifugal stage having a 0.28-in. impeller-exit blade span. The compressors conceptual designs helped estimate the flow path dimensions, rotor leading and trailing edge blade angles, flow conditions, and velocity triangles for each stage.

  12. Rational choice systems control compressor station heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Чермалых, А.В.; Чермалых, В. М.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the heat pump mode, the possible structures of the control electric compressor heat pump installation. Using structural models obtained graphs of the controlled variables. Simulation results are given guidance on the application of rational management systems compressor station, depending on the evaluation criteria and the technological regime of the heat pump

  13. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternatives R-32, DR-5, and L-41a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares performance of alternative refrigerants R32, DR-5, and L-41A to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. Compressor calorimeter tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the lower-GWP alternative refrigerants in place of the common refrigerant R-410A in a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter using a compressor having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that performance of these three lower-GWP alternative refrigerants is comparable to that of R-410A. For the 20 F superheat and 15 F subcooling test conditions, EERs of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 90% to 99%, 96% to 99%, and 94% to 101%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A. Similarly, cooling capacities of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 98% to 103%, 92% to 96%, and 84% to 92%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A.

  14. Fuel efficiency, availability and compressor station configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubomirsky, Matt; Kurz, Rainer [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Klimov, Pavel [Intergas Central Asia, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-19

    Compressor stations play a very important role in the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available today for this equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with significant savings on operating expenses during the economic life of the project For any application of machinery in a pipeline compression station, one of the key questions to answer is the number of units to install to meet the flow requirements of the pipeline. Depending on the load profile of the pipeline, the answers may look different. Other factors to consider include the fact that gas turbines can produce a significant amount of additional power at lower ambient temperatures. So, even for constant load of the pipeline, the relative load of the driver changes. In this paper, a typical transcontinental pipeline with multiple compressor stations is evaluated. The determination of the exact hydraulic behavior of the pipeline is part of the modeling effort. The site ambient conditions, with a significant swing in ambient temperatures are considered. The issue discussed in this paper evolves around the availability that can be achieved with various configurations, based on actually achieved reliability and availability numbers. The other large impact on operating costs, fuel consumption will be discussed. Here, the choice of the number of installed units has a distinct impact on annual fuel consumption, as well as the capacity of the pipeline during various scenarios. (author)

  15. Fermilab satellite refrigerator compressors with oil and moisture removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes the use of twenty eight Mycom compressors in the Tevatron refrigeration system. Each Mycom skid consists of an oil injected screw compressor of 58 g/s capacity with a 350 hp motor. Helium gas returning from the low pressure gas header is compressed from 1 atm to 20 atm. The compressed helium gas is then passed through a purification system where oil mist, oil vapor, water vapor and particulate are sequentially removed and injected into a high pressure gas header. A Fermilab Mycom process gas compressor system consists of the compressor, direct drive motor, lube oil reservoir, lube oil pumps, lube oil cooler, oil filters, oil removal system, compressor inlet strainer, aftercooler, local control panel and controls. Topics considered include the oil coalescer, the oil drain, adsorbent beds, and the final filter. It is determined that a critical gas velocity of 0.5 m/s is needed to prevent oil re-entrainment from the wet surfaces

  16. DESIGN PARAMETERS OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR INDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim KOÇAK

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Design characteristics of centrifugal compressor impellers working with compressible fluids are analyzed, and the design parameters of inducer are defined. The effects of incidence, deviation and deflection angles, relative eddy, rotating stall and Mach number are investigated. The relation between minimum relative Mach number of inducer and flow angle is investigated and it is observed that the minimum Mach number occurs for flow angle values between -680 and -520 . In the design, the effect of a 100 difference in flow angle is found to be less than 1 % on minimum relative Mach number.

  17. Factory acceptance of the compressor skids at Samifi-Babcock. All pictures show the second stage compressor skid.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2001-01-01

    Most recent pictures taken during the factory acceptance of the compressor skids at Samifi-Babcock. All pictures show the second stage compressor skid. Picture two was taken during the leak tests and shows all the pockets around flanges and valves.

  18. Modeling Mist to Annular Flow Development in the Discharge of a Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Wujek, Scott S.; Hrnjak, Predrag S.

    2012-01-01

    A model has been created to describe the development of flow leaving a compressor as it transitions from mist to annular flow. Flow parameters such as the drop size, drop speed, drop concentration, film thickness, and film velocity change as a function of length. Parameters such as refrigerant flow rates, oil in circulation ratios, and fluid properties are accounted for in these models. While some flow development work is found in the open literature for air-water or steam-water flows, little...

  19. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Robert J.; Horazak, Dennis A.

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  20. Tests of cold helium compressors at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab has tested two cold helium compressors for possible installation in the satellite refrigerator buildings of the Tevatron cryogenic system. Operating conditions required to obtain an overall Tevatron energy upgrade from 900 to 1000 GeV are (for each of 24 machines): 52 g/s mass flow rate, 0.7 atm inlet pressure, 1.4 atm exhaust pressure. Acceptable efficiency is in the 60% range. Both Creare, Inc., and Cryogenic Consultants, Inc. (CCI), have supplied units for evaluation. The Creare machine is a high speed centrifugal pump/compressor which yielded 60% adiabatic efficiency (including an approximately 20 watt heat leak) with a 1.0 atm inlet pressure and 55 g/s flow rate. Certain mechanical difficulties were present, chiefly the device's inability to withstand two-phase flow. CCI supplied a reciprocating unit which, after initial testing and modification, achieved 59% efficiency with an approximate 35 watt heat leak at a 0.7 atm inlet pressure and 48 g/s flow rate. Although the device lacks the smooth, quiet operating characteristics of a turbomachine, it has endured mechanically throughout testing and is entirely insensitive to two-phase flow

  1. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The report "High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications" documents the work conducted at UTRC under the NRA Contract NNC08CB03C, with cost share 2/3 NASA, and 1/3 UTRC, that has been extended to 4.5 years. The purpose of this effort was to identify key technical barriers to advancing the state-of-the-art of small centrifugal compressor stages; to delineate the measurements required to provide insight into the flow physics of the technical barriers; to design, fabricate, install, and test a state-of-the-art research compressor that is representative of the rear stage of an axial-centrifugal aero-engine; and to acquire detailed aerodynamic performance and research quality data to clarify flow physics and to establish detailed data sets for future application. The design activity centered on meeting the goal set outlined in the NASA solicitation-the design target was to increase efficiency at higher work factor, while also reducing the maximum diameter of the stage. To fit within the existing Small Engine Components Test Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and to facilitate component re-use, certain key design parameters were fixed by UTRC, including impeller tip diameter, impeller rotational speed, and impeller inlet hub and shroud radii. This report describes the design effort of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage (HECC) and delineation of measurements, fabrication of the compressor, and the initial tests that were performed. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage with a very challenging reduction in radius ratio was successfully designed, fabricated and installed at GRC. The testing was successful, with no mechanical problems and the running clearances were achieved without impeller rubs. Overall, measured pressure ratio of 4.68, work factor of 0.81, and at design exit corrected flow rate of 3 lbm/s met the target requirements. Polytropic efficiency of 85.5 percent and stall margin of 7.5 percent were

  2. Canandaigua Wines: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Winery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-01

    In June 2004, Canandaigua Wine Company (CWC) completed an upgrade project on the compressed air system at its winery in Lodi, California. Before the project, the winery depended on two compressors to satisfy its production requirements. Anticipating an expansion of its production capacity, the winery commissioned a review of the compressed air system by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Qualifi ed AIRMaster+ Specialist at Atlas Copco Compressors, Inc.

  3. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option

  4. CFD Analysis of a supercritical carbon dioxide compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle is considered as an attractive cycle for the next generation nuclear systems. It was identified that the compressor can achieve very small compressing work as operating conditions become closer to the critical point. Smaller amount of input work contributes to the enhancement of overall net cycle efficiency. Comparing to traditional water vapor cycle and helium cycle, the S CO2 cycle has relatively much less volume and component size. Therefore, S CO2 cycle can be used for many purposes such as nuclear ship propulsion where volume requirement is strict, or a small nuclear reactor when it is constructed on geographically limited area One of the main factors for determining the supercritical Brayton cycle efficiency is the performance of turbomachineries. Many research organizations already obtained experimental data of S CO2 cycle turbomachineries, but the amount of data is still limited. Our research team is conducting a S CO2 compressor test to obtain fundamental data for advanced compressor design and measure the performance of the compressor near the critical point. The S CO2 compressor testing loop is specially designed to test main compressor of the loop. The S CO2 fluid shows the properties of gases and liquids at the same time, but its behavior is closer to the liquid rather than gas near the critical point. Therefore, we are performing compressor test with canned motor pump which is unique from other previous studies

  5. CFD Analysis of a supercritical carbon dioxide compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoon Han; Lee, Jek Young; Cha, Jae Eun; Addad, Yacine [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle is considered as an attractive cycle for the next generation nuclear systems. It was identified that the compressor can achieve very small compressing work as operating conditions become closer to the critical point. Smaller amount of input work contributes to the enhancement of overall net cycle efficiency. Comparing to traditional water vapor cycle and helium cycle, the S CO{sup 2} cycle has relatively much less volume and component size. Therefore, S CO{sup 2} cycle can be used for many purposes such as nuclear ship propulsion where volume requirement is strict, or a small nuclear reactor when it is constructed on geographically limited area One of the main factors for determining the supercritical Brayton cycle efficiency is the performance of turbomachineries. Many research organizations already obtained experimental data of S CO{sup 2} cycle turbomachineries, but the amount of data is still limited. Our research team is conducting a S CO{sup 2} compressor test to obtain fundamental data for advanced compressor design and measure the performance of the compressor near the critical point. The S CO{sup 2} compressor testing loop is specially designed to test main compressor of the loop. The S CO{sup 2} fluid shows the properties of gases and liquids at the same time, but its behavior is closer to the liquid rather than gas near the critical point. Therefore, we are performing compressor test with canned motor pump which is unique from other previous studies.

  6. Pressure Field Study of the Tevatron Cold Compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40,000 and 95,000 rpm, with a speed of 80,000 rpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper

  7. Pressure Field Study of the Tevatron Cold Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebaner, A. L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W. M.; Theilacker, J. C.

    2004-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40,000 and 95,000 rpm, with a speed of 80,000 rpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  8. Core compressor exit stage study. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdsall, E. A.; Canal, E., Jr.; Lyons, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspect ratio on the performance of core compressor exit stages was demonstrated using two three stage, highly loaded, core compressors. Aspect ratio was identified as having a strong influence on compressors endwall loss. Both compressors simulated the last three stages of an advanced eight stage core compressor and were designed with the same 0.915 hub/tip ratio, 4.30 kg/sec (9.47 1bm/sec) inlet corrected flow, and 167 m/sec (547 ft/sec) corrected mean wheel speed. The first compressor had an aspect ratio of 0.81 and an overall pressure ratio of 1.357 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% with an average diffusion factor or 0.529. The aspect ratio of the second compressor was 1.22 with an overall pressure ratio of 1.324 at a design adiabatic efficiency of 88.7% with an average diffusion factor of 0.491.

  9. Modeling and control of surge and rotating stall in compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    1998-12-31

    Compressors are used in power generation and a variety of other applications. This thesis contains new results in the field of modeling and control of rotating stall and surge in compressors. A close coupled valve is included in the Moore-Greitzer compression system model and controllers for both surge and rotating stall is derived using backstepping. Disturbances, constant and time varying, are then taken into account, and non-linear controllers are derived. Stability results are given. Then, passivity is used to derive a simple surge control law for the closed coupled valve. This propositional control law is shown to stabilize the system even in the presence of time varying disturbances in mass flow and pressure. A novel model for an axial compression system with non-constant compressor speed is derived by extending the Moore-Greitzer model. Rotating stall and surge is studied in connection with acceleration of the compressor. Finally, a model for a centrifugal compression system with time varying compressor speed is derived. The variable speed compressor characteristic is derived based on energy losses in the compressor components. Active control of surge in connection with varying speed is studied. Semi-global exponential stability of the compression system with both surge and speed control is proven. 103 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Wet gas compression. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamics within a centrifugal compressor exposed to wet gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Trond Gammelsaeter

    2012-07-01

    The demand for more efficient oil and gas production requires improved technology to increase production rates and enhance profitable operation. The centrifugal compressor is the key elements in the compression system. Preliminary studies of wet gas compressor concepts have demonstrated the benefits of wet gas boosting. An open-loop test facility was designed for single-stage wet gas compressor testing. Experimental investigators have been performed to reveal the impact of liquid on the aerodynamics of centrifugal compressor. The investigation consisted of two test campaigns with different impeller/diffuser configurations. Atmospheric air and water were used as experimental fluids. The two configurations showed a different pressure ratio characteristics when liquid as present. The results from test campaign A demonstrated a pronounced pressure ratio decrease at high flow and a minor pressure ration increase pressure ratio with reducing gas mass fraction (GMF). The deviation in pressure ratio characteristic for the two test campaigns was attributed to the volute operating characteristic. Both impeller/diffuser configurations demonstrated a reduction in maximum volume flow with decreasing GMF. The impeller pressure ratio was related to the diffuser and/or the volute performance). Air and water are preferable experimental fluids for safety reasons and because a less extensive facility design is required. An evaluation of the air/water tests versus hydrocarbon tests was performed in order to reveal whether the results were representative. Air/water tests at atmospheric conditions reproduced the general performance trend of hydrocarbon wet gas compressor tests with an analogous impeller at high pressures. Aerodynamic instability limits the operating range because of feasible severe damage of the compressor and adverse influence on the performance. It is essential to establish the surge margin at different operating conditions. A delayed instability inception was

  11. Introduction of the Novel Cross Vane Expander-Compressor Unit for Vapour Compression Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Ken Shaun; Ooi, Kim Tiow; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2014-01-01

    A new type of expander-compressor system called Cross Vane expander-compressor (CVEC) was introduced. This device replaces the expansion valve and compressor in conventional refrigeration systems to reduce the energy consumption and improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system. As opposed to many expander-compressor systems in the literature, whereby a separated expander is coupled to a separated compressor of the same or different mechanism, the novel Cross Vane mechanism perfo...

  12. Performance Analysis of Centrifugal Compressor under Multiple Working Conditions Based on Time-weighted Average

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Liansheng; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Wang, Le; Tang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    A method of compressor performance analysis under multiple working conditions is present based on the Time-weighted average (TWA). The main operation parameters can be obtained based the estimate of the working conditions and times of compressors. Then the comprehensive analysis method can be used to get the overall performance of compressor. The performance of a basic centrifugal compressor was simulation by CFD method in this paper. The overall performance of the centrifugal compressor is c...

  13. DESIGN OF 8-4 AND 9-4 COMPRESSORS FORHIGH SPEED MULTIPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. Marimuthu; Dhruv Bansal; Balamurugan, S.; P. S. Mallick

    2013-01-01

    This study presents higher order compressors which can be effectively used for high speed multiplications. The proposed compressors offer less delay and area. But the Energy Delay Product (EDP) is slightly higher than lower order compressors. The performance of 8Ã8, 16Ã16 and 24Ã24 multipliers using the proposed higher order compressors has been compared with the same multipliers using lower order compressors and found that the new structures can be used for high speed multiplications. These ...

  14. Linear Compressors for Electronics Cooling: Energy Recovery and the Useful Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Craig; Groll, Eckhard A.; Garimella, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive model of a linear compressor for electronics cooling was previously presented by Bradshaw et al. (2011). The current work utilizes this model to explore the energy recovery characteristics of a linear compressor as compared to those of a reciprocating compressor. An analysis of the impact of dead (clearance) volume on both a linear and reciprocating compressor is presented. It is shown that the volumetric efficiency of linear and reciprocating compressors displays similar tren...

  15. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-7 Compressed..., and energy storing devices must be in the emergency generator room, except for the main or auxiliary... emergency generator room and a handcranked, diesel-powered air compressor for recharging the air...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF NEURO FUZZY CONTROLLER ALGORITHM FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    AMRIT KAUR; ARSHDEEP KAUR

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the neuro-fuzzy controller algorithm for air conditioning system. Neuro-fuzzy control combines the learning capabilities of neural networks and control capabilities of fuzzy logic control. The neurofuzzy controller for air conditioning system takes two inputs from temperature and humidity sensors and controls the compressor speed. The experimental results of the developed system are also shown.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF NEURO FUZZY CONTROLLER ALGORITHM FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMRIT KAUR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the neuro-fuzzy controller algorithm for air conditioning system. Neuro-fuzzy control combines the learning capabilities of neural networks and control capabilities of fuzzy logic control. The neurofuzzy controller for air conditioning system takes two inputs from temperature and humidity sensors and controls the compressor speed. The experimental results of the developed system are also shown.

  18. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  19. Uncertainty issues on S-CO2 compressor performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is related to the property variation, pressure ratio and measurement method. Since SCO2PE facility operates near the critical point with a low pressure ratio compressor, one of the solutions to improve measurement uncertainty is utilizing a density meter. However, additional two density meters on compressor inlet and outlet measurement didn't provide remarkable improvement on the overall uncertainty. Thus, the authors think that different approach on the performance measurement is required to secure measurement confidence. As further works, identifying appropriate approximation on efficiency equation and applying direct measurement of compressor shaft power for the efficiency calculation will be considered

  20. Analysis and simulation of a coupled-cavity pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equivalent circuit model is built for a coupled-resonator pulse compressor. Based on the circuit, the general second order differential equation is derived and converted into the first order equation to save computing time. In order to analyze the transient response and optimize parameters for the pulse compressor, we have developed a simulation code. In addition, we have also designed a three-cavity pulse compressor to get the maximum energy multiplication factor. The size of the cavities and coupling apertures is determined by HFSS. (authors)

  1. Mass production report of C-band RF pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C-band rf pulse compressor stores the rf power from a klystron and generates a compressed rf pulse that has higher peak power in order to obtain a higher acceleration gradient. The XFEL project at SPring-8 uses 64 pulse compressor units. In December 2009, we completed the fabrication and RF measurement of these units. A high-power rf test was conducted in the test stand at RIKEN. The peak output power from pulse compressor is 260 MW, and the acceleration gradient of the accelerating structure is achieved to be 40 MV/m. (author)

  2. Turbine Engine with Differential Gear Driven Fan and Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Pagluica, Gino J. (Inventor); Duong, Loc Quang (Inventor); Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gas turbine engine provides a differential gear system coupling the turbine to the bypass fan and the compressor. In this manner, the power/speed split between the bypass fan and the compressor can be optimized under all conditions. In the example shown, the turbine drives a sun gear, which drives a planet carrier and a ring gear in a differential manner. One of the planet carrier and the ring gear is coupled to the bypass fan, while the other is coupled to the compressor.

  3. Design Method for Channel Diffusers of Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kalinkevych

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design method for channel diffusers of centrifugal compressors, which is based on the solving of the inverse problem of gas dynamics, is presented in the paper. The concept of the design is to provide high pressure recovery of the diffuser by assuming the preseparation condition of the boundary layer along one of the channel surfaces. The channel diffuser was designed with the use of developed method to replace the vaned diffuser of the centrifugal compressor model stage. The numerical simulation of the diffusers was implemented by means of CFD software. Obtained gas dynamic characteristics of the designed diffuser were compared to the base vaned diffuser of the compressor stage.

  4. Some field experience with subsynchronous vibration of centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Xuan; Gu, Jin-Chu; Shen, Qin-Gen; Hua, Yong-Li; Zhu, Lan-Sheng; Du, Yun-Tian

    1989-01-01

    A lot of large chemical fertilizer plants producing 1000 ton NH3/day and 1700 ton urea/day were constructed in the 1970's in China. During operation, subsynchronous vibration takes place occasionally in some of the large turbine-compressor sets and has resulted in heavy economic losses. Two cases of subsynchronous vibration are described: Self-excited vibration of the low-pressure (LP) cylinder of one kind of N2-H2 multistage compressor; and Forced subsynchronous vibration of the high-pressure (HP) cylinder of the CO2 compressor.

  5. Microbunching Due to Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Bunch Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coherent synchrotron radiation of a bunch in a bunch compressor may lead to the microwave instability producing longitudinal modulation of the bunch. This modulation generates coherent radiation with the wave length small compared to the bunch length. It can also be a source of an undesirable emittance growth in the compressor. We derive and analyze the equation that describes linear evolution of the microwave modulation. Numerical solution of this equation for the LCLS bunch compressor reveals such an instability, in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations

  6. Expert system for compressor maintenance support; Sistema especialista para apoio a manutencao de compressores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Caletti, Luciano [KEOHPS - Knowledge Engineering on Hydraulic and Pneumatic System, SC (Brazil); Luna, Paulo de T.M. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of critical machines in industrial processes, such as compressors used in industrial plants, is fundamental for overall company operation. In this context, it becomes strategic the application of methods and tools to support the operation and maintenance of the most relevant process equipment. Among these computational tools are the Expert Systems, which aim to emulate the decision making process of human experts in a specific knowledge domain. In Oil and Gas domain, an example of such tools is the SEGRED project, which combines expert system techniques with dynamic simulation of transport and distribution natural gas networks. The SECOMP project, Expert System for Compressor Maintenance, is considered a spin-off of the SEGRED. Its objective is to develop an expert system to support maintenance activities, aiming to increase reliability, improve performance and reduce maintenance and operational costs. This article presents the first phase of the SECOMP project, which is related to the development of an expert system prototype for corrective maintenance of natural gas reciprocating compressors. The paper discusses the context of this knowledge domain, the prototype development and its potential contribution in an industrial environment. (author)

  7. Retrofitting reciprocating compressors for noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board recently enacted their noise control directive ID 88-1. The effects of this regulation on the operation of an oil and gas facility are discussed, and a specific case history is presented to provide a disciplined strategy for noise attenuation retrofits. An investigation was carried out into sound sources at a reciprocating compressor gas plant, revealing several sound sources: engine exhaust stacks, engine exhaust silencer shells, direct-drive fan cooler inlets, direct drive fan cooler outlets, aerial cooler inlets and aerial cooler outlets. Details are presented of the investigative techniques and order-ranking of sources by decibel level. When controlling engine exhaust noise, silencers or mufflers are the preferred treatment. Choice of type (reactive or absorptive) and specification of acoustical performance of a silencer are discussed. The gas plant achieved noise reductions of 6-13 dB, measured at affected residences, through the use of engine exhaust silencers. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2015-10-20

    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  9. Stabilized Liner Compressor: The Return of Linus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Peter; Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael; Mielke, Charles; Hinrichs, Mark; Nguyen, Doan

    2015-11-01

    To access the lower cost regime of magneto-inertial fusion at megagauss magnetic field-levels requires the use of dynamic conductors in the form of imploding cylindrical shells, aka, liners. Such liner implosions can compress magnetic flux and plasma to attain fusion conditions, but are subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, both in the launch and recovery of the liner material and in the final few diameters of implosion. These instabilities were overcome in the Linus program at the Naval Research Laboratory, c. 1979, providing the experimentally-demonstrated basis for repetitive operation and leading to an economical reactor concept at low fusion gain. The recent ARPA-E program for low-cost fusion technology has revived interest in this approach. We shall discuss progress in modeling and design of a Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) that extends the earlier work to higher pressures and liner speeds appropriate to potential plasma targets. Sponsored by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  10. Cooling Effect Improvement by Dimensional Modification of Annular Fins in Two Stage Reciprocating Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ashish D. Vasiyar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Reciprocating Compressor fins are made from Aluminum alloy and it is provided for increase in contact area in convective heat transfer. Air cooling is a method of dissipating heat It works by making the object to be cooled have a larger surface area or have an increased flow of air over its surface. a fin is a surface that extends from an object to increase the rate of heat transfer to or from the environment by increasing convection. The aim of present work study is to prepare a finite element model of fin. The result of finite element model will be verified with experimental work with thermocouple. After comparing results of FEA model we can modify boundary condition, material shape & size for improvement in efficiency & cooling rate. It is possible to find optimum solution with FEA package ANSYS 14 used for modeling and analysis. Effectiveness of fin can be improved by changing geometry of fin. So after increase effectiveness it can increase cooling rate and minimize the time for cooling process of Reciprocating compressor. Aim of this work is increase effectiveness of the fin for best performance.

  11. Deformation Analysis of the Main Components in a Single Screw Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feilong; Liao, Xueli; Feng, Quanke; Van Den Broek, Martijn; De Paepe, Michel

    2015-08-01

    The single screw compressor is used in many fields such as air compression, chemical industry and refrigeration. During operation, different gas pressures and temperatures applied on the components can cause different degrees of deformation, which leads to a difference between the thermally induced clearance and the designed clearance. However, limited research about clearance design is reported. In this paper, a temperature measurement instrument and a convective heat transfer model were described and used to establish the temperature of a single screw air compressor's casing, screw rotor and star wheel. 3-D models of these three main components were built. The gas force deformation, thermal- structure deformation and thermal-force coupling deformation were carried out by using a finite element simulation method. Results show that the clearance between the bottom of the groove and the top of star wheel is reduced by 0.066 mm, the clearance between the side of groove and the star wheel is reduced by 0.015 mm, and the clearance between the cylinder and the rotor is reduced by 0.01 mm. It is suggested that these deformations should be taken into account during the design of these clearances.

  12. A computer simulation study of compressor tuning phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, J. J.; Singh, R.

    1984-12-01

    Basic thermofluid processes of a positive displacement compressor are strongly dependent upon the acoustic behavior of the manifolds. The tuning process of such a compressor is fairly complex as increases in the mass flow rate may not correspond with higher energy efficiencies. In this paper a computer simulation program is described, which includes the manifold back pressure effect, developed to investigate and explain the tuning phenomena for a single or two-cylinder reciprocating compressor. A symmetric suction manifold system for a two-cylinder refrigeration compressor has been considered as the example case in this tuning study. Results for flow efficiency, energy efficiency, and pressure pulsations at the valve exit are presented in terms of the acoustic natural frequencies of the manifold system. Predicted results compare reasonably well with experimental data. Based on this study, it is possible to choose optimal manifold dimensions which will provide higher efficiencies with lower pressure pulsations.

  13. Optimization of refrigeration system with gas-injected scroll compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baolong; Shi, Wenxing; Han, Linjun; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Gas refrigerant injection has been proven as an effective method to improve the performance of the scroll compressor and its refrigeration system under high compression ratio working conditions. Much research on the injected scroll compressor and its system has been conducted, but the universal control and design method is still lacking. A model of the refrigeration system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is developed in this paper. With this model, the effects of gas injection on the system and component parameters are investigated. Based on the identified evaporator characteristics and thermodynamic analysis, a set of general principles for the design and operation of the refrigeration or heat pump system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is proposed. (author)

  14. A Novel Plasma-Based Compressor Stall Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern aircraft gas turbine engines utilize highly loaded airfoils in both the compressor and turbine to maximize performance while minimizing weight, cost, and...

  15. EFRC guidelines for vibrations in reciprocating compressor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the disadvantages of a reciprocating compressor is that it generates pulsations and vibrations, which, without limitation and proper attention during design, manufacturing, installation and operation, can lead to fatigue failures, inefficiency, capacity limitations and unsafe situations. To j

  16. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bella, Francis A. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VY (United States)

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  17. A Novel Aerodynamic Design Method for Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nili-Ahmadabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new quasi-3D design method for centrifugal compressor impeller. The method links up a novel inverse design algorithm, called Ball-Spine Algorithm (BSA, and a quasi-3D analysis. Euler equation is solved on the impeller meridional plane. The unknown boundaries (hub and shroud of numerical domain are iteratively modified by BSA until a target pressure distribution in flow passage is reached. To validate the quasi-3D analysis code, existing compressor impeller is investigated experimentally. Comparison between the quasi-3D analysis and the experimental results shows good agreement. Also, a full 3D Navier-Stokes code is used to analyze the existing and designed compressor numerically. The results show that the momentum decrease near the shroud wall in the existing compressor is removed by hub-shroud modifications resulting an improvement in performance by 0.6 percent.

  18. Vapor Compressor Driven Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate a vapor compressor driven hybrid two-phase loop technology. The hybrid two-phase loop...

  19. Small variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains both a theoretical and experimental investigation of some of the fundamental characteristics of a smal variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressor intended for application in domestic refrigeration. The results of a previously published simulation model for variable speed...

  20. Axial flow, multi-stage turbine and compressor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design models of multi-stage, axial-flow turbine and compressor are developed for high temperature nuclear reactor power plants with Closed Brayton Cycle for energy conversion. The models are based on a mean-line through-flow analysis for free-vortex flow, account for the profile, secondary, end wall, trailing edge and tip clearance losses in the cascades, and calculate the geometrical parameters of the blade cascades. The effects of the mean-stage work coefficient, flow coefficient and stage reaction on the design and performance of helium turbine and compressor are investigated. The results compare favorably with those reported for 6 stages helium turbine and 20 stages helium compressor. Also presented and discussed are the results of parametric analyses of a 530-MW helium turbine, and a 251-MW helium compressor.

  1. Modeling of Compressor Performance Deterioration Due to Erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed, A.; W. Tabakoff; D. Singh

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a simulation of compressor performance deterioration due to blade erosion. The simulation at both design and off-design conditions is based on a mean line row by row model, which incorporates the effects of blade roughness and tip clearance. The results indicate a pronounced effect of blade erosion on the compressor adiabatic efficiency and a lesser effect on the pressure ratio. The loss in performance is mainly caused by the increased blade surface roughnes...

  2. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  3. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory

  4. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  5. Impact on the magnetic compressor due to CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an electron bunch is compressed in a chicane compressor, the CSR (coherent synchrotron radiation) will induce energy redistribution along the bunch. Such energy redistribution will affect the longitudinal emittance as a direct consequence. It will also excite betatron oscillation due to the chromatic transfer functions, and hence a transverse emittance change. So, it is indispensable for us to find a way to alleviate the CSR-caused emittance dilution and the bad result of chicane compressor in PKU-FEL. (authors)

  6. Development and Design of a Centrifugal Compressor Volute

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Xu; Michael Müller

    2005-01-01

    The volute is one of the key components of a centrifugal compressor. The design of the volute not only impacts the compressor efficiency but also influences the operating range. The detailed flow simulation presented here helps to better understand the volute flow mechanisms and provide design guidance in volute design to meet performance goals. In this study, the viscous Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate the flow inside the vaneless diffuser and volute. The de...

  7. Pressure Pulsation Signal Analysis for Centrifugal Compressor Blade Crack Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Hongkun Li; Xuefeng Zhang; Xiaowen Zhang; Shuhua Yang; Fujian Xu

    2014-01-01

    Blade is a key piece of component for centrifugal compressor. But blade crack could usually occur as blade suffers from the effect of centrifugal forces, gas pressure, friction force, and so on. It could lead to blade failure and centrifugal compressor closing down. Therefore, it is important for blade crack early warning. It is difficult to determine blade crack as the information is weak. In this research, a pressure pulsation (PP) sensor installed in vicinity to the crack area is used to d...

  8. A Novel Aerodynamic Design Method for Centrifugal Compressor Impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Nili-Ahmadabadi; mohammad durali; Ali Hajilouy Benisi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new quasi-3D design method for centrifugal compressor impeller. The method links up a novel inverse design algorithm, called Ball-Spine Algorithm (BSA), and a quasi-3D analysis. Euler equation is solved on the impeller meridional plane. The unknown boundaries (hub and shroud) of numerical domain are iteratively modified by BSA until a target pressure distribution in flow passage is reached. To validate the quasi-3D analysis code, existing compressor impeller is investig...

  9. Comparison of Two Diffusers in a Transonic Centrifugal Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakagawa; Hiroshi Hayami; Yuichi Keimi

    2003-01-01

    Flow mechanisms suppressing the flow separation in two diffusers, a low-solidity cascade diffuser and a vaned diffuser with additional small vanes near the inlet, were compared mainly by numerical simulation. As the superiority of the low-solidity cascade diffuser was expected, a series of experiments was conducted using a transonic centrifugal compressor with a maximum pressure ratio of 7. The performance of the compressor with the vaned diffuser was comparable to that of the low-solidity ca...

  10. Design Method for Channel Diffusers of Centrifugal Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Mykola Kalinkevych; Andriy Skoryk

    2013-01-01

    The design method for channel diffusers of centrifugal compressors, which is based on the solving of the inverse problem of gas dynamics, is presented in the paper. The concept of the design is to provide high pressure recovery of the diffuser by assuming the preseparation condition of the boundary layer along one of the channel surfaces. The channel diffuser was designed with the use of developed method to replace the vaned diffuser of the centrifugal compressor model stage. The numerical si...

  11. Dynamic simulation of centrifugal compressors in a process environment

    OpenAIRE

    Razak, A. M. Y.

    1984-01-01

    The recent developments in process plant design have made it desirable that a better understanding of transient compressor performance within the process plant be gained. The model outlined in this thesis is capable of representing most types of process plants. Further the number of degress of freedom, plus the dynamic flexibility of a poly- tropic analysis allow any system transient to be simulated, including compressor surge. A computer program has been developed from the ...

  12. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  13. Compound fuzzy model for thermal performance of refrigeration compressors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fuzzy method is introduced to the calculation of thermal performance of refrigeration compressors. A compound model combining classical thermodynamic theory and fuzzy theory is presented and compared with a simple fuzzy model without classical thermodynamic fundamentals. Case study of refrigeration compressors shows that the compound fuzzy model and the simple fuzzy model are both more efficient than the classical thermodynamic method. However, the compound fuzzy model is of better precision and adaptability.

  14. A Miniature-Scale Linear Compressor for Electronics Cooling.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    The power density of electronic devices has increased to a level that requires new technology for heat rejection. An alternative to conventional heat rejection techniques is refrigeration. However, current refrigeration technologies cannot meet the packaging constraints, or perform well at the operating conditions encountered by electronics cooling applications. The compressor is critical to the performance of a vapor compression refrigeration system. However, current compressor technology is...

  15. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, ...

  16. The new performance calculation method of fouled axial flow compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huadong; Xu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds' law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail. PMID:25197717

  17. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  18. Operating experiences and test results of six cold helium compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. P.; Gibbs, R. J.; Schlafke, A. P.; Sondericker, J. H.; Wu, K. C.

    Three small and three large cold helium centrifugal compressors have been operated at Brookhaven National Laboratory between 1981 and 1986. The three small cold compressors have been installed on a 1000 W refrigerator for testing a string of superconducting magnets and for R and D purposes. The three large units are components of the BNL 24.8 KW refrigerator to be used to provide cooling for the RHIC project. These compressors are used either to circulate a large amount of supercritical helium through a group of magnets or to pump on the helium bath to reduce temperature in the system. One small circulating compressor tested employs tilting-pad gas bearings and is driven by a DC motor. The two small cold vacuum pumps tested use oil bearings and are driven by oil turbines. The three large oil-bearing cold compressors are driven by DC motors through a gear box. A unique feature of the large vacuum pump is the combination of two pumps with a total of four stages on the same shaft. The adiabatic efficiencies are found to be 57% for the large vacuum pumps and close to 50% for the large circulating compressor. Good overall reliability has been experienced.

  19. Design and Characterization of a Centrifugal Compressor Surge Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Tien Lim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of a new centrifugal compressor surge test rig is presented. The objective of the design and development of the rig is to study the surge phenomenon in centrifugal compression systems and to investigate a novel method of surge control by active magnetic bearing servo actuation of the impeller axial tip clearance. In this paper, we focus on the design, initial setup, and testing of the rig. The latter two include the commissioning of the rig and the experimental characterization of the compressor performance. The behavior of the compressor during surge is analyzed by driving the experimental setup into surge. Two fundamental frequencies, 21 Hz and 7 Hz, connected to the surge oscillation in the test rig are identified, and the observed instability is categorized according to the intensity of pressure fluctuations. Based on the test results, the excited pressure waves are clearly the result of surge and not stall. Also, they exhibit the characteristics of mild and classic surge instead of deep surge. Finally, the change in the compressor performance due to variation in the impeller tip clearance is experimentally examined, and the results support the potential of the tip clearance modulation for the control of compressor surge. This is the first such demonstration of the feasibility of surge control of a compressor using active magnetic bearings.

  20. Online compressor washing: a numerical survey of influencing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mund, F.C.; Pilidis, P.

    2005-01-15

    Online compressor washing is an advanced method to recover power losses caused by compressor blade fouling without incurring the availability penalty of having to shut down the gas turbine engine. Liquid is sprayed into the compressor at full or near full load to wash off particulates accumulated on the compressor surfaces. In particular, the cleaning of the first stage is vital to reinstate the mass flow of the engine, and a uniform fluid distribution is desirable in order to cover the full annulus. To achieve this, washing systems are generally developed empirically. Owing to the variety of intake duct geometries and gas turbine engines, the design of washing systems is generally related to individual power plants. To illustrate the trends of the main influencing parameters, a numerical investigation has been undertaken, based on an application case of a washing system installed in a heavy-duty gas turbine. The parameters studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were airflow reduction, injection location and direction, droplet mass, and injection velocity. The effectiveness of the washing system was evaluated from the fluid distribution at the compressor inlet plane. It has been shown that, depending on the spray nozzle location, different optimum droplet sizes and injection velocities are required. Consequently, the application of different nozzle types is advisable. The operating condition of the engine has a significant effect on the fluid distribution at the compressor inlet and therefore changes in engine mass flow have to be considered when deciding on a washing scheme. (Author)

  1. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's own initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  2. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  3. The effect of upstream duct boundary layer growth and compressor blade lean angle variation on an axial compressor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Templalexis, I.; Pachidis, Vassilios; Pilidis, Pericles; Kotsiopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The compressor of a gas turbine engine is extremely vulnerable on upstream duct- induced flow non-uniformities whether the duct is an engine intake or an interconnecting duct. This is justified by its position being literally an extension of the duct flow path, coupled to the fact that it operates under adverse pressure gradients. In particular, this study focuses on performance deviations between installed and uninstalled compressors. Test results acquired from a test bed i...

  4. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of compressor blades considered for use in CIP/CUP compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four die-casting alloys, the external-pressure-pin and conventional casting methods, an accelerated aging heat treatment, and an airfoil fillet modification were evaluated for 33F-S1 compressor blades considered for use in axial flow compressors installed during the Cascade Improvement and Uprating Programs at the three gaseous diffusion plants. Based on castability, resonant frequency, resistance to fatigue cracking, and shank breaking load, the ranking of the four alloys from highest to lowest is GAT2, 214X, X224, and D-15. The GAT2 alloy ranked highest in all categories except impact value; the impact values of both X224 and 214X alloys exceeded that of the GAT2 alloy, thus indicating the latter is relatively more brittle. However, in view of its other excellent properties, including fatigue cracking resistance, GAT2 alloy is worthy of consideration for use in blades for CIP/CUP or Add-on Plant compressors, particularly if castability becomes a problem with the presently used 214X alloy. Use of the external-pressure-pin casting method is not recommended because the resulting casting difficulties cannot be justified by the small increases in shank breaking loads. The airfoil fillet modification, which is a change from the conventional circular fillet to an elliptical fillet, resulted in increases (1.5 to 4.0 percent) in the average resonant frequency and in resistance to fatigue cracking (15 to 100 percent). The results of giving the blades an accelerated aging heat treatment, designed to simulate in excess of 10,000 hours of cascade exposure, showed that overaging had no significant effect on average resonant frequency but that overaging improved blade quality by reducing residual casting stress

  6. VSD a compressor that automatically reduces the power consumption; VSD un compresor que reduce automaticamente el consumo energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda L, Pedro [Atlas Copco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    With the purpose of verifying the behavior in the demand of air in the different plants Copco Atlas made a sampling of 135 measurements, from which it was concluded, that the air consumption of the plants behaves under three main profiles. In the following graphs the behavior of the demand of air with one color for every day of the week and 24 hours per day. In this sample Profile No. 1 is typical of the industries that work 24 hours a day and have low demand of air at night. This type of profile represents a percentage of 64% of the total of the measurements made. The second profile represents industries that work 5 days per week with two shifts and represents a percentage of 28%. The third profile is typical for applications of fixed consumption during the 5 days of the week, this represents an 8% of the measurements. With the purpose of improving the efficiency in the compressors energy consumption, Atlas Copco has been pioneering in the development of compressors with Variable Speed Drive (VSD), that offers the possibility of adapting with extreme precision the capacity of the compressor to the variable demand of compressed air of the plant. [Spanish] Con la finalidad de verificar el comportamiento en la demanda de aire en las diferentes plantas Atlas Copco realizo un muestreo de 135 mediciones, del cual se concluyo, que el consumo de aire de las plantas se comporta bajo tres perfiles principales. En las siguientes graficas se muestra el comportamiento de la demanda de aire con un color por cada dia de la semana y 24 horas al dia . En esta muestra el Perfil No. 1 es tipico de las Industrias que trabajan las 24 horas del dia y tiene baja demanda de aire en las noches. Este tipo de perfil representa un porcentaje de 64% del total de las mediciones realizadas. El segundo perfil representa industrias que traban 5 dias a la semana con dos turnos y representa un porcentaje de 28%. El tercer perfil estetico para aplicaciones de consumo fijo durante 5 dias a la semana

  7. Radiated BPF sound measurement of centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique to measure radiated BPF sound from an automotive turbocharger compressor impeller is proposed in this paper. Where there are high-level background noises in the measurement environment, it is difficult to discriminate the target component from the background. Since the effort of measuring BPF sound was taken in a room with such condition in this study, no discrete BPF peak was initially found on the sound spectrum. Taking its directionality into consideration, a microphone covered with a parabolic cone was selected and using this technique, the discrete peak of BPF was clearly observed. Since the level of measured sound was amplified due to the area-integration effect, correction was needed to obtain the real level. To do so, sound measurements with and without a parabolic cone were conducted for the fixed source and their level differences were used as correction factors. Consideration is given to the sound propagation mechanism utilizing measured BPF as well as the result of a simple model experiment. The present method is generally applicable to sound measurements conducted with a high level of background noise

  8. Radiated BPF sound measurement of centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchida, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    A technique to measure radiated BPF sound from an automotive turbocharger compressor impeller is proposed in this paper. Where there are high-level background noises in the measurement environment, it is difficult to discriminate the target component from the background. Since the effort of measuring BPF sound was taken in a room with such condition in this study, no discrete BPF peak was initially found on the sound spectrum. Taking its directionality into consideration, a microphone covered with a parabolic cone was selected and using this technique, the discrete peak of BPF was clearly observed. Since the level of measured sound was amplified due to the area-integration effect, correction was needed to obtain the real level. To do so, sound measurements with and without a parabolic cone were conducted for the fixed source and their level differences were used as correction factors. Consideration is given to the sound propagation mechanism utilizing measured BPF as well as the result of a simple model experiment. The present method is generally applicable to sound measurements conducted with a high level of background noise.

  9. Pulsating flow performance of a turbocharger compressor for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The behavior of a turbocharger for automotive application was studied. • A broad experimental activity was developed under steady and unsteady flow. • Compressor performance was analyzed under unsteady flow. • Compressor unsteady flow performance deviates from the corresponding steady state. • The surge line position proved to be affected by unsteady flow operation. -- Abstract: Downsizing with turbocharging is the most promising way, especially in terms of cost, to get reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions particularly in the case of Spark Ignition engines. In automotive applications the turbocharger turbine usually operates under heavy unsteady flow conditions due to the opening and closing of engine valves. However, in the case of extremely downsized engines with a reduced number of cylinders and a small intake circuit volume also the compressor performance can be affected by the unsteady flow generated by the engine intake valves. To make simulation models able to accurately predict engine performance, a better understanding of compressor and turbine pulsating flow performance can be accomplished through measurements performed on specialized test facilities, using suitable measuring equipment. As regards the turbocharger compressor, the surge line position under pulsating flow conditions is another important aspect to be considered. In the paper the results of a broad experimental investigation performed on a small turbocharger compressor matched to a downsized gasoline engine are presented. Measurements were developed on the test facility operating at the University of Genoa, which allows investigations on automotive turbochargers both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. Tested turbocharger compressor was coupled to the automotive engine intake circuit and the pulsating flow was generated by a motor-driven cylinder head fitted with a variable valve actuation system. Different levels of turbocharger rotational speed and

  10. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  11. Probabilistic analysis of manufacturing uncertainties for an automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressor using numerical and experimental methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javed, A.; Kamphues, E.; Hartuc, T.; Pecnik, R.; Van Buijtenen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The compressor impellers for mass-produced turbochargers are generally die-casted and machined to their final configuration. Manufacturing uncertainties are inherently introduced as stochastic dimensional deviations in the impeller geometry. These deviations eventually propagate into the compressor

  12. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2014-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were an...

  13. 2013 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings cover the following main topics: cryoengineering - superconduction / energy storage; cryoapplications in biology and medicine; metrology; adsorption processes; condensation/evaporation; working fluids / simulation; ice production; plants and compressors; expansion and ejectors or recooling; use of cooling (passenger car air conditioning, supermarket); refrigerants; plant efficiency; emissions and legislation; air conditioning and use of heat pumps; air quality and control; building technology and block-type thermal power stations.

  14. Feasible Methodology for Optimization of a Novel Reversible Binary Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Misra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s reversible logic is an attractive research area due to its low power consumption in the area of VLSI circuit design. The reversible logic gate is utilized to optimize power consumption by a feature of retrieving input logic from an output logic because of bijective mapping between input and output. In this manuscript, we design 4:2 and 5:2 reversible compressor circuits using a new type of reversible gate. In addition, we propose new gate, named as inventive0 gate for optimizing a compressor circuit. The utility of the inventive0 gate is that it can be used as full adder and full subtraction with low value of garbage outputs and quantum cost. An algorithm is shown for designing a compressor structure. The comparative study shows that the proposed compressor structure outperforms the existing ones in terms of garbage outputs, number of gates and quantum cost. The compressor can reduce the effect of carry (Produce from full adder of the arithmetic frame design. In addition, we implement a basic reversible gate of MOS transistor with less number of MOS transistor count

  15. Miniature Piezoelectric Compressor for Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Sergey; Tzabar, Nir; Grossman, Gershon

    Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers operate with a continuous flow of the working fluid that enters the cooler at a high pressure and leaves it at a lower pressure. Ideally, the temperature of the outgoing fluid equals the temperature of the entering fluid. JT cryocoolers that operate with pure refrigerants require high pressure of a few tens of MPa where the low pressure is usually around 0.1 MPa. Circulation of the working fluid in such cases requires high pressure ratio compressors that evidently have large dimensions. JT cryocoolers can operate with much lower pressure ratios by using mixed-refrigerants. Cooling from 300 K to about 80 K in a single stage cryocooler normally requires a pressure ratio of about 1:25. In the present research a miniature compressor driven by piezoelectric elements is developed in collaboration between Rafael and the Technion. This type of compressor has the advantage of improved long life compared to other mechanical compressors, very low vibrations, and silent operation. In the current case, the design goal of the intake and discharge pressures has been 0.1 and 2.5 MPa, respectively, with a flow rate of 0.06 g/s. The compressor has two compression stages; 1:5 and 5:25. Several configurations have been considered, fabricated, and tested. The performance of the last configuration approaches the desired specification and is presented in the current paper together with the design concept.

  16. A high pressure ratio DC compressor for tactical cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Cameron, Benjamin H.; Zagarola, Mark V.; Narayanan, Sri R.

    2016-05-01

    A high pressure ratio DC compressor is a critical component for many cryocooler cycles. Prior research has focused on the adaptation of commercial compressor technology (scroll, screw, linear with rectification valves, and regenerative) for use in cryogenic applications where long-life and oil-free (i.e., volatile contamination free) are unique requirements. In addition, many cryocooler applications are for cooling imaging instruments making low vibration an additional requirement. Another candidate compressor technology has emerged from the fuel cell industry. Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMs) are used in fuel cells to separate reactants and transport protons, and these capabilities may be used in cryocoolers to compress hydrogen from low to high pressure. A particular type of PEM utilizing an anhydrous membrane forms the basis of a solid-state cryocooler. Creare has been investigating the use of PEM compressors for low temperature Joule-Thomson and dilution cryocoolers. These cryocoolers have no moving parts, can operate at temperatures down to nominally 23 K, produce no vibration, and are low cost. Our work on the cycle optimization, cryocooler design, and development and demonstration of the compressor technology is the subject of this paper.

  17. Lubricants for HFC-134a Compatible Rotary Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Kenji; Sakai, Hisakazu

    In replacing CFC-12 with HFC-134a for refrigerator compressors, the compatibility with lubricating oil, and lubrication in general, are of major concern. HFC-134a dose not have adequate solubility with current lubricating oils because of its molecular structure. Current oils also do not provide enough lubricating action when using HFC-134a. A new oil and new materials have to be utilized in order to use HFC-134a. Developing a new lubricating oil involved numerous tests of different combinations of many polyolester synthetic oils and additives. One of the pre-evaluated methods was pursued via sealed tube tests. Lubricated parts were selected by studies involving a plane-on-roller type of wear test machine and by analyzing the traces of acid material commonly created during the lubricating action. The matrices of new lubricating oils and new lubricated materials were estimated based on durability tests conducted on compressors and refrigerators. Results showed that polyolester synthetic oils having a low total acid value and including certain quantities of additives did not break down into a tar-like substance and they did not produce composite particles in the operating compressors and refrigerators. The study also found that ceramics and anti-corrosion alloy steel possessed good adrasion-reducing qualities. Based on our evaluation, we will implement compressor reliability tests and apply HFC-134a to rotary compressors for refrigerators.

  18. Measurement of Lubricating Condition between Swashplate and Shoe in Swashplate Compressors under Practical Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukuta, Mitsuhiro; Yanagisawa, Tadashi

    In this paper, lubricating conditions between a swashplate and a shoe in a swashplate compressor for automotive air conditioners is investigated experimentally. The conditions are measured with an electric resistance method that utilizes the swash plate and the shoe as electrodes respectively. The instrumented compressor is connected to an experimental cycle with R134a and operated under various operating conditions of pressure and rotational speed. An improved measurement technique and applying a solid contact ratio to the measurement results permit to measure the lubricating condition at high rotational speed (more than 8000 rpm) and to predic an occurrence of scuffing between the swashplate and the shoe, and therefore enables a detailed study of lubricating characteristics. It is shown by the measurement that the voltage of the contact signal decreases, which means better lubricating condition, with the decrease of the compression pressure and with the increase of the rotational speed from 1000 rpm through 5000 rpm. The lubricating condition tends to worsen at more than 5000 rpm. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the lubricating condition under transient operation is worse obviously as compared with that under steady-state operation.

  19. Modeling and investigation of refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection in a scroll compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rui

    Vapor compression cycles are widely used in heating, refrigerating and air-conditioning. A slight performance improvement in the components of a vapor compression cycle, such as the compressor, can play a significant role in saving energy use. However, the complexity and cost of these improvements can block their application in the market. Modifying the conventional cycle configuration can offer a less complex and less costly alternative approach. Economizing is a common modification for improving the performance of the refrigeration cycle, resulting in decreasing the work required to compress the gas per unit mass. Traditionally, economizing requires multi-stage compressors, the cost of which has restrained the scope for practical implementation. Compressors with injection ports, which can be used to inject economized refrigerant during the compression process, introduce new possibilities for economization with less cost. This work focuses on computationally investigating a refrigeration system performance with two-phase fluid injection, developing a better understanding of the impact of injected refrigerant quality on refrigeration system performance as well as evaluating the potential COP improvement that injection provides based on refrigeration system performance provided by Copeland.

  20. Diesel-Driven Compressor Torque Pulse Measurement in a Transport Refrigeration Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Young Chan; Kleinboehl, Cody; Sjoholm, Lars; Secrist, David

    2014-01-01

    When an open drive compressor is directly coupled to a Diesel engine in a Transport Refrigeration Unit (TRU), the torque pulses between the compressor and engine can have significant effects on the TRU control strategy and compressor reliability. Understanding the torque interaction between the compressor and engine during transient conditions is also critical to ensure the power limitations of the engine are not exceeded. Although torque data is typically available from engine manufacturers,...