WorldWideScience

Sample records for air chemical pollutions

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  4. Air pollution: what matters most? : Physical, chemical and oxidative properties of air pollution components related to toxic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the adverse health effects associated with both short- and long-term exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is a heterogeneous, complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matter (PM). Up to now, PM mass concentration has been the metric of choice to

  5. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  6. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Thomas Berkemeier; Haijie Tong; Arangio, Andrea M.; Kurt Lucas; Ulrich Pöschl; Manabu Shiraiwa

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) con...

  7. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  8. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  9. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  10. Cellular RNA is chemically modified by exposure to air pollution mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Kevin C; Zavala, Jose; Surratt, Jason; Sexton, Kenneth G; Contreras, Lydia M

    2015-01-01

    RNAs are more susceptible to modifications than DNA, and chemical modifications in RNA have an effect on their structure and function. This study aimed to characterize chemical effects on total RNA in human A549 lung cells after exposure to elevated levels of major secondary air pollutants commonly found in urban locations, including ozone (O3), acrolein (ACR) and methacrolein (MACR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the growth media and 8-oxoguanine (8OG) levels in total cellular RNA, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the growth media was measured by a coupled enzymatic assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure levels of microRNA 10b (miR-10b). The study found that 1-h exposure to all tested pollutant mixtures consistently caused significant increases in the levels of 8OG in total RNA. In the case of 4 ppm O3 exposures, measured levels of IL-8, LDH and miR-10b each showed consistent trends between two independent trials, but varied among these three targets. After 1-h exposures to an ACR+MACR mixture, measured levels of IL-8, LDH and miR-10b showed variable results. For mixtures of O3+ACR+MACR, IL-8 measurements showed no change; miR-10b and LDH showed variable results. The results indicate that short-term high-concentration exposures to air pollution can cause RNA chemical modifications. Chemical modifications in RNAs could represent more consistent markers of cellular stress relative to other inflammation markers, such as IL-8 and LDH, and provide a new biomarker endpoint for mechanistic studies in toxicity of air pollution exposure.

  11. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  12. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  13. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  14. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  15. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  16. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric PM2.5 loads during air pollution episodes in Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salwa K.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.

    2017-02-01

    Several types of pollution episodes, including dust storm (DSs), haze dust (HDs), straw rice combustions (SRCs) are common phenomena and represent severe environmental hazard in Egypt. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the chemical characteristics of aerosol during air pollution episodes at an urban area in Giza, Egypt. PM2.5 samples during various PM episodes during 2013-2014 were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that the highest PM2.5 mass concentrations were found during DSs (250 μg/m3), followed by HDs (130 μg/m3) and SRCs (103 μg/m3). Average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 1.91, 3.68 and 1.68 times higher than on normal days (NDs) during HDs, DSs and SRCs, respectively. The highest total water-soluble ions concentration was 61.1 μg/m3 during HDs, followed by SRCs (41.9 μg/m3) and DSs (35.2 μg/m3). SO42- is the most abundant chemical components on the three PM episodes. Secondary inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+) were enriched during HDs. The total secondary inorganic ions concentrations were 3.17, 1.39 and 1.75 times higher than NDs during HDs days, DSs days and SRCs days, respectively. PM from SRCs showed high K+ and Cl-. SO42-/K+, NO3-/SO42- and Cl-/K+ ratios proved effective as indicators for different pollution episodes. A Ca2+/Al ratio indicates that soil dust was dominant during DSs. Ion balance calculations indicated that PM2.5 from HDs was acidic, while the DSs and SRCs particles were alkaline and the NDs particle's was nearly neutral. The total crustal and anthropogenic metals concentrations were higher in DSs than other PM episodes and normal days. The enrichment factors values in PM episodes and normal days indicate that Fe and Mn in NDs, HDs, DSs and SRCs as well as Cr and Ni in DSs come mainly from crustal sources, whereas Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in PM episodes and NDs are anthropogenic.

  17. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: The Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Shima, Masayuki [Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Guo, Xinbiao, E-mail: guoxb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Study subjects relocated between areas with different air pollution contents. • PM{sub 2.5} showed the most consistent inverse associations with pulmonary function. • Cu, Cd, As and Sn were consistently associated with reduced pulmonary function. • Carbonaceous fractions, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Sb were also associated with pulmonary function. • Sources may include traffic, industry, coal burning, and long range transported dust. -- Abstract: The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV{sub 1} associated with various air pollutants and PM{sub 2.5} constituents. Four PM{sub 2.5} constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution.

  18. The Relationship between Odour Annoyance Scores and Modelled Ambient Air Pollution in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Odwa Atari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing the relationship between annoyance scores and modelled air pollution in “Chemical Valley”, Sarnia, Ontario (Canada. Annoyance scores were taken from a community health survey (N = 774; and respondents’ exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were estimated using land use regression (LUR models. The associations were examined by univariate analysis while multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of odour annoyance. The results showed that odour annoyance was significantly correlated to modelled pollutants at the individual (NO2, r = 0.15; SO2, r = 0.13 and census tract (NO2, r = 0.56; SO2, r = 0.67 levels. The exposure-response relationships show that residents of Sarnia react to very low pollution concentrations levels even if they are within the Ontario ambient air quality criteria. The study found that exposure to high NO2 and SO2 concentrations, gender, and perception of health effects were significant determinants of individual odour annoyance reporting. The observed association between odour annoyance and modelled ambient pollution suggest that individual and census tract level annoyance scores may serve as proxies for air quality in exposed communities because they capture the within area spatial variability of pollution. However, questionnaire-based odour annoyance scores need to be validated longitudinally and across different scales if they are to be adopted for use at the national level.

  19. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  20. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  1. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  3. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  4. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, A

    1996-02-01

    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  5. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  6. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  7. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  8. Photocatalytic elimination of indoor air biological and chemical pollution in realistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Benigno; Sánchez-Muñoz, Marta; Muñoz-Vicente, María; Cobas, Guillermo; Portela, Raquel; Suárez, Silvia; González, Aldo E; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    The photocatalytic elimination of microorganisms from indoor air in realistic conditions and the feasibility of simultaneous elimination of chemical contaminants have been studied at laboratory scale. Transparent polymeric monoliths have been coated with sol-gel TiO(2) films and used as photocatalyst to treat real indoor air in a laboratory-scale single-step annular photocatalytic reactor. The analytical techniques used to characterize the air quality and analyze the results of the photocatalytic tests were: colony counting, microscopy and PCR with subsequent sequencing for microbial quantification and identification; automated thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection for chemical analysis. The first experiments performed proved that photocatalysis based on UVA-irradiated TiO(2) for the reduction of the concentration of bacteria in the air could compete with the conventional photolytic treatment with UVC radiation, more expensive and hazardous. Simultaneously to the disinfection, the concentration of volatile organic compounds was greatly reduced, which adds value to this technology for real applications. The fungal colony number was not apparently modified.

  9. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  10. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia – aerosol and chemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24–25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia only six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO from AIRS satellite measurements, which are in excellent agreement with the model results over the entire transport history. The research aircraft DLR Falcon was sent into this plume west of Spain on 24 March and over Southern Europe on 25 March. On both days, the pollution plume was indeed found close to the predicted locations and, thus, the measurements taken allowed the first detailed characterization of the aerosol content and chemical composition of an anthropogenic pollution plume after a nearly hemispheric transport event. The mixing ratios of CO, reactive nitrogen (NOy and ozone (O3 measured in the Asian plume were all clearly elevated over a background that was itself likely elevated by Asian emissions: CO by 17–34 ppbv on average (maximum 60 ppbv and O3 by 2–9 ppbv (maximum 22 ppbv. Positive correlations existed between these species, and a ΔO3/ΔCO slope of 0.25 shows that ozone was formed in this plume, albeit with moderate efficiency. Nucleation mode and Aitken particles were suppressed in the Asian plume, whereas accumulation mode aerosols were strongly elevated and correlated with CO. The suppression of the nucleation mode was likely due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface due to the transported larger particles. Super-micron particles, likely desert dust, were found in part of the Asian pollution plume and also in surrounding cleaner air. The aerosol light absorption coefficient was enhanced in the plume (average values for individual plume

  11. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia – aerosol and chemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24–25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO from AIRS satellite measurements, which are in excellent agreement with the model results over the entire transport history. The research aircraft DLR Falcon was sent into this plume west of Spain on 24 March and over Southern Europe on 25 March. On both days, the pollution plume was found close to the predicted locations and, thus, the measurements taken allowed the first detailed characterization of the aerosol content and chemical composition of an anthropogenic pollution plume after a nearly hemispheric transport event. The mixing ratios of CO, reactive nitrogen (NOy and ozone (O3 measured in the Asian plume were all clearly elevated over a background that was itself likely elevated by Asian emissions: CO by 17–34 ppbv on average (maximum 60 ppbv and O3 by 2–9 ppbv (maximum 22 ppbv. Positive correlations existed between these species, and a ΔO3/ΔCO slope of 0.25 shows that ozone was formed in this plume, albeit with moderate efficiency. Nucleation mode and Aitken particles were suppressed in the Asian plume, whereas accumulation mode aerosols were strongly elevated and correlated with CO. The suppression of the nucleation mode was likely due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface of the transported larger particles. Super-micron particles, likely desert dust, were found in part of the Asian pollution plume and also in surrounding cleaner air. The aerosol light absorption coefficient was enhanced in the plume (average values for individual plume encounters 0.25–0

  12. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  13. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L

    2011-06-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  14. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  15. Multivariate analysis of respiratory problems and their connection with meteorological parameters and the main biological and chemical air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyasovszky, István; Makra, László; Bálint, Beatrix; Guba, Zoltán; Sümeghy, Zoltán

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants, as well as meteorological variables, on the hospital admissions of respiratory problems for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary. The data set used covers a nine-year period (1999-2007) and is unique in the sense that it includes—besides the daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—not just the hourly mean concentrations of CO, PM 10, NO, NO 2, O 3 and SO 2 with meteorological variables (temperature, global solar flux, relative humidity, air pressure and wind speed), but two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) as well. The analysis was performed using three age categories for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Meteorological elements and air pollutants are clustered in order to define optimum environmental conditions of high patient numbers. ANOVA was then used to determine whether cluster-related mean patient numbers differ significantly. Furthermore, two novel procedures are applied here: factor analysis including a special transformation and a time-varying multivariate linear regression that makes it possible to determine the rank of importance of the influencing variables in respiratory hospital admissions, and also compute the relative importance of the parameters affecting respiratory disorders. Both techniques revealed that Ambrosia pollen is an important variable that influences hospital admissions (an increase of 10 pollen grains m -3 can imply an increase of around 24% in patient numbers). The role of chemical and meteorological parameters is also significant, but their weights vary according to the seasons and the methods. Clearer results are obtained for the pollination season of Ambrosia. Here, a 10 μg m -3 increase in O 3 implies a patient number response from -17% to +11%. Wind speed is a surprisingly important variable, where a 1 m s -1 rise may result in a hospital admission

  16. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  17. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  18. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  19. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  20. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T.; Smirnov, M.; Amvrosiev, P.; Kurganskaya, G.; Gritsenko, T. [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  1. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  2. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  3. RAINS: Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Only one computer model has ever been at the center of major international environmental negotiations. That model is RAINS. Twice it has been central to renegotiation of the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, the umbrella convention regarding air pollution across all Europe. It also underpins the European Union policy and directives on air pollution. Countries in Southeast Asia are turning to the model for help with their growing air pollution problems. RAINS will be used to determine emission ceilings for emissions of four key pollutants in EU countries - sulphur, ammonia, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. The same four pollutants are also the subject of a parallel negotiation in Geneva under the convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The article and illustrations outline the model`s development and its structure in 1998, the historic role it has played in negotiations and some examples of its output. They highlight the central role of IIASA`s Transboundary Air Pollution project where a team of 12 works on the RAINS model and related issues. IIASA`s next goal is to develop a model of particulates pollution and incorporate it into RAINS. The information needed (such as particle sizes and chemical properties) and at what geographical scale must be identified to create an inventory of emissions suitable for RAINS modelling. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. ADVECTION - DIFFUSION NUMERICAL MODEL OF AN AIR POLLUTANT EMITTED FROM AN AREA SOURCE OF PRIMARY POLLUTANT WITH CHEMICAL REACTION AND DRY DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEER PAI K L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A time dependent two dimensional advection-diffusion numerical model for primary pollutant with chemical reaction and dry deposition for an urban area is presented. The proposed numerical model takes into account of realistic form of variable wind velocity and eddy diffusivity profiles. The partial differential equation of primarypollutant is solved by using Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique. The results are plotted for concentration of primary pollutant and the effect of chemical reaction and dry deposition on the dispersion of pollutant are analysed extensively.

  5. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... this final rule in an attempt to balance a tension, inherent in many types of air regulation, to ensure... ``hazardous waste treatment'' in 40 CFR 63.11502(b) to mean treatment in either (1) a RCRA-permitted... treatment or hazardous waste treatment. In addition, Item 2.b would be edited to use the new...

  6. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (ppollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis.

  7. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  8. Plant response to polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

    1956-08-01

    Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

  9. Chemical constituents of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in healthy adults: A prospective panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shaowei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with activation of systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability and increased plasma homocysteine, but the chemical constituents behind the association are not well understood. We examined the relations of various chemical constituents of fine particles (PM2.5 and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and homocysteine in the context of traffic-related air pollution. Methods A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent biweekly blood collection for 12 times before and after their relocation from a suburban campus to an urban campus with changing air pollution contents in Beijing. Blood samples were measured for circulatory biomarkers of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, von Willebrand factor (vWF, soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin, and total homocysteine (tHcy. Various air pollutants were measured in a central air-monitoring station in each campus and 32 PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined in the laboratory. We used three different mixed-effects models (single-constituent model, constituent-PM2.5 joint model and constituent residual model controlling for potential confounders to estimate the effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents on circulatory biomarkers. Results We found consistent positive associations between the following biomarkers and PM2.5 chemical constituents across different models: TNF-α with secondary organic carbon, chloride, zinc, molybdenum and stannum; fibrinogen with magnesium, iron, titanium, cobalt and cadmium; PAI-1 with titanium, cobalt and manganese; t-PA with cadmium and selenium; vWF with aluminum. We also found consistent inverse associations of vWF with nitrate, chloride and sodium, and sP-selectin with manganese. Two positive associations of zinc with TNF-α and of cobalt with fibrinogen, and

  10. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  11. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  12. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  13. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  14. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... http://www.epa.gov/greenheart/ . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...

  15. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  17. Localized 3D-structural features of dynamic-chemical processes of urban air pollution in Beijing winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX) is described with emphases on the "point-surface" research approach and composite analysis. The analysis results of measurements from four observation sites across the Beijing urban area from January to March indicate that the overall impact of urban emission sources in the heating season is significant, and the staggered impact of urban emission sources has different features at observation sites over different parts of Beijing in both heating and non-heating seasons. The pollutants NOx, SO2 and CO in the urban boundary layer have the in-phase variation features over a large area. O3 concentrations at different sites have the same variation trend but its change is reversed phases with above pollutants. The pollutants over the urban area in heating and non-heating seasons also have the synchronous variation trend. The comprehensive sounding of BECAPEX indicates that pollutants and aerosol vertical profiles are closely correlated to the vertical structure of the large-scale inversion layer in the urban boundary layer over the urban area. The localized 3D-structural features of local urban polluting processes associated with the peripheral areas are discussed with a "point-surface" comprehensive sounding technique.

  18. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  19. Chemical constituents and sources of ambient particulate air pollution and biomarkers of endothelial function in a panel of healthy adults in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Pan, Lu; Shan, Jiao; Li, Hongyu; Wei, Hongying [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Bin [Institute of Reproductive & Child Health, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Huang, Jing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Baccarelli, Andrea A. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Shima, Masayuki [Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan); Deng, Furong, E-mail: lotus321321@126.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China); Guo, Xinbiao, E-mail: guoxb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, Peking University School of Public Health, Beijing (China)

    2016-08-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with endothelial dysfunction as reflected by short-term alterations in circulating biomarkers, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association has been unclear. Methods: We investigated the associations between various ambient air pollutants including gases and 31 chemical constituents and seven sources of fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and biomarkers of endothelial function, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), based on 462 repeated measurements in a panel of 40 college students who were followed for three study periods before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010–2011. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers associated with exposures. Results: Total PM{sub 2.5} mass showed few appreciable associations with examined biomarkers. However, several PM{sub 2.5} constituents and related sources showed significant associations with examined biomarkers. PM{sub 2.5} from dust/soil and several crustal and transition metals, including strontium, iron, titanium, cobalt and magnesium, were significantly associated with increases in ET-1 at 1-day average; manganese and potassium were significantly associated with increases in ICAM-1 at 2-day average; and PM{sub 2.5} from industry and metal cadmium were significantly associated with decreases in VCAM-1 at 1-day average. In addition, carbon monoxide was significantly associated with increasing ICAM-1 at 1-day and 2-day averages, whereas nitric oxide was significantly associated with decreasing ICAM-1 at 1-day and 3-day averages. Conclusions: Our results suggest that certain PM{sub 2.5} metal constituents were more closely associated with circulating biomarkers of endothelial function

  20. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  1. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.

  2. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  3. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  4. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  5. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outdoor > Air Pollution Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

  6. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  7. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  8. [On the problem of the study of the chemical air pollution with chlororganic hydrocarbons at productions of polyvinyl chloride and epichlorohydrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, N A; Meshakova, N M; Zhurba, O M; Telezhkin, V V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).

  9. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  10. Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during dust storms and air pollution events in Chengdu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiyuan Wang; Junji cao; Zhenxing Shen; Jun Tao; Shun Xiao; Lei Luo; Qingyang He

    2013-01-01

    Daily fine particulate (PM2.5) samples were collected in Chengdu from April 2009 to February 2010 to investigate their chemical profiles during dust storms (DSs) and several types of pollution events,including haze (HDs),biomass burning (BBs),and fireworks displays (FDs).The highest PM2.s mass concentrations were found during DSs (283.3 μg/m3),followed by FDs (212.7 μg/m3),HDs (187.3 μg/m3),and BBs (130.1 μg/m3).The concentrations of most elements were elevated during DSs and pollution events,except for BBs.Secondary inorganic ions (NO3-,SO42-and NH4+) were enriched during HDs,while PM2.5 from BBs showed high K+ but low SO42-.FDs caused increases in K+ and enrichment in SO42.Ca2+ was abundant in DS samples.Ion-balance calculations indicated that PM2.5 from HDs and FDs was more acidic than on normal days,but DS and BB particles were alkaline.The highest organic carbon (OC) concentration was 26.1 μg/m3 during FDs,followed by BBs (23.6 lμg/m3),HDs (19.6 μg/m3),and DSs (18.8 iμg/m3).In contrast,elemental carbon (EC) concentration was more abundant during HDs (10.6 μg/m3) and FDs (9.5 μg/m3) than during BBs (6.2 μg/m3) and DSs (6.0 μg/m3).The highest OC/EC ratios were obtained during BBs,with the lowest during HDs.SO42-/K+ and TCA/SO42 ratios proved to be effective indicators for differentiating pollution events.Mass balance showed that organic matter,SO42-,and NO3-were the dominant chemical components during pollution events,while soil dust was dominant during DSs.

  11. Biological effects of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosting, P.E.; Houten, J.G. ten

    1971-01-01

    Exposure of living organisms to sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, fly ash, other particulates, and oxides of nitrogen is discussed from the points of view of air pollution phenomenology, specific and nonspecific responses of plants, animals and man, and environmental and constitutional factors that i

  12. Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163365.html Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk? Fine particles from power plants ... 1, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may cause more than just lung disease: New ...

  13. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  14. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  15. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  16. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  17. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  18. Invited commentary: Assessment of air pollution and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is a serious public health issue worldwide, with multiple risk factors, such as severe mental illness, alcohol abuse, a painful loss, exposure to violence, or social isolation. Environmental factors, particularly chemical and meteorological variables, have been examined as risk factors for suicide, but less evidence is available on whether air pollution is related to suicide. In this issue of the Journal, Bakian et al. ( publish findings from a study that found a short-term increased risk of suicide associated with increased air pollution. This study bolsters a small body of research linking air pollution exposure to suicide risk. If the association between air pollution and suicide is confirmed, it would broaden the scope of the already large disease burden associated with air pollution.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  20. [Molybdenum as an air pollutant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, R; Junker, E; Hoheiser, H

    1990-07-01

    Investigations into the reasons for the retarded growth and discolouration of a small area of a field of rape situated on the outskirts of Vienna revealed higher than normal levels of molybdenum in the soil (up to 430 micrograms/l) and in the water (up to 9.7 mg/l). The source of the pollution was traced to a neighbouring industrial plant that was emitting the metal via the chimney stack. A review of the literature on the toxic effects of molybdenum in general and as an air pollutant in particular is provided. This shows that, in contrast to animals, this effect is relatively small in humans and plants. Nevertheless, the occupation-related inhalation of the metal has been shown to be associated with pneumoconiosis and gout-like symptoms.

  1. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. A

  2. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  3. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  4. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of an emerging pollutant (enrofloxacin) by catalytic wet air oxidation and ozonation in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao; Yediler, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the degradation efficiency of enrofloxacin (ENR) by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) and ozonation. Results obtained by CWAO experiments show that 99.5% degradation, 37.0% chemical oxidation demand (COD) removal and 51.0% total organic carbon (TOC) conversion were obtained when 100 mol% FeCl(3) and 25 mol% NaNO(2) at 150 °C under 0.5 MPa oxygen pressure after 120 min are used. The degradation products are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). The oxidation end products, F(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) were determined by IC. The BOD(5)/COD ratio as a measure of the biodegradability of the parent compound increased from 0.01 to 0.12 after 120 min of reaction time, indicating an improved biodegradability of the parent compound. The inhibition of bioluminescence of the marine bacteria V. fischeri decreased from 43% to 12% demonstrating a loss in toxicity of ENR during CWAO. Ozonation of 0.2 mM ENR was carried out with an ozone concentration of 7.3 g m(-3) at pH 7. ENR decomposition with a degradation rate of 87% was obtained corresponding to the reaction time. Moderate changes in COD (18%) and TOC (17%) removal has been observed. The bioluminescence inhibition increased from 8% to 50%, due to the generation of toxic degradation products during ozonation. In comparison to the widely use of well developed method of ozonation CWAO exhibits better performance in terms of COD, TOC removals and generates less toxic products.

  5. Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien

    2005-01-01

    The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

  6. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  7. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J Braz

    2009-06-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent experimental and epidemiologic studies show that particulate matter (PM) air pollution with PM10 or inhalable (thoracic) particles (mean aerodynamic diameter particles (aerodynamic diameter biological mechanisms responsible for adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with PM have been described, including the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory mediators from the lungs into the circulation, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct actions on the heart and vasculature of ultrafine particles translocated into the systemic circulation. The induction of oxidative stress by these particles may be central to all of these putative pathways that trigger coagulation and thrombosis, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction, arterial vasoconstriction, apoptosis, and hypertension. In chronic exposures these alterations favor the development and progression of atherosclerosis and possibly of hypertension in the long term, and in the short term acute exposures contribute to plaque instability, affect various traditional risk factors and trigger acute cardiovascular events (myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden death), particularly in high-risk subjects. There are currently also significant concerns with the risks of engineered nanoparticles.

  8. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  9. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  10. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  11. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  12. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

  13. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  14. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  15. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  16. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  18. Curbing air pollution in Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.

    China is a country with fairly rich energy resources. Coal is the dominant fuel in the cities and causes serious environmental pollution. In 1983, Tianjin used about 8,550,000 tons of coal. The total suspended particulate matter during the heating season was 0.72 mg/m/sup 3/ in Tianjin urban area, over four times the maximum allowable concentration of 0.15 mg/m/sup 2/. One of the causes is the 1,060,000 small stoves burning coal for heating. Tianjin has decided to use coal gas and geothermal as a substitute for burning raw coal. Retrofitting of the First Power Plant has began converting it to a co-generation plant and geothermal district heating. Geothermal exploration work has been carried out for fourteen years from 1970 in Tianjin. At present geothermal energy has been used in industrial processing and space heating and has proven economical. The predicted increase in geothermal energy from 1985 to 2000 will be only 3% of total energy requirements. Although the percentage is low, this capacity can replace a considerable amount of coal. It is expected that 15% of the residents can use geothermal for heating in the nineties and effectively reduce the air pollution. 7 references.

  19. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happo, M.S.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Halinen, A.I.; Jalava, P.I.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Hillamo, R.; Salonen, R.O. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM2.5-0.2) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM2.5-0.2 correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca{sup 2+}, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM2.5-0.2-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM10 (2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM2.5 (0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  20. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  1. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  3. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  4. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  5. Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

  6. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  7. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  8. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  9. Urban air pollution climates throughout the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    as well as the transport in and out of the city area. The building obstacles play a crucial role in causing generally high pollutant levels in the urban environment, especially inside street canyons where the canyon vortex flow governs the pollution distribution. Of the pollutants dominating urban air......The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditions...... pollution climates, particulate pollution in general together with gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are those where further field measurements, characterization and laboratory studies are urgently needed in order to fully assess the health impact on the urban...

  10. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m(3) for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2.

  11. Outdoor Air Pollution and Pterygium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Woong; Choi, Yoon Hyeong; Hwang, Sung Ha; Paik, Hae Jung; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM10 after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.

  12. Statistical distributions of air pollution concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    Methodologies and limitations in describing air quality through statistical distributions of pollutant are discussed, and the use of extreme statistics in the evaluation of different forms of air quality standards are explained. In addition, the interpretation of rollback calculations with regard to air quality standards is discussed. (JMT)

  13. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Sylvia C L; Silva, Clovis A; Orione, Maria Angelica M; Campos, Lucia M A; Sallum, Adriana M E; Braga, Alfésio L F

    2011-11-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This paper reviews the mechanisms of air contaminants influencing the immune response and autoimmunity, and it focuses on studies of inhaled pollutants triggering and/or exacerbating rheumatic diseases in cities around the world. Remarkably, environmental factors contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases, especially smoking and occupational exposure to silica in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases such as scleroderma may be triggered by the inhalation of chemical solvents, herbicides and silica. Likewise, primary vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may be triggered by silica exposure. Only few studies showed that air pollutants could trigger or exacerbate juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, no studies of tropospheric pollution triggering inflammatory myopathies and spondyloarthropathies were carried out. In conclusion, air pollution is one of the environmental factors involved in systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate air pollutants and their potentially serious effects on autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the mechanisms involved in the onset and the exacerbation of these diseases.

  14. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  15. Mathematical studies of photochemical air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In Part I, a new, comprehensive model for a chemically reacting plume, is presented, that accounts for the effects of incomplete turbulent macro-and micro-mixing on chemical reactions between plume and ambient constituents. This Turbulent Reaction Plume Model (TRPM) is modular in nature, allowing for the use of different levels of approximation of the phenomena involved. The core of the model consists of the evolution equations for reaction progress variables appropriate for evolving, spatially varying systems (local phenomenal extent of reaction). Part IA (Chapters 1 to 3) contains a detailed description of the TRPM structure and comparison of calculations with measurements, as well as a literature survey of reactive plume models. Part IB (Chapters 4 to 7) contains studies on the turbulent dispersion and reaction phenomena and plume dynamics, thus exposing in detail the underlying concepts and methods relevant to turbulent reactive plume modeling. New formulations for describing in-plume phenomena, such as the Localized Production of Fluctuations Model for the calculation of the plume concentration variance are included here. Part II (Chapter 8) presents a collection of distribution-based statistical methods that are appropriate for characterizing extreme events in air pollution studies. Applications to the evaluation of air quality standards, formulation of rollback calculations, and to the use of plume models are included here.

  16. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  17. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  18. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  19. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  20. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  1. Air Pollution Simulation based on different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin

    2017-01-01

    Simulation distribution of pollutants (SOx and NOx) emitted from Cirebon power plant activities have been carried out. Gaussian models and scenarios are used to predict the concentration of pollutant gasses. The purposes of this study were to determine the distribution of the flue gas from the power plant activity and differences pollutant gas concentrations in the wet and dry seasons. The result showed that the concentration of pollutant gasses in the dry season was higher than the wet season. The difference of pollutant concentration because of wind speed, gas flow rate, and temperature of the gas that flows out of the chimney. The maximum concentration of pollutant gasses in wet season for SOx is 30.14 µg/m3, while NOx is 26.35 µg/m3. Then, The simulation of air pollution in the dry season for SOx is 42.38 µg/m3, while NOx is 34.78 µg/m3.

  2. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  3. Air pollution information needs and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of Canadians : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the fall of 2001, the Environics Research Group conducted a national survey of 1,213 Canadians in order to provide Health Canada with public opinion on clean air issues. The topic areas included: concerns regarding air pollution; level of concern regarding air pollution; willingness for personal action; roles and responsibilities of government, industry and individuals; determinants of health; perceived effects of air pollution on health; personal health conditions; receipt of advice on the relationship between air pollution and health; information needs and preferred channels of information; familiarity with the air quality index; and, perceived sources of air pollution. According to survey results, Canadians think air pollution, pollution in general, and water quality are the most important environmental problems. They are most concerned about the manufacture, use and disposal of toxic chemicals, water quality and air quality, and less concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer and the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food products. Results suggest that most Canadians believe that air pollution significantly affects the health of Canadians. Approximately 25 per cent of Canadians feel they suffer from respiratory problems resulting from air pollution. In general, they think indoor and outdoor air pollution have equal effect on their health. The survey also indicated that Canadians think government regulations and enforcement are more effective in combating air pollution than voluntary action by individuals or companies. tabs., figs.

  4. Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

  5. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience...... of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales......, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient...

  6. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health im

  7. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  8. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  9. Combustion-generated indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, C.D.; Budnitz, R.J.; Traynor, G.W.

    1976-12-01

    It is obvious from this study that elevated levels of gaseous air pollutants (CO, NO, NO/sub 2/, and SO/sub 2/) and particulate sulfur and nitrogen compounds are present in indoor environments with gas cooking and heating appliances. High levels of CO and NO/sub 2/ approach or exceed promulgated and proposed ambient air quality standards. Such findings certainly indicate a potential impact of combustion-generated indoor air pollution on human health; and if borne out by further work, they may ultimately have a large impact on the future design of epidemiological studies, on energy conservation strategies for buildings, and on the need for more stringent control of air pollution from indoor combustion sources.

  10. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health impact, is particulate matter (PM) of which road traffic is a major source. Therefore, the health effects of traffic-related air pollution have been under considerable scrutiny. We examined in vivo t...

  11. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  12. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  14. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    . More than two dozen research articles present evidence of adverse health effects from inhalation exposure associated with cleaning or cleaning products. Exposure to primary and secondary pollutants depends on the complex interplay of many sets of factors and processes, including cleaning product...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which...

  15. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  16. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  17. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  18. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Photochemical Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Gregory John

    Air pollution is an environmental problem that is both pervasive and difficult to control. An important element of any rational control approach is a reliable means for evaluating the air quality impact of alternative abatement measures. This work presents such a capability, in the form of a mathematical description of the production and transport of photochemical oxidants within an urban airshed. The combined influences of advection, turbulent diffusion, chemical reaction, emissions and surface removal processes are all incorporated into a series of models that are based on the species continuity equations. A delineation of the essential assumptions underlying the formulation of a three-dimensional, a Lagrangian trajectory, a vertically integrated and single cell air quality model is presented. Since each model employs common components and input data the simpler forms can be used for rapid screening calculations and the more complex ones for detailed evaluations. The flow fields, needed for species transport, are constructed using inverse distance weighted polynomial interpolation techniques that map routine monitoring data onto a regular computational mesh. Variational analysis procedures are then employed to adjust the field so that mass is conserved. Initial concentration and mixing height distributions can be established with the same interpolation algorithms. Subgrid scale turbulent transport is characterized by a gradient diffusion hypothesis. Similarity solutions are used to model the surface layer fluxes. Above this layer different treatments of turbulent diffusivity are required to account for variations in atmospheric stability. Convective velocity scaling is utilized to develop eddy diffusivities for unstable conditions. The predicted mixing times are in accord with results obtained during sulfur hexafluoride (SF(,6)) tracer experiments. Conventional models are employed for neutral and stable conditions. A new formulation for gaseous deposition fluxes

  20. 淄博化工园区大气有机污染应急监测与管理对策%Research on Emergency Monitoring and Solutions for Air Organic Pollution in Zibo Chemical Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洋; 王新娟

    2014-01-01

    针对工业聚集区内多种恶臭混杂的情况,以淄博化工园区为例,研究了大气有机污染突发事件中有机物的应急监测方法,并提出了治理对策。利用便携式气相色谱-质谱联用仪,对重点企业事先监测,掌握各企业特征污染物,作为应急监测查找污染源头的依据;现场分析受污染空气中的化合物组成及浓度,通过查询、比对各企业特征污染物,确认责任排污企业。提出了末端监测处罚治理与对重点污染企业推行清洁生产相结合,应急监测与有机污染物在线监测相结合,建立企业污染源特征组分数据库,加强企业无组织排放监测与监管等治理大气有机污染的建议。%For a variety of mixed stench in one chemical industrial zone of Zibo city, the monitoring method for the organic compounds causing air organic pollution in polluted air was studied, and the corresponding solu-tions were also proposed.After the prior monitoring of key companies using portable GC-MS, the characterized pollutants for each company were mastered as the important basis for finding the pollution sources in emergency monitoring.The on-site determination of composition and concentration of the organic compounds in polluted air was carried out, and then the responsible polluters were confirmed by checking for the company characteristic pollutants.Finally, several suggestions were proposed including the combination of the monitoring sanctions con-trol and implementation of clean production to key polluting companies, the combination of emergency monitoring and online monitoring of organic pollutants, the establishment of corporate pollution characteristic component da-tabase, as well as the reinforced environmental monitoring and supervision of the unorganized emissions.

  1. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  2. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  3. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  4. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker;

    2015-01-01

    concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control...

  5. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  6. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  7. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  8. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  9. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  10. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is...

  11. Committee on air pollution effects research: 40 years of UK air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Dise, Nancy; Sheppard, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The UK Committee on Air Pollution Effects Research (CAPER) was established 40 years ago. This special section was compiled to mark this anniversary. During this time there have been dramatic changes in the composition of the air over the UK. The four papers in this special section of Environmental Pollution represent the current air pollution effects research focus on ozone and nitrogen deposition, two related issues and are proving from a policy perspective to be quite intractable issues. The UK CAPER research community continues to advance the underpinning science and engages closely with the user community in government departments.

  12. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  13. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  14. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  16. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  17. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health.

  19. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  20. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  1. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias,

  2. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163536.html Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Study ... Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type ...

  3. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations - the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages - attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical and chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.

  4. Urgent problems of improving background air pollution monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlyand, M E; Volberg, N S; Lavrinenko, R F; Rusina, E N

    1988-01-01

    For more than 12 years, systematic observations of background air pollution have been carried out in accordance with the WMO Programme using the network of USSR stations located in sparsely populated settlements and in a number of neighbouring cities. The parameters involved include spectral radiation measurements, determination of chemical composition of precipitation and the concentrations of a number of atmospheric pollutants. Analysis of the data obtained allows conclusions to be drawn on the capabilities of the current system and to evaluate methods of improving it.In order to further improve the monitoring system, it is recommended that the system should perform the same observations on air pollution and precipitation as carried out by other international and national programs, and also to create centralized laboratories to deal with the analysis of samples from these monitoring stations. Additionally, solid sorbents are emerging as an effective means of sampling certain air pollutants. They may be sent by post, they increase the accuracy of measurements and allow air sampling intervals of up to 7-10 days, thus synchronizing this period with the interval of precipitation sampling.

  5. Air pollution and congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 μg/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations.

  6. Air Pollution Assessment Combusting Fermented Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Čepanko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the problem of air pollution burning organic waste from agricultural and drinks production sectors. Chicken and pig manure and biogas dregs after extraction, i.e. after the process of fermentation in laboratory bioreactors were selected as an object of research. The article presents the method of fermented waste incineration and the experimental results of waste incineration. Periodic surveys of kiln load disclosed that under combustion, pollutant concentrations change over time depending on the stage of combustion.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-di; Hu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and v...

  8. Energy and Air Pollution: World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    OECD, IEA, IIASA

    2016-01-01

    WEO 2016 SR: Contribution to the IEA’s 2016 World Energy Outlook Special Report on Energy and Air Pollution (IIASA Contract No. 16-106) - Around 6.5 million premature deaths each year can be attributed to air pollution - Energy production and use are by far the largest man-made sources of air pollutants - Technologies to tackle air pollution are well known Clean air is vital for good health. Yet despite growing recognition of this imperative, the problem of air pollution is f...

  9. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  10. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., implementable provisions for taking emission control actions necessary to prevent ambient pollutant... Control District. (5) Bay Area Air Quality Management District. (6) Ventura County Air Pollution Control... under Rule 122; there is no time schedule for the Air Pollution Control Officer to initiate the call...

  11. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  12. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  13. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  14. The viewpoints of chemical air pollution caused by traffic subsystems and presented by the example of emission measurements of trucks’ exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan KOLARIČ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, experts have been emphasizing that we are in an era, in which dangerous climatic changes are getting more and more notable. We have been witnessing large climatic changes, caused by greenhouse gases, for several years. The question is no more “Are there climatic changes or are there not?”, nor “Are they being accelerated by human actions or are they not?” The fact is, the climate is changing more and more rapidly and that extreme weather conditions are becoming a daily matter. Furthermore, even if we stopped polluting the atmosphere immediately, the processes triggered by human-caused pollution would be going on for several decades.Modern logistic systems cannot operate without means of transport which enable the realization of transport. They form a transport system that makes the function of other economic systems possible. The use of different ways of transport has a bad influence on the environment in which we daily live and work. The damage of transportation has a bad influence on human health and nature, too. For that reason, we cannot treat the safety of the transportation means only through the technical impeccability of the devices which make possible direct execution of particular technological phases in different traffic subsystems. Ecological impacts of particular traffic subsystems are very complex, they have a long-term impact on our everyday existence and despite that we still do not devote enough attention to this.We have been aware that traffic, especially road and air traffic, is one of the largest sources of emissions of harmful exhaust gases of combustion engines and particles into the environment. The environmental impact of traffic is especially large due to greenhouse gases, which are part of exhaust gases being produced by internal combustion engines. In addition to that, there are many more toxic components in exhausted gases.

  15. Climate Change and Air Pollution: Effects on Respiratory Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Pawankar, Ruby; Vitale, Carolina; Lanza, Maurizia; Molino, Antonio; Stanziola, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Vatrella, Alessandro; D'Amato, Maria

    2016-09-01

    A body of evidence suggests that major changes involving the atmosphere and the climate, including global warming induced by anthropogenic factors, have impact on the biosphere and human environment. Studies on the effects of climate change on respiratory allergy are still lacking and current knowledge is provided by epidemiological and experimental studies on the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases, asthma and environmental factors, such as meteorological variables, airborne allergens, and air pollution. Urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases and bronchial asthma observed over recent decades in most industrialized countries. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of climate changes and air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in the general population and on the timing of asthma exacerbations, although the global rise in asthma prevalence and severity could also be an effect of air pollution and climate change. Since airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously in the atmosphere, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma in atopic subjects in the last 5 decades. Pollen allergy is frequently used to study the relationship between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that urbanization, high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are correlated with an increased frequency of respiratory allergy prevalently in people who live in urban areas in comparison with people living in rural areas. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc.) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction.

  16. Perspectives in chronobiology of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupfel, M. (French National Inst. of Health, Paris); Halberg, F.; Mordelet-Dambrine, M.; Magnier, M.

    In a series of experiments, male and female Sprague Dawley rats, kept in light (L) from 06/sup 00/ to 18/sup 00/ alternating with darkness (LD 12:12) inhaled different concentrations of carbon monoxide (50-1700 ppM) at each of two test times, 12h apart. A decrease in flow of CO/sub 2/ (Vco/sub 2/) resulting from CO inhalation was greater in the active dark (D) than resting light (L) span. Experimental hypoxic mortality of male and female mice also shows circadian variations, being greater in the D than in the L span. Moreover, a difference of mortality was observed between hypoxic exposures performed at 12/sup 00/ (in LD or DL) and hypoxic exposures performed at 00/sup 00/ (in LD or DL). Such results await tests of any extent to which they model responses of human beings to air pollution. In human beings any external environmental circadian, circaseptan and circannual variations in air pollution as such may serve to a variable extent as socioeconomic synchronizers of innate rhythms with a corresponding frequency, rather than as solely generators of time patterns in any physiopathologic response to air pollution. 17 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  18. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  19. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results.

  20. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  1. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  2. Association between Air Pollution and Hemoptysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Olive, Ignasi; Radua, Joaquim; Fiz, Jose Antonio; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of respiratory diseases is well established. Nevertheless, its association with hemoptysis has been poorly investigated. This paper describes the relationship of air pollutants with severe hemoptysis. Methods. All consecutive subjects with severe hemoptysis during a 5-year period were included. The relationship between the contamination measurements and the frequency of embolizations was analyzed using Poisson regressions. In these regressions, the dependent variable was the monthly number of embolizations in a given month and the independent variable was either the concentration of an air contaminant during the same month, the concentration of the air contaminant during the previous month, or the difference between the two. Results. A higher total number of embolizations per month were observed over the months with increases in the concentration of NO. The number of embolizations was 2.0 in the 33 months with no increases in the concentration of NO, 2.1 in the 12 months with small increases, 2.2 in the 5 months with moderate increases, 2.5 in the 4 months with large increases, and 4.0 in the 5 months with very large increases. Conclusion. There is association between hemoptysis and increases in the concentration of atmospheric NO in Badalona (Spain). PMID:27445569

  3. Polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars in air-cured tobacco leaves injured by ozone air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Chaplin, J.F.; Cheng, A.L.S.; Sorokin, T.

    1977-03-13

    Air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves of several production types were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of ozone-induced weather fleck on polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. Seven domestic cultivars provided leaf samples for analysis of polyphenols and phytosterols. Quantities of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, free quinic acid, and phytosterols were higher in severely flecked leaves than in leaves flecked only minimally. Greenhouse studies disclosed that leaves grown in carbon-filtered air analyzed as greenpunch samples contained significantly higher levels of reducing sugars than leaves grown in polluted air, regardless of plant injury.

  4. Global aspects of photochemical air pollution: A kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, S.S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting, Ventura, CA (United States); Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    One of the most serious effects of increasing photochemical air pollution on a global basis is the production of high concentration of submicron aerosol in the atmosphere, resulting in unfavorable changes in weather patterns and world climate. The probability that these changes may occur with an unchecked increase in photochemical air pollution justifies a comprehensive control of pollutant emission as well as a detailed study into their atmospheric chemistry. Structure-reactivity relationships (SRR) and linear free energy relationships (LFER) are presented for environmentally important chemical reactions of unsaturated aliphatic contaminants in air and water. SRR of the form log k (k = rate constant for reaction with O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3}) vs ionization potential, and tortional frequency as well as LFER of the form log k (A) vs. log k (B) where A and B = O{sub 3}, OH, and NO{sub 3} are presented and can be used to estimate reaction rate constants and environmental persistence (in air and water) for many unsaturated compounds for which no data exist. As examples of application, rate constants for reactions of OH (gas phase), OH (water) and NO{sub 3} (gas phase) are estimated for many unsaturated compounds.

  5. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  6. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  7. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air... for the California SIP, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Rule 502 (New Source...

  8. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  9. Evaluating Hong Kong's air pollution legislation and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ping-hei, Benny; 黃丙熙

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental problem that poses numerous health risks to those exposed to it. The adverse health effects are compounded in a place as dense as Hong Kong and further intensified due to its proximity to industrial and manufacturing plants across the border in Mainland China. Hong Kong has attempted to address the issue of air pollution through the enactment of legislation and policies such as the 1983 Air Pollution Control Ordinance and Air Quality Objectives, but so f...

  10. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines of vehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others. Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impacts of the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoring along different roads in the area of...

  11. 76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District ACTION: Final rule... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  12. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  13. Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

    Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

  14. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  15. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  16. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  17. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  18. Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics.In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed.In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible.

  19. Confronting unknown planetary boundary threats from chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Linn M; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; MacLeod, Matthew; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-11-19

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimitate a "safe operating space for humanity". One of the planetary boundaries is determined by "chemical pollution", however no clear definition was provided. Here, we propose that there is no single chemical pollution planetary boundary, but rather that many planetary boundary issues governed by chemical pollution exist. We identify three conditions that must be simultaneously met for chemical pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat. We then discuss approaches to identify chemicals that could fulfill those conditions, and outline a proactive hazard identification strategy that considers long-range transport and the reversibility of chemical pollution.

  20. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  1. Athletic performance and urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, R.J.

    1984-07-15

    Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, ''reducing smog'' of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance.

  2. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  3. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  4. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  5. Air pollutants degrade floral scents and increase insect foraging times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Jose D.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Roulston, T.'ai; Chen, Bicheng; Pratt, Kenneth R.

    2016-09-01

    Flowers emit mixtures of scents that mediate plant-insect interactions such as attracting insect pollinators. Because of their volatile nature, however, floral scents readily react with ozone, nitrate radical, and hydroxyl radical. The result of such reactions is the degradation and the chemical modification of scent plumes downwind of floral sources. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are developed to investigate dispersion and chemical degradation and modification of floral scents due to reactions with ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical within the atmospheric surface layer. Impacts on foraging insects are investigated by utilizing a random walk model to simulate insect search behavior. Results indicate that even moderate air pollutant levels (e.g., ozone mixing ratios greater than 60 parts per billion on a per volume basis, ppbv) substantially degrade floral volatiles and alter the chemical composition of released floral scents. As a result, insect success rates of locating plumes of floral scents were reduced and foraging times increased in polluted air masses due to considerable degradation and changes in the composition of floral scents. Results also indicate that plant-pollinator interactions could be sensitive to changes in floral scent composition, especially if insects are unable to adapt to the modified scentscape. The increase in foraging time could have severe cascading and pernicious impacts on the fitness of foraging insects by reducing the time devoted to other necessary tasks.

  6. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s dise...

  7. Air pollution and the birth weight - are they correlated?

    OpenAIRE

    Zisovska, Elizabeta; Lazarevska, Liljana; Arsenova, Jagoda

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution has harmful effects to fetuses. Pregnant women have to be protected from a dirty air environment and smoking. The birthweight is a determinant of neonatal well being, and recently published studies potentiated air pollution as a potential factor for low birthweight, and that was investigated in our study. The results showed more Small-for-gestational age babies in the central city district (highly polluted) compared to the eastern rural area, and because we exclu...

  8. Gene-air pollution interaction and cardiovascular disease: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Baccarelli, Andrea; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is likely to play a role in response to air pollution. Hence, gene-environment interactions studies can be a tool for exploring the mechanisms and the importance of the pathway in the association between air pollution and a cardiovascular outcome. In this article we present a systematic review of the studies which have examined gene–environment interactions in relation to the cardiovascular health effects of air pollutants. We identified 16 papers meeting our search cri...

  9. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M. [Toronto Public Health, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  11. Future challenges regarding personal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Pérez Ballesta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of population exposure as a direct indicator of the impact of pollution on public health is a consequence of the fact that the final aim of air quality measurements is the protection of the individuals' health. This article presents a picture of the exposure to air pollutants in different environments: industrial hygiene, indoor pollution and air quality legislation. The reduction of the health risk of the population to air pollution exposure opens new challenges when defining exposure indicators, control strategies and an effective assessment human exposure.

  12. Air pollution during pregnancy and lung development in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korten, Insa; Ramsey, Kathryn; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has also been linked to decreased lung function in infancy and childhood, increased respiratory symptoms, and the development of childhood asthma. In addition, impaired lung development contributes to infant mortality. The mechanisms of how prenatal air pollution affects the lungs are not fully understood, but likely involve interplay of environmental and epigenetic effects. The current epidemiological evidence on the effect of air pollution during pregnancy on lung function and children's respiratory health is summarized in this review. While evidence for the adverse effects of prenatal air pollution on lung development and health continue to mount, rigorous actions must be taken to reduce air pollution exposure and thus long-term respiratory morbidity and mortality.

  13. Reducing air and water pollutants in precision agriculture using robotic system

    OpenAIRE

    González-de-Soto, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    [EN]In the last decades there has been a large increase in environmental pollution. The incessant use of fossil fuels generates large air pollution with consequent climate change, in addition to the health problems caused by these pollutant emissions. These fuels are the main energy source for mobile vehicles, such as agricultural ones. Another problem generated in the current intensive agriculture is the use of chemicals to combat undesired pests that undermine and damage the production. Man...

  14. [Role of environment in complex diseases: air pollution and food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J; Giet, D

    2012-01-01

    Our polluted environment exposes human beings, along their life, to various toxic compounds that could trigger and aggravate different complex diseases. Such a phenomenon is well recognized for cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and cancers, but other chronic inflammatory disorders may also been implicated. The most common factors, but also the most toxic, and thereby the most extensively investigated, are air pollutants (both indoor and outdoor pollution) and various contaminants present in drinking water and food (organic compounds, chemical products, heavy metals, ...). The complex interrelationships between food and pollutants, on the one hand, and between gene and environmental pollutants, including the influence of epigenetics, on the other hand, deserve further careful studies.

  15. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Control District (SBAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Antelope Valley...

  16. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act... air pollution emergency episodes and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority...

  17. Household air pollution and its effects on health [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalkirti Apte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  18. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Stafogguiia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated...... the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure.......91-1.63) per 10 μg/m. CONCLUSION: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which...

  19. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates.

  20. The DMU-ATMI THOR Air Pollution Forecast System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.

    A new operational air pollution forecast system, THOR, has been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute, Den-mark. The integrated system consists of a series of different air pollu-tion models, which cover a wide range of scales (from European scale to street scale in cities......) and applications. The goal of the system is, on continuous basis, to produce 3 days air pollution forecasts of the most important air pollution species on different scales. Furthermore, the system will be an integrated part of the national urban and rural monitoring programmes and will be used for emission...... reduction scenarios supporting decision-makers. Currently, the THOR system consists of a numerical weather forecast model, ETA, a long-range air pollution chemistry-transport model, DEOM, an urban background model, BUM, and an operational street pollution model, OSPM. The ETA model is initialized...

  1. Monitoring of air pollution; Surveillance de la pollution de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-12-01

    In the Paris area, the annual average contents continue to decrease for the sulfur dioxide, the particulates, the carbon monoxide and the lead that respect the national and european air quality criteria. The annual average in benzene continues to decrease but the quality objective is always exceeded for five years. No particular trend appears for the nitrogen dioxide, even if 1998 was less polluted than the previous years. The quality objectives are always exceeded for this pollutant on every traffic stations and on 40% of urban stations. A light trend to decrease for nitrogen oxides and a trend to increase for ozone in the city of Paris. (N.C.)

  2. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  3. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  4. Traffic air pollution and oxidized LDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Jacobs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL, taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult outpatients with diabetes we assessed individual chronic exposure to PM by measuring the area occupied by carbon in airway macrophages, collected by sputum induction and by determining the distance from the patient's residence to a major road, through geocoding. These exposure indices were regressed against plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL, von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. We could assess the carbon load of airway macrophages in 79 subjects (58 percent. Each doubling in the distance of residence from major roads was associated with a 0.027 µm(2 decrease (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.048 to -0.0051 in the carbon load of airway macrophages. Independently from other covariates, we found that each increase of 0.25 µm(2 [interquartile range (IQR] in carbon load was associated with an increase of 7.3 U/L (95% CI: 1.3 to 13.3 in plasma oxidized LDL. Each doubling in distance of residence from major roads was associated with a decrease of -2.9 U/L (95% CI: -5.2 to -0.72 in oxidized LDL. Neither the carbon load of macrophages nor the distance from residence to major roads, were associated with plasma von Willebrand factor or PAI-1. CONCLUSIONS: The observed positive association, in a susceptible group of the general population, between plasma oxidized LDL levels and either the carbon load of airway macrophages or the proximity of the subject's residence to busy roads suggests a proatherogenic effect of traffic air pollution.

  5. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  6. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  7. Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A by Lindsey Blohm Oak Ridge Institute for... chemical -agent- resistant coating (CARC) painted panels is shown in Fig. 1. The top layers of topcoat are tan and the bottom layers of topcoat are green...methylene-chloride-based strippers for removing Army chemical agent resistant coatings (CARC). Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research

  8. Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

    1997-01-01

    The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena.

  9. Ambient air pollution triggers wheezing symptoms in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Loft, S; Ketzel, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    There is limited evidence for the role of air pollution in the development and triggering of wheezing symptoms in young children. A study was undertaken to examine the effect of exposure to air pollution on wheezing symptoms in children under the age of 3 years with genetic susceptibility to asthma....

  10. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship bet

  11. Impact of noise and air pollution on pregnancy outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Sbihi, Hind; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motorized traffic is an important source of both air pollution and community noise. While there is growing evidence for an adverse effect of ambient air pollution on reproductive health, little is known about the association between traffic noise and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We evalu

  12. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodruff, T.J.; Parker, J.D.; Adams, K.; Bell, M.L.; Gehring, U.; Glinianaia, S.; Ha, E.; Jalaludin, B.; Slama, R.

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between a

  13. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  14. Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppard, L.; Burnett, R.T.; Szpiro, A.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Jerrett, M.; Pope, C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2012-01-01

    Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. Th

  15. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  16. Modeling personal exposure to traffic related air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is about the VE3SPA project. Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict the outdoor air pollution at the home address of study participants, to study long-term effects of air pollution. While several studies have documented that PM2.5 mass measured at a

  17. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  18. Air Pollution and Exercise: A Perspective from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing an air pollution crisis, which has already had a significantly negative impact on the health of the Chinese people. Although exercising is considered a useful means to prevent chronic diseases, it could actually lead to adverse effects due to extra exposure to polluted air when done outdoors. After a brief description of the…

  19. Running Large-Scale Air Pollution Models on Parallel Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria.......Proceedings of the 23rd NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held 28 September - 2 October 1998, in Varna, Bulgaria....

  20. Application of Parallel Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, K.; Zlatev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  1. Long-Term Calculations with Large Air Pollution Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  2. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  3. Block Tensor Decomposition for Source Apportionment of Air Pollution

    CERN Document Server

    Hopke, Philip K; Li, Na; Navasca, Carmeliza

    2011-01-01

    The ambient particulate chemical composition data with three particle diameter sizes (2.5mmchemical data. However, for multiple particle sizes, the source apportionment analysis calls for a novel multiway factor analysis. We apply the regularized block tensor decomposition to the collected air sample data. In particular, we use the Block Term Decomposition (BTD) in rank-(L;L;1) form to identify nine pollution sources (Fe+Zn, Sulfur with Dust, Road Dust, two types of Metal Works, Road Salt, Local Sulfate, and Homogeneous and Cloud Sulfate).

  4. Study of air pollution scavenging. Fifteenth progress report. [Air pollution over St. Louis, Missouri and rural Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Ackerman, B.; Gatz, D.F.; Rilberg, S.D.; Peden, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.K.; Stensland, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    Selected analyses of air and rainwater chemistry and meteorological data are presented as part of the final efforts on the 5-year METROMEX study. The size characterization, air concentration, and source identification of aerosols over and near St. Louis are related to the urban-industrial activities of the metropolitan area. The precipitation studies are comprised of a comparison of chemical analyses of simulated rain samples between several laboratories, including the Survey. The results showed that the analytical technique used by the Survey for the chemical analysis of the METROMEX samples is excellent for increasing confidence in the published data. Other precipitation analyses are directed toward the acid rain problem as demonstrated by historical and current measurements in Illinois. The meteorological investigations consist of analysis of diurnal temperature and moisture cycles at urban and rural sites which relates to the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as perturbed by the city. The three-dimensional character of the PBL is also presented as determined by the radiosonde operations during METROMEX. Finally, the technique to calculate three-dimensional trajectories of air motion using the numerous pilot balloon observations acquired during the project is presented. These data are essential for the full interpretation of the air and rain chemistry observations, and the development of empirical models of pollutant scavenging.

  5. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  6. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  7. Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  8. Automotive air pollution : issues and options for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz, Asif; Sinha, Kumares; Walsh, Michael; Varma, Amiy

    1990-01-01

    Air pollution constitutes an ominous threat to human health and welfare. Its adverse effects are pervasive and may be disaggregated at three levels: (a) local, confined to urban and industrial centers; (b) regional, pertaining to transboundary transport of pollutants; and (c) global, related to build up of greenhouse gases. These effects have been observed globally but the characteristics and scale of the air pollution problem in developing countries are not known; nor has the problem been re...

  9. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  10. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  11. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  12. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air...

  13. Mortality and air pollution in Beijing: The long-term relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guiqian; Zhao, Pusheng; Wang, Yinghong; Gao, Wenkang; Cheng, Mengtian; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-02-01

    Since the 1980s, air pollution has become a major problem in northern China. Exposure to the extremely high concentrations of aerosols and trace gases might lead to important human health outcomes, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and malignant tumours. In this study, we collected data on mortality, visibility and the concentrations of certain air pollutants in Beijing from 1949 to 2011. Our goal was to investigate the mortality trends of different types of diseases and the relationship between mortality and air pollution. Based on the chemical compositions in particles and satellite formaldehyde, we found that mortality due to circulatory diseases was correlated with sulphate, nitrate and formaldehyde, whereas respiratory diseases were correlated with calcium, sulphate and nitrate, and malignant tumours was correlated with ammonium, nitrate and formaldehyde with an 11-year lag. The different responses to different air pollutants for different diseases are primarily a result of energy usage.

  14. [CHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL RISK FOR WORKERS OF MAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE COPPER AND NICKEL METALLURGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, G Ia; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Gogoleva, O I

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of hygienic researches of the harmful substances content in the air of the working area ofthe copper and nickel metallurgy. Sulfur-containing gases (primarily sulfur dioxide), to the effects of which there are exposed workers of drying, smelting, converter conversion, are shown to play a leading role among professional factors.

  15. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and groundlevel ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health.

  16. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  17. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana J.; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  18. Air Pollution and Serum Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Maayan Yitshak; Kloog, Itai; Liberty, Idit F.; Katra, Itzhak; Novack, Lena; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies demonstrated an adverse effect of chronic exposure to air pollution (AP) on metabolic syndrome and its components. In a population-based study, we investigated the association between exposure to ambient AP and serum glucose (SG), among subjects with normal glucose, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes mellitus (DM). We included 1,063,887 SG tests performed in 131,882 subjects (years 2001–2012). Exposure data included daily levels of SO2, NO2 and other pollutants of industrial, traffic, and nonanthropogenic sources. Demographical, clinical, and medications purchase data were assessed. Log-transformed SG levels were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for seasonal variables and personal characteristics. SG increases (%increase [95% CI]), among subjects with normal glucose, IFG, and DM, respectively, were associated with 6.36 ppb increase of NO2 measured 24 to 72 hours before the test (0.40% [0.31%; 0.50%], 0.56% [0.40%; 0.71%], and 1.08% [0.86%; 1.29%]); and with 1.17 ppb increase of SO2 measured 24 hours before the test (0.29% [0.22%; 0.36%], 0.20% [0.10%; 0.31%], and 0.33% [0.14%; 0.52%]). Among DM population, weakest association was observed among patients treated with Metformin (0.56% increase in SG [0.18%; 0.95%]). In conclusion, NO2 and SO2 exposure is associated with small but significantly increased levels of SG. Although DM patients were found to be more susceptible to the AP induced SG variations, Metformin treatment seem to have a protective effect. Given the chronic lifetime exposure to AP and the broad coverage of the population, even small associations such as those found in our study can be associated with detrimental health effects and may have profound public health implications. PMID:26166095

  19. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  20. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  1. 76 FR 68106 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  2. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  3. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene,...

  4. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  5. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  6. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  7. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  8. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate...

  9. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  10. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  11. 77 FR 25384 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  12. 76 FR 53640 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  13. 77 FR 71109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD). (1) The following specified portions...

  14. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  15. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  16. 77 FR 35327 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  17. 78 FR 6740 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  18. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

  19. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and...

  20. The air pollution index system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.Y.P.; Gervat, G.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (EPD) is currently operating an air quality monitoring network in the territory. There are nine monitoring stations, each with air quality monitoring equipment, meteorological instruments and a data logger. Five minute averaged data are transmitted through telephone lines to the central computer at the EPD Air Laboratory and are also stored in the data logger on site, as backup. At present, the EPD releases its air quality measurements to the public via monthly and special press releases, and annual reports. However, as public awareness of air pollution problems has increased, there has been an urgent need for timely and simpler information about air pollution levels. The development and operation of an Air Pollution Index (API) system has addressed that need. This presentation discusses the API computation, the information and advice released to the general public and how they can access the API information. Some API results are also presented. (author)

  1. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  2. The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  3. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  4. Air Pollution, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Allen A.; And Others

    Documentation is given on the known and potential effects of air pollution on human health, weather conditions, and biosphere. Practical applications of this information are discussed, with special reference to the Federal Air Quality Act and to the planning of urban expressways. Problems in defining standards of air quality are discussed.…

  5. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  6. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  7. 76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control... U.S.C. 804(2). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  8. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  9. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar

    2005-10-01

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models,a Symmetrical Air Pollution Model Index (SAPMI)has been developed to calibrate the accuracy of predictions made by such models,where the initial quantity of release at the source is not known.For exact prediction the value of SAPMI should be equal to 1.If the predicted values are overestimating then SAPMI is > 1and if it is underestimating then SAPMI is < 1.Specific design for the layout of receptors has been suggested as a requirement for the calibration experiments.SAPMI is applicable for all variations of symmetrical air pollution dispersion models.

  10. Biomarkers of ambient air pollution and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriou, Christiana A; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution may cause lung cancer. Despite the prospective nature and consistent findings...... the relationships between ambient air pollution and biological markers of dose and early response. The evidence for each marker was evaluated using assessment criteria which rate a group of studies from A (strong) to C (weak) on amount of evidence, replication of findings, and protection from bias. Biomarkers...

  11. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson's Disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Hansen, Johnni

    2016-01-01

    air pollution and Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a case-control study of 1,696 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified from Danish hospital registries and diagnosed 1996-2009 and 1,800 population controls matched by gender and year of birth we assessed long-term traffic-related air pollutant......OBJECTIVE: Very little is currently known about air pollutants' adverse effects on neurodegenerative diseases even though recent studies have linked particulate exposures to brain pathologies associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Here we investigate long-term exposure to traffic-related...

  12. Science Shop and NGO activities related to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Brodersen, Søsser

    2005-01-01

    with focus on development of citizens' capacity for measurement and assessment of air pollution and strategies for abatement and prevention of air pollution. The paper discusses also possibilities for further development of dialogue and co-operation between civil society, science shops and ACCENT researchers.......The paper describes activities, which these organisations and science shops carry out within the field of air pollution and its analysis, abatement and prevention. The activities have been mapped and analysed through dialogue with a number of these organisations. The activities include activities...

  13. Regulation of air pollution from wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas Bue; Brandt, Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Air pollution is a major global challenge. Emissions from residential wood-burning stoves make a surprisingly large contribution to total air pollution related health costs. In Denmark, emissions from wood-burning stoves are calculated to cause almost 400 premature deaths each year within Denmark...... and additionally about 300 premature deaths in other parts of Europe. In this article, we present an integrated assessment of the net social benefit of different schemes for regulating wood-burning stoves including bans and taxes. The assessment uses high resolution air pollution emission inventory...

  14. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  15. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskienė; Kristina Bereišienė

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  16. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  17. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  18. [Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects.

  19. Air pollution and venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Wang, Qing-Yun; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Liu, Jing-Di; Hu, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and venous thrombosis. Using a random-effects model, overall risk estimates were derived for each increment of 10 μg/m3 of pollutant concentration. Of the 485 in-depth reviewed studies, 8 citations, involving approximately 700,000 events, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the main air pollutants analyzed were not associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 0.998-1.012 for PM2.5; OR = 0.995, 95% CI = 0.984-1.007 for PM10; OR = 1.006, 95% CI = 0.994-1.019 for NO2). Based on exposure period and thrombosis location, additional subgroup analyses provided results comparable with those of the overall analyses. There was no evidence of publication bias. Therefore, this meta analysis does not suggest the possible role of air pollution as risk factor for venous thrombosis in general population.

  20. Controlled environment fumigation chambers for the study of reactive air pollutant effects on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, N. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    The design and construction of eight 1-m 3 fumigation chambers for exposing plants to reactive air pollutants at low concentrations are reported. Teflon surfaces are used where possible to minimize the adsorption, absorption, desorption and chemical reaction of the pollutants. A purified ambient air supply, to which metered quantities of gaseous pollutants are added, is used to give two air changes per minute at constant, low, pollutant concentrations. Comparative analysis of the chambers indicates that conditions may be maintained with a significant degree of precision, i.e. temperature ±0.3°C, RH ±6%, light intensity ±5 μmol m -2 s -1. Boundary layer analysis from models of cherry tree ( Prunus avium) leaves indicate that the minimum conductance value within these chambers is 2 cm s -1.

  1. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping CHEN; Jing-tao CHENG; Guang-fa DENG

    2013-01-01

    The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS) was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  3. Effects of air pollution on growth in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Maja; Stanković, Aleksandra; Jović, Sladjana; Kocić, Biljana; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2014-06-01

    The growth is considered a very sensitive indicator of the impact of environment of the health status of children. The aim of the study was to investigate whether air pollution is related to children's growth. The subjects were 1059 pupils, aged 7-11 years, living for more than ten years in the same home in the city of Nis (Serbia). Exposed group of children (N = 545) were attending the school located in a city area with a high level of air pollution, while the children (N = 514), in the comparison group, designed as non-exposed group, were attending the school in the area with a lower level of air pollution. The air concentrations of black smoke, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and lead in sediment matter were determined in ten-year period. Air pollution is associated with children's height and weight, specially before the age of 9 years. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of thinness in children exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants (p = 0.038). It might be possible that air pollution negatively contributed to the growth rate in urban children.

  4. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping CHEN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  5. Air pollution abatement in heating sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalen, J.; Pytel, P.; Romanczak, A.; Velina, S.; Verkleij, J.; Yasko, D. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, and Research Center for Photoenergetics of Organic Materials, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to formulate recommendations to reduce the air pollution in the heating sector in Poland. influence the use of energy by changing their behaviour. The main question concerns the options, related policy instruments and their effects on air pollution reduction. Five sub-questions were formulated (1) how is the heating sector structured and what are the effects of the related air pollution?; (2) What are the technological, organizational and behavioral options for pollution reduction, and how much do they contribute to pollution abatement?; (3) What are the policy instruments to implement the options?; (4) What are the financial and environmental effects of related options and instruments?; and (5) How can the various options and policy instruments be combined into a policy proposal? The main questions for this research have been elaborated by literature study and by interviews, both in the Netherlands and in Poland. figs., tabs., 67 refs.

  6. The impact of large scale biomass production on ozone air pollution in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beltman, Joost B.; Hendriks, Carlijn; Tum, Markus; Schaap, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone contributes to the removal of air pollutants from the atmosphere but is itself a pollutant that is harmful to human health and vegetation. Biogenic isoprene emissions are important ozone precursors, and therefore future changes in land use that change isoprene emissions are likely to affect atmospheric ozone concentrations. Here, we use the chemical transport model LOTOS-EUROS (dedicated to the regional modeling of trace gases in Europe) to study a scenario in which 5% of t...

  7. 76 FR 71922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  8. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  9. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  10. Bicycle messengers: energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernmark, Eva; Wiktorin, Christina; Svartengren, Magnus; Lewné, Marie; Aberg, Samuel

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution for bicycle messengers. Relationships between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake, and between HR and pulmonary ventilation (VE) for each participant were established in laboratory tests. Air pollution and HR were measured during one working day. The total oxygen uptake was then described as the total energy expenditure in Joule (J) and in multiples of the energy expenditure at rest (MET). The mean energy expenditure during a working day (8 h) was 12 MJ, (4.8 MET). The level of air pollution exposure when cycling seemed to be comparable with the levels of exposure when sitting inside a vehicle. The VE during cycling was four times higher than resting value. Increased VE led to increased exposure to air pollution.

  11. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  12. Plans and Measures for Avoiding Casting-Air-Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian

    2003-01-01

    This article presents plans of preventing casting-air-pollution in practice, and some avoiding methods in detail. In modern times, environment protection is looked high upon day by day; green-casting thus becomes more and more important.

  13. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  14. Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

  15. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases...

  16. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  17. Forest Fires, Air Pollution and Mortality in Southeast Asia.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan Sastry

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the author assesses the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution generated by a widespread series of fires that occurred mainly in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. The author describes how the forest fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to determine whether there were mortality effects and to assess how large and important these were. The author also investigates whether the mort...

  18. Seasonal ARIMA for Forecasting Air Pollution Index: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad H. Lee; Rahman, Nur H.A.; Suhartono; Mohd T. Latif; Maria E. Nor; Nur A.B. Kamisan

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Both developed and developing countries are the major reason that affects the world environment quality. In that case, without limit or warning, this pollution may affect human health, agricultural, forest species and ecosystems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the monthly and seasonal variations of Air Pollution Index (API) at all monitoring stations in Johor. Approach: In this study, time series models will be discussed to analyze future air quality and ...

  19. Exploring feedbacks between air pollution and climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chuwah, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is changing in response to natural and anthropogenic forcing agents. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants have led to significant changes in the Earth’s climate systems and projections indicate that further extensive changes are likely. Increased scientific understanding into the processes responsible for climate change and the possible consequences of assumptions regarding future climate and air pollution policy is important to formulate effective r...

  20. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  1. Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborn

  2. The impacts of air pollution on maternal stress during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfen; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Luo, Zhongcheng; Kan, Haidong; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of air pollution with maternal stress during pregnancy, we enrolled 1,931 women during mid-to-late pregnancy in Shanghai in 2010. The “Life-Event Scale for Pregnant Women” and “Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale” (SCL-90-R) were used to evaluate life event stress and emotional stress, respectively. Air pollution data were collected for each district where pregnant women lived during pregnancy. We associated ambient air pollution with stress scores using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjusting for relevant covariates, an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in sulphur-dioxide (SO2) (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11–1.52) and particulate-matter with an aerodynamic-diameter air pollutants than among women experiencing low levels (P1-P25) of pollutants. The stronger associations and higher levels of pollutants were observed in the cool season than in the warm season. SO2 increases on the recruitment day were also associated with an increased risk of high depression scores (P75-P100). Our findings supported a dose-dependent association between air pollution and emotional stress during pregnancy.

  3. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  4. Air pollution from traffic and risk for brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out to replic......PURPOSE: Air pollution is an established lung carcinogen, and there is increasing evidence that air pollution also negatively affects the brain. We have previously reported an association between air pollution and risk of brain tumors in a cohort study based on only 95 cases. We set out...... to replicate that finding in a large nationwide case-control study. METHODS: We identified all 4,183 adult brain tumor cases in Denmark in the years 2000-2009 and 8,018 risk set sampled population controls matched on gender and year of birth. We extracted residential address histories and estimated mean...... and risk of brain tumors which was found in our previous study. The suggestion of an increased brain tumor risk at high exposures merits further attention as does the differing results according to tumor morphology....

  5. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  6. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Isakov; Saravanan Arunachalam; Stuart Batterman; Sarah Bereznicki; Janet Burke; Kathie Dionisio; Val Garcia; David Heist; Steve Perry; Michelle Snyder; Alan Vette

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. A hybrid air quality modeling approach was used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutan...

  7. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  8. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  9. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 1 to... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) for Subpart HHH Table Appendix: Table 1 to Subpart HHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Natural Gas Transmission and Storage Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. HHH, Table 1 Appendix: Table 1 to Subpart HHH of Part 63—List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH CAS Number a Chemical name...

  10. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  11. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  12. Review: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E.; Covert, David S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Namekata, Tsukasa; Kim, Yoon Shin

    Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, SO 2 which is a highly water soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO 2 or O 3) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared with pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where ms and mm often determine success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

  13. The impacts of air pollution on maternal stress during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfen; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Luo, Zhongcheng; Kan, Haidong; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of air pollution with maternal stress during pregnancy, we enrolled 1,931 women during mid-to-late pregnancy in Shanghai in 2010. The “Life-Event Scale for Pregnant Women” and “Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale” (SCL-90-R) were used to evaluate life event stress and emotional stress, respectively. Air pollution data were collected for each district where pregnant women lived during pregnancy. We associated ambient air pollution with stress scores using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjusting for relevant covariates, an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in sulphur-dioxide (SO2) (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11–1.52) and particulate-matter with an aerodynamic-diameter pollutants than among women experiencing low levels (P1-P25) of pollutants. The stronger associations and higher levels of pollutants were observed in the cool season than in the warm season. SO2 increases on the recruitment day were also associated with an increased risk of high depression scores (P75-P100). Our findings supported a dose-dependent association between air pollution and emotional stress during pregnancy. PMID:28098225

  14. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  15. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  16. A mathematical formulation for optimal control of air pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 曾庆存

    2003-01-01

    The problem of optimal control of air pollution using weather forecastresults and numerical air pollution models is discussed. A mathematical formulation of the problem is presented. The control is an act on pollution sources with feasible constraints. Based on forecasted weather conditions, the objective ofthe optimal control is to minimize total cost caused by control under the constraint that the pollution concentrations over a certain period and a certain spatial domain are less than some specified values. Using the adjoint method, an effective algorithm is given. Since the optimal solutions are based on weather forecasts, the errors in weather forecasts will cause uncertainties in the optimal solutions. Estimation of impacts of weather forecast errors on the optimal solutions is discussed using the adjoint sensitivity analysis technique that is an approximated, however very effective method. The adjoint sensitivity analysis technique can be used to calculate the impacts of errors in wind, temperature and initial pollutant concentration fields on performances of the optimal control.

  17. India’s urban environment: air and water pollution and pollution abatement

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Kala S.; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on air and water pollution in India’s cities, provides empirical evidence to demonstrate the seriousness of the challenges, discusses the relevant policies of national and local government that are used to address the challenges, discusses relevant political economy issues related to introducing pollution taxes or other policies which are aimed at “green” cities.

  18. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  19. Houseplants, Indoor Air Pollutants, and Allergic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology of using houseplant leaves for reducing volatile organics inside closed facilities has been demonstrated with formaldehyde and benzene. Philodendrons are among the most effective plants tested to date. Philodendron domesticum had demonstrated the ability to remove formaldehyde from small experimental chambers at a rate of 4.31 micro-g/sq cm leaf surface area with initial starting concentrations of 22 ppm. At initial starting concentrations of 2.3 ppm a formaldehyde removal rate of 0.57 micro-g/sq cm was achieved during a 24 hour test. Aleo vera demonstrated a much higher formaldehyde efficiency removal rate than Philodendron domesticum at low formaldehyde concentrations. During a 24 hour exposure period 5 ppm of formaldehyde were reduced to 0.5 ppm demonstrating a removal efficiency rate of 3.27 micro-g/sq cm. Removal efficiency rates can be expected to decrease with concentration levels because fewer molecules of chemicals come in contact with the leaf surface area. Several centimeters of small washed gravel should be used to cover the surface of pot plants when large numbers of plants are kept in the home. The reason for this is to reduce the exposed area of damp potting soil which encourages the growth of molds (fungi). The leaves of Philodendron domesticum and golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) have also demonstrated their ability to remove benzene and carbon monoxide from closed chambers. A combination of activated carbon and plant roots have demonstrated the greatest potential for removing large volumes of volatile organics along with smoke and possible radon from closed systems. Although fewer plants are required for this concept a mechanical blower motor must be used to pull or push the air through the carbon-root filter. NASA studies on motor sizes and bioregeneration rates should be completed by 1988.

  20. Good manufacturing practice for modelling air pollution: Quality criteria for computer models to calculate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, C. M.; Sliggers, C. J.

    To spur on quality assurance for models that calculate air pollution, quality criteria for such models have been formulated. By satisfying these criteria the developers of these models and producers of the software packages in this field can assure and account for the quality of their products. In this way critics and users of such (computer) models can gain a clear understanding of the quality of the model. Quality criteria have been formulated for the development of mathematical models, for their programming—including user-friendliness, and for the after-sales service, which is part of the distribution of such software packages. The criteria have been introduced into national and international frameworks to obtain standardization.

  1. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  2. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  3. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  4. A Non-linear Eulerian Approach for Assessment of Health-cost Externalities of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    Integrated assessment models which are used in Europe to account for the external costs of air pollution as a support for policy-making and cost-benefit analysis have in order to cope with complexity resorted to simplifications of the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric sciences. In this paper we...... explore the possible significance of such simplifications by reviewing the improvements that result from applying a state-of-the-art atmospheric model for regional transport and non-linear chemical transformations of air pollutants to the impact-pathway approach of the ExternE-method. The more rigorous...

  5. Technology for future low-pollution air-craft gas turbines. Technologie fuer kuenftige schadstoffarme Luftfahrtgasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, H.B. (Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The author highlights the state of the art and development of aviation and the resulting atmospheric pollution with a special reference to civilian air traffic at cruising altitude. The propagation and long-term chemical effect of power-unit exhaust gases are not discussed; these complex processes of diffusion and atmospheric chemistry are dealt with in papers of their own. The author focusses on future aviation technologies which will improve the pollutivity and profitability of air-craft while maintaining their high level of operational safety. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  7. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  8. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling.

  9. Air pollution impacts from carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Jozwicka, M.; Pulles, T. (TNO, Delft (Netherlands)); Odeh, N. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Adams, M. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    This report comprises two separate complementary parts that address the links between CCS implementation and its subsequent impacts on GHG and air pollutant emissions on a life-cycle basis: Part A discusses and presents key findings from the latest literature, focusing upon the potential air pollution impacts across the CCS life-cycle arising from the implementation of the main foreseen technologies. Both negative and positive impacts on air quality are presently suggested in the literature - the basis of scientific knowledge on these issues is rapidly advancing. Part B comprises a case study that quantifies and highlights the range of GHG and air pollutant life-cycle emissions that could occur by 2050 under a low-carbon pathway should CCS be implemented in power plants across the European Union under various hypothetical scenarios. A particular focus of the study was to quantify the main life-cycle emissions of the air pollutants taking into account the latest knowledge on air pollutant emission factors and life-cycle aspects of the CCS life-cycle as described in Part A of the report. Pollutants considered in the report were the main GHGs CO{sub 2}, methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the main air pollutants with potential to harm human health and/or the environment - nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}). (Author)

  10. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  11. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  12. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan O; Thundiyil, Josef G; Stolbach, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 premature deaths each year, ranking it the 13th leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, many studies show that the relationship is deeper and far more complicated than originally thought. PM is a portion of air pollution that is made up of extremely small particles and liquid droplets containing acids, organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. PM is categorized by size and continues to be the fraction of air pollution that is most reliably associated with human disease. PM is thought to contribute to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease by the mechanisms of systemic inflammation, direct and indirect coagulation activation, and direct translocation into systemic circulation. The data demonstrating PM's effect on the cardiovascular system are strong. Populations subjected to long-term exposure to PM have a significantly higher cardiovascular incident and mortality rate. Short-term acute exposures subtly increase the rate of cardiovascular events within days of a pollution spike. The data are not as strong for PM's effects on cerebrovascular disease, though some data and similar mechanisms suggest a lesser result with smaller amplitude. Respiratory diseases are also exacerbated by exposure to PM. PM causes respiratory morbidity and mortality by creating oxidative stress and inflammation that leads to pulmonary anatomic and physiologic remodeling. The literature shows PM causes worsening respiratory symptoms, more frequent medication use, decreased lung function, recurrent health care utilization, and increased mortality. PM exposure has been shown to have a small but significant adverse effect on cardiovascular, respiratory, and to a lesser extent, cerebrovascular disease. These consistent results are shown by multiple studies with varying populations, protocols, and regions. The data demonstrate a dose

  13. Statistical Distributions of Ambient Air Pollutants in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN

    2004-01-01

    To determine the best statistical distribution of concentration data of major air pollutants in Shanghai. Methods Four types of theoretic distributions (lognormal, gamma, Pearson V and extreme value) were chosen to fit daily average concentration data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 from June 1, 2000 to May 31, 2003 in Shanghai by using the maximum likelihood method. The fit results were evaluated by Chi-square test. Results The best-fit distributions for PM10, SO2 and NO2 concentrations in Shanghai were lognormal, Pearson V, and extreme value distributions, respectively. Conclusion The results can be further applied to local air pollution prediction and control, e.g., the probabilities exceeding the air quality standard and emission source reduction of air pollutant concentration to meet the standard.

  14. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  15. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation.

  16. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling

    2002-09-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 {micro}m are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 {micro}m) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending

  17. Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, De-Ling [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The penetration of ambient air pollutants into the indoor environment is of concern owing to several factors: (1) epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between ambient fine particulate pollution and elevated risk of human mortality; (2) people spend most of their time in indoor environments; and (3) most information about air pollutant concentration is only available from ambient routine monitoring networks. A good understanding of ambient air pollutant transport from source to receptor requires knowledge about pollutant penetration across building envelopes. Therefore, it is essential to gain insight into particle penetration in infiltrating air and the factors that affect it in order to assess human exposure more accurately, and to further prevent adverse human health effects from ambient particulate pollution. In this dissertation, the understanding of air pollutant infiltration across leaks in the building envelope was advanced by performing modeling predictions as well as experimental investigations. The modeling analyses quantified the extent of airborne particle and reactive gas (e.g., ozone) penetration through building cracks and wall cavities using engineering analysis that incorporates existing information on building leakage characteristics, knowledge of pollutant transport processes, as well as pollutant-surface interactions. Particle penetration is primarily governed by particle diameter and by the smallest dimension of the building cracks. Particles of 0.1-1 μm are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or higher, assuming a pressure differential of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles (less than 0.1 μm) are readily deposited on crack surfaces by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. The fraction of ozone penetration through building leaks could vary widely, depending significantly on its

  18. Indoor air pollution: a poverty-related cause of mortality among the children of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Anders; Wall, Stig

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the research on the relation between indoor air pollution exposure and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children in developing countries. ARI is a cause of death globally, causing approximately 19% of all deaths before the age of 5 years, according to a World Health Organization estimate. Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels, which is strongly poverty related, has long been regarded as an important risk factor for ARI morbidity and mortality. The empirical base for this view is comparatively narrow, with few empirical studies in relation to the magnitude of the global public health importance of the problem. Most existing reports consistently indicate that indoor air pollution is indeed a risk factor for ARI, but studies are generally small and use indirect indicators of pollution, such as use of biomass fuel or type of stove. Exposure assessment for indoor air pollution in developing countries is recognized as a major obstacle because of high cost and infrastructural limitations to chemical pollution sampling. Use of proxy indicators without measurement support may increase the risk of both misclassification of exposure and of confounding by other poverty-related factors. The issue of sufficient sample size further underlines the need for decisions to invest in this research field. Areas where further research is needed also include exploring qualitatively options for interventions that are culturally and economically acceptable to local communities.

  19. Assessment of regional air quality by a concentration-dependent Pollution Permeation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Huan; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Although air quality monitoring networks have been greatly improved, interpreting their expanding data in both simple and efficient ways remains challenging. Therefore, needed are new analytical methods. We developed such a method based on the comparison of pollutant concentrations between target and circum areas (circum comparison for short), and tested its applications by assessing the air pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Cheng-Yu, China during 2015. We found the circum comparison can instantly judge whether a city is a pollution permeation donor or a pollution permeation receptor by a Pollution Permeation Index (PPI). Furthermore, a PPI-related estimated concentration (original concentration plus halved average concentration difference) can be used to identify some overestimations and underestimations. Besides, it can help explain pollution process (e.g., Beijing’s PM2.5 maybe largely promoted by non-local SO2) though not aiming at it. Moreover, it is applicable to any region, easy-to-handle, and able to boost more new analytical methods. These advantages, despite its disadvantages in considering the whole process jointly influenced by complex physical and chemical factors, demonstrate that the PPI based circum comparison can be efficiently used in assessing air pollution by yielding instructive results, without the absolute need for complex operations.

  20. Conifer epicuticular wax as a biomarker of air pollution: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grodzińska-Jurczak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epicuticular wax covering the conifer tree species surface has been used, mainly in conifers, as a biomarker of air pollution damage. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM various alterations in wax structure and chemistry caused by natural and anthropogenic factors have been noticed. SEM enables to evaluate wax deterioration at a very early stage, before visible symptoms occur. Symptoms of wax injury are, in general, not specific to the air pollutant type. Most common alterations in wax were the following: an undeveloped structure, various type of wax tubes fusion or erosion (deformed and disfunctioned stomatal complexes, a decrease in wax tube distribution, increased enrichment of completely amorphous stage, shifted annual wax erosion rate, chemical and needle wettability changes. To use SEM as an accurate tool for evaluating wax alteration, it is essential to distinguish air pollution and natural factors from artefacts caused by inappropriate usage of technique.

  1. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the

  2. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  3. Now casting of urban air pollutants by neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, F.; Marani, A. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-12-01

    The modelling of urban air quality prediction is a difficult task because i) the processes are controlled by complex chemical and physical mechanisms; ii) its state is ascertained by measuring too few parameters for a sufficient chemical picture; iii) sampling measurements are generally collected at too few points without consideration of scaling (for example CO is a local phenomenon while O{sub 3} is regional and both are often measured by the same monitoring network); iv) balances of chemical species are often forced to work far from local equilibria. In order to overcome these problems, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used here because they are model free and require very little knowledge about the underlying system structure. CO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} concentrations at the time (t + {delta}t) are variables that depend on their previous concentrations and of other external information, such as meteorological data, solar radiation, chemical precursors or vehicle traffic information. ANNs used in this work were able to explain over 90% of the variability of the pollutant concentrations considered at the next hour (CO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}) and over 80% of that of the next three-hour O{sub 3} concentration. The forecasting of CO peaks exceeding a given value has been successfully performed by transforming original concentration time series into a probability series and processing the transformed data by an ANN. Sensitivity analysis has provided useful insight into the most important forecasting variables and their relevant links.

  4. A pollution reduction methodology for chemical process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, S.K.; Cabezas, H.; Bare, J.C.; Sikdar, S.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

    1996-11-01

    A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass flowrate of each pollutant by its potential environmental impact score. This converts the mass balance into an environmental impact balance. This balance defines an impact index with units of environmental impact per mass of products. The impact index measures the potential environmental effects of process wastes. Three different schemes for chemical ranking were considered: (1) no ranking, (2) simple ranking from 0 to 3, and (3) ranking by a scientifically derived measure of human health and environmental effects. Use of the methodology is illustrated with two examples from the production of (1) methyl ethyl ketone and (2) synthetic ammonia.

  5. Cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air and biomass burning smoke near the mega-city Guangzhou, China – Part 2: Size-resolved aerosol chemical composition, diurnal cycles, and externally mixed weakly CCN-active soot particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved chemical composition, mixing state, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN activity of aerosol particles in polluted mega-city air and biomass burning smoke were measured during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign near Guangzhou, China, using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA, and a continuous-flow CCN counter (DMT-CCNC.

    The size-dependence and temporal variations of the effective average hygroscopicity parameter for CCN-active particles (κa could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fractions (forg, finorg determined by the AMS: κa,porg·forg + κinorg·finorg. The characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components were similar to those observed in other continental regions of the world: κorg≈0.1 and κinorg≈0.6. The campaign average κa values increased with particle size from ~0.25 at ~50 nm to ~0.4 at ~200 nm, while forg decreased with particle size. At ~50 nm, forg was on average 60% and increased to almost 100% during a biomass burning event.

    The VTDMA results and complementary aerosol optical data suggest that the large fractions of CCN-inactive particles observed at low supersaturations (up to 60% at S≤0.27% were externally mixed weakly CCN-active soot particles with low volatility (diameter reduction <5% at 300 °C and effective hygroscopicity parameters around κLV≈0.01. A proxy for the effective average hygroscopicity of the total ensemble of CCN-active particles including weakly CCN-active particles (κt could be parameterized as a function of κa,p and the number fraction of low volatility particles determined by VTDMA (φLV: κt,pa,p−φLV

  6. Contribution of air pollution to COPD and small airway dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Although in many Western countries levels of ambient air pollution have been improving with the setting of upper limits and better urban planning, air pollution in developing countries and particularly those with rapid industrialization has become a major global problem. Together with increased motor vehicle ownership and traffic congestion, there is a growing issue with airborne particles of respirable size. These particles are thought responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular effects and have also been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. The pathologic effects in the lung are mediated via inflammatory pathways and involve oxidative stress similar to cigarette smoking. These effects are seen in the peripheral airways where the smaller particle fractions are deposited and lead to airway remodelling. However, emphysema and loss of bronchioles seen with cigarette smoking have not been described with ambient air pollution, and there are few studies specifically looking at peripheral airway function. Definitive evidence of air pollution causing COPD is lacking and a different study design is required to link air pollution and COPD.

  7. Air Pollution Stress and the Aging Phenotype: The Telomere Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors. Telomere length shortens with each cell division and exposure to air pollution as well as low residential greens space exposure is associated with shorter telomere length. Recent studies show that the estimated effects of particulate air pollution exposure on the telomere mitochondrial axis of aging may play an important role in chronic health effects of air pollution. The exposome encompasses all exposures over an entire life. As telomeres can be considered as the cellular memories of exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere maintenance may be a proxy for assessing the "exposome". If telomeres are causally related to the aging phenotype and environmental air pollution is an important determinant of telomere length, this might provide new avenues for future preventive strategies.

  8. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  9. Joint Effects of Ambient Air Pollutants on Pediatric Asthma Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1998–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Because ambient air pollution exposure occurs in the form of mixtures, consideration of joint effects of multiple pollutants may advance our understanding of air pollution health effects. Methods: We assessed the joint effect of selected ambient air pollutant com...

  10. Eliminating air pollution from petrol engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujral, I.S.; Dave, R.K.; Shende, S.; Saxena, L.M.

    1976-03-01

    A review is given of various methods of controlling nitrogen oxides emissions from automobile spark ignition engines. Methods discussed include exhaust gas recirculation, catalytic conversion, afterburning, burning of non-stoichiometric mixtures, and water injection. It is concluded that the combined use of a catalytic converter and an afterburner is the most feasible option for meeting pollution standards. (PMA)

  11. 76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River..., Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone,...

  12. 10-Year Study Links Faster Progression of Atherosclerosis to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air) was the first U.S. research study to measure directly how long-term exposure to air pollution contributes to the development of heart disease.

  13. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ...'') request for approval to implement and enforce Air Pollution Control Regulation Number 36, Control of Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution Control.... Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional Administrator, EPA New England. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  14. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, D

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses.

  15. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk; Vera Innokentievna Yankova; Tatyana Isaakovna Vitkina; Anna Vladimirovna Nazarenko; Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of formation of air quality and to determine the impact of the studied factors on asthma morbidity in Vladivostok. Methods: The evaluation of air pollution in Vladivostok was done using long-term (2008–2012) monitoring data (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, etc.). The levels of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde (mg/m3) in six stationary observation posts were assessed. We studied the aerosol suspensions of solid particles, which were collected during snowfall from precipitation (snow) and air in 14 districts with different levels of anthropogenic impact. Melted snow was analyzed on laser granulometry. The impact of air pollution on the distribution of asthma morbidity was evaluated in various age groups by data of federal statistical observation obtained from 8 adults and 7 children municipal clinics in Vladivostok (2008–2012). Results: The content of suspended particulate components of pollution remained more stable, due to the features of atmospheric circulation, rugged terrain and residential development. The nano- and micro-sized particles (0–50 mm), which can absorb highly toxic metals, prevail in dust aerosols. These respirable fractions of particles, even in small doses, can contribute to the increase in asthma morbidity in the city. Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%). It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  16. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  17. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  18. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  19. Particulate air pollution and hospitalization for asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K.; Spinks, J.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Chinese University, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T., (Hong Kong))

    1992-05-01

    Age-specific quarterly asthmatic hospital discharge rates in Hong Kong during 1983 to 1989 were examined in relation to mean levels of six pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), total suspended particles (TSP), respiratory suspended particles (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Discharges from the hospital of children under 14 years of age represented 56% of 33,952 discharges recorded in all age groups. Trends of adult hospitalization rates over time remained stable during the study period. In children, however, there was an increase in these rates, particularly marked in the age group of 1 to 4 years. Univariate analysis revealed a strong correlation between quarterly mean TSP and hospital discharge rate for the 1 to 4-year-old children (r = .62, P less than .001). In the 5 to 14-year-old age group, there was an inverse relationship between hospital discharge rate and sulfur dioxide level (r = -.38, P less than .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis, controlling for confounding variables (seasonal and annual trends of asthma hospitalizations) confirmed these relationships. A highly significant linear regression equation was derived between hospitalization rate for ages 1 to 4 years and total suspended particles (P less than .001). The highly significant correlation between pollution and asthmatic hospitalization rate for the 1 to 4-year-old group suggests that young children are vulnerable to the adverse environmental effects of pollution. Auditing these relationships offers a logical basis for approaching control.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  2. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  3. An approach to represent a combined exposure to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to present a technique for estimating the effect of ambient air pollution mix on health outcomes. Material and Methods: We created a technique of indexing air pollution mix as a cause of the increased odds of health problems. As an illustrative example, we analyzed the impact of pollution on the frequency of emergency department (ED visits due to colitis among young patients (age < 15 years, N = 11 110. Our technique involves 2 steps. First, we considered 6 ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, and 2 measures of particulate matter treating each pollutant as a single exposure. Odds ratios (ORs for ED visits associated with a standard increase (interquartile range – IQR in the pollutants levels were calculated using the case-crossover technique. The ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were also found for lagged exposures (for lags 1–9 days. Second, we defined a Health Air Study Index (HASI to represent the combined impact of the 6 air pollutants. Results: We obtained positive and statistically significant results for individual air pollutants and among them the following estimations: OR = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.1, NO2 lag 3, IQR = 12.8 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01–1.07, SO2 lag 4, IQR = 2.3 ppb, OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1–1.06, PM lag 3, IQR = 6.2 μg/m3. Among the re-calculated ORs with the HASI values as an exposure, the highest estimated value was OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12–1.68, for 1 unit of the HASI, lag 3. Conclusions: The proposed index (HASI allows to confirm the pattern of associations for lags obtained for individual air pollutants. In the presented example the used index (HASI indicates the strongest relation with the exposure lagged by 3 days.

  4. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirak Zenebe Gebreab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use regression (LUR modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS. Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines.

  5. Development of Indoor Air Pollution Concentration Prediction by Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyati Pradini Yudison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available People living near busy roads are potentially exposed to traffic-induced air pollutants. The pollutants may intrude into the indoor environment, causing health risks to the occupants. Prediction of pollutant exposure therefore is of great importance for impact assessment and policy making related to environmentally sustainable transport. This study involved the selection of spatial interpolation methods that can be used for prediction of indoor air quality based on outdoor pollutant mapping without indoor measurement data. The research was undertaken in the densely populated area of Karees, Bandung, Indonesia. The air pollutant NO2 was monitored in this area as a preliminary study. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured by passive diffusion tube. Outdoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 94 locations, consisting of 30 roadside and 64 outdoor locations. Residential indoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 64 locations. To obtain a spatially continuous air quality map, the spatial interpolation methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW and Kriging were applied. Selection of interpolation method was done based on the smallest root mean square error (RMSE and standard deviation (SD. The most appropriate interpolation method for outdoor NO2 concentration mapping was Kriging with an SD value of 5.45 µg/m3 and an RMSE value of 5.45 µg/m3, while for indoor NO2 concentration mapping the IDW was best fitted with an RMSE value of 5.92 µg/m3 and an SD value of 5.92 µg/m3.

  6. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-04-05

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed.

  7. Assessment of socioeconomic costs to China's air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Guan, Dabo; Jiang, Xujia; Peng, Liqun; Schroeder, Heike; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Particulate air pollution has had a significant impact on human health in China and it is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and high mortality and morbidity. These health impacts could be translated to reduced labor availability and time. This paper utilized a supply-driven input-output (I-O) model to estimate the monetary value of total output losses resulting from reduced working time caused by diseases related to air pollution across 30 Chinese provinces in 2007. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution was used as an indicator to assess impacts to health caused by air pollution. The developed I-O model is able to capture both direct economic costs and indirect cascading effects throughout inter-regional production supply chains and the indirect effects greatly outnumber the direct effects in most Chinese provinces. Our results show the total economic losses of 346.26 billion Yuan (approximately 1.1% of the national GDP) based on the number of affected Chinese employees (72 million out of a total labor population of 712 million) whose work time in years was reduced because of mortality, hospital admissions and outpatient visits due to diseases resulting from PM2.5 air pollution in 2007. The loss is almost the annual GDP of Vietnam in 2010. The proposed modelling approach provides an alternative method for health-cost measurement with additional insights on inter-industrial and inter-regional linkages along production supply chains.

  8. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  9. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  10. Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan

    2002-02-01

    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia.

  11. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    , handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...... of ventilation and fine cracks in the outer walls. In the night people can not air the bedrooms without getting the rooms filled with wood smoke. Until now the regulations of wood smoke have been ineffective. - It would be a great step forward, if local authorities and smoke affected people could have effective...

  12. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Application for Treatment of Polluted Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of heterogeneous photocatalysts for the abatement of environmental problems has received increased attention during the last three decades. The photocatalyst used in most of these studies was titanium dioxide. This fact relates to the unique physical and chemical properties of titanium dioxide and similar semiconductor materials, such as ZnO, MgO,WO3, Fe2Oa, CdS, etc. that may be utilized for a wide range of potential applications. Specifically, upon ultraviolet irradiation these materials exhibit photocatalytic activity that enables the oxidative destruction of a wide range of organic compounds and biological species on their surface. In addition, these materials may also exhibit photocatalytically induced superhydrophilicity that converts the hydrophobic character of the surface to hydrophilic when exposed to UV light. This causes the formation of uniform water films on the surface of these materials, which prevents the adhesion of inorganic or organic components and thus retains a clean surface on the photocatalyst. Photocatalytic materials may be deployed on surfaces of various substrates, such as glass, ceramics or metals to provide layers that exhibit photocatalytic activity when they are exposed to light. Excitation of a photocatalyst leads to the creation of electrons and holes in the semiconductor material. Furthermore, these electrons and holes interact with molecules adsorbed on the semiconductor and can induce charge transfer process that results in the degradation of the adsorbate. The commercial potentials of heterogeneous photocatalysis are huge, including medical applications, application in the field of architecture (particularly for the cultural heritage purposes, facade paints, etc., automotive and food industries (cleaner technologies, non-fogging glass and mirrors, product safety, textile and glass industry, as well as in environmental protection (water and air purification and disinfection. After the discovery that

  13. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

  14. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...

  15. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  16. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  17. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  18. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S. [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, I-06121 (Italy); Monarca, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Moretti, M., E-mail: massimo.moretti@unipg.i [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  19. Is air pollution a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essouma, Mickael; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory debilitating disease triggered by a complex interaction involving genetic and environmental factors. Active smoking and occupational exposures such as silica increase its risk, suggesting that initial inflammation and generation of rheumatoid arthritis-related autoantibodies in the lungs may precede the clinical disease. This hypothesis paved the way to epidemiological studies investigating air pollution as a potential determinant of rheumatoid arthritis. Studies designed for epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis found a link between traffic, a surrogate of air pollution, and this disease. Furthermore, a small case-control study recently found an association between wood smoke exposure and anticyclic citrullinated protein/peptide antibody in sera of patients presenting wood-smoke-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, reports addressing impact of specific pollutants on rheumatoid arthritis incidence and severity across populations are somewhat conflicting. In addition to the link reported between other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases and particulate matters/gaseous pollutants, experimental observation of exacerbated rheumatoid arthritis incidence and severity in mice models of collagen-induced arthritis after diesel exhaust particles exposure as well as hypovitaminosis D-related autoimmunity can help understand the role of air pollution in rheumatoid arthritis. All these considerations highlight the necessity to extend high quality epidemiological researches investigating different sources of atmospheric pollution across populations and particularly in low-and-middle countries, in order to further explore the biological plausibility of air pollution's effect in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This should be attempted to better inform policies aiming to reduce the burden of rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  1. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of Autistic Disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution d...... during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures....

  2. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and he...

  3. Analytical dispersion model for the chain of primary and secondary air pollutants released from point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodis, Laurynas; Filistovič, Vitold; Maceika, Evaldas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model for dispersion of air pollutants released from a point source forming a secondary pollutant (e.g. chemical transformation or parent-daughter radionuclide chain) is formulated considering the constant wind speed and eddy diffusivities as an explicit function of downwind distance from the source in Cauchy (reflection-deposition type) boundary conditions. The dispersion of pollutants has been investigated by using the Gaussian plume dispersion parameters σy and σz instead of the diffusivity parameters Ky and Kz. For primary pollutant it was proposed to use the derived dry deposition factor instead of the source depletion alternative. An analytical solution for steady-state two-dimensional pollutant transport in the atmosphere is presented. Derived formulas include dependency from effective release height, gravitational and dry deposition velocities of primary and secondary pollutants, advection, surface roughness length and empirical dispersion parameters σy and σz. Demonstration of analytical solution application is provided by calculation of 135Xe and 135C air activity concentrations and the applicability of the model for the solution of atmospheric pollution transport problems.

  4. Relationship between ozone and the air pollutants in Peninsular Malaysia for 2003 retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Since few decades ago, air pollution has become a hot topic of environmental and atmospheric research due to the impact of air pollution on human health. Ozone is one of the important chemical constituent of the atmosphere, which plays a key role in atmospheric energy budget and chemistry, air quality and global change. Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly data from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) were utilized, in order to analyze the impact of air pollutants (CO2, CH4, H2O, and NO2) on the ozone in Peninsular Malaysia for 2003 using multiple regression analysis. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT as part of the atmospheric chemistry payload of the third European Space Agency (ESA) Earth observation, is the first satellite instrument whose measurements is enough precise and sensitive for all the greenhouse gases to make observation at all atmospheric altitude levels down to the Earth's surface. Among the four pollutants, ozone was most affected by water vapor (H2O vapor), indicated by a strong beta coefficient (-0.769 - 0.997), depends on the seasonal variety. In addition, CO2 also shows a strong Beta coefficient (-0.654 - 0.717) and also affected by the seasonal variation. The variation of pollutants on the average explains change 50.1% of the ozone. This means that about 50.1% of the ozone is attributed to these pollutant gases. The SCIAMACHY data and the satellite measurements successfully identify the increase of the atmospheric air pollutants over the study area.

  5. 75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter dated and received August 17, 2009... Sadredin, Executive Director/Air Pollution Control Officer of San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control... emission control requirements of Rule 4684 are consistent with the California Air Resources Board's...

  6. Traffic related air pollution : spatial variation, health effects and mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, M.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is probably the most intensely studied field in today’s environmental health research. The extensive body of literature on health effects associated with air pollution exposure has lead to prioritization of air pollution as public health risk factor and air quality regulations worldwid

  7. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control... and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3. Farms can change owners...

  8. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act). DATES... Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section...

  9. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  10. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  11. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  12. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  13. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  14. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.P.; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public & Internal Affairs

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the 'willingness-to-pay' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger.

  15. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China.

  16. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  17. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    climate and air pollution strategies assessed. The TM5-FASST tool allows for a fast screening of emission scenario variants and the resulting impacts can be investigated by source country, source sector level or by precursor. Developed at JRC, this model is a linearized version derived from the full chemical transport model TM5-CTM, taking as input pollutants emissions from 56 source regions with global coverage. The resulting pollutant concentrations are determined and their associated effect on human health (from PM2.5 and O3), the yield loss of damaged crops (from O3), and CO2eq of short lived climate forcers are quantified. The analysis of the LIMITS scenarios allows for impact assessment of alternate air pollution control assumptions on pollutant emission trajectories out to 2030 and 2050. The results show that stringent climate policies provide a significant air quality benefit compared to current legislation air quality policy. The identified benefits and trade-offs provide a strong incentive for the implementation of combined national policy focusing both on climate change and air pollution.

  18. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  19. Priority One: Environment. Air Pollution and Your Health, Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Patricia; And Others

    This teaching guide is designed to be used with secondary school students and the unit Air Pollution and Your Health. Material for the teacher includes the following: (1) an introduction to the unit; (2) a discussion of the sections of the unit; (3) instructional objectives; (4) suggestions for use of filmstrips, worksheets, reference materials,…

  20. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels.

  1. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  2. Susceptibility to air pollution in elderly males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Vonk, J M; van der Zee, S C; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Schouten, J P; Postma, D S

    2005-01-01

    It is important to know which individuals in the general population have increased susceptibility to air pollution. The aim of this study was to identify susceptible subgroups by studying airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E and sex. Diary data on lower and upper respir

  3. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  4. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We ge...

  5. Impact of Air Pollution on California Central Valley Fog Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the 20th century, trends in California Central Valley fog frequency have changed dramatically without explanation. While episodes of dense radiation fog, known regionally as Tule Fog, increased steadily from 1930-1970, analysis from both ground and remote sensing measurements confirm a 46-50% reduction in fog days in the last 30 years (Baldocchi and Waller, 2014, Herkes et al., 2014). The dominant hypotheses suggest that the recent decline in radiation fog can be explained by the rising temperatures associated with climate change or urban heat island effect. This assertion fails to explain the significant increase in Central Valley fog midcentury. Here we instead assert that changes in air pollution, rather than climate, better support this upward then downward temporal trend. Automobile use greatly increased emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) midcentury, followed by a large decrease in vehicle emissions due to statewide regulation from 1980 to present. In the Central Valley, NOx from automobile emissions contributes to the formation ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), the dominant hygroscopic aerosol in the valley's wintertime boundary layer that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) necessary for fog droplet formation. Thus, changes in air pollution not only affect the number of CCN, but may also impact the density and persistence of fog episodes. Using NOAA meteorological records throughout the twentieth century, we will show the correlation between fog frequency, air pollution, and climatic drivers. We conclude that fog trends are closely correlated with changes in air pollution, rather than solely climate change.

  6. [Relationship between surface UV radiation and air pollution in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si; Li, Xin; Sun, Yang; Shen, Shuang-he

    2008-04-01

    Based on the data of solar radiation and air pollutants collected in Beijing, the relationship between surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the content of air pollutants were analyzed, using the radiative transfer model TUV4.4 (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible). The results show that average total ozone content is 329 DU and higher in winter and spring, lower in summer and autumn. The inverse relationship exists between ground level UV radiation and total ozone content. This study also shows that a substantial reduction (up to 50%) in the UV radiation on days with high levels of air pollution. Larger fluctuations are found in UV radiation in the summer. The effects of clouds and air pollution on UV are higher than on total solar radiation, and the reduction in UV is about twice as large as the total solar radiation values. Strong reduction in the UV radiation reaching the ground is associated with the increase of tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides in Beijing. The correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and decrease in UV radiation is 0.70 in the early afternoon.

  7. Enhancement of local air pollution by urban CO(2) domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z

    2010-04-01

    Data suggest that domes of high CO(2) levels form over cities. Despite our knowledge of these domes for over a decade, no study has contemplated their effects on air pollution or health. In fact, all air pollution regulations worldwide assume arbitrarily that such domes have no local health impact, and carbon policy proposals, such as "cap and trade", implicitly assume that CO(2) impacts are the same regardless of where emissions occur. Here, it is found through data-evaluated numerical modeling with telescoping domains from the globe to the U.S., California, and Los Angeles, that local CO(2) emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. Although health impacts of such changes are uncertain, they are of concern, and it is estimated that that local CO(2) emissions may increase premature mortality by 50-100 and 300-1000/yr in California and the U.S., respectively. As such, reducing locally emitted CO(2) may reduce local air pollution mortality even if CO(2) in adjacent regions is not controlled. If correct, this result contradicts the basis for air pollution regulations worldwide, none of which considers controlling local CO(2) based on its local health impacts. It also suggests that a "cap and trade" policy should consider the location of CO(2) emissions, as the underlying assumption of the policy is incorrect.

  8. Air pollution exposure is associated with restrictive ventilatory patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Vonk, Judith M.; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; van der Plaat, Diana A.; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. In a recent paper, Adam et al. [2] showed significantly impaired levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) associated with exposure to the ambien

  9. The Effects of a Blizzard on Urban Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Armando; Bein, Frederick L.

    1981-01-01

    The chronology and effects of a 1978 blizzard on Indianapolis' air pollution levels (ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide) are used as a case study for geography classes. Photographs, graphs, and maps are provided as examples of meteorological data collection and interpretation. (AM)

  10. A Study of the Effects of Air Pollution on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Irene B.

    1970-01-01

    An investigation of the possible effects of air pollution on the absenteeism of elementary school children showed that a greater percent of absences occurred in the test group than in a comparable group. There is little question as to the importance that such information should have for educators, informed parents, and other adults in community…

  11. Elderly Exposure to Air Pollutants: Measuring, assessing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Silva, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis focuses on the estimation of the human exposure to air pollutants, and gives special attention to one of the most susceptible groups in the general population - elders. To fulfil the goal the work was conducted following the risk assessment paradigm and, consequently, was divided into 5

  12. Mortality, migration, income, and air pollution: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzo, S.R.; Novak, K.M.; Galdos, F.; Hakoopian, R.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1978-06-02

    The interrelationships among different demographic factors, specific causes of death, median family income, and estimated air pollution emissions were examined. Using the Medical Data Base (MEDABA) developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the entire population of the United States was cross-tabulated by income and emission levels of air pollutants. Path analysis was used to examine a number of patterns and relationships for each age, race, and sex group containing a minimum of 10,000 persons. Competitive and complementary effects were observed. These effects were frequently age dependent and occasionaly sex related. This specialized data base, the application of path analysis, and the development of a dynamic population and mortality model, in combination, proved to be a useful tool for investigating the effects of energy related pollutants on the exposed population.

  13. On Diffused Pollution Effect of Chemical Fertilizers in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limeng; GU; Lianchao; YU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of chemical fertilizers is an essential reason for diffused pollution of agriculture. Therefore,finding out influence factors of farmers in application of chemical fertilizers will play a significant role in controlling the diffused pollution of agriculture. Through field survey,a total of 340 samples in 4 counties of Chongqing Municipality were obtained. On the basis of these samples,an empirical study was carried out. The study results indicate that farmers’ application of chemical fertilizers is negatively correlated with farmers’ age,education level,male labor proportion,and soil fertility,while the annual family income,agricultural production population proportion,commodity trading characteristics,and scientific fertilizer application ability fail to pass the significance test. These results will provide reference for proper application of chemical fertilizers and controlling diffused pollution.

  14. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ≥4% of the annual number for ≥2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were 0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

  15. Air pollution biomonitoring survey in Morocco using k0-INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui, R. M.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Chakir, E.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is an essential step in any economical and social development policy. The atmospheric pollution study is a principal task due to the importance of atmospheric transfer of pollutants. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by different micro-climates influencing, on one hand, the transfer range of trace elements and, on the other hand, the availability of biological organisms that can be used in trace element air pollution biodetection study. Tree-barks, lichens and mosses were used in this study to evaluate trace elements bioavailability in different regions of Morocco. Those organisms were analyzed using the multi-elemental k0-INAA technique. The quality control of the results was performed by the analysis of reference materials. The analysis results were interpreted in the form of enrichment factors reflecting the atmospheric availability of anthropogenic pollutant elements such as Cl, V, Cr, Zn, As, Se and Sr.

  16. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoping Wang; Mauzerall, D.L. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the ''willingness-to-pay'' metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution

  17. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  18. microRNAs: Implications for air pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Melanie J., E-mail: melaniejardim@gmail.com [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality attributable to air pollution continues to be a growing public health concern worldwide. Despite several studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain elusive. In the last several years, special attention has been given to the role of epigenetics in mediating, not only genetic and physiological responses to certain environmental insults, but also in regulating underlying susceptibility to environmental stressors. Epigenetic mechanisms control the expression of gene products, both basally and as a response to a perturbation, without affecting the sequence of DNA itself. These mechanisms include structural regulation of the chromatin structure, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, and post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as microRNA mediated repression of gene expression. microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that have been quickly established as key regulators of gene expression. As such, miRNAs have been found to control several cellular processes including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. More recently, research has emerged suggesting that changes in the expression of some miRNAs may be critical for mediating biological, and ultimately physiological, responses to air pollutants. Although the study of microRNAs, and epigenetics as a whole, has come quite far in the field of cancer, the understanding of how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions to environmental exposures in everyday life is unclear. This article does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US EPA.

  19. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  20. Air pollution threatens the health of children in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millman, A.; Tang, D.L.; Perera, F.P. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-09-15

    China's rapid economic development has come at the cost of severe environmental degradation, most notably from coal combustion. Outdoor air pollution is associated with >300 000 deaths, 20 million cases of respiratory illness, and a health cost of >500 billion renminbi (>3% of gross domestic product) annually. The young are particularly susceptible to air pollution, yet there has been only limited recognition of its effects on children's health and development. To fill this gap, we reviewed relevant published environmental studies, biomedical and molecular/epidemiologic research, and economic and policy analyses. China relies on coal for about 70% to 75% of its energy needs, consuming 1.9 billion tons of coal each year. In addition to CO{sub 2}, the major greenhouse gas, coal burning in China emits vast quantities of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, arsenic, and mercury. Seventy percent of Chinese households burn coal or biomass for cooking and heating, which contaminates indoor air. Adverse effects of combustion-related air pollution include reduced fetal and child growth, pulmonary disease including asthma, developmental impairment, and increased risk of cancer. A prospective molecular epidemiologic study of newborns in Chongqing has demonstrated direct benefits to children's health and development from the elimination of a coal-burning plant. Recognition of the full health and economic cost of air pollution to Chinese children and the benefits of pollution reduction should spur increased use of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean-fuel vehicles. This is a necessary investment for China's future.

  1. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NOx was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 μg/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 μg/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  2. Effect of Air Pollutant Markers on Multiple Sclerosis Relapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mehrpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is one of the autoimmune diseases with an unknown cause. The aim of this study was to explore the link between air quality and MS relapses in patients who suffer from MS.This time-series study was conducted on patients registered at the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society in 2011-2012. They were randomly selected from patients lived in Tehran in the last five years, and had at least one relapse in the last three years. The link between monthly mean air pollutant levels and the relapses of MS in the participants was studied.Among the registered 160 participants, at least 150 had one attack during 2009 and 2012. Most air pollutants such as NO2, NO and CO are in high levels in the rainy season. Others like Pm10 and Nox are in high levels in the dry season. The correlation between NO2 levels of all markers of air quality and MS relapses (P=0.03, r=0.27 is weak. Best ARIMA model (p,d,q; 1,0,1 was determined between number of monthly relapses and living place, although this model was not significant (P=0.3 (AR; P=0.000, MA;P=0.4.Air pollutants might be regarded as a risk factor for MS relapse.

  3. Air pollution:a smoking gun for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Chao-Nan Qian; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especial y in highly populated countries such as China, air pol ution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon wil it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Final y, the approaches for air pol ution control are also discussed.

  4. Chemical pollution, respiratory allergy and asthma: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gareth S; Cadogan, David; Flueckiger, Andreas; Hennes, Christa; Kimber, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) convened a workshop in June 2005 to address the speculation that exposure to specific chemicals, and/or chemical pollutants in general, may play an important role in the increased prevalence of allergy and asthma in 'westernized' societies. This paper summarises one perspective arrived at during this workshop. It was acknowledged that certain chemicals and certain types of pollution might trigger or exacerbate asthmatic reactions in sensitised subjects. However, overall levels of pollution appear not to have had a major impact upon the prevalence of atopic allergy. Epidemiological studies suggest that pollution may in some circumstances protect from acquisition of sensitisation. Increasing exposure to household chemicals may enhance pre-existing allergies, but evidence for their causation of allergy is lacking. Other risk factors considered included societal dietary changes and exposure to endotoxins. Future research needs were identified which included epidemiological studies employing exposure and biomonitoring data, studies on domestic exposure to chemicals and their association with the incidence of allergy and asthma, and prospective birth cohort studies employing well-defined aspects of lifestyle, diet, chemical and endotoxin exposure as factors that may drive susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  5. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (measurements from an assortment of sensors, costing $20-$700, that have been used to measure air pollution in the US, India, and China with a focus on estimating PM concentrations. Their performance has been evaluated in these very different settings with low concentrations seen in the US (up to approximately 20 ug m-3) and much higher concentrations measured in India and China (up to approximately 300 ug m-3). Based on these studies the optimal concentration ranges of these sensors have been determined. Used in conjunction with data from a carbon dioxide sensor, emissions factors were estimated in some of the locations. In addition temperature and humidity sensors can be used to calculate c

  6. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  7. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  8. Innovative pollution prevention program at Air Force owned Raytheon operated facility incorporating Russian technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.H.; Cepeda-Calderon, S.

    1999-07-01

    Air Force Plant 44 in Tucson, Arizona is owned by the Air Force and operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. A joint Air Force/Raytheon Pollution Prevention Team operates at AFP 44 with the ultimate goal to minimize or eliminate the use of hazardous substances. The team works together to uncover new technologies and methods that will replace chemicals used in the plant's missile manufacturing facilities. The program maximizes pollution prevention by first eliminating hazardous material use, then chemical recycling, next hazardous waste reduction and finally wastewater treatment and recycling. From fiscal years 1994 through 1997, nine pollution prevention projects have been implemented, totaling $2.6 million, with a payback averaging less than two years. A unique wastewater treatment method has been demonstrated as part of this program. This is electroflotation, a Russian technology which removes dispersed particles from liquid with gas bubbles obtained during water electrolysis. A unit was built in the US which successfully removed organic emulsions from wastewater. Operational units are planned for the removal of waste from waterfall paint booths. The pollution prevention joint team continues to be very active with two projects underway in FY 98 and two more funded for FY 99.

  9. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  10. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  11. Air pollution in perspective : Health risks of air pollution expressed in equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Saskia C; Fischer, Paul H; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the health effects of long term exposure to air pollution are well established, it is difficult to effectively communicate the health risks of this (largely invisible) risk factor to the public and policy makers. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that expresses th

  12. Survey of air pollutants emitted from rendering plant of poultry slaughterhouse and design of local ventilation system and suitable collector for control and treatment of air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Hesam

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in rendering plant can remove large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Control of these pollutants can cause loss of smell nuisance and environmental pollution and improving the health and welfare of workers and neighboring residents of such industries.

  13. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  14. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  15. Tracing global supply chains to air pollution hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-09-01

    While high-income countries have made significant strides since the 1970s in improving air quality, air pollution continues to rise in many developing countries and the world as a whole. A significant share of the pollution burden in developing countries can be attributed to production for export to consumers in high-income nations. However, it remains a challenge to quantify individual actors’ share of responsibility for pollution, and to involve parties other than primary emitters in cleanup efforts. Here we present a new spatially explicit modeling approach to link SO2, NO x , and PM10 severe emissions hotspots to final consumers via global supply chains. These maps show developed countries reducing their emissions domestically but driving new pollution hotspots in developing countries. This is also the first time a spatially explicit footprint inventory has been established. Linking consumers and supply chains to emissions hotspots creates opportunities for other parties to participate alongside primary emitters and local regulators in pollution abatement efforts.

  16. Study on air pollution reduction costs of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O.S. [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This study mainly treats the productivity change due to the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in the power generation sector and estimates marginal reduction cost due to air pollution as contents. For this, domestic energy use, supply and demand status and forecast of power sector are described, and the effect of the use of low-sulfur fuel oil in power generation sector was analyzed and the result was summarized. The marginal reduction cost of air pollutants in domestic power sector was estimated and the result was summarized using products distance functions. Major results can be summarized as follows. 1. Pollution control, profitability based on size and technology development are found to exert a statistically meaningful influence on a productivity change in power generation sector. Among these, pollution control by the supply of low- sulfur fuel oil is found to have both primary factors that either increase or decrease productivity. 2. The result of estimating the marginal reduction cost of domestic thermoelectric power plants using the duality of products distance function and import function shows that average marginal reduction costs for the period of 1990 {approx} 1995 are 310.6 thousands Won for SO{sub X}, 146.7 thousands Won for NO{sub X}, 15,482.3 thousands Won for TSP, and 3.8 thousands Won for CO{sub 2} in case four pollutants are all included though there may be some difference based on the assumption of model. 70 refs., 16 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule....

  18. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  19. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  20. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  1. Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal Markers of Metabolic function: The MIREC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Hystad, Perry; Johnson, Markey; Crouse, Dan L; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sun, Liu; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renée; Fraser, William D

    2016-05-01

    Previous evidence suggests that exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy could alter fetal metabolic function, which could increase the risk of obesity in childhood. However, to our knowledge, no epidemiologic study has investigated the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and indicators of fetal metabolic function. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with mixed-effects linear regression models among 1,257 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, conducted in Canada (2008-2011). We observed that an interquartile-range increase in average exposure to fine particulate matter (3.2 µg/m(3)) during pregnancy was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 4, 17) increase in adiponectin levels. We also observed 13% (95% confidence interval: 6, 20) higher adiponectin levels per interquartile-range increase in average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (13.6 parts per billion) during pregnancy. Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored.

  2. Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, Sara E; Shmool, Jessie L Carr; Michanowicz, Drew R; Bain, Daniel J; Cambal, Leah K; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e.g., chemical, magnetic) across multiple geographies and climates. Biomonitoring is a low-cost sampling method and may potentially fill an important gap in current air monitoring methods by providing low-cost, longer-term urban air pollution measures. As such, better understanding of the range of methods, and their corresponding strengths and limitations, is critical for employing the use of tree leaves as biomonitors for pollution to improve spatially resolved exposure assessments for epidemiological studies and urban planning strategies.

  3. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  4. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  5. Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

    2014-09-16

    Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments.

  6. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference,...

  7. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  8. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Ghorani-Azam; Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxic...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  10. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters basin.

  11. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  12. [A promising method of hygienic evaluation of air pollution inside the modules of the international space station by hydrazine derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikos, K N; Mukhamedieva, L N; Pakhomova, A A; Ul'ianov, A V; Serdiuk, T M; Buriak, A K

    2009-01-01

    The increasing frequency of ISS egress operations resulted in ISS air pollution by an uncharacteristic group of toxic compounds, i. e. propellant residues and products of propellant incomplete burning. High reactivity and toxicity of these compounds necessitated the development of a method of sanitary-chemical evaluation of ISS air safety given penetration of the new pollutants. The method is fulfilled in two stages. First is air sampling and then--sample analysis in ground laboratory by chromatography-mass spectrometry. Air sampling, as well as sample handling and analysis procedures were refined with the use of artificial gas mixtures. The proposed method shows promise as an instrument for the hygienic evaluation of ISS air pollution by hydrazine derivatives.

  13. A review of air exchange rate models for air pollution exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Schultz, Bradley D; Sohn, Michael D; Long, Thomas; Langstaff, John; Williams, Ronald; Isaacs, Kristin; Meng, Qing Yu; Stallings, Casson; Smith, Luther

    2014-11-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings where people spend their time. The AER, which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pollutants and for removal of indoor-emitted air pollutants. This paper presents an overview and critical analysis of the scientific literature on empirical and physically based AER models for residential and commercial buildings; the models highlighted here are feasible for exposure assessments as extensive inputs are not required. Models are included for the three types of airflows that can occur across building envelopes: leakage, natural ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. Guidance is provided to select the preferable AER model based on available data, desired temporal resolution, types of airflows, and types of buildings included in the exposure assessment. For exposure assessments with some limited building leakage or AER measurements, strategies are described to reduce AER model uncertainty. This review will facilitate the selection of AER models in support of air pollution exposure assessments.

  14. Impact of air temperature, relative humidity, air movement and pollution on eye blinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Lyubenova, Velina S.; Skwarczynski, Mariusz;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and pollution on occupants’ eye blink frequency (BF) was examined. In total sixty subjects participated in eight 4 hour experiments without and with facially applied air movement under individual control of the subjects. Air movement...... of either polluted room air supplied isothermally or clean and cool air was used. Eye blinking video record for the last 15 min of each exposure were analysed. The increase of the room air temperature and relative humidity from 23 °C and 40% to 26 °C and 70% or to 28 °C and 70% decreased the BF....... At temperature of 26 °C and relative humidity of 70% facially applied flow of polluted room air didn’t have significant impact on BF in comparison without air movement. The increase of BF due to decrease of temperature and humidity and increase of velocity may be compensated due to the increase in air cleanness....

  15. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  16. 76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District....0 for the following terms: Air Pollution Control Officer, Board, Environmental Protection Agency.... New Section 6.3 requires the SJVUAPCD Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) to prepare and present...

  17. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 4104, ``Reduction of Animal Matter,''...

  18. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Rulemaking For the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

  19. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Association of Home Builders v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, No. 08-17309...

  20. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this action, EPA is finalizing approval of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... plans that are specifically tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

  1. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No. 08-17309)] to overturn a District Court ruling...

  2. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  3. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole Lundsgaard; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air...... pollutants....

  4. 77 FR 64427 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) there is no VOC concentration limit for reinjection...

  5. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  6. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  7. 75 FR 24408 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  8. 77 FR 5709 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  9. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  10. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  11. 77 FR 58312 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. This action was published on June 13, 2012 and concerns...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  12. 76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  13. 75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation... authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA section 185 acts as an...

  14. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this action, we are proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an...

  15. 76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... preempt Tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  16. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation... Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) Rule 74.15 (as amended November 8, 1994)....

  17. [EVALUATION OF THE AIR POLLUTION HEALTH RISK FOR THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF UFA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenkova, G A; Karelin, A O; Askarov, R A; Askarova, Z F

    2015-01-01

    There are presented results of the calculation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks due to the impact of chemical air pollutants for the human health of a large industrial city. Maximal levels of carcinogenic hazards under inhalation route of substances from the air were established to be noted on gasoline, manganese, sulfur dioxide, copper oxide, formaldehyde. In the formation of carcinogenic risk the greatest contribution is made by chromium, gasoline, formaldehyde, benzol. The risk of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects for the population of the city continues to remain to be high, that requires the development and implementation of planned recreational measures.

  18. An empirical bayes method for comparing air pollution data to air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jack C.; Curran, Thomas C.

    Air pollution concentrations are often characterized by skewed distributions. For example, 24-h suspended particulate mass concentrations have historically been characterized by a 2-parameter lognormal distribution (Larsen, 1969, J. Air. Pollut. Control. Ass.19, 24-30). The error in making measurements of these concentrations also conforms to a distribution that is more symmetric and can usually be approximated by the normal distribution, often with the added feature that the error variation is a function of concentration level. Air pollution measurements are often used to determine status with respect to legal standards such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (Fed. Reg. 36, 8186, 1971; 44, 8202, 1979). In general, these standards do not explicitly account for measurement error. Using Bayesian mathematics, a model is developed which deals with the probability of the "true" concentration exceeding the NAAQS given a measurement above the NAAQS. Several hypothetical examples are used to demonstrate that Bayesian techniques can combine both pollution history and instrument precision into a probablistic model for comparing air pollution data to NAAQS.

  19. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods: Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing func...

  20. CFD modeling of reactive pollutant dispersion in simplified urban configurations with different chemical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Beatriz; Santiago, Jose-Luis; Martilli, Alberto; Palacios, Magdalena; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-09-01

    An accurate understanding of urban air quality requires considering a coupled behavior between the dispersion of reactive pollutants and atmospheric dynamics. Currently, urban air pollution is mostly dominated by traffic emission, where nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the primary emitted pollutants. However, modeling reactive pollutants with a large set of chemical reactions, using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model, requires a large amount of computational (CPU) time. In this sense, the selection of the chemical reactions needed in different atmospheric conditions becomes essential in finding the best compromise between CPU time and accuracy. The purpose of this work is to assess the differences in NO and NO2 concentrations by considering three chemical approaches: (a) passive tracers (non-reactive), (b) the NOx-O3 photostationary state and (c) a reduced complex chemical mechanism based on 23 species and 25 reactions. The appraisal of the effects of chemical reactions focuses on studying the NO and NO2 dispersion in comparison with the tracer behavior within the street. In turn, the effect of including VOC reactions is also analyzed taking into account several VOC / NOx ratios of traffic emission. Given that the NO and NO2 dispersion can also be affected by atmospheric conditions, such as wind flow or the background concentration from season-dependent pollutants, in this work the influence of wind speeds and background O3 concentrations are studied. The results show that the presence of ozone in the street plays an important role in NO and NO2 concentrations. Therefore, greater differences linked to the chemical approach used are found with higher O3 concentrations and faster wind speeds. This bears relation to the vertical flux as a function of ambient wind speed since it increases the pollutant exchange between the street and the overlying air. This detailed study allows one to ascertain under which atmospheric conditions