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Sample records for aids sister chromatid

  1. Sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are cytological manifestations of DNA double-strand breakage and rejoining at homologous sites between the two chromatids of a chromosome. The occurrence of SCEs was deduced from the transformation of small ring chromosomes to large ring chromosomes following cell division. Using tritiated thymidine as marker and microautoradiography for detection, others demonstrated the occurrence of SCEs from the silver grain pattern on the sister chromatids. This method was eventually replaced by cytochemical methods. One showed that if cells were grown in medium containing 5-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for two cycles, the sister chromatids can be distinguished by the differential quenching of the fluorescence of the fluorochrome Hoechst 33258. Reduced staining with Giemsa stain of the BrdUrd-incorporated chromatids was also found to be useful in differentiating sister chromatids. The authors review in this chapter only those studies which have implications on the origin of SCEs

  2. Mechanisms of sister chromatid recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies using T948 as a model system have been carried out aimed at elucidating the mechanism of sister chromatid recombination (SCR). Characterization of U.V. light- and x-ray-induced SCR, the relationiship between SCR induction and DNA repair using rad mutations, and the relationship between SCR induction and the time of cell division using cdc mutations are presented. It has been supposed that SCR is induced at the phase of S-G2 following DNA replication, that postreplication break of DNA strands is strongly involved in the induction of SCR, and that induction type of SCR, i.e., conversion type or recombination type, is dependent upon the type of molecular damage of DNA. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. The MCM-binding protein ETG1 aids sister chromatid cohesion required for postreplicative homologous recombination repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA replication process represents a source of DNA stress that causes potentially spontaneous genome damage. This effect might be strengthened by mutations in crucial replication factors, requiring the activation of DNA damage checkpoints to enable DNA repair before anaphase onset. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance helicase-binding protein ETG1 of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a stringent late G2 cell cycle arrest. This arrest correlated with a partial loss of sister chromatid cohesion. The lack-of-cohesion phenotype was intensified in plants without functional CTF18, a replication fork factor needed for cohesion establishment. The synergistic effect of the etg1 and ctf18 mutants on sister chromatid cohesion strengthened the impact on plant growth of the replication stress caused by ETG1 deficiency because of inefficient DNA repair. We conclude that the ETG1 replication factor is required for efficient cohesion and that cohesion establishment is essential for proper development of plants suffering from endogenous DNA stress. Cohesion defects observed upon knockdown of its human counterpart suggest an equally important developmental role for the orthologous mammalian ETG1 protein.

  4. A matter of choice: the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlmann, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion is the basis for the recognition of chromosomal DNA replication products for their bipolar segregation in mitosis. Fundamental to sister chromatid cohesion is the ring-shaped cohesin complex, which is loaded onto chromosomes long before the initiation of DNA replication and is thought to hold replicated sister chromatids together by topological embrace. What happens to cohesin when the replication fork approaches, and how cohesin recognizes newly synthesized sister c...

  5. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eZhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that sister chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain sister chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of sister chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between sister chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.

  6. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of which DNA

  7. Identification of protein complexes required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, Melanie L; Pot, Isabelle; Chang, Michael; Xu, Hong; Aneliunas, Victoria; Kwok, Teresa; Newitt, Rick; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boone, Charles; Brown, Grant W; Hieter, Philip

    2004-01-01

    Ctf8p is a component of Ctf18-RFC, an alternative replication factor C-like complex required for efficient sister chromatid cohesion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We performed synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis with a ctf8 deletion strain as a primary screen to identify other nonessential genes r

  8. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Heemst, van, D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of which DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered particularly deleterious. The causative agents can be of endogenous origin, such as metabolically produced free radicals, and of exogenous origin, such a...

  9. Cohesin SMC1 beta is required for meiotic chromosome dynamics, sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revenkova, E.; Eijpe, M.; Heyting, C.; Hodges, C.A.; Hunt, P.A.; Liebe, B.; Scherthan, H.; Jessberger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion ensures the faithful segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and in both meiotic divisions1, 2, 3, 4. Meiosis-specific components of the cohesin complex, including the recently described SMC1 isoform SMC15, were suggested to be required for meiotic sister chromatid cohesion a

  10. 40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo sister chromatid exchange assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... references should be consulted. (1) 40 CFR 798.5915, In vivo Sister Chromatid Exchange Assay. (2) Kato, H... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In vivo sister chromatid exchange... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration §...

  11. DNA-mediated transfer of a human DNA repair gene that controls sister chromatid exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, L H; Brookman, K W; Minkler, J L; Fuscoe, J C; Henning, K A; Carrano, A V

    1985-01-01

    The Chinese hamster cell line mutant EM9, which has a reduced ability to repair DNA strand breaks, is noted for its highly elevated frequency of sister chromatid exchange, a property shared with cells from individuals with Bloom's syndrome. The defect in EM9 cells was corrected by fusion hybridization with normal human fibroblasts and by transfection with DNA from hybrid cells. The transformants showed normalization of sister chromatid exchange frequency but incomplete correction of the repai...

  12. Sister chromatid exchange assay as a predictor of tumor chemoresponse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourelatos, D

    2016-06-01

    Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) are known to enhance as a consequence of exposure to various mutagenic agents and appear to indicate DNA damaging effects and/or subsequent repair by homologous recombination (HR). DNA damage plays an interesting role in the majority of mechanisms underlying the effects of antitumor drugs, since the genetic activity of the plethora of these agents is due to their ability to damage the DNA. The DNA-effects of antitumor agents towards normal cells (genotoxicity) are great drawbacks of antitumor therapy and are connected to important adverse health effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. On the other hand, failure of chemotherapy in many cases is due to the DNA repair ability which cancer, like normal cells, also possess. As both DNA repair and genotoxic exposure are expected to vary among patients, correlating SCEs frequencies with only individual repair capacity may be feasible to predict. Cancer risk has not been observed to be associated with high SCEs levels. Since the administration of effective antitumor drugs with limited adverse effects is of great importance in the success of anticancer therapy, a lot of interest has been directed toward the development of methods and approaches that would enable the correct selection of appropriate drugs prior to the initiation of therapy on an individual basis. To this effect, more than 30 years ago, an investigation of the ability of the in vitro and the in vivo SCEs-assay to predict the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of tumor cells to newly synthesized drugs or to those already in use began. In this short review a critical appraisal of the SCEs-assay as an important biomarker used for predicting cancer chemo-response as well as a summary of the key findings from several studies published within the last 20 years in this field is performed. PMID:27265374

  13. Comparison of genome stability in two pig breeds by using the sister chromatid exchange (SCE test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sister chromatid exchange (SCE test has been used to detect genome stability in humans (Chaganti, 1974 and the main livestock species (Ciotola et al., 2004; Di Meo et al., 2000; Di Berardino et al., 1979, and to discover DNA damage caused by a variety of natural and artificial chemical compounds (Iannuzzi et al., 1990.

  14. INDUCTION, ACCUMULATION, AND PERSISTENCE OF SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGES IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER RECEIVING CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, ANDRIAMYCIN, AND 5-FLUOROACIL CHEMOTHERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The induction, stimulation, and persistence of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) and high SCE frequency cells (HFC's) was measured in peripheral lymphocytes of women with breast cancer before chemotherapy and on multiple occasions during and after therapy. Chemotherapy consisted...

  15. Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations in asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma, N; Jain, A. K.; Rahman, Q

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos minerals has been associated with a wide variety of adverse health effects including lung cancer, pleural mesothelioma, and cancer of other organs. It was shown previously that asbestos samples collected from a local asbestos factory enhanced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations in vitro using human lymphocytes. In the present study, 22 workers from the same factory and 12 controls were further investigated. Controls were matched for age, sex, and...

  16. "Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Micronuclei in Lymphocyte of Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs"

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari-Lari, M; M.Saadat; Shahryari, M.; DD Farhud

    2001-01-01

    Individuals handling antineoplastic drugs or their wastes may absorb these potent genotoxic agents. The effects of handling antineoplastic drugs were examined in a group of 24 nurses working in the hematology and oncology departments of two different university hospitals in Shiraz (Iran) and in a group of 18 unexposed nurses as control group. The cytogenetic repercussions of exposure were assessed by examining sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (Mn) in circulating lymphocytes. ...

  17. Sister chromatid exchange analysis in lymphocytes of workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaya, T.; Ishikawa, N.; Hata, H.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in lymphocytes as an indicator for mutagenic effects after in vivo exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr), SCE frequency was analysed in lymphocytes of 44 Cr platers occupationally exposed to hexavalent Cr and 47 controls. Although urinary Cr analysis confirmed that the Cr platers were exposed to Cr, no effects of the exposure on SCE frequency were found. Smokers, both Cr platers and controls, had a significantly higher S...

  18. An increase in telomere sister chromatid exchange in murine embryonic stem cells possessing critically shortened telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yisong; Erdmann, Natalie; Giannone, Richard J.; Wu, Jun; Gomez, Marla; Liu, Yie

    2005-01-01

    Telomerase deficiency leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA that eventually triggers cell apoptosis in human primary cells during prolonged growth in culture. Rare survivors can maintain telomere length through either activation of telomerase or recombination-based telomere lengthening, and thus proliferate indefinitely. We have explored the possibility that telomeres may be maintained through telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) in murine telomere reverse transcriptase-deficient...

  19. A study of sister chromatid exchange in patients with dental amalgam restorations

    OpenAIRE

    E Lakshmi Priya; K Ranganathan; Uma Devi K Rao; Elizabeth Joshua; Deepu George Mathew; Kavitha Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Study Background: Dental amalgam is still widely used as a restorative material in developing countries due to its low cost and ease of manipulation. The health risks associated with the components of this restorative material has always been a matter of concern. Our study was designed to address this question regarding dental amalgam. Objective: To study sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as an indicator of systemic genotoxicity, due to the exposure from the components of amalgam restoratio...

  20. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes from patients with tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphocytes from four patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) and four normal controls were studied for sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome aberrations in gamma-ray irradiated cultures. There was no significant difference between SCE frequencies of TS lymphocytes and those of control lymphocytes at all doses examined (1, 2, and 4 Gy). However, chromosome aberrations in TS lymphocytes were significantly higher than those in the normal controls at the highest dose (4 Gy) (p < 0.05). (author)

  1. Sister Chromatid Exchange Frequency in Lymphocytes Cultured from Cotton Gin Workers

    OpenAIRE

    ATMACA, Münevver; BAĞCI, Hüseyin; AÇIKBAŞ, İbrahim; GÜMÜŞ, Dilihan; DÜZCAN, Füsun

    2004-01-01

    Genetic biomonitoring of human populations exposed to potential mutagens/carcinogens can be performed using different genetic markers. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is one of the most extensively used markers of the early biological effects of DNA damaging agents. In order to assess the genotoxicity associated with exposure to cotton dust, we determined SCE frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured from 20 cotton gin workers and 20 controls. Student’s-t test indicated an ...

  2. Shugoshin1 May Play Important Roles in Separation of Homologous Chromosomes and Sister Chromatids during Mouse Oocyte Meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen Yin; Jun-Shu Ai; Li-Hong Shi; Liang Wei; Ju Yuan; Ying-Chun Ouyang; Yi Hou; Da-Yuan Chen; Heide Schatten; Qing-Yuan Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I and sister chromatids separate in meiosis II, generating haploid gametes. To address the question why sister chromatids do not separate in meiosis I, we explored the roles of Shogoshin1 (Sgo1) in chromosome separation during oocyte meiosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sgo1 function was evaluated by exogenous overexpression to enhance its roles and RNAi to suppress its roles during two meioses of mouse oocytes. Immunocytochemistry an...

  3. Multiple Rad5 activities mediate sister chromatid recombination to bypass DNA damage at stalled replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minca, Eugen C; Kowalski, David

    2010-06-11

    DNA damage that blocks replication is bypassed in order to complete chromosome duplication and preserve cell viability and genome stability. Rad5, a PCNA polyubiquitin ligase and DNA-dependent ATPase in yeast, is orthologous to putative tumor suppressors and controls error-free damage bypass by an unknown mechanism. To identify the mechanism in vivo, we investigated the roles of Rad5 and analyzed the DNA structures that form during damage bypass at site-specific stalled forks present at replication origins. Rad5 mediated the formation of recombination-dependent, X-shaped DNA structures containing Holliday junctions between sister chromatids. Mutants lacking these damage-induced chromatid junctions were defective in resolving stalled forks, restarting replication, and completing chromosome duplication. Rad5 polyubiquitin ligase and ATPase domains both contributed to replication fork recombination. Our results indicate that multiple activities of Rad5 function coordinately with homologous recombination factors to enable replication template switch events that join sister chromatids at stalled forks and bypass DNA damage. PMID:20541998

  4. "Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Micronuclei in Lymphocyte of Nurses Handling Antineoplastic Drugs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ansari-Lari

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals handling antineoplastic drugs or their wastes may absorb these potent genotoxic agents. The effects of handling antineoplastic drugs were examined in a group of 24 nurses working in the hematology and oncology departments of two different university hospitals in Shiraz (Iran and in a group of 18 unexposed nurses as control group. The cytogenetic repercussions of exposure were assessed by examining sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs and micronuclei (Mn in circulating lymphocytes. A significant increased frequencies of SCE and Mn is observed in circulating lymphocytes. A significant increased frequencies of SCE and Mn is observed in nurses in daily contact with antineoplastic drugs as compared to control group.

  5. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet light-induced sister chromatid exchanges in potorous cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to visible light after UV-irradiation showed a remarkable effect on UV-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). After 6-h exposure to visible light (3 x 105 J/m2), two-thirds of the UV-induced SCEs were prevented, confirming Kato's findings. (Nature 249, 552-3, 1974) Exposure to visible light before UV irradiation had no effect. This effect of visible light on UV-induced CSEs was temperature dependent, suggesting the presence of enzymatic photoreactivation. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the persistence in the induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE) by alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) by the alkylating agents methyl and ethyl-methanesulfonates (MMS and EMS) was evaluated. For it, to groups of mice its were administered a dose of these agents and later its were analyzed the induced SCE's in two periods: early and late. Both agents caused high increments of SCE in the early period and small in the late one; however, the caused lately by EMS was significantly bigger. This late induction of SCE by EMS possibly is associated with an epigenetic change or with the presence of etiladucts in the phosphodiester bonds of the DNA. (Author)

  7. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Swedish paint industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, U.; Lundberg, I.; Zech, L.

    1980-12-01

    Workers in the Swedish paint industry exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, mainly containing xylene or toluene, were investigated for genotoxic effects. No difference in the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), 0.192 and 0.193 per chromosome, respectively, was noted in the peripheral lymphocytes of the exposed group of 17 workers and their matched reference group. No correlation was found between xylene or toluene exposure and SCE frequency nor between total solvent exposure and SCE frequency. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was also investigated for the five most exposed workers and their matched referents, and no difference was found. There was no correlation between SCE and chromosome breaks.

  8. A proposal of a standardised nomenclature for terminal minute sister chromatid exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo E. Drets

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We described spontaneous minute sister chromatid exchanges (SCE in telomeric regions of human and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO chromosomes more than 10 years ago. These structures, which we called t-SCE, were detected by means of highly precise quantitative microphotometrical scanning and computer graphic image analysis. Recently, several authors using the CO-FISH method also found small SCEs in telomeric regions and called them T-SCE. The use of different terms for designating the same phenomenon should be avoided. We propose ter SCE as a uniform nomenclature for minute telomeric SCEs.

  9. UBL5 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing and sister chromatid cohesion in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Varmark, Hanne; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer;

    2014-01-01

    UBL5 is an atypical ubiquitin-like protein, whose function in metazoans remains largely unexplored. We show that UBL5 is required for sister chromatid cohesion maintenance in human cells. UBL5 primarily associates with spliceosomal proteins, and UBL5 depletion decreases pre-mRNA splicing efficiency......, leading to globally enhanced intron retention. Defective sister chromatid cohesion is a general consequence of dysfunctional pre-mRNA splicing, resulting from the selective downregulation of the cohesion protection factor Sororin. As the UBL5 yeast orthologue, Hub1, also promotes spliceosome functions...

  10. Cultured mouse embryos metabolize benzo[a]pyrene during early gestation: genetic differences detectable by sister chromatid exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, S M; Perry, P E; Meneses, J. (Julio); Nebert, D W; Pedersen, R A

    1980-01-01

    Mouse embryos explanted at 7 1/2 or 8 1/2 days of gestation were cultured in medium containing benzo[a]pyrene and supplemented with 5-bromodeoxyuridine to allow detection of sister chromatid exchanges. The murine Ah locus regulates the inducible metabolism of polycyclic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene. A high frequency of sister chromatid exchange was induced by benzo[a]pyrene in embryos from three Ah-"responsive" inbred strains (BALB/cDub, C3H/AnfCum, and C57BL/6N); there was little or n...

  11. KINETICS OF IN VIVO SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE INDUCTION IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS BY ALKYLATING AGENTS: CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration of cyclophosphamide (5, 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight) to male CD-1 mice 2 hours after subcutaneous implantation of a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pellet (55 mg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in bone marrow cells. Tre...

  12. Frequent and efficient use of the sister chromatid for DNA double-strand break repair during budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Goldfarb

    Full Text Available Recombination between homologous chromosomes of different parental origin (homologs is necessary for their accurate segregation during meiosis. It has been suggested that meiotic inter-homolog recombination is promoted by a barrier to inter-sister-chromatid recombination, imposed by meiosis-specific components of the chromosome axis. Consistent with this, measures of Holliday junction-containing recombination intermediates (joint molecules [JMs] show a strong bias towards inter-homolog and against inter-sister JMs. However, recombination between sister chromatids also has an important role in meiosis. The genomes of diploid organisms in natural populations are highly polymorphic for insertions and deletions, and meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs that form within such polymorphic regions must be repaired by inter-sister recombination. Efforts to study inter-sister recombination during meiosis, in particular to determine recombination frequencies and mechanisms, have been constrained by the inability to monitor the products of inter-sister recombination. We present here molecular-level studies of inter-sister recombination during budding yeast meiosis. We examined events initiated by DSBs in regions that lack corresponding sequences on the homolog, and show that these DSBs are efficiently repaired by inter-sister recombination. This occurs with the same timing as inter-homolog recombination, but with reduced (2- to 3-fold yields of JMs. Loss of the meiotic-chromosome-axis-associated kinase Mek1 accelerates inter-sister DSB repair and markedly increases inter-sister JM frequencies. Furthermore, inter-sister JMs formed in mek1Δ mutants are preferentially lost, while inter-homolog JMs are maintained. These findings indicate that inter-sister recombination occurs frequently during budding yeast meiosis, with the possibility that up to one-third of all recombination events occur between sister chromatids. We suggest that a Mek1-dependent reduction in

  13. An increase in telomere sister chromatid exchange in murine embryonic stem cells possessing critically shortened telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Telomerase deficiency leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA that eventually triggers cell apoptosis in human primary cells during prolonged growth in culture. Rare survivors can maintain telomere length through either activation of telomerase or recombination-based telomere lengthening, and thus proliferate indefinitely. We have explored the possibility that telomeres may be maintained through telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) in murine telomere reverse transcriptase-deficient (mTert -/-) splenocytes and ES cells. Because telomerase deficiency leads to gradual loss of telomeric DNA in mTert -/- splenocytes and ES cells and eventually to chromosomes with telomere signal-free ends (SFEs), we examined these cell types for evidence of sister chromatid exchange at telomeres, and observed an increase in T-SCEs only in a subset of mTert -/- splenocytes or ES cells that possessed multiple SFEs. Furthermore, T-SCEs were more often detected in ES cells than in splenocytes that harbored a similar frequency of SFEs. In mTert heterozygous (mTert +/-) ES cells or splenocytes, which are known to exhibit a decrease in average telomere length but no SFEs, no increase in T-SCE was observed. In addition to T-SCE, other genomic rearrangements (i.e., SCE) were also significantly increased in mTert -/- ES cells possessing critically short telomeres, but not in splenocytes. Our results suggest that animals and cell culture differ in their ability to carry out genomic rearrangements as a means of maintaining telomere integrity when telomeres become critically shortened.

  14. Effects of infliximab on sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, M; Mazzaferro, S; Mantuano, S; Bagnato, G L; Bagnato, G F

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in a 24-weeks the effect of anti-TNF-alpha, infliximab, on cytogenetic biomarkers in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 40 patients with RA met the criteria to be treated with methotrexate (15 mg/week) were evaluated. Twenty patients, randomly selected, were treated with infliximab in addition to methotrexate (group I), whereas the other 20 patients continued with only methotrexate treatment (group M). Twenty healthy volunteers matched for age, gender and smoking habits served as control group (group C). At baseline, sister chromatid exchange rate was 7.20 ± 2.21 in group I, 7.40 ± 1.60 in group M and 4.97 ± 1.32 in group C (P < 0.01 vs group I and M). After 24-weeks, sister chromatid exchange rate was 7.87 ± 2.54 in group I and 7.81 ± 1.95 in group M (P = ns). High frequency cells count was 4.9 % and 4.7 % in the groups I and M, respectively, at the end of the study (P = ns). The basal chromosomal aberration frequency was 4.90 % in group I and 5.20 % in groups M; after 24-weeks, this was 5.10 % in group I and 5.10 % in groups M (P = ns). Infliximab treatment, for 24 weeks, did not increase the cytogenetic biomarkers in patients with RA. Our data show that the use of infliximab has not a genotoxic effect in patients with RA. PMID:26012953

  15. Securin and not CDK1/cyclin B1 regulates sister chromatid disjunction during meiosis II in mouse eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabti, Ibtissem; Reis, Alexandra; Levasseur, Mark; Stemmann, Olaf; Jones, Keith T

    2008-09-15

    Mammalian eggs remain arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII) for an indeterminate time before fertilization. During this period, which can last several hours, the continued attachment of sister chromatids is thought to be achieved by inhibition of the protease separase. Separase is known to be inhibited by binding either securin or Maturation (M-Phase)-Promoting Factor, a heterodimer of CDK1/cyclin B1. However, the relative contribution of securin and CDK/cyclin B1 to sister chromatid attachment during metII arrest has not been assessed. Although there are conditions in which either CDK1/cyclinB1 activity or securin can prevent sister chromatid disjunction, principally by overexpression of non-degradable cyclin B1 or securin, we find here that separase activity is primarily regulated by securin and not CDK1/cyclin B1. Thus the CDK1 inhibitor roscovitine and an antibody we designed to block the interaction of CDK1/cyclin B1 with separase, both failed to induce sister disjunction. In contrast, securin morpholino knockdown specifically induced loss of sister attachment, that could be restored by securin cRNA rescue. During metII arrest separase appears primarily regulated by securin binding, not CDK1/cyclin B1. PMID:18639540

  16. The Cohesin Subunit Rad21 Is Required for Synaptonemal Complex Maintenance, but Not Sister Chromatid Cohesion, during Drosophila Female Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Christian F.; Heidmann, Stefan K.

    2014-01-01

    Replicated sister chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the sister chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, sister chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2)M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin. PMID:25101996

  17. Influence of irradiation at different stages of mitotic cycle upon production of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and microexchanges in Chinese hamster cells has been studied by means of the method of differential staining of chromatids on irradiation at different stages of the mitotic cycle. It is shown that the irradiation enhances frequency of SCE and microexchanges if it is carried out before the end of DNA replication synthesis. Comparison of frequency depenedence of radiation-induced microexchanges and SCE at different stages of the mitotic cycle results in the conclusion that the microexchanges are none other than small SCE

  18. Influence of irradiation at different stages of mitotic cycle unon production of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequency of.sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and microexchanges in the chinese hamster cells was investigated by means of the method of differential colouring of chromatids on irradiation at different stages of the mitotic cycle. It is shown that the irradiation increases frequency of SCE and microexchanges if it is performed before the end of the replicative DNA synthesis. Comparison of frequency dependence of radiation-induced microexchanges and SCE at different stages of the mitotic cycle permits to conclude that the microexchanges are small SCE

  19. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges in xeroderma pigmentosum cells after exposure to ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of DNA repair mechanisms in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) after exposure to ultraviolet radiation was investigated in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. Cells from different excision-deficient XP strains, representing the 5 complementation groups in XP, A, B, C, D and E, and from excision-proficient XP variant strains were irradiated with low doses of UVR (0-3.5 J/m2). The number of SCE was counted after two cycles in the presence of BUdR. In cells of the complementation groups A, B, C and D the number of SCE was significantly higher than in UV-exposed control cells. The frequencies of SCE in group E cells and in XP variant cells were not different from those in control cells. Treatment with caffeine (0-200 μg/ml) did not result in a different response of variant cells compared with normal cells. A simple correlation between SCE frequency and residual excision-repair activity was not observed. The response of the excision-repair deficient cells suggests that unrepaired damage, produced by UVR is involved in the production of SCE

  20. Correlation of drug-induced sister chromatid exchanges in vitro with in vivo tumor response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spontaneous hepatocarcinoma (HCa) grown in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice was used to investigate the ability of the in vitro sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay to predict in vivo tumor sensitivity to 3 chemotherapeutic agents: melphalan, cis-Platinum, and BCNU. For HCa cells grown in monolayer culture, melphalan was the most efficient at inducing SCEs, followed by cis-Platinum, with BCNU inducing the least. According to in vitro cell survival curves, HCa was most sensitive to melphalan, less sensitive to cis-Platinum, and essentially resistant to BCNU. The relative antineoplastic effects of melphalan, cis-Platinum, and BCNU in vivo were compared by the response of artificial and spontaneous pulmonary metastases and solid tumors to these agents. BCNU had no effect on the number of artificial metastases, while there was a dose-dependent decrease in the number of lung nodules in mice treated with melphalan or cis-Platinum, with melphalan being the more effective. Spontaneous pulmonary metastases generated from HCa leg tumors were reduced in those mice treated with melphalan, unaffected by cis-Platinum, and increased by BCNU. In HCa leg tumors (5 to 6 mm in diameter), melphalan induced the longest growth delay, with cis-Platinum inducing less, and BCNU the least. Thus, the relative effects produced by these 3 drugs in vivo were the same as predicted by SCE assay in vitro

  1. A high rate of telomeric sister chromatid exchange occurs in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medves, Sandrine; Auchter, Morgan; Chambeau, Laetitia; Gazzo, Sophie; Poncet, Delphine; Grangier, Blandine; Verney, Aurélie; Moussay, Etienne; Ammerlaan, Wim; Brisou, Gabriel; Morjani, Hamid; Géli, Vincent; Palissot, Valérie; Berchem, Guy; Salles, Gilles; Wenner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Cancer cells protect their telomere ends from erosion through reactivation of telomerase or by using the Alternative Lengthening of Telomere (ALT) mechanism that depends on homologous recombination. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells are characterized by almost no telomerase activity, shelterin deregulation and telomere fusions. To characterize telomeric maintenance mechanisms in B-CLL patients, we measured their telomere length, telomerase expression and the main hallmarks of the ALT activity i.e. C-circle concentration, an extra-chromosomal telomere repeat (ECTR), and the level of telomeric sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) rate. Patients showed relative homogenous telomere length although almost no TERT transcript and nearly no C-circle were evidenced. Nevertheless, compared with normal B cells, B-CLL cells showed an increase in T-SCE rate that was correlated with a strong down-regulation of the topoisomerase III alpha (TOP3A) expression, involved in the dissolution of Holliday Junctions (HJ), together with an increased expression of SLX1A, SLX4, MUS81 and GEN1, involved in the resolution of HJ. Altogether, our results suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism of B-CLL cells do not preferentially use telomerase or ALT. Rather, the rupture of the dissolvasome/resolvasome balance may increase telomere shuffling that could homogenize telomere length, slowing telomere erosion in this disease. PMID:26970083

  2. DNA crosslinking, sister-chromatid exchange and specific-locus mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, A V; Thompson, L H; Stetka, D G; Minkler, J L; Mazrimas, J A; Fong, S

    1979-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with the DNA-crosslinking chemicals, mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (POR), and their monofunctional derivative decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DCMMC). After exposure, the cells were studied for the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase loci. The frequency of SCEs varied significantly in successive sampling intervals, requiring the weighting of each interval by the percentage of second-division mitosis in that interval to obtain the mean SCE frequency for each dose. All 3 compounds were potent inducers of SCEs but weakly mutagenic. All 3 chemicals by concentration were approximately equally effective in inducing SCEs or mutations. When the induced SCEs and mutations were compared at equal levels of survival, DCMMC was slightly more effective than MMC or POR in inducing SCEs and somewhat less mutagenic. These results indicate that the DNA interstrand crosslink is not the major lesion responsible for the induction of SCE or mutation by these compounds. PMID:522865

  3. DNA crosslinking, sister-chromatid exchange and specific-locus mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, A.V.; Thompson, L.H.; Stetka, D.G.; Minkler, J.L.; Mazrimas, J.A.; Fong, S.

    1979-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with the DNA-crosslinking chemicals, mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (POR), and their monofunctional derivative decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DCMMC). After exposure, the cells were studied for the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase loci. The frequency of SCEs varied significantly in successive sampling intervals, requiring the weighting of each interval by the percentage of second-division mitosis in that interval to obtain the mean SCE frequency for each dose. All 3 compounds were potent inducers of SCEs but weakly mutagenic. All 3 chemicals by concentration were approximately equally effective in inducing SCEs or mutations. When the induced SCEs and mutations were compared at equal levels of survival, DCMMC was slightly more effective than MMC or POR in inducing SCEs and somewhat less mutagenic. These results indicate that the DNA interstrand crosslink is not the major lesion responsible for the induction of SCE or mutation by these compounds.

  4. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Hoffman, Gary M; Gudi, Ramadevi; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were performed for vapor condensate of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline with oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl tert butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), or ethanol (G/EtOH). Sprague Dawley rats (the same 5/sex/group for both endpoints) were exposed to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3) of each condensate, 6h/day, 5days/week over 4weeks. Positive controls (5/sex/test) were given cyclophosphamide IP, 24h prior to sacrifice at 5mg/kg (SCE test) and 40mg/kg (micronucleus test). Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta for the SCE test and femurs removed for the micronucleus test. Blood cell cultures were treated with 5μg/ml bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for SCE evaluation. No significant increases in micronucleated immature erythrocytes were observed for any test material. Statistically significant increases in SCE were observed in rats given BGVC alone or in female rats given G/MTBE. G/TAME induced increased SCE in both sexes at the highest dose only. Although DNA perturbation was observed for several samples, DNA damage was not expressed as increased micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Inclusion of oxygenates in gasoline did not increase the effects of gasoline alone or produce a cytogenetic hazard. PMID:24852491

  5. Effect of landfill leachate on cell cycle, micronucleus, and sister chromatid exchange in Triticum aestivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guangke; Yun Yang; Li Hongyan [Center of Environment Science and Engineering, College of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Sang Nan [Center of Environment Science and Engineering, College of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)], E-mail: sangnan_lgkcarl@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-06-30

    With increasing use of municipal solid waste landfills for waste disposal, the leachate generated has become a serious environmental concern. Therefore, it is important to set up simple and accurate methods for monitoring leachate toxicity. In the present study, the physiological and genetic toxicity of the leachate, generated from Xingou Municipal Landfill in China, were investigated with Triticum aestivum (wheat) bioassay. The results indicate that the lower leachate concentrations stimulated the germination, growth and cell division, and did not induce obvious increase in micronucleus (MN) frequency in root tips; while the higher concentrations inhibited the processes, and significantly augmented the MN frequency in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) occurred in root tips at all leachate concentrations tested, and the frequencies had positive relation with the treatment concentration and time. The results imply that components of leachate from the landfill may be genotoxic in plant cells, and exposure to leachate in the aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to organisms. The results also suggest that the wheat bioassay is efficient, simple and reproducible in monitoring genotoxicity of the leachate.

  6. Effect of landfill leachate on cell cycle, micronucleus, and sister chromatid exchange in Triticum aestivum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing use of municipal solid waste landfills for waste disposal, the leachate generated has become a serious environmental concern. Therefore, it is important to set up simple and accurate methods for monitoring leachate toxicity. In the present study, the physiological and genetic toxicity of the leachate, generated from Xingou Municipal Landfill in China, were investigated with Triticum aestivum (wheat) bioassay. The results indicate that the lower leachate concentrations stimulated the germination, growth and cell division, and did not induce obvious increase in micronucleus (MN) frequency in root tips; while the higher concentrations inhibited the processes, and significantly augmented the MN frequency in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) occurred in root tips at all leachate concentrations tested, and the frequencies had positive relation with the treatment concentration and time. The results imply that components of leachate from the landfill may be genotoxic in plant cells, and exposure to leachate in the aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to organisms. The results also suggest that the wheat bioassay is efficient, simple and reproducible in monitoring genotoxicity of the leachate

  7. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64, and octaCDD (β = 0.65 were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34 and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42. The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38 was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents; R2 = 0.23. This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.

  8. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Hirose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.

  9. Inhibition of protein synthesis does not antagonize induction of UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cycloheximide strongly antagonizes the induction of sisterchromatid exchanges by ethyl methanesulfonate or mitomycin C in human skin fibroblast and xeroderma pigmentosum cells (group A). Analogous behavior has been observed in several other species including Chinese hamster and plant cells. This report documents an exception to that pattern: cycloheximide fails to antagonize UV-induced sister chromatid exchange in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, whereas it does in normal human skin fibroblast cells. A genetic defect in these cells is postulated to alter the UV-mediated DNA recombination process. (author)

  10. SNW1 enables sister chromatid cohesion by mediating the splicing of sororin and APC2 pre-mRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    van der Lelij, Petra; Stocsits, Roman R; Ladurner, Rene; Petzold, Georg; Kreidl, Emanuel; Koch, Birgit; Schmitz, Julia; Neumann, Beate; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although splicing is essential for the expression of most eukaryotic genes, inactivation of splicing factors causes specific defects in mitosis. The molecular cause of this defect is unknown. Here, we show that the spliceosome subunits SNW1 and PRPF8 are essential for sister chromatid cohesion in human cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that SNW1 or PRPF8 depletion affects the splicing of specific introns in a subset of pre-mRNAs, including pre-mRNAs encoding the cohesion protein s...

  11. Erythrocytes modulate cell cycle progression but not the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in pig lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. Reigosa; Sonia Soloneski; Garcia, Carlos F.; Larramendy, Marcelo L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of co-culturing varying concentrations of pig and human red blood cells (RBCs) on the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and cell-cycle progression in pig plasma (PLCs) and whole blood leukocyte cultures (WBCs) was studied. No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig control WBC and PLC. Addition of pig and human RBCs to pig PLCs did not modify the baseline frequency of SCEs. On the other hand, cell proliferation was slower in PLCs than in WBCs. The ...

  12. In vivo study on the replicative model validity of sister chromatid exchanges production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequency determination has been used as index of damage to DNA, however the biological meaning of this event is still ignored. Different models in order to explain the mechanism of their formation have been proposed and they could be contained in two categories: a) those that consider that the SCE is produced by means of discreet lesions to the DNA and that they occur in the place of the lesion, and b) those that propose that the SCE is caused by a group of lesions and that therefore the place in which they occur could not be associated with a lesion in particular. The model of Painter (1980) belongs to this last group. It suggests that the region of the DNA where the clusters are united, is the only place in which the exchange of double chain could happen during the synthesis of the DNA and makes the prediction that since the x rays retard the beginning of the duplication, the pretreatment with ionizing radiation would reduce the frequency of SCE induced by agents capable to block the lengthening of the chain of DNA, that are the most efficient SCE inducers. The objective of the present work was to establish the validity of this replicative model for the SCE formation, based in its prediction. The effect of the unilateral preexposition of mouse to gamma radiation was determined on the SCE induction by Mitomycin C (MMC), in cells of the femoral bone marrow In vivo. This strategy allows to determine the effect of the pretreatment in the same organism, minimizing the variability of the response between individuals. There was not a significant variability between the frequencies of SCE, basal and induced by gamma radiation or MMC in the same organism. The animals that received the gamma radiation pretreatment, showed a reduction of approximately the 30 % in the frequency of SCE, assuming an additive effect of the radiation with the MMC. These results coincide with the prediction of the model of Painter, however it is not

  13. Rtt107 phosphorylation promotes localisation to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs and recombinational repair between sister chromatids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Ullal

    Full Text Available Efficient repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB requires a coordinated response at the site of lesion. Nucleolytic resection commits repair towards homologous recombination, which preferentially occurs between sister chromatids. DSB resection promotes recruitment of the Mec1 checkpoint kinase to the break. Rtt107 is a target of Mec1 and serves as a scaffold during repair. Rtt107 plays an important role during rescue of damaged replication forks, however whether Rtt107 contributes to the repair of DSBs is unknown. Here we show that Rtt107 is recruited to DSBs induced by the HO endonuclease. Rtt107 phosphorylation by Mec1 and its interaction with the Smc5-Smc6 complex are both required for Rtt107 loading to breaks, while Rtt107 regulators Slx4 and Rtt101 are not. We demonstrate that Rtt107 has an effect on the efficiency of sister chromatid recombination (SCR and propose that its recruitment to DSBs, together with the Smc5-Smc6 complex is important for repair through the SCR pathway.

  14. In Vitro genotoxic and antigenotoxic studies of Thai Noni fruit juice by chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange assays in human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Treetip Ratanavalachai; Sumon Thitiorul; Pranee Nandhasri

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Noni fruit juice produced in Thailand have been studied in human lymphocytes for chromosome aberration assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in vitro. Treatment of Noni fruit juice(3.1-50 mg/ml) alone for 3 h did not significantly induce chromosomal aberration or SCE (p

  15. Photoreactivation of UV induced cell killing, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatide exchanges, mutations and pyrimidine dimers in Xenopus laevis fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts from Xenopus laevis, which posses photoreactivating enzyme were used to study the influence of photoreactivating light on the frequency of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, cell killing and the induction of gene mutations (ouabain-resistance) induced by 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation. The frequency of all biological endpoints studied were reduced following exposure to photoreactivating light parallel to the reduction in the frequencies of pyrimidine dimers (determined as endonuclease sensitive sites). However, there was not always an absolute quantitative relationship between the reduction in the frequency of pyrimidine dimers and the reduction in the biological effects. This probably reflects a fast fixation process for the biological effects prior to removal of the dimers by photoreactivation. (orig.)

  16. Recombinant chromosome 9 possibly derived from breakage and reunion of sister chromatids within a paracentric inversion loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, M C; Stevenson, R E; Anderson, E V

    1993-05-15

    Chromosomally unbalanced offspring resulting from the recombination of parental paracentric inversions are uncommon. We report on a 20-month-old boy with a partial duplication of 9p due to the recombination of a paternal paracentric inversion. The patient's recombinant chromosome was designated rec(9)(p13-->p24::p12-->p24::p12-->qter). The patient's father and paternal aunt have a paracentric inversion of chromosome 9:inv(9)(p13p24). Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the chromosome imbalance generated from paracentric inversions, none of the previously described mechanisms can account for the structure of the recombinant chromosome observed in the propositus. We propose an unusual mechanism of formation involving breakage and unequal reunion of sister chromatids within the inversion loop to explain the structure of the patient's recombinant chromosome. PMID:8488876

  17. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in ICR 2A frog cells exposed to 254 nm UV wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of ICR 2A frog cells to 254 nm UV induced the formation of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in a fluence-dependent manner. Cells were also exposed to the UV produced by a fluorescent sunlamp that was filtered through 8C Mylar in order to simulate the mid-UV (290-320 nm) portion of sunlight reaching the earth's surface. In this instance, SCEs were induced in a linear fashion at low fluences but reached a plateau at a low level of induced SCEs. In addition, pretreatment of cells with the solar UV followed by exposure to 254 nm UV resulted in a significantly lower level of SCEs than in cells exposed to 254 nm UV alone. (author)

  18. Sister chromatid exchanges in X-ray irradiated blood lymphocytes from patients with hereditary diseases with radioresistant DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray irradiation induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in blood lymphocytes from patient with Down's syndrome and adult progeria (in both the cases radioresistant DNA synthesis takes place). In normal lymphocytes (in which ionizing radiation inhibits the replicative synthesis of DNA) the rate of SCE rises with the rise of radiation dose. Thus, the rate of SCE in X-ray irradiated lymphocytes is in reverse dependence with radioresistance of replicative synthesis of DNA. The data obtained are explained in accordance with the replicative hypothesis of the SCE nature (Painter, 1980a): in cells of patients with Down's syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum from 2 and progeria of adults the time of existence of partly replicated clusters of replicons is decreased due to radioresistant replicative synthesis of DNA, but the presence of partly replicated clusters of replicons in necessary for SCE formation. Therefore the rate of SCF in X-irradiated cells of these patients decreases

  19. SGO1 maintains bovine meiotic and mitotic centromeric cohesions of sister chromatids and directly affects embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Yin

    Full Text Available Shugoshin (SGO is a critical factor that enforces cohesion from segregation of paired sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis. It has been studied mainly in invertebrates. Knowledge of SGO(s in a mammalian system has only been reported in the mouse and Hela cells. In this study, the functions of SGO1 in bovine oocytes during meiotic maturation, early embryonic development and somatic cell mitosis were investigated. The results showed that SGO1 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV to the metaphase II stage. SGO1 accumulated on condensed and scattered chromosomes from pre-metaphase I to metaphase II. The over-expression of SGO1 did not interfere with the process of homologous chromosome separation, although once separated they were unable to move to the opposing spindle poles. This often resulted in the formation of oocytes with 60 replicated chromosomes. Depletion of SGO1 in GV oocytes affected chromosomal separation resulting in abnormal chromosome alignment at a significantly higher proportion than in control oocytes. Knockdown of SGO1 expression significantly decreased the embryonic developmental rate and quality. To further confirm the function(s of SGO1 during mitosis, bovine embryonic fibroblast cells were transfected with SGO1 siRNAs. SGO1 depletion induced the premature dissociation of chromosomal cohesion at the centromere and along the chromosome arm giving rise to abnormal appearing mitotic patterns. The results of this study infer that SGO1 is involved in the centromeric cohesion of sister chromatids and chromosomal movement towards the spindle poles. Depletion of SGO1 causes arrestment of cell division in meiosis and mitosis.

  20. Sgo1 is required for co-segregation of sister chromatids during achiasmate meiosis I

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Andrej; Ahmad, Shazia; Gregan, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of chromosome number during meiosis is achieved by two successive rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. While meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister kinetochores are bi-oriented and segregate to opposite poles, recombined homologous chromosomes segregate during the first meiotic division. Formation of chiasmata, mono-orientation of sister kinetochores and protection of centromeric cohesion are three major features of meiosis I chromosomes wh...

  1. Defective sister chromatid cohesion is synthetically lethal with impaired APC/C function

    OpenAIRE

    De Lange, Job; Faramarz, Atiq; Oostra, Anneke B.; Menezes, Renee X.; van der Meulen, Ida H.; Rooimans, Martin A.; Rockx, Davy A.; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.; van Beusechem, Victor W; King, Randall W; Winter, Johan P. de; Wolthuis, Rob M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS) is caused by defective DDX11, a DNA helicase that is essential for chromatid cohesion. Here, a paired genome-wide siRNA screen in patient-derived cell lines reveals that WABS cells do not tolerate partial depletion of individual APC/C subunits or the spindle checkpoint inhibitor p31comet. A combination of reduced cohesion and impaired APC/C function also leads to fatal mitotic arrest in diploid RPE1 cells. Moreover, WABS cell lines, and several cancer cell line...

  2. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr., Moore, D.H.

    1984-07-01

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects from ocean disposal of low-level radioactive waste because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The SCEs, in contrast to chromosomal aberrations, do not alter the overall chromosome morphology and in mammalian cells appear to be a more sensitive indicator of DNA alterations caused by environmental mutagens. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation-exposure regimes of either x rays at a high dose rate of 0.7 Gy (70 rad)/min for as long as 5.5 min or to /sup 60/Co gamma rays at a low dose rate of from 4.8 x 10/sup -5/ to 1.2 x 10/sup -1/ Gy (0.0048 to 12 rad)/h for 24 h. After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 x 10/sup -5/M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h (/sup 60/Co-irradiated larvae). Larval cells were examined for the proportion of cells in first, second, and third or greater division. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs were determined in first and second division cells, respectively. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but a dose of equal or greater 2 Gy (equal to or greater than 200 rad) was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving /sup 60/Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies with a significant increase of 0.6 Gy (60 rad). We suggest that both SCEs and chromosomal aberrations may be useful for measuring effects on genetic material induced by radiation. 56 references, 7 figures, 9 tables.

  3. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects from ocean disposal of low-level radioactive waste because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The SCEs, in contrast to chromosomal aberrations, do not alter the overall chromosome morphology and in mammalian cells appear to be a more sensitive indicator of DNA alterations caused by environmental mutagens. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation-exposure regimes of either x rays at a high dose rate of 0.7 Gy (70 rad)/min for as long as 5.5 min or to 60Co gamma rays at a low dose rate of from 4.8 x 10-5 to 1.2 x 10-1 Gy (0.0048 to 12 rad)/h for 24 h. After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 x 10-5M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h (60Co-irradiated larvae). Larval cells were examined for the proportion of cells in first, second, and third or greater division. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs were determined in first and second division cells, respectively. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but a dose of equal or greater 2 Gy (equal to or greater than 200 rad) was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving 60Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies with a significant increase of 0.6 Gy (60 rad). We suggest that both SCEs and chromosomal aberrations may be useful for measuring effects on genetic material induced by radiation. 56 references, 7 figures, 9 tables

  4. RSC Facilitates Rad59-Dependent Homologous Recombination between Sister Chromatids by Promoting Cohesin Loading at DNA Double-Strand Breaks ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Oum, Ji-Hyun; Seong, Changhyun; Kwon, YoungHo; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Sid, Amy; Ramakrishnan, Sreejith; Ira, Grzegorz; Malkova, Anna; Sung, Patrick; Lee, Sang Eun; Shim, Eun Yong

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks by searching for, invading, and copying information from a homologous template, typically the homologous chromosome or sister chromatid. Tight wrapping of DNA around histone octamers, however, impedes access of repair proteins to DNA damage. To facilitate DNA repair, modifications of histones and energy-dependent remodeling of chromatin are required, but the precise mechanisms by which chromatin modification and remodeling enzymes cont...

  5. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    W. Popp; Vahrenholz, C.; Schell, C; Grimmer, G.; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R.; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (al...

  6. Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21p family conserved from fision yeast to humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Parisi, S.; McKay, Michael; Molnar, M; Thompson, Anne; van der Spek, Peter; Drunen-Schoenmaker, E.; Kanaar, Roland; Lehmann, E.; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Kohli, J

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOur work and that of others defined mitosis-specific (Rad21 subfamily) and meiosis-specific (Rec8 subfamily) proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion in several eukaryotes, including humans. Mutation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rec8 gene was previously shown to confer a number of meiotic phenotypes, including strong reduction of recombination frequencies in the central region of chromosome III, absence of linear element polymerization, reduced pairing of h...

  7. Effect of chlorophyllin on induction of exchanges in sister chromatids by gamma irradiation in mice spermatogonia in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and the effect on Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) frequency in spermatogonias was evaluated. The effect was analyzed before and after Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation to determine the interference of such agent with the cellular response induced by radiation. The capacity of chlorophyllin (sodium and Copper salt derivative from chlorophyll) to reduce SCE induction by radiation in normal and BrdU radio sensitized spermatogonia was also determined. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in SCE frequency by gamma radiation exposure in these cells, such effect was higher irradiating after BrdU incorporation than before. This fact confirms previous observations that BrdU sensitizes some cells to SCE induction. With regard to the chlorophyllin effect, it was determined that this salt acts as a radioprotector reducing gamma-rays induced SCE before or after BrdU incorporation Total protection was obtained with 200 μg of chlorophyllin per g of body weight in both protocols. Under the experimental conditions this study there was no evidence of genotoxicity induced by chlorophyllin itself. The results suggest that this agent may act as a radioprotector by scavenging free radicals produced by gamma-radiation which cause DNA lesions that are involved in SCE formation. (Author)

  8. SNW1 enables sister chromatid cohesion by mediating the splicing of sororin and APC2 pre-mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Petra; Stocsits, Roman R; Ladurner, Rene; Petzold, Georg; Kreidl, Emanuel; Koch, Birgit; Schmitz, Julia; Neumann, Beate; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although splicing is essential for the expression of most eukaryotic genes, inactivation of splicing factors causes specific defects in mitosis. The molecular cause of this defect is unknown. Here, we show that the spliceosome subunits SNW1 and PRPF8 are essential for sister chromatid cohesion in human cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that SNW1 or PRPF8 depletion affects the splicing of specific introns in a subset of pre-mRNAs, including pre-mRNAs encoding the cohesion protein sororin and the APC/C subunit APC2. SNW1 depletion causes cohesion defects predominantly by reducing sororin levels, which causes destabilisation of cohesin on DNA. SNW1 depletion also reduces APC/C activity and contributes to cohesion defects indirectly by delaying mitosis and causing “cohesion fatigue”. Simultaneous expression of sororin and APC2 from intron-less cDNAs restores cohesion in SNW1-depleted cells. These results indicate that the spliceosome is required for mitosis because it enables expression of genes essential for cohesion. Our transcriptome-wide identification of retained introns in SNW1- and PRPF8-depleted cells may help to understand the aetiology of diseases associated with splicing defects, such as retinosa pigmentosum and cancer. PMID:25257309

  9. Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes by sister chromatid cohesion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheri A Schaaf

    Full Text Available The cohesin protein complex was first recognized for holding sister chromatids together and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Cohesin also regulates gene expression, but the mechanisms are unknown. Cohesin associates preferentially with active genes, and is generally absent from regions in which histone H3 is methylated by the Enhancer of zeste [E(z] Polycomb group silencing protein. Here we show that transcription is hypersensitive to cohesin levels in two exceptional cases where cohesin and the E(z-mediated histone methylation simultaneously coat the entire Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes in cells derived from Drosophila central nervous system. These gene complexes are modestly transcribed, and produce seven of the twelve transcripts that increase the most with cohesin knockdown genome-wide. Cohesin mutations alter eye development in the same manner as increased Enhancer of split activity, suggesting that similar regulation occurs in vivo. We propose that cohesin helps restrain transcription of these gene complexes, and that deregulation of similarly cohesin-hypersensitive genes may underlie developmental deficits in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

  10. Inhibition of UV-induced sister chromatid exchanges in ICR 2A frog cells by pretreatment with γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of ICR 2A frog cells to UV induced the formation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). However, pretreatment of UV-irradiated cells with γ-rays resulted in a reduction in the level of SCEs, confirming the prediction made by the replication model for SCE induction. This effect was observed over a range of UV fluences (1-5 J/m/sup 2/) and γ-ray doses (50-500 rad). The depression in the yield of SCEs was greatest when the cells were UV-irradiated either immediately or 3 h after γ-irradiation. Following a 6 h incubation, the reduction was much less pronounced while at 48 h the level of SCEs was nearly identical to that of cells exposed to UV alone. This corresponds roughly to the kinetics of depression and recovery in DNA synthesis after γ-irradiation of ICR 2A cells. Hence, these results support the hypothesis that the depression of UV-induced SCEs was the result of a delay in replicon initiation caused by //i/-irradiation

  11. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in lymphocytes of operating room personnel occupationally exposed to enfluorane and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, R; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Fatigoni, C; Marcarelli, M; Monarca, S; Donato, F; Cencetti, S; Cerami, F M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess whether occupational exposure to anesthetics increases genotoxic risk. We investigated two cytogenetic biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 46 anesthesiologists (24 men), working in operating rooms and mostly exposed to enfluorane and nitrous oxide, and 66 controls (35 men), not exposed to chemicals and living in the same area. Contrary to what was expected, a lower frequency of SCE was found in male anesthesiologists than in controls. Smoking status was found to be positively associated with SCE frequency in each group, while no relation to age was evident. On the contrary, MN frequency was significantly higher in female, but not male, anesthesiologists than in controls. Age and smoking status did not modify the association. No relationship between MN frequency and duration of employment was found in anesthesiologists. Smoking status and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day in smokers were not associated with MN frequency in either anesthesiologists or in controls. MN analysis seems to be a sensitive index of possible genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to anesthesiologists, and women appear to be more susceptible to these effects than men. PMID:11394710

  12. Hypersensitivity to mutation and sister-chromatid-exchange induction in CHO cell mutants defective in incising DNA containing UV lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five UV-sensitive mutant strains of CHO cells representing different genetic complementation groups were analyzed for their ability to perform the incision step of nucleotide excision repair after UV exposure. The assay utilized inhibitors of DNA synthesis to accumulate the short-lived strand breaks resulting from repair incisions. After 6 J/m2, each of the mutants showed 2, the rate in AA8 was similar to that at 6 J/m2, but the rates in the mutants were significantly higher (approx. 20% of the rate of AA8). Thus by this incision assay the mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable. Each of the mutants were hypersensitive to mutation induction at both the hprt and aprt loci by a factor of 10, and in the one strain tested ouabain resistance was induced sevenfold more efficiently than in AA8 cells. Sister chromatid exchange was also induced with sevenfold increased efficiency in the two mutant strains examined. Thus, here CHO mutants resemble xeroderma pigmentosum cells in terms of their incision defects and their hypersensitivity to DNA damage by UV

  13. The chromosome damage induced by x-ray radiation doses. Comparison between dicentric chromosomes, micronuclei and Sister Chromatid Exchanges analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiations is a well-known source of chromosome damage. Here we present a comparison among three different methodologies employed to recognize cytogenetic damage, after an acute exposure of human lymphocytes to 3 Gy of X-rays (100kVp). Scoring of dicentric chromosomes, present in first mitosis ''in vitro'', was the method of preference as dicentrics increased 937.5 times with respect to background. Micronucleus scoring in binucleated-cytokinesis blocked cells showed an increase of 32.5 times, while it was only of 1.46 times when Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) were analyzed. The estimated probability of an acentric fragment becoming a micronucleus was around 0.25. Intercellular distribution of dicentrics agree with Poisson, while micronucleus were overdispersed. When analyzed at second cycle after damage induction, the dicentrics yield as well as the level of cells with unstable cromosome aberrations, decreased around a half. Finally, SCEs level was similar in cells with or without unstable structural chromosome aberrations. (Author)

  14. Effects of hyperthermia and x irradiation on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BrdUrd labeling method was used to evaluate the effects of hyperthermia, x irradiation, and the combined treatment on the incidence of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cells cultured in McCoy's 5A media containing 10 μM 5-bromodeoxyuridine were synchronized after one cell cycle by mitotic shake-off. Early-G1 cells were heated by submerging culture flasks in a 44 +- 0.050C water bath for periods of 20, 40, and 60 min. By the same method, other cultures were x irradiated at doses of 100, 200, 400, and 600 rad. A third protocol involved combined treatment of 20 min at 440C followed immediately by one of the above radiation doses. A fourth protocol reversed the sequence of the combined treatment applying x irradiation (200 or 400 rad) followed immediately by hyperthermia. The data showed that hyperthermia and x irradiation both elevated the frequency of SCEs significantly whether applied separately or together. The combined treatment (heat: 20 min at 440C plus varying x-radiation doses) produced results suggestive of a synergistic interaction. The sequence of the heat and x irradiation did not appear to have a significant effect on the production of SCE

  15. Elastatinal and leupeptin: effects on u.v.-induced mutation and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial protease inhibitors elastatinal and leupeptin were tested for cytotoxicity and for effects on spontaneous and u.v.-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant (6TGr) mutation and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Continuous treatment with elastatinal exhibited marked cytotoxicity, while leupeptin was almost non-cytotoxic. Elastatinal rapidly induced cytotoxic effects as a function of its concentration and time of exposure. Near maximum cytotoxicity was reached after exposure of 6-8 h and this was partially abolished by the presence of 2.5 micrograms cycloheximide per ml. Concentrations of either protease inhibitor which gave 60-80% survival had no appreciable effects on u.v. survival and frequencies of spontaneous and u.v.-induced 6TGr mutation and SCE. However, reconstruction experiments revealed that pretreatments of 6TGr and 6TGs (wild-type) cells with these inhibitors for 6 days tended to block metabolic co-operation in their co-cultures. Thus, elastatinal and leupeptin are neither clastogenic mutagenic by themselves, and do not alter mutation fixation and expression

  16. The use of the differential staining of sister chromatids in the study of the cytogenetic radiation effects in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential staining of sister chromatides is performed, cells of the 1-st and the following mitoses are identified, chromosome aberrations are accounted, and statistic processing of data is performed. Venous blood of healthy donors is used as material for analysis. It is irradiated in flasks by 60Co gamma-quanta in the doses of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 Gy. Lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are cultivated at 37 deg C in the medium containing antibiotics, phytohemaggluninin and 5-bromiurnedeoxyidine (BDU). The observed distributions of dicentrics in cells are compared with theoretic Poisson distribution. The dependence of frequency of dicentrics on radiation dose is studied by the method of regressive analysis. The importance of applying this technique in radiation cytogenetic investigations to increase the accuracy of chromosome aberration account in stimulated phytohemagglutinin cultures of lymphocytes of human peripheral blood and to study regularities of their elimination after cells pass the 1-st and the second mitoses, is shown

  17. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  18. Sister chromatid exchanges in the bone marrow cells of in vivo rats induced by gamma radiation and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in the bone marrow of in vivo rats induced by gamma radiation doses and by the chemical mutagens, mitomycin C (MMC), cyclophosphamide (CP), and sulphonate-methylmethane (SMM), were studied. The purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of a simplified SCE in vivo detecting system developed in our laboratory and to compare the results obtained with those reported elsewhere. Simplification consisted in administering the amounts of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) necessary to observe the SCE, after first adsorbing the BrdU in activated carbon and then injecting it interperitoneally, into the rats. The results were a longer time in vivo ADN incorporation without convulsions in the rats, and a reduction in the time course as compared to other methods. We observed a basal rate of 3.6+-0.37 SCE/cell and that: 0.44 Gy of gamma radiation induced 7.7+-0.73 SCE/cell; 1.6 μg/g of MMC induced 8.1+-1.20 SCE/cell; 5 μg/g of CP induced 8.25+-1.5 SCE/cell, 40 μg/g of SMM induced 22.0+-5 SCE/cell and 380 μg/g of sulphonate-ethylmethane induced 8.6+-1.2 SCE/cell. This showed that all the agents were capable of inducing SCE in the bone marrow cells of rats in vivo under our conditions. We noted a greater induced efficiency for gamma radiation than the obtained by other investigators and a relatively similar efficiency in the case of chemical mutagens as reported in other studies. (author)

  19. Evaluation of radioprotection properties of propolis by chromosomal alterations, cell proliferation kinetics, mitotic index and sister chromatid exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of ionizing radiation is the induction of chromosomal alterations. This causality relation involves that chromosomal alterations can be considered a good indicator of the radiological damage. Some chemical agents can modulate the tissue response to radiation. These compounds are useful because they show certain selectivity, protecting the healthy tissues (radioprotectors) or increasing the sensibility of tissues to radiations (radiosensibilizators). Propolis substance has showed radioprotection properties which are performed in the following study. Propolis is a product of extraordinary interest for both medicine and pharmaceutical industry, since it is assumed to show diverse beneficial health effects. Among many other attributes of EEP (propolis ethanolic extract), it exhibits antioxidant and radical free scavenger properties. In a previous study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy of γ rays in presence and absence of EEP, and the analysis showed a reduction in the frequency of dicentrics and rings, with a maximum protection of 50%. The proposed concentration for radioprotection would be between 120-500 μg.ml-1. The cytotoxic effect has been evaluated analyzing the EEP effect in the cellular division cycle. Propolis ethanolic extract (EEP) has been obtained and samples of peripheral blood have been cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of EEP. In order to quantify it, two indexes have been used, the mitotic index and cell proliferation index. For both indexes the cytotoxic effect takes place from 750 μg.ml-1 concentrations onwards. Similar results were obtained for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. Finally, propolis effect in lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange test has been presented for higher concentrations of EEP. (author)

  20. Variation in sister chromatid exchange frequencies between human and pig whole blood, plasma leukocyte, and mononuclear leukocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by ultraviolet (UV) light was studied in both human and pig whole blood cultures (WBC) and plasma leukocyte cultures (PLC). No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig WBC and PLC in control as well as in treated cells. Conversely, SCE frequencies of human PLC were consistently higher than those of WBC in control and UV-exposed cells. Thus, red blood cells (RBCs) do not influence the sensitivity of lymphocytes to UV LIGHT exposure, and there must be some different culture condition(s) in the inducation of SCEs between human WBC and PLC but not in swine lymphocyte cultures. Since the BrdUrd/lymphocyte ratio of WBC was halved in PLC, the effect of BrdUrd concentration in inducing the SCE baseline frequency of PLC may be ruled out. Neither the cell separation technique nor polymorphonuclear leukocytes had a significant role in the elevated SCE frequency of human PLC or MLC. Experiments where human RBCs were titrated into human PLC showed that the induction of an elevated SCE frequency of PLC was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the presence of RBCs in the culture medium. Since the incorporation of pig or human RBCs into human PLC as well as into MLC reduced the SCE frequency to that of WBC, a common component and/or function existing in these cells is suggested. Analysis of different RBC components showed that RBCs, specifically RBC ghosts, release a diffusible but not dialyzable corrective factor into culture medium that is able to reduce the SCE frequencies of PLC

  1. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J; Thompson, L H; Bedford, J S; Little, J B

    2007-10-26

    We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.

  2. RecA stimulates sister chromatid exchange and the fidelity of double-strand break repair, but not gene targeting, in plants transformed by Agrobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Bernd; Schubert, Ingo; Köpchen, Kerstin; Wendeler, Edelgard; Schell, Jeff; Puchta, Holger

    2000-01-01

    Expression of the bacterial RecA protein in plants stimulates homologous recombination in tobacco. Here we show that RecA plays a direct role in DNA strand exchange in vivo. The number of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was increased 2.4-fold over wild type in transgenic tobacco plants expressing a nuclear-targeted RecA (nt-RecA) protein and could not be increased further by DNA damage, which caused a doubling of the baseline SCE frequency in wild-type plants. Although gene targeting requir...

  3. Use of a ring chromosome and pulsed-field gels to study interhomolog recombination, double-strand DNA breaks and sister-chromatid exchange in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a system that uses pulsed-field gels for the physical detection of recombinant DNA molecules, double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) and sister-chromatid exchange in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system makes use of a circular variant of chromosome II (Chr. III). Meiotic recombination between this ring chromosome and a linear homolog produces new molecules of sizes distinguishable on gels from either parental molecule. They demonstrate that these recombinant molecules are not present either in strains with two linear Chr. III molecules or in rad50 mutants, which are defective in meiotic recombination. In conjunction with the molecular endpoints. They present data on the timing of commitment to meiotic recombination scored genetically. They have used x-rays to linearize circular Chr. III, both to develop a sensitive method for measuring frequency of DSB and as a means of detecting double-size circles originating in part from sister-chromatid exchange, which they find to be frequent during meiosis

  4. Increased sister chromatid cohesion and DNA damage response factor localization at an enzyme-induced DNA double-strand break in vertebrate cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dodson, Helen

    2009-10-01

    The response to DNA damage in vertebrate cells involves successive recruitment of DNA signalling and repair factors. We used light microscopy to monitor the genetic dependencies of such localization to a single, induced DNA double strand break (DSB) in vertebrate cells. We used an inducible version of the rare-cutting I-SceI endonuclease to cut a chromosomally integrated I-SceI site beside a Tet operator array that was visualized by binding a Tet repressor-GFP fusion. Formation of gamma-H2AX foci at a single DSB was independent of ATM or Ku70. ATM-deficient cells showed normal kinetics of 53Bp1 recruitment to DSBs, but Rad51 localization was retarded. 53Bp1 and Rad51 foci formation at a single DSB was greatly reduced in H2AX-null DT40 cells. We also observed decreased inter-sister chromatid distances after DSB induction, suggesting that cohesin loading at DSBs causes elevated sister chromatid cohesion. Loss of ATM reduced DSB-induced cohesion, consistent with cohesin being an ATM target in the DSB response. These data show that the same genetic pathways control how cells respond to single DSBs and to multiple lesions induced by whole-cell DNA damage.

  5. Cells from an immunodeficient patient (46BR) with a defect in DNA ligation are hypomutable but hypersensitive to the induction of sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fibroblast cell strain, 46BR, derived from an immunodeficient patient is hypersensitive to the lethal effects of a wide range of DNA-damaging agents. It is also defective in strand-break rejoining after treatment with dimethyl sulfate and UV light. The present study shows that the cells have a defect in joining Okazaki-type fragments during DNA replication, supporting the interpretation that the basic defect is in ligation of DNA strands. The baseline level of sister chromatid exchange is slightly higher than in normal cells but it does not approach that of Bloom's syndrome or dyskeratosis congenita cells. Sensitivity to the induction of sister chromatid exchange and the hypersensitivity to the lethal effects of a set of DNA-damaging agents are correlated, implying that the basic defect influences both end points in similar manner. No 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants could be induced by either γ- or UV-irradiation in these cells, suggesting that error-prone repair pathways for damage induced by these agents may contain a common ligation step in human cells

  6. Erythrocytes modulate cell cycle progression but not the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in pig lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Reigosa

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of co-culturing varying concentrations of pig and human red blood cells (RBCs on the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs and cell-cycle progression in pig plasma (PLCs and whole blood leukocyte cultures (WBCs was studied. No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig control WBC and PLC. Addition of pig and human RBCs to pig PLCs did not modify the baseline frequency of SCEs. On the other hand, cell proliferation was slower in PLCs than in WBCs. The addition of pig or human RBCs to PLCs accelerated the cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes. When RBCs were added to PLCs the concentration and time sequence of RBC incorporation affected the cell-cycle progression of swine lymphocytes. When doses of pig or human RBCs equivalent to those present in WBCs were added immediately after PLC stimulation, the cell-cycle kinetics were similar to those of WBCs. Shorter co-incubation periods or a reduction in the dose of RBCs made cell-cycle progression intermediate between PLC and WBC values. Thus, pig and human RBCs modulated the in vitro cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and the low baseline frequency of SCEs of pig lymphocytes is independent of the presence or absence of erythrocytes in cultureFoi estudado o efeito de co-culturas com concentrações variadas de células sangüíneas vermelhas (RBCs suínas e humanas na freqüência basal de trocas de cromátides irmãs (SCEs e na progressão do ciclo celular em culturas de plasma de porco (PLCs e culturas leucocitárias do sangue total (WBCs. Não foi observada nenhuma variação na freqüências de SCEs entre os controles de WBC e PLC em porcos. A adição de RBCs de suínos e humanos a PLCs não modificou a freqüência basal de SCEs. Por outro lado, a proliferação celular foi mais lenta em PLCs que em WBCs. A adição de RBCs humanas ou suínas a PLCs acelerou a progressão do ciclo celular de linfócitos su

  7. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister-chromatid exchanges" door vinyltolueen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Vinyltolueen induceert geen chromosoomafwijkingen in V79 Chinese hamster cellen, noch in aanwezigheid noch in afwezigheid van ratte S9 als systeem voor metabolische activering. In dezelfde cellen wordt wel een inductie van zuster chromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) gevonden door vinyltolueen, maar alleen in aanwezigheid van metabolische activering. Er wordt verondersteld dat een tweetal metabolieten verantwoordelijk is voor de genotoxische werking van vinyltolueen.

  8. Effect of chlorophyllin on frequency radiation-induced of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and other cytogenetic events in mice bone marrow cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chlorophyllin on gamma radiation induced Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and on the mitotic index (IM) and average generation time was determined. Groups of mice were treated in one of the following regimens: (1) untreated, (2) treated with chlorophyllin only, (3) irradiated and (4) treated with chlorophyllin and irradiated intraperitoneal administration of chlorophyllin preceding gamma radiation exposure protected again SCE induction and diminution of IM. However, radioprotection was not reflected in the average generation time for the chlorophyllin per se acceleration the average generation time. The results suggest that, under the experimental conditions of the study the SCE and IM are caused by free radicals produced by radiation and wat the action mechanics of chlorophyllin is scavenger free radicals. (Author)

  9. Sister chromatid exchanges, hyperdiploidy and chromosomal rearrangements studied in cells from melanoma-prone individuals belonging to families with the dysplastic nevus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, N G; Roza-de Jongh, E J; Donselaar, I G; Van Velzen-Tillemans, J T; van Hemel, J O; Rümke, P; van der Kamp, A W

    1987-01-01

    Cytogenetic investigations were performed on 25 individuals belonging to six melanoma-prone families with multiple melanocytic lesions (the dysplastic nevus syndrome, DNS). Patients having DNS with or without a history of melanoma were compared with clinically normal relatives and unrelated normal controls. The results indicate normal frequencies of hyperdiploidy and spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges in the fibroblasts of all individuals studied. Karyotypic analyses were carried out on the members of one family. The patients with DNS had a normal constitutional karyotype. In lymphocytes or fibroblasts from five patients, however, increased frequencies of cells with random chromosomal rearrangements were observed. These abnormalities, mainly translocations and inversions, were not found in two of the patients' spouses and in six clinically normal relatives. In the fibroblast cultures considerable clonal selection of cytogenetically abnormal cells occurred. PMID:3791172

  10. Genotoxicity of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin (PHT): a follow-up study of PHT-untreated epileptic patients. I. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, A; Goyle, S

    1999-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a widely prescribed antiepileptic drug. Its potential to interact with genetic material was investigated in a set of 30 epileptic patients (age 10-30 years) prior to and following the administration of PHT over a period of 9 months (grouped in a multiple of 3 months) and 40 control subjects in relation to age, sex, duration of drug therapy, and plasma concentration of PHT, using the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency assay. Plasma levels of the phenytoin were measured by biochemical assay in epileptic patients before and after the PHT therapy. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and harvested at 72 h. The frequency of SCE was significantly higher (P genotoxic effect as expressed by the induction of increased SCE rates in treated epileptics, while disease does not play any role in inducing genetic damage as shown by no difference in SCE frequencies between control subjects and PHT-untreated epileptic patients. PMID:10321411

  11. In Vitro genotoxic and antigenotoxic studies of Thai Noni fruit juice by chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange assays in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treetip Ratanavalachai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Noni fruit juice produced in Thailand have been studied in human lymphocytes for chromosome aberration assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE assay in vitro. Treatment of Noni fruit juice(3.1-50 mg/ml alone for 3 h did not significantly induce chromosomal aberration or SCE (p<0.05. Noni fruit juice at 6.2 mg/ml is the optimum dose for cell survival and cell replication as demonstrated by the highest value of mitotic index and proliferation index (P.I.. Interestingly, pretreatment of Noni fruit juice at the same concentration of 6.2 mg/ml for 2 hfollowed by mitomycin C treatment at 3 μg/ml for 2 h significantly reduced SCE level induced by mitomycin C (p<0.05. However, these treatments did not show significant decrease in chromatid-type aberrations. Our data indicate that Thai Noni fruit juice is not genotoxic against human lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, pretreatment of Noni fruit juice at 6.2 mg/ml demonstrated no anticlastogenic effect while had some antigenotoxic effects as demonstrated by significant decrease in the SCE level induced by mitomycin C (p<0.05. Therefore, the optimum dose of Noni fruit juice used as a traditional medicine is required and needs to be studied further for the benefit of human health.

  12. Induction of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and specific locus mutations by radiation and chemicals, and the application of the studies to population monitoring and risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major portion of the research of the Mammalian Cytogenetics Group can be considered to be directed towards estimating the genetic risk, and potentially the carcinogenicity, of radiation and chemical exposures to man. The approach taken is to attempt to determine the mechanism of induction of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and specific locus mutations, and to apply the information obtained to the interpretation of data from currently used assay systems, or for the development of new, more sensitive, or more predictive, assays. This report is divided into several sections, each one representing a separate series of experiments. There is a logical progression to the sections, and there is a clear relationship between them. The sections are: (1) x-ray-induced chromosome aberrations and the involvement of repair of DNA base damage; (2) hypothesis for the mechanism of induction of chromosome aberrations; (3) the induction of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from Down's syndrome individuals; (4) the induction of chromosome aberrations by chemical agents; (5) interactive effects of radiation and chemical agents; (6) risk estimation and population monitoring; (7) the mechanism of induction of sister chromatid exchanges and specific locus mutations; and (8) studies with a transplantable mouse myeloid leukemia - an animal model. The intention of these studies is to improve our ability to extrapolate from data obtained with laboratory animals to the likely outcome in man, in order to provide estimates of the genetic, and potentially the carcinogenic, risk to man from exposures to radiation and chemical agents. There are several studies that have been recently initiated but are not reported here because of limited results so far. These particularly involve the development or improvement of assay systems to provide a greater predictive value or greater sensitivity

  13. A comparative investigation of DNA strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges and K-ras gene mutations induced by cadmium salts in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern with a wide variety of adverse effects. Several studies have shown that cadmium produces DNA strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, dysregulation of gene expression resulting in enhanced proliferation, depressed apoptosis and/or altered DNA repair. This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) to induce point mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene assessed by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods. Also their genotoxic effects were analyzed by the comet assay and sister chromatid exchanges test. The human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 was used for the experiments. Sister chromatid exchanges assay (SCEs) frequencies were significantly increased in cells exposed to cadmium salts in relation to controls (p < 0.001). Despite the slow increment observed in the three comet parameters considered when cells were treated with cadmium chloride, significant differences between groups were only found in the variable comet moment (CM) (p < 0.005). On the other hand, when cells were exposed to cadmium sulphate, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed highly significant differences between groups for migration, tail moment and comet moment parameters (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, a null or weak point mutation induction in K-ras protooncogene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-low ionic strength-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-LIS-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods when cells were treated with cadmium salts. Thus, inorganic cadmium produces genotoxicity in human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, in the absence of significant point mutation of the K-ras gene

  14. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door methecrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Methacrylamide is onderzocht in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen en een test op zuster-chromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) in V79 Chinese hamster cellen in vitro ; vanwege lage toxiciteit konden hoge concentraties (tot 10 mg/ml, 117,4 mmol/l) worden getest. Methacrylamide induceerde een significate, concentratie gerelateerde toename in het aantal SCE's per cel vanaf 2,5 mg/ml (29,4 mmol/l) zowel in aan- als in afwezigheid van metabolische activering. Daarentegen zijn er onvoldoende a...

  15. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door methylmethacrylaat met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Methylmethacrylaat of methacrylzure-methyl-ester bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro, zowel in afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering (S9), bij concentraties vanaf 3 ul/ml 28,2 mmol/l), als in aanwezigheid van metabolische activering (S9) bij concentraties vanaf 2 ul/ml (18,8 mmol/l). Tevens induceerde methylmethacrylaat in deze cellen een significante toename in het aantal zuster-chromatide uitwisse...

  16. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door vinylacetaat met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Vinylacetaat bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamstercellen in vitro vanaf 0,25 mmol/l zowel in aan- als in afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering (S9). Tevens induceerde vinylacetaat in deze cellen een sifnificante toename in het aantal zuster-chromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) per cel, zowel in aan als in afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering (S9) bij concentraties van 0,03125 ul/ml (respectievel...

  17. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door acrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro vanaf 0,1 mg/ml (1,4 mmol/l), zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metaboliosche activering (S9). Tevens induceerde acrylamide in deze cellen een significante toename in het aantal zuster-chromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) per cel, zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering (S9) bij concentraties van 0,6 en 1 mg/ml (respec...

  18. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations by γ-irradiated nucleic acid constituents in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and to γ-irradiated, oxygenated solutions of thymine, thymidine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose. By using a modified Brd Zrd-labelling method sister-chromated exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations were scored in the same cell population, one cycle after treatment. Irradiated, oxygenated solutions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose clearly induced SCEs and chromosomal aberrations. In comparison, hydrogen peroxide and irradiated solutions of thymine and thymidine were less effective in CHO cells. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of the enhancing effect of caffeine on sister-chromatid exchanges induced by ultraviolet radiation in excision-proficient xeroderma pigmentosum lymphoblastoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells of some excision-proficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell lines are highly sensitive to post-UV caffeine treatment in terms of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as well as cell lethality. In the present study, the authors conducted a detailed investigation of the enhancing effect of caffeine on SCE frequency induced by UV in excision-proficient XP cells, and obtained the following results. (1). Continuous post-UV treatment with 1mM caffeine markedly enhances UV-induced SCEs and such enhanced SCEs occur with similar frequency during either the 1st or the 2nd cell cycle in the presence of caffeine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd). (2) The high sensitivity of the cells to post-UV caffeine treatment persists for at least 2 days after UV when irradiated cells are held in either the proliferating of the nonproliferating state prior to the addition of BrdUrd. (3) Caffeine exerts its effect on cells in S phase. The most likely explanation for our findings is as follows. In excision-proficient XP cells, the cause of SCE formation such as UV-induced lesions or resulting perturbations of DNA replication persists untill the 2nd round or more of post-UV DNA replication. If caffeine is given as post-UV treatment, such abnormalities may be amplified, resulting in a synergistic increase in SCE frequency. (author). 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  20. The lethal response to Cdk1 inhibition depends on sister chromatid alignment errors generated by KIF4 and isoform 1 of PRC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Erik; Marsman, Judith; Demmers, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Roderick; Wolthuis, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is absolutely essential for cell division. Complete ablation of Cdk1 precludes the entry of G2 phase cells into mitosis, and is early embryonic lethal in mice. Dampening Cdk1 activation, by reducing gene expression or upon treatment with cell-permeable Cdk1 inhibitors, is also detrimental for proliferating cells, but has been associated with defects in mitotic progression, and the formation of aneuploid daughter cells. Here, we used a large-scale RNAi screen to identify the human genes that critically determine the cellular toxicity of Cdk1 inhibition. We show that Cdk1 inhibition leads to fatal sister chromatid alignment errors and mitotic arrest in the spindle checkpoint. These problems start early in mitosis and are alleviated by depletion of isoform 1 of PRC1 (PRC1-1), by gene ablation of its binding partner KIF4, or by abrogation of KIF4 motor activity. Our results show that, normally, Cdk1 activity must rise above the level required for mitotic entry. This prevents KIF4-dependent PRC1-1 translocation to astral microtubule tips and safeguards proper chromosome congression. We conclude that cell death in response to Cdk1 inhibitors directly relates to chromosome alignment defects generated by insufficient repression of PRC1-1 and KIF4 during prometaphase. PMID:26423135

  1. Relationship of enhanced survival during confluent holding recovery in ultraviolet-irradiated human and mouse cells to chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship among cellular recovery from ultraviolet light (UVL) damage, cytogenetic changes, and DNA repair was studied in density-inhibited cultures of mouse 10T1/2 cells and human diploid fibroblasts. Both cell types showed similar UVL sensitivites to cell killing and a similar enhancement in survival when subculture to a low density was delayed for 24-48 hr after irradiation (potential lethal damage repair). However, excision repair as measured by the loss of endonuclease-sensitive sites was biphasic and much slower in the mouse cells: 30% were removed in the first 24 hr compared with 60% removed in the first 5 hr in the human cells. More than five times as many excision-induced DNA strand breaks as measured by alkaline elution were detected in the human as compared with the mouse cells. DNA-protein crosslinks were removed with a T 1/2 of 30 hr after 10 J/m2 UVL. UVL induced few chromosomal aberrations in the human cells as compared with mouse cells. The frequency of induced sister chromatid exchanges and the pattern of their decline during recovery were similar in both cell types; the kinetics of this decline was similar to that observed for the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks, and slowly removed endonuclease-sensitive sites. Chromosome aberrations, however, correlated with rapidly removed endo sites and DNA strand breaks and appeared to reflect the number of residual pyrimidine dimers in DNA at the time of its replication

  2. Repairability during G 1 phase of inducting lesions of sister chromatid exchange produced by mitomycin C in salivary gland cells of mice In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repairability of the injuries that lead to the formation of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) produced by mitomycin C (MMC) with a dose of 2.1 mg/g in vivo, during the G 1 phase in the first cycle of cellular division (before the incorporation of BrdU [5-bromo-2 deoxyurine] to the DNA), as well as during the G 1 phase of the second cycle of cellular division (after the incorporation of BrdU) were analyzed. A 35.1% decrease in the frequency of SCE produced by Mitomycin C was observed, in the early G 1 phase of the first division, with respect to the frequency of SCE induced in the later G 1 phase. When Mitomycin C is given to cells whose DNA is substituted with BrdU in only one of the chain's filaments such decrease is not observed. The results suggest that the injuries caused by MMC, which give place to the SCE, in cells of the salivary glands of the mouse in vivo, are partially repaired only when induced in DNA which has not been substituted with BrdU. (Author)

  3. Targeting of chemical mutagens to differentiating B-lymphocytes in vivo: detection by direct DNA labeling and sister chromatid exchange induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S.E.; Nanna, U.C.; Dietert, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo systems for analyzing mutagen interactions with a specific differentiating cell population are rare. Taking advantage of the unique anatomical features of the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken, the authors explored the possibility of targeting chemical mutagens to a defined differentiating cell population in the animal, namely, the B-lymphocytes series. Such cells are known to be the targets for the oncogene-activating avian leukosis virus. Targeting of chemicals to cells of the bursa was demonstrated by application of the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to the anal lips of neonatal chicks. Bright nuclear fluorescence of cells in the bursa demonstrated to occur within minutes after the application of 500..mu..l of DAPI. DAPI labeling of nuclei was detected up to several days after a single application. No nuclear labeling was exhibited in cells of neighboring tissues. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)(10..mu..l) was applied to the anal lips of day-old chicks to study dose-response kinetics for mutagen targeting to DNA of dividing B-lymphocytes in the bursa. Since the mitotic index was found to be quite high (25-30%) in the bursa, chromosome analysis was used to assay for genome damage. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies of 3.9, 7.3, and 9.0 (baseline 2.5) per cell were obtained at MMS dosages per animal of 50 ..mu..g, 100..mu..g, and 200..mu..g, respectively. These results indicate the rapid and quantitative localization of DNA-binding chemicals to cells of the bursa, particularly the resident B-lymphocytes. The bursa should be a useful system for studying mutagen-DNA interactions in the differentiating B-lymphocyte and subsequent influences on the development of immunity and lymphoproliferative disease.

  4. Targeting of chemical mutagens to differentiating B-lymphocytes in vivo: detection by direct DNA labeling and sister chromatid exchange induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo systems for analyzing mutagen interactions with a specific differentiating cell population are rare. Taking advantage of the unique anatomical features of the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken, the authors explored the possibility of targeting chemical mutagens to a defined differentiating cell population in the animal, namely, the B-lymphocytes series. Such cells are known to be the targets for the oncogene-activating avian leukosis virus. Targeting of chemicals to cells of the bursa was demonstrated by application of the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to the anal lips of neonatal chicks. Bright nuclear fluorescence of cells in the bursa demonstrated to occur within minutes after the application of 500μl of DAPI. DAPI labeling of nuclei was detected up to several days after a single application. No nuclear labeling was exhibited in cells of neighboring tissues. Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)(10μl) was applied to the anal lips of day-old chicks to study dose-response kinetics for mutagen targeting to DNA of dividing B-lymphocytes in the bursa. Since the mitotic index was found to be quite high (25-30%) in the bursa, chromosome analysis was used to assay for genome damage. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies of 3.9, 7.3, and 9.0 (baseline 2.5) per cell were obtained at MMS dosages per animal of 50 μg, 100μg, and 200μg, respectively. These results indicate the rapid and quantitative localization of DNA-binding chemicals to cells of the bursa, particularly the resident B-lymphocytes. The bursa should be a useful system for studying mutagen-DNA interactions in the differentiating B-lymphocyte and subsequent influences on the development of immunity and lymphoproliferative disease

  5. Evaluation of the persistence in the induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE) by alkylating agents; Evaluacion de la persistencia en la induccion de Intercambio en las Cromatidas Hermanas (ICH) por agentes alquilantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez R, R.; Huerta V, C.; MOrales R, P.R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The persistence in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) by the alkylating agents methyl and ethyl-methanesulfonates (MMS and EMS) was evaluated. For it, to groups of mice its were administered a dose of these agents and later its were analyzed the induced SCE's in two periods: early and late. Both agents caused high increments of SCE in the early period and small in the late one; however, the caused lately by EMS was significantly bigger. This late induction of SCE by EMS possibly is associated with an epigenetic change or with the presence of etiladucts in the phosphodiester bonds of the DNA. (Author)

  6. Sister chromatid exchanges induced by two radiosensitizing platinum compounds (cis-dichloro-bis isopropylamine trans dihydroxy platinum IV (CHIP) and cis platinum metronidazole2Cl2(FLAP] in CHO cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bocian, E; Laverick, M.; Nias, A H

    1983-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by two radiosensitizing platinum compounds (cis-dichloro-bis isopropylamine trans dihydroxy platinum IV (CHIP) and cis-platinum metronidazole2 Cl2 (FLAP] was studied in CHO cells in vitro. Both drugs induced SCE in a dose dependent manner. CHIP was a much more potent inducer of SCE than FLAP and produced almost 4 times as many SCE as FLAP at equimolar concentrations and twice as many at equitoxic dosage. Induction of SCE by a component of the FLAP mol...

  7. Sisters dancing in meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Baarends, Willy; Mercier, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    The EMBO Conference on Meiosis held last September highlighted the dynamic aspects of this process, including the variability of hotspots for break formation, switches between partners during repair and the dynamics of sister chromatid cohesion.

  8. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door 2,3-epoxypropylmethacrylaat met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    2,3-epoxypropylmethacrylaat of glycidylmethacrylaat bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro, zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering (S9), bij concentraties vanaf 0,03 ul/ml (0,23 mmol/l). Tevens induceerde 2,3-epoxypropylmethacrylaat in deze cellen een significante toename in het aantal zuster-chromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) per cel, zowel in afwezigheid van metabolische activeri...

  9. Rmi1, a member of the Sgs1–Top3 complex in budding yeast, contributes to sister chromatid cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Mong Sing; Seki, Masayuki; Ui, Ayako; Enomoto, Takemi

    2007-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ-mediated genome instability (Rmi1) protein was recently identified as the third member of the slow growth suppressor 1–DNA topoisomerase III (Sgs1–Top3) complex, which is required for maintaining genomic stability. Here, we show that cells lacking RMI1 have a mitotic delay, which is partly dependent on the spindle checkpoint, and are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerizing agent benomyl. We show that rmi1 and top3 single mutants are defective in sister ch...

  10. Evidence that cyclophosphamide can to induce exchanges in the sister chromatids (ICH) through secondary injuries; Evidencia de que la ciclofosfamida puede inducir intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) a traves de lesiones secundarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Rodriguez R, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    By means of the use of destination protocol of ICH inductive injuries (DLI-ICH), it was studied if interchanges in the sister chromatids (ICH) induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), in the second post-treatment division (ICH-2) are produced by secondary injuries or by fresh injuries. For discard between these possibilities it was administered CP at different periods before of the first post-treatment division, taking as reference the administered time for high dose of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU ) which was approximately at the beginning of this division. The ICH frequencies that occur in the first, the second and the third synthesis stages (S) were determined. It was observed that when the administered CP was four hours before BrdU , the ICH frequencies of the second and the third S were reduced. The frequency of the first ICH increased lightly in relation to those of the normal protocol (0.5 h before BrdU ) and that the supplying of CP six hours before caused almost a total reduction of ICH of second and third S and an important increment of ICH of first S.This was interpreted as evidence that the ICH-2 are product of secondary injuries. (Author)

  11. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of pharmacists before and after working with cytostatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, S; Norppa, H; Järventaus, H; Kyyrönen, P; Ahonen, M; Lehtomäki, J; Sainio, H; Sorsa, M

    1994-12-01

    The frequencies of chromosome aberrations, SCEs and micronuclei (cytokinesis-block method) in blood lymphocytes were compared among six nonsmoking female pharmacists before and after 1 year of working with cytostatic drugs. All possible precautions were taken to avoid exposure to cytostatics, including proper protective clothing and a monitored, negative-pressured working environment with vertical laminar flow cabinet. As referents, an age-matched group of six nonsmoking female hospital workers not dealing with cytostatics was simultaneously sampled twice with the same time interval. The pharmacists showed a marginally higher mean frequency of SCEs/cell (6.3; P = 0.049) after the working period than 1 year earlier (5.8). On the other hand, the referents, with no obvious exposure, had a higher mean number of cells with chromatid-type aberrations, gaps excluded, in the second sampling (2.0%; P = 0.048) than in the first one (0.5%). In addition, a slight (P = 0.055) trend towards a higher frequency of micronucleated binucleate cells was observed in the second sampling for both the exposed and control subjects. As such findings suggest technical variation in the cytogenetic parameters, the small difference observed in SCEs for the pharmacists between the two samplings was probably not related to the cytostatics exposure. No statistically significant differences were observed for any of the cytogenetic parameters in comparisons between the pharmacists and the referents. The findings suggest that caution should be exercised in comparing results obtained from two different samplings in prospective cytogenetic studies. PMID:7527908

  12. Relationship of the demethylation of the DNA with the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) In vivo; Relacion de la desmetilacion del ADN con la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toribio E, E

    2005-07-01

    The methylation of the DNA is an epigenetic modification that has an important paper in the regulation of the functionality of the genome of the organisms. It can be altered by demethylation processes, either natural or experimentally induced. The 5-azacytidine (Aza) is a compound that causes the demethylation of the DNA (dm-DNA), inducing with it, expression genic and increase in the frequency of the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE). The SCE is a genotoxicity indicator, caused by diverse mutagens and carcinogen. Since the biological meaning and the formation mechanism of this phenomenon has not been totally illustrious, the exploration of the relation between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE, it could offer new knowledge to explain those queries. The purpose of this work was to study in cells of the mouse bone marrow In vivo, the effect of the Aza on the induction of SCE, based on two aspects: 1) dose answer and 2) the effectiveness of multiple exhibition. To six groups of three to five animals, they are administered Aza to dose of 5, 10, 15 or 20 mg/Kg of weight; in sharp or multiple form, previously to the bromodeoxyuridine supply and 24 h was sacrificed after this; 2 h after an injection with colchicine. Preparations of those metaphases were made, those which were dyed by means of a technique of fluorescence more Giemsa. It was observed that to sharp low dose, the Aza produced an increment in the frequency of SCE that although small it was proportional and statistically significant. To sharp and multiple high doses, the Aza doesn't cause additional increments of SCE, but if toxicity at cellular level and of individuals. It is concluded that a relationship exists between the dm-DNA and the induction of SCE. It is suggested that the total demethylation of the DNA causes 2 SCE/Cell in cells of the mouse bone marrow, or that the cytotoxicity prevents to evidence a bigger induction. (Author)

  13. Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Sarangapani, Krishna K.; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N.; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D.; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adèle L.; Asbury, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids co-migrate, rather than separating as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid co-migration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. Here we studied native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast using laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Meiosis I kinetochores formed...

  14. Holocentric plant meiosis: first sisters, then homologues

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Stefan; Schubert, Veit; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a crucial process of sexual reproduction by forming haploid gametes from diploid precursor cells. It involves 2 subsequent divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) after one initial round of DNA replication. Homologous monocentric chromosomes are separated during the first and sister chromatids during the second meiotic division. The faithful segregation of monocentric chromosomes is realized by mono-orientation of fused sister kinetochores at metaphase I and by bi-orientation of siste...

  15. The nature of high frequency sister chromatid exchange cells (HFCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzanelli, I; Landi, S; Bernacchi, F; Barale, R

    1997-09-01

    We employed the three-way differential staining technique (TWD), which allows SCEs to be distinguished on a per generation basis by scoring third metaphases (M3), in order to study the spontaneous levels of SCEs in normal and high frequency cells (HFCs) that occurred in the first (S1), second (S2) and third (S3) S phases. Fifty one of 900 lymphocytes from 37 healthy donors were defined as HFCs by calculating the 95th percentile of the distribution of SCEs in S1 + S2. 'Normal' cells presented almost the same number of SCEs after the first, second and third cell cycles (SCE averages of 2.43, 2.04 and 3.53 respectively). In contrast, HFCs showed a higher SCE count in S1, which decreased rapidly through the cycles and reached baseline level at S3 (SCE averages of 7.18, 4.29 and 3.45 respectively). This would suggest that the lesions responsible for the higher SCE frequency in HFCs were effectively removed after two cell cycles and strongly support the hypothesis that HFCs are lymphocytes which accumulate higher levels of DNA lesions through time. PMID:9379910

  16. SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE AND GENOTOXICITY MEASUREMENTS USING POLYCHAETE WORMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants entering coastal marine environments may affect the genetic constitution of exposed organisms by causing shifts in gene pool composition through selective pressures or by acting directly on the genetic material to cause damage. he latter problem is referred to as gen...

  17. Ectrodactyly in sisters and half sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, M H; Wood, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    An extended family is described in which four sisters and half sisters presented with ectrodactyly. Two of the sisters had associated agenesis of the tibiae. The paper describes the malformations and discusses the management and possible genetic inheritance involved. An autosomal recessive gene seems likely to be the mode of inheritance.

  18. Repairability during G1 of the inductor leisure of exchanges in the sister chromatid induced by alkylating agents in DNA substituted and no substituted with BUDR, in cells of the salivary gland of mouse In vivo; Reparabilidad durante G1 de las lesiones inductoras de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas inducidos por agentes alquilantes en ADN sustituido y no sustituido con BrdU, en celulas de la glandula salival de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez B, F

    2004-07-01

    In this work you determines the repair of the lesions inductoras of Sister chromatid exchange (ICHs) generated in the cells of the salivary gland of mouse, for the treatment with the N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU), the N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea (ENU), the Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in early and slow G1 of the first one and the second cellular division, that is to say before and after the cells incorporate 5-bromine-2 -Desoxyuridine (BrdU) in the DNA. Groups witness non treaties were included with mutagen. The cells of the salivary gland repaired the generated lesions partially by the MNU, the MMS and the EMS in the 1st division, and only the lesions induced by the ENU and MMS were repaired partially in the 2nd division. The ENU generates injure that they were not repaired in the 1st division and those taken place by the EMS were little repaired in the 2nd division. The methylating agents generated but ICHs that the ethylating. One observes that the BrdU makes to the molecule of the DNA but susceptible to the damage generated by the alkylating agents that induce the formation of the ICHs. This susceptibility was incremented around 150% for the treatment with the MNU, the ENU and the MMS, on the other hand for the EMS it was 3 times minor. It is proposed that the one electronegative atom of this analog of the timine would to work as a nucleophyllic center with which the electrophyllic compounds react. (Author)

  19. Co-segregation of yeast plasmid sisters under monopolin-directed mitosis suggests association of plasmid sisters with sister chromatids

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yen-Ting; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2013-01-01

    The 2-micron plasmid, a high copy extrachromosomal element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, propagates itself with nearly the same stability as the chromosomes of its host. Plasmid stability is conferred by a partitioning system consisting of the plasmid-coded proteins Rep1 and Rep2 and a cis-acting locus STB. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the partitioning system couples plasmid segregation to chromosome segregation during mitosis. However, the coupling mechanism has not been elucidated. ...

  20. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    OpenAIRE

    Blattner, Ariane C.; Soumya Chaurasia; McKee, Bruce D.; Lehner, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has ...

  1. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  2. We are Three Sisters

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Poet, playwright and novelist Blake Morrison evokes the lives of the Brontë sisters, with a nod to Chekhov’s Three Sisters. Against the backdrop of a windswept northern village, three remarkable young women live their lives brightly. In Haworth in the 1840s, in a gloomy parsonage, where there are neither curtains nor comforts, Charlotte, Anne and Emily Brontë light up their world with outspoken wit, aspirations, dreams and ideas. And throughout their confined lives intensely lived… th...

  3. Two Nepali Sisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Diaspora is an expansion of a national or family network that can be activated for the benefit of the family and home nation in multiple ways. The argument is based on two life stories. Two Nepali sisters attended Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS) training courses in Japan at...... home and the diaspora....

  4. Sister Carrie in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷希

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie has received many Chinese scholar's attention, and it has quantity relevance researches. Therefore, it is valuable to study why it is popular in China and it's education meaning for Chinese people. In addition, to analysis the domestic re-searches and find it's exist problems can help us make a new breakthrough from the study.

  5. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase. PMID:27120695

  6. Chromatid interchanges at intrachromosomal telomeric DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster Don cells were exposed to X-rays, mitomycin C and teniposide (VM-26) to induce chromatid exchanges (quadriradials and triradials). After fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of telomere sequences it was found that interstitial telomere-like DNA sequence arrays presented around five times more breakage-rearrangements than the genome overall. This high recombinogenic capacity was independent of the clastogen, suggesting that this susceptibility is not related to the initial mechanisms of DNA damage. (author)

  7. Pituitary cretinism in two sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohno, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ootsuka, M; Kajiwara, M; Gohya, N

    1980-01-01

    Two sisters with cretinism are reported. Each showed low levels of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In the elder sister, serum TSH did not increase after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. We conclude that cretinism in these 2 sisters was due to TSH deficiency. This is the second report of 'familial' pituitary cretinism (TSH-deficient congenital hypothyroidism).

  8. Friel and his "sisters"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Grene

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay, occasioned by a revival of Brian Friel's version of Chekhov's Three Sisters at the Abbey Theatre in 2008, considers the circumstances surrounding its first production by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1981, and the motivation behind the decision to translate Chekhov's text into a specifically Irish dialect of English. It also analyses how Friel's plays since that date, notably the award-winning Dancing at Lughnasa (1990, have changed our perspective on the play.

  9. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  10. Effect of cysteamine on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different doses of cysteamine (3, 15 and 150 μg/g bw) on gamma ray-induced SCE was evaluated and compared with the responses obtained with regard to frequency of chromosomal aberrations, frequency of proliferating cells and the rate of cellular proliferating kinetics in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo. Groups of mice were either irradiated, treated with cysteamine and irradiated, only treated with cysteamine or left without treatment for determination of these parameters. The intraperitoneal administration of cysteamine preceding 1 Gy of gamma ray exposure, produces a dose dependent radioprotection on SCE-induction obtaining the greatest effect with 150 μg/g bw. However, this effect was not observed in the mitotic index nor in the average generation time. Chromosomic aberrations in animals irradiated after treatment with cysteamine were also detected. It was not observed any citotoxic or genotoxic effect produced by cysteamine per se. The results suggest that, under the experimental conditions of this study, the SCE are caused by free radicals produced by gamma radiation; not so, the additional damage indexes measured. (author)

  11. Fanconi anaemia proteins are associated with sister chromatid bridging in mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    specifically occur during chromosome segregation in mitosis. The BS protein, BLM, was shown recently to define a novel class of anaphase DNA bridge structures that, in some cases, also contain FA proteins. We will discuss the possible source of these bridges and the role that FA proteins and BLM might play in...

  12. PICH promotes sister chromatid disjunction and co-operates with topoisomerase II in mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Huttner, Diana; Bizard, Anna H;

    2015-01-01

    PICH is a SNF2 family DNA translocase that binds to ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. Numerous roles for PICH have been proposed from protein depletion experiments, but a consensus has failed to emerge. Here, we report that deletion of PICH in avian cells causes chromosome structural...... ICRF-193-treated cells. We propose that PICH and Topo II cooperate to prevent chromosome missegregation events in mitosis....

  13. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references. (ACR)

  14. Multiple Rad5 activities mediate sister chromatid recombination to bypass DNA damage at stalled replication forks

    OpenAIRE

    Minca, Eugen C; Kowalski, David

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage that blocks replication is bypassed in order to complete chromosome duplication and preserve cell viability and genome stability. Rad5, a PCNA polyubiquitin ligase and DNA-dependent ATPase in yeast, is orthologous to putative tumor suppressors and controls error-free damage bypass by an unknown mechanism. To identify the mechanism in vivo, we investigated the roles of Rad5 and analyzed the DNA structures that form during damage bypass at site-specific stalled forks present at repli...

  15. Homologous recombination, sister chromatid cohesion, and chromosome condensation in mammalian meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijpe, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes, haploid and diploid generations of cells alternate. Two types of cell division occur in such a life cycle: mitosis and meiosis. They are compared in chapter 1 . Haploid and diploid cells can multiply by mitoses.

  16. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references

  17. Effect of tritiated compounds on sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human lymphocytes treated in vitro with various activities of 3H-TdR and 3H-UdR were cultured to understand the effects of tritium on the cell cycle and the frequency of SCE. The results of these experiments indicated that both tritiated compounds make the frequency of SCE increase and the cell cycle delay. The frequency of SCE increased markedly with activity of 3H. With respect to delaying cell cycle, 3H-UdR was more effective than 3H-TdR. The average frequencies of SCE for 3H-UdR were higher than those for 3H-TdR. With the exception of 3.7 x 103 Bq/mL group and differences between other 3H-UdR groups and corresponding 3H-TdR group were significant (t test, p < 0.01). These results suggest that tritiated compounds may have the effect on the cell proliferating rate. The cell proliferating rate index (PRI) seems to be related with the frequency of SCE: the higher the frequency of SCE, the lower the PRI is

  18. The origin recognition complex links replication, sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Bernhard; Tong, Amy; Chang, Michael; Yu, Lisa; Brown, Grant W; Boone, Charles; Rine, Jasper

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding the origin recognition complex (ORC) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affect initiation of DNA replication and transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci. To explore the function of ORC in more detail, a screen for genetic interactions was undertaken using large

  19. Two Nepali Sisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Diaspora is an expansion of a national or family network that can be activated for the benefit of the family and home nation in multiple ways. The argument is based on two life stories. Two Nepali sisters attended Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS) training courses in Japan at...... different times during the 1980s. The training was partly funded by official development assistance provided through the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). They used their training very differently, but between the two of them extended a family network from Japan and India to...

  20. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephanSauer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  1. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims. PMID:23924178

  2. Sisters Hope - the exposed self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Hallberg, Gry Worre

    Sisters Hope is an art-educational method and a practice-led research tool, rooted in the construction of a fictional parallel universe revolving around the twin sisters Coco and Coca Pebber. Our work is rooted in the ambition to democratize the aesthetic dimension through ‘affective engineering...

  3. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; D. J. Hill

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  4. Two Sisters with Rett Syndrome. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenggeli, Charles A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Clinical histories and physical findings are presented for 2 sisters with Rett syndrome. The older sister, age 25, was typically affected, whereas the younger sister, 22 years old, was affected with a seizure disorder showing an unusually early onset. The paper discusses hypotheses in genetic causation of Rett syndrome. (JDD)

  5. Caroli's disease in two sisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroli's disease is a rare congential disease with multiple segmental dilatations of the bile ducts. It may present in two forms: One (the simple form) with segmental dilatations only, and the other with dilatations combined with fibroangioadenomatosis, frequently complicated by portal hypertension. The disease is thought to be recessively inherited, but few familial cases have been reported. We have observed two sisters with the disease, one with the simple form, the other with fibroangioadenomatosis. Their case histories and diagnostic findings, with special reference to ultrasonography and computed tomography, are presented, and the potential for diagnosis by different imaging modalities is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister-chromatid exchanges" door divinylbenzeen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, van der, J.A.; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot, de, C.P.G.M.; M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Divinylbenzeen induceert geen chromosoomafwijkingen in Chinese hamster cellen in vitro, noch in aanwezigheid noch in afwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering ; divinylbenzeen induceert in deze cellen wel zusterchromatide uitwisselingen (SCE's) maar alleen in aanwezigheid van een systeem voor metabolische activering. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat tijdens de metabolische omzetting van divinylbenzeen, via een epoxide, onder speciale omstandigheden ook chromosoomafwijkingen kunnen...

  7. Parallel increases in sister chromatid exchanges at base level and with UV treatment in human opiate users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCE base level frequency and SCE levels induced by far-UV (254 nm) treatment of cells in early G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle were significantly higher in leukocytes from heroin addicts as compared to controls. The increased SCE levels in addicts was greatest at base level and smallest after UV irradiation of cells in S phase. These results corrobate and extend our previous findings of increased chromosome damage and reduced DNA-repair synthesis in heroin users. Since opiates do not directly damage DNA, the elevated cytogenetic effects associated with opiate use probably arise from secondary promotional effects related to opiate-mediated alterations in leukocyte metabolism. (orig.)

  8. Sister-chromatid exchange induction in Chinese hamster ovary cells by 8-methoxypsoralen and brief pulses of laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief (-sup(%) M 8-methoxypsoralen. Additional laser pulses caused less than proportional further increments in SCEs, although the total yield of 8-methoxypsoralen adducts in similarly exposed solutions of isolated DNA increased linearly. Higher numbers of laser pulses induced detectable amounts of 8-methoxypsoralen-DNA crosslinks and distorted the DNA flow histogram of CHO cells in a manner consistent with retarded cell cycle traverse. (orig./AJ)

  9. Gossypol induces DNA strand breaks in human fibroblasts and sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenskjöld, M.; Lambert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The male contraceptive agent gossypol was found to induce a dose related increase of DNA strand breaks in human fibroblasts in vitro at concentrations of 5 to 40 micrograms/ml. The effect was reduced in the presence of 2% fetal calf serum. A weak but reproducible increase in the SCE frequency was found in human lymphocytes treated for 1 hour in serum-free medium with 0.04 to 4 micrograms/ml of gossypol.

  10. Ovarian dysgerminoma in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander F Aldhafery

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rare, dysgerminomas are important irrespective of incidence because they affect women of reproductive age (i.e., <45 years. Dysgerminomas make up two thirds of all malignant ovarian neoplasms in women younger than 20 years. All dysgerminomas are considered malignant, but only one third of dysgerminomas behave aggressively. Their exact etiology has not been determined. Few reports are found in the review of the literature on the incidence of dysgerminoma and other germ cell tumors in families. Some of these reports focus on the genetic abnormalities associated with germ cell tumor and the responsible gene. Two cases of dysgerminomas diagnosed in two sisters aged 14 and 19 years old are presented here with their radiological studies.

  11. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  12. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  13. Sister Cities along US/Mexico Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Locations of 29 cities referred to as US and Mexico "Sister Cities." The locations of the cities were pulled from the Digital Chart of the World database, 1994. The...

  14. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Gencer; Erkan Ceylan; Muharrem Bitiren; Ahmet Koc

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. He...

  15. A Naturalistic Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈月

    2016-01-01

    Sister Carrie is well known as the works in which naturalism attained maturity in America. Up until now, the relevant research on Dreiser and his Sister Carrie abroad and at home is primarily concerned with the frustration of American dream, the naturalistic thoughts and pessimism. The paper attempts to study it from naturalistic point of view and explain how environmental, hereditary factors and the idea of“survival of the fittest”influence Carrie’s fate.

  16. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce. PMID:20503771

  17. Sisters at Work: Career and Community Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, Elizabeth K.; Sullivan, Teresa A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine occupational differentiation of U.S. Catholic nuns before and since the Second Vatican Council. Data were collected from interviews with 30 sisters representing 11 congregations. The analysis relates the diversification of their careers to changes in ideology and life-style and to the changing demographic and financial status…

  18. Comments on the image of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2016-01-01

    Thedore Oreiser was one of America's greatest writers and one of his famous masterpieces is Sister Carrie. the heroin of the novel was a country girl who struggled for success and finally became a movie star. Analysis on the image of Carrie is of practical significance to the country girls swarming into the city nowdays in our country.

  19. All in the Family: The Sister Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Sister Study, nationally and at the grassroots level, to enroll ethnic minority women, since historically we have not been well represented in research," says Dr. Nápoles-Springer. "Only by participating can we be confident that the results will apply to women such ...

  20. Sisters Hope - Protected by the Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Worre Hallberg, Gry

    2011-01-01

    In this article we will introduce the fictional and art-pedagogical universe of Sisters Hope and describe how it in different ways transcends into contexts beyond the art world and thus functions as a tool to democratize the aesthetic dimension and mode of being within high schools, academia and ...... the virtual world of social media....

  1. Generators of the sister of Euclidean Picard modular group

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    The sister of Eisenstein-Picard modular group was described in [8]. In this paper we give a similar definition of the sister of the Euclidean-Picard modular group and find its generators by using a geometric method.

  2. The Lay Sister in Educational History and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Christine Trimingham

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the construction of lay sisters in a religious order and school setting using a poststructuralist orientation. Explains that in the study documents were examined and interviews were conducted with ex-students, choir nuns, and a lay sister at a small Catholic girls-preparatory boarding school. Explores the narrative of one lay sister.…

  3. Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

  4. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District...

  5. Interchromosomal distribution of gamma ray-induced chromatid aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter chromosomal distributions of breakpoints from chromatid-type aberrations induced by gamma rays in Chinese hamster ovary cells were analyzed. In most chromosomes the distribution was as expected from chromosome lengths for simple breaks or the respective relative corrected length in case of exchanges. There were deviations from expectation in a few chromosomes for chromatid breaks, interchanges, intra-arm intra changes and inter-arm intra changes. Especially interesting are the results concerning chromosomes 2 and 8, which were more often involved in exchanges than expected. An 'exchange phenotype' for these chromosomes is proposed and possible explanations for the nonrandom distribution of chromosome breakpoints are presented. (author)

  6. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    In the history of American literature,Sister Carrie is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser,it impresses people deeply. Carrie,a poor country girl,becomes a famous star in a big city. She has totally changed from her hard experiences,and she becomes financially independent as a new woman when she goes through hesitation.In he whole novel,the author has planted some strong points of Carrie’s character.At the end of this paper,it analyzes woman’s status in modern time from two aspects of the improvement of female’s social status and the comparison between men and women.

  7. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gencer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH.

  8. Three Sisters Dam: Investigations and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geotechnical investigations, monitoring and interpretation of data associated with the evaluation of the Three Sisters Dam, which has been suffering from excessive seepage and is in need of enhancement, are outlined. The Three Sisters Dam is located in the continental ranges of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, impounding the Spray Reservoir, and is founded on 60 m of interbedded sand, gravel, silt and clay layers. The computer code PC-SEEP was used to evaluate seepage. Details are provided of drilling, ground-penetrating radar surveys, seismic surveys, penstock inspection, sinkhole activity, piezometer monitoring, silt wells, settlement monuments, and tailrace monitoring. The intensive investigations of the foundations showed that they consist of a complex formation of interfingered stratified layers and leases of talus and glaciofluvial deposits. Due to the depth and nature of these materials drill hole penetration was limited to the use of the Becker hammer. This equipment successfully delineated the major soil horizons of the foundation. The continued information attained from inspection, drilling, testing, radar surveys, seismic work, monitoring of piezometers, leakage, silt wells and settlement monuments indicated that there are no large voids within the foundation of the dam. 2 refs., 12 figs

  9. Investigations into the molecular mechanism of chromatid breakage in the G2-phase of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatid breakage following irradiation of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle results from the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). The conversion of dsb into chromatid breaks (cb) has a genetic basis, seemingly different from that of dsb rejoining. The variation in extent of this conversion is exemplified by the stiking variation in frequency of cb in irradiated cycling T-lymphocytes between different normal individuals. Elevated cb frequency in lymphocytes of around 40% of breast cancer patients and their first-degree relatives suggests the presence of mutations in low penetrance cancer predisposing genes that also affect conversion of dsb to cb. Investigation of the mechanism of chromatid radiosensitivity using genetically engineered rodent cell lines containing unique dsb break sites indicate that a single isolated dsb is sufficient to cause a cb. The single-event nature of chromatid breakage is confirmed by the fact that cb are induced as a linear function of radiation dose. Moreover, we have recently shown that ultrasoft carbon-K X-rays also induce chromatid breakage. In this case the energy of the secondary electrons produced by carbon-K X-rays is too low to span more than one DNA double helix, thus further supporting our conclusion that a single dsb is responsible for the formation of a cb. Chromatid breakage is thought to involve a rearrangement between DNA strands at the crossover points of chromatin loop(s) triggered by the presence of a dsb within the loop structure. The occasional observation of 'looped-out' sections of chromatin at cb sites supports this hypothesis. The occurrence of 'colour-switches' between FPG stained chromatids at a proportion of break sites (e.g. about 16% in CHO cells) shows that a significant proportion of cb definitely result from chromatin rearrangements. Measurements of altered colour-switch ratio (csr) in mutant rodent and human cells (irs1 and AT cells respectively) also indicate a genetic basis for the

  10. 12. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the seven districts of West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the permissible limit. The concentrations of arsenic is ranging from 200-800 (g/l according to latest reports. More than 200,000 people have already shown different types of arsenical skin lesions in these seven districts of West Bengal. It has been regarded as the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. However, there is

  11. The lethal response to Cdk1 inhibition depends on sister chromatid alignment errors generated by KIF4 and isoform 1 of PRC1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Voets (Erik); J. Marsman (Judith); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); R. Wolthuis (Rob)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is absolutely essential for cell division. Complete ablation of Cdk1 precludes the entry of G2 phase cells into mitosis, and is early embryonic lethal in mice. Dampening Cdk1 activation, by reducing gene expression or upon treatment with cell-permeable Cd

  12. β -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of β- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 μg β carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that β- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  13. Sister Carrie:A Material Pursuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春花

    2015-01-01

    Sister Carrie dramatized by Dreiser is totally a material pursuer. She is selfish and accumulates money in a crazy way. What she does inevitably centers on materials. Living with Drouet and later Hurstwood, Carrie gets what she wants and enjoys the luxurious life in an easy way. However, with the satisfaction of some of her desires, Carrie ’s desires grow and expand. With enough food and clothes, she needs luxury. Hurstwood’s failure in business leads Carrie to the stage and finally she makes a suc⁃cess and becomes a famous actress in Broadway. She gets more money, but her desires grow even higher. Nothing can satisfy her. In this essay, the author tries to analyze Carrie according to Freud’s and Guo Weilu’s theories and prove that Carrie is totally a material pursuer.

  14. The Disillusion of American Dream in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晴

    2016-01-01

    Dreiser is a generally acknowledged writer as one of American's literary naturalists. In Sister Carrie, the author skillfully used the naturalistic writing style which incisively and vividly showed the society environment at that time. The paper states the process that how the American dream in Sister Carrie disillusioned gradually.

  15. 46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Plans § 177.210 Plans for sister vessels. (a) Plans are not required... MSC or with the cognizant OCMI, the vessel owner shall submit plans as described in § 177.202 of...

  16. Building International Relations for Children through Sister Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Carolyn B.

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Sister Cities International and the NASSP's school-to-school exchange program, "sister school" pairings have proved to be workable educational programs with long-range impact on participants. Some post-cold war efforts include U.S.-USSR High School Academic Partnerships, Project Harmony, and Center for U.S.-USSR Initiatives. Resource…

  17. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes. So

  18. Interpretations of the Image of Caroline in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱绘

    2014-01-01

    In the history of American naturalistic literature, Sister Carrie is a representative work of this literary genre. And the protagonist of this novel Caroline has always been a controversial character. Based on Sister Carrie and the social background of that period in America, this paper discussed the various interpretations of the image of Carrie from different aspects.

  19. Naturalism in Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪四祥

    2009-01-01

    "A woman should some day write the complete philosophy of clothes.No matter how young,it is one of the things she wholly comprehends.There is an indescribably faint line in the matter of man's apparel which somehow divides for her those who arc worth glancing at and those who are not.Once an individual has passed this faint line on the way downward he will get no glance from her.There is another line at which the dress of a man will cause her to study her own."-from Sister Carrie(900-film 1952,dir.by William Wyler,starring Laurence Olivier-Jennifer Jones."A famous satirical novel is softened into an unwieldy narrative with scarcely enough dramatic power to sustain interest despite splendid production values.Heavy pre-release cuts remain obvious,and the general effect is depressing;but it it very good tO look at."(Halliwell's Film Guide,1987)

  20. West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness...

  1. Improving patient flow: role of the orthopaedic discharge sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Beverley

    2016-03-01

    Timely and well-planned discharge improves the patient's experience, contributes to patient safety and reduces the length of hospital stays. The role of orthopaedic discharge sister was developed at James Cook University Hospital in 2007 to provide safe, timely and efficient discharge for patients from the trauma and theatre centre, and to improve patient experience and flow. This article gives an overview of the role and describes how the sister works with colleagues to plan patient discharges from pre-assessment and emergency department admission through their hospital stay until their departure. PMID:26948225

  2. A case of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule%Sister Mary Joseph结节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟珊; 陈喜雪

    2008-01-01

    报告1例可能为胃癌转移的Sister Mary Joseph结节1例.患者男,44岁.脐部出现暗红色大小不等的结节7个月.皮损组织病理检查:真皮全层胶原束间散在呈腺样分化的肿瘤细胞,免疫组化染色:癌胚抗原(CEA)阳性、细胞角蛋白(CK)20阳性、CK7阳性、甲状腺转录因子(TIT)-1阴性.糖链抗原(CA)19-9、CA72-4、CA24-2均升高.腹部B超检查示:胃幽门部胃壁增生性病变,肝右叶多发偏强回声结节,腹水.

  3. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as the first sign of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Sister Mary.Joseph's nodule is an inconspicuous and uncommon clinical sign of advanced malignant disease,especially gastric cancer.Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is an extremely rare condition and can be difficult to diagnose,due to the absence or misinterpretation of symptoms as pregnancy-related.Diagnostic aids,such as a basic chernisJTy panel and imaging techniques,may not show any abnonnalities.We present a case of a 37-yearold pregnant patient whose umbilical nodule was the first preserfdng physical sign of gastric cancer,which had metastasized throughout the abdominal and pelvic regions.

  4. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in radar facility workers: comparison of the comet assay with micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotoxic risks of occupational exposure in a radar facility were evaluated by using alkaline comet assay, micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay on peripheral blood leukocytes in exposed subjects and corresponding controls. Results show that occupational exposure to microwave radiation correlates with an increase of genome damage in somatic cells. The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by using alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control and showed interindividual variations. Incidence of micronuclei was also significantly increased compared to baseline control values. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin, cells of occupationally exposed subjects responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Although the level of chromosome damage generated by bleomycin varied greatly between individuals, in exposed subjects a significantly elevated number of chromatid breaks was observed. Our results support data reported in literature indicating that microwave radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard. Alkaline comet assay is confirmed as a sensitive and highly reproducible technique for detection of primary DNA damage inflicted in somatic cells. Micronucleus assay was confirmed as reliable bio-markers of effect and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive bio-marker of individual cancer susceptibility. The results obtained also confirm the necessity to improve measures and to perform accurate health surveillance of individuals occupationally exposed to microwave radiation

  5. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  6. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. The Broken American Dream Based on Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenjuan

    2012-01-01

      Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, It tells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway. In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as its distinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue American dream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society%  Sister Carrie is the first work of Theodore Dreiser, Ittells us how a country maiden becomes a famous star in Broadway.In the novel, Dreiser describes the living conditions and emotion changes of Carrie very vividly. Sister Carrie takes true realism as itsdistinctive feature, reflects the tragic fact that people pursue Americandream fanatically in the early twentieth century. This paper exposes the theme of instinct, which drives people to enjoy but disillusion finally, and illustrates that it is impossible to possess true happiness in a money-oriented capitalism society

  8. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... comments-pacificnorthwest-deschutes-sisters@fs.fed.us . Please put ``Popper Vegetation Management Project... effects will take place. The Popper Vegetation Management Project decision and the reasons for the... Forest Service Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation...

  9. Keeping It in the Family: ATRX Loss Promotes Persistent Sister Telomere Cohesion in ALT Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roake, Caitlin M; Artandi, Steven E

    2015-09-14

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Ramamoorthy and Smith report that cancer cells that maintain their chromosome ends through alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) display persistent sister telomere cohesion. This delayed resolution of sister telomere cohesion depends upon the loss of ATRX and its histone-sequestering function and is associated with increased recombination between sister telomeres. PMID:26373274

  10. Meiosis-specific cohesin component, Stag3 is essential for maintaining centromere chromatid cohesion, and required for DNA repair and synapsis between homologous chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hopkins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cohesins are important for chromosome structure and chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesins are composed of two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC1-SMC3 proteins that form a V-shaped heterodimer structure, which is bridged by a α-kleisin protein and a stromal antigen (STAG protein. Previous studies in mouse have shown that there is one SMC1 protein (SMC1β, two α-kleisins (RAD21L and REC8 and one STAG protein (STAG3 that are meiosis-specific. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes must recombine with one another in the context of a tripartite structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC. From interaction studies, it has been shown that there are at least four meiosis-specific forms of cohesin, which together with the mitotic cohesin complex, are lateral components of the SC. STAG3 is the only meiosis-specific subunit that is represented within all four meiosis-specific cohesin complexes. In Stag3 mutant germ cells, the protein level of other meiosis-specific cohesin subunits (SMC1β, RAD21L and REC8 is reduced, and their localization to chromosome axes is disrupted. In contrast, the mitotic cohesin complex remains intact and localizes robustly to the meiotic chromosome axes. The instability of meiosis-specific cohesins observed in Stag3 mutants results in aberrant DNA repair processes, and disruption of synapsis between homologous chromosomes. Furthermore, mutation of Stag3 results in perturbation of pericentromeric heterochromatin clustering, and disruption of centromere cohesion between sister chromatids during meiotic prophase. These defects result in early prophase I arrest and apoptosis in both male and female germ cells. The meiotic defects observed in Stag3 mutants are more severe when compared to single mutants for Smc1β, Rec8 and Rad21l, however they are not as severe as the Rec8, Rad21l double mutants. Taken together, our study demonstrates that STAG3 is required for the stability of all meiosis

  11. Idiopathic Steatorrhea Presenting with Different Manifestations in Sisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rally, C. R.; Munroe, D. S.; Bogoch, A.

    1964-01-01

    Although it is well known that the incidence of idiopathic steatorrhea is much higher in relatives of patients with this disease than it is in the general population, there has been little comment on the variability of symptoms in familial cases. Two sisters with this disease are reported. One presented with a relatively acute history of diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue and peripheral edema and was found to have a normal hemoglobin, hypocalcemia and a markedly decreased prothrombin activity. Her elder sister tended to constipation and had a 10-year history of refractory iron-deficiency anemia. The diagnosis was confirmed in both by peroral jejunal biopsy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14122463

  12. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeling, Christian; Brown, Jeremy M.; Verhaagh, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Ants are the world's most conspicuous and important eusocial insects and their diversity, abundance, and extreme behavioral specializations make them a model system for several disciplines within the biological sciences. Here, we report the discovery of a new ant that appears to represent the sister lineage to all extant ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The phylogenetic position of this cryptic predator from the soils of the Amazon rainforest was inferred from several nuclear genes, sequenced ...

  13. Autosomal recessive limb girdle myasthenia in two sisters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Limb girdle myasthenic syndromes are rare genetic disorders described under the broad heterogeneous group known as congenital myasthenic syndromes and present with mixed features of myasthenia and myopathy. The familial limb girdle myasthenia has been described as one with selective weakness of pectoral and pelvic girdles, showing a positive response to edrophonium chloride. A report of two sisters affected by this disorder is presented.

  14. Improving short term load forecast accuracy via combining sister forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nowotarski; Bidong Liu; Rafal Weron; Tao Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although combining forecasts is well-known to be an effective approach to improving forecast accuracy, the literature and case studies on combining load forecasts are very limited. In this paper, we investigate the performance of combining so-called sister load forecasts with eight methods: three variants of arithmetic averaging, four regression based and one performance based method. Through comprehensive analysis of two case studies developed from public data (Global Energy Forecasting Comp...

  15. The Construction of Social Darwinism in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 秦素华

    2014-01-01

    Social Darwinism is an important theory reflected in Sister Carrie. This thesis is to interpret the characters’fates with Social Darwinism.“Survival of the fittest”is an important theme. Carrie is the winner of life and Hurtwood is the loser. Their adjustability to the environment determines their future. It is hoped to help the readers construct a better understanding on this theory.

  16. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  17. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Timme

    Full Text Available The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum" as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1 the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2 the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  18. Variation of the symmetrical/asymmetrical ratio in chromatid interchanges during the various phases of the cell cycle of human lymphocytes 'in vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been performed to verify whether in a human euploid cell system, such as lymphocyte cultures in vitro, there is a differential pattern of induction of chromatid exchanges in the various phases of the cycle. (Auth.)

  19. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  20. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  1. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  2. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  3. Enhanced chromatid damage in blood lymphocytes after G2 phase x irradiation, a marker of the ataxia-telangiectasia gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) heterozygotes, i.e., healthy carriers of the A-T gene(s), requiring only a small sample (3.5 mL) of peripheral blood, is described. Frequencies of chromatid aberrations in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated blood lymphocytes collected by demecolcine from 0.5 hour to 1.5 hours after x irradiation with 58 roentgens were twofold to threefold higher in A-T heterozygotes than in clinically normal controls and twofold to three-fold higher in A-T patients (homozygotes) than in A-T gene carriers. The persistence of chromatid breaks and gaps in lymphocytes following radiation-induced DNA damage during G2 suggests a deficiency or deficiencies in DNA repair that may be the defect at the molecular level that results in the enhanced radiosensitivity and cancer proneness characterizing A-T gene carriers and patients

  4. Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed "gallbladder agenesis." Moreover, her older identical twin sister had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality. PMID:26925274

  5. Catholic Sister Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940–1972

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters’ work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a n...

  6. Il progetto SISTER per il comune di Lignano Sabbiadoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Poli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Il comune di Lignano è stato recentemente invitato a Roma in qualità di relatore alla conferenza nazionale dei sistemi informativi territoriali organizzata da Esri, il maggior produttore mondiale di software per la gestione delle cartografie informatizzate. In tale occasione l’assessore AngeloBonelli ha presentato il progetto sperimentale di sistema informatico per la gestione del territorio, che è in corso da circa un anno. Ecco la sintesi della relazione del Sistema Informativo Integrato Territoriale (SISTER realizzato da Politecnica.

  7. Reflection of Naturalism and Darwinism in Dreiser' s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    Naturalism is a significant school of literature in American literary history. This thesis mainly reviews the background, development, and characteristic of the realism and naturalism literature, and states the significant person in Naturalism literature-Dreiser and his. important literary position and analyzes the reflection of naturalism and Darwinism in Sister Carrie. Through the analysis of determinism, desire, ethics and detail description, a conclusion is made: the factors affecting the novel' s writing not only include the author' s own experiences but also the main social ideology in his living years.

  8. Sister-sister in vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy with donor sperm: the case for surrogate gestational pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeton, J; King, C; Harman, J

    1988-10-01

    A case of surrogate pregnancy is described in the sister of a 40-year-old hysterectomized woman where two oocytes of the latter were fertilized in vitro with known donor sperm and transferred into the surrogate. A normal singleton pregnancy developed which was complicated after 24 weeks of gestation with recurrent antepartum hemorrhages due to grade 3 placenta praevia. A healthy female baby was delivered by elective cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. The legal, social, psychological, and ethical issues of surrogacy remain unsettled and are discussed in this case report. PMID:3230346

  9. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  10. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  11. Sisters in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.

    The Sisters in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.

  12. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  13. Addressing the Apparent Paradox of the Catholic Sister Principal: 1940-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Tom; Harford, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A body of scholarship on the history of the lives of Catholic teaching sisters has thrown up various challenges to educational historians. One challenge can be posed by asking how teaching sisters were able to go on to take up leadership positions. This is prompted by the observation that a particular body of literature for the period 1940-1965…

  14. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  15. Kinetics of chromatid aberrations in G2 ataxia-telangiectasia cells exposed to X-rays and ara A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytogenetic effects of X-rays alone or in combination with 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara A) were studied in an immortalized fibroblastic line of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells. It is postulated that the kinetics of disappearance (rejoining) of chromatid deletions with postirradiation incubation time reflects the underlying repair of dsb, and is inhibited by ara A. The rejoining kinetics for deletions in A-T was similar to that found in a previous study of normal human fibroblasts (Mozdarani and Bryant 1987). The number of deletions in X-irradiated A-T cells at 1.5 h before fixation was found to be higher by a factor of approximately 2 than that found previously in normals, indicating that in A-T a higher rate of conversion of dsb into chromatid deletions occurs. The frequency of exchanges induced in G2 A-T cells was similarly enhanced but, unlike the situation in normal cells, ara A was found to cause only a slight increase in this frequency. (author)

  16. The use of the method of differential staining of sister chromatids to study proliferative activity of human peripheral blood lymphocyte culture under normal conditions and following γ-irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that the duration of the cell cycle in phytohemagglutimin-stimulated lymphocyte cultures of human peripheral blood under normal conditions and after γ-irradiation in vitro in doses of 1-5 Gy were subjected to considerable individual variation. On the basis of the data obtained by comparing cell frequency of the first division in the lymphocyte culture of nonirradiated and irradiated blood of the same donors at different terms of fixation, it was demonstrated that the irradiation produces a delay in cellular proliferation which can last for a few hours

  17. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  18. 'The Sister' in the early days of the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2016-04-01

    All the readers of this journal will have read and heard about the ward and operating theatre sisters in 'the old days'. What were they really like, and what was it like to work with them in the hospitals of those far-off times? I entered the old Radcliffe Infirmary Oxford in the summer of 1945, just as World War II was drawing to a close, as a 19 year old student to start my clinical training. I then qualified in July 1948, the very month the NHS came into being, and started my surgical career as house surgeon. The Radcliffe was the only acute hospital in the town and dealt with all emergency admissions. In addition, we worked at the Churchill Hospital, then a hutted hospital, erected during the War to deal with Canadian military casualties and now handed over for civilian use. Elective orthopaedics was carried out at the Wingfield Morris Hospital, later the Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre. The patients here were mostly children with bone and joint tuberculosis or poliomyelitis. The Slade Isolation Hospital dealt with the infectious fevers; I was admitted there twice as a student, with first chicken pox and then measles, both caught from my patients! PMID:27290759

  19. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: molecular characterization of two Scandinavian sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rystedt, E; Olin, M; Seyama, Y; Buchmann, M; Berstad, A; Eggertsen, G; Björkhem, I

    2002-09-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a hereditary disorder, which is inherited as an autosomally recessive disease, causing production of cholesterol and cholestanol xanthomas and mental retardation. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene for sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1). The only CTX patients diagnosed in Scandinavia are two Norwegian sisters from a consanguineous marriage. Here we have characterized the mutation and its functional consequences for the enzyme. Analysis of genomic DNA from cultured fibroblasts identified a base exchange C > T in position 1441, causing arginine at amino acid position 441 to be replaced by tryptophan. The same mutation was introduced by mutagenesis in the complimentary DNA (cDNA) for CYP27, ligated into the expression vector pcDNA4/HisMax and transfected into HEK293 cells. The mutated enzyme had less than 5% of the enzyme activity compared with the native enzyme. No abnormal catalytic products could be identified in the cell culture medium. Probably the mutation affects the haem binding within the holoenzyme. The mutation has also previously been reported in a Japanese family. This is the second example of a CTX-causing mutation that has been recognized in more than one population. PMID:12270007

  20. The unforgotten sisters female astronomers and scientists before Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Siv Cedering’s poem in the form of a fictional letter from Caroline Herschel that refers to “my long, lost sisters, forgotten in the books that record our science”, this book tells the lives of twenty-five female scientists, with specific attention to astronomers and mathematicians. Each of the presented biographies is organized as a kind of "personal file" which sets the biographee’s life in its historical context, documents her main works, highlights some curious facts, and records citations about her. The selected figures are among the most representative of this neglected world, including such luminaries as Hypatia of Alexandra, Hildegard of Bingen, Elisabetha Hevelius, and Maria Gaetana Agnesi. They span a period of about 4000 years, from En HeduAnna, the Akkadian princess, who was one of the first recognized female astronomers, to the dawn of the era of modern astronomy with Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville. The book will be of interest to all who wish to learn more ...

  1. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  2. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences of...

  3. Test of radiation damage enhancement due to incorporation of BrUdR into DNA using chromatid aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo track structure calculations, leading to an estimation of the magnitude of enhancement of radiation damage due to the incorporation of the halogenated pyrimidine, bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) a thymine analog, into DNA have been made. The increase in the yield of double strand breaks for various degrees of substitution in one (monofilarly) or both strands (bifilarly) have been calculated. To test these calculations, quantitative selected radiation-induced aberrations have been obtained in Chinese hamster (V79) fibroblast chromosomes having various patterns of BrUdR substitution following irradiation with 250 kV X rays. Free ''breaks'' and achromatic lesions ''gaps'' show no appreciable sensitizations, but breaks involved in chromatid interchanges show significant enhancement though of lower magnitude than theoretical predictions

  4. Like Brother, Like Sister? The Importance of Family Background for Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills to evaluate the importance of family background for skill formation. The study is based on a large representative German dataset, which includes IQ test scores and measures of personality (locus of control, reciprocity, Big Five) for brothers and sisters. Using a Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model we find substantial influences of family background on the skills of both brothers and sisters. Sibling...

  5. Self-healing photo-neuropathy and cervical spinal arthrosis in four sisters with brachioradial pruritus

    OpenAIRE

    Wallengren Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The cause of brachioradial pruritus (a localized itching on the arms or shoulders) is controversial. The role of sun and cervical spine disease has been discussed. This is a report on four sisters suffering from brachioradial pruritus recurring every summer. The sisters spent much time outdoors and exposed themselves extensively to the sun. They also had occupations requiring heavy lifting. Cervical radiographs indicated arthrosis. The density of sensory nerve fibers in the skin biop...

  6. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species

    OpenAIRE

    Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly diffe...

  7. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  8. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data. PMID:26621703

  9. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  10. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  11. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. Methods A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU/ml. Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient's husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. Results A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient's future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. Conclusion POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  12. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. METHODS: A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU\\/ml). Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH\\/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient\\'s husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. RESULTS: A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks\\' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient\\'s future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. CONCLUSION: POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  13. Cell-stage-specific enhancement by caffeine of the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays in neutral ganglia of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeine (10-2 M) induced a high level of chromatid aberrations in neural ganglia of third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster only when it was added to cells in late G2 and mitotic prophase. No aberrations were observed after treatment in late S-middle G2 or C-mitosis. We observed that, in these stages, caffeine strongly increased X-ray-induced damage (500 R). This potentiation was quantitatively similar. But it involved all types of aberration after treatment in C-mitosis, and essentially isochromatid deletions and chromatid exhanges after treatment in S-G2. Some hypotheses are put forth to explain the possible mechanism of action of caffeine in the potentiation of X-ray-induced damage. (orig.)

  14. Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzocco, M.M.M. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Holden, J.J.A. [Ongwanada Resource Centre, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. The management of professionals: the preferences of hospital sisters and charge nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D

    1995-05-01

    This analysis of the preferences of how sisters and charge nurses are managed is the result of a two centre descriptive study using theoretical models of professionalism, developing preferences and exercising situational leadership. It was conducted to determine if the management structure preferred by sisters and charge nurses, in a general acute hospital setting, supported the professionalism of nursing. The outcomes were intended to help develop a strategic plan for the future of nursing and the management of nurses. The research instruments were a self-completed questionnaire (19 were returned, a response rate of 31.1%) and four semi-structured interviews. The findings disclosed some dissatisfaction with the present management arrangements. The sisters and charge nurses felt that their priorities for practice and professional issues were better supported by clinically involved, ward-based senior nurses than by unit-based senior nurses with a general management function. However, sisters' and charge nurses' discussions with ward-based senior nurses were apparently less effective than discussions in peer groups which led to influential collegial autonomy. This preferred management style can be supported by the use of situational leadership theory which would enhance collegial autonomy and professional satisfaction. Recognition of the sisters and charge nurses preferences and adjustment of their management would therefore enable them to participate effectively in organizational decision-making. PMID:7773517

  16. 直肠癌伴Sister Mary Joseph′s结节3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华摄; 彭俊生; 向军; 黄春雨; 吴晓滨; 宋虎; 汪建平

    2011-01-01

    @@ 恶性肿瘤伴Sister Mary Joseph′s结节在临床上较少见,直肠癌则更为罕见,我们对中山大学附属第六医院、中山大学肿瘤防治中心1998年1月至2010年1月收治的3例直肠癌伴Sister Mary Joseph′s结节病例资料进行回顾性分析,并总结相关文献报道经验,旨在提高临床医师对直肠癌伴Sister Mary Joseph′s结节的诊治水平.

  17. A Feminist Reading of Sister Carrie: Carrie——the Aspiring Cinderella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷娟

    2008-01-01

    Like Cinderella in the fairy tale Cinderella, Carrie is beautiful, innocent and poor. But unlike the traditional Cinderella who mindlessly waits around for a handsome prince to come to her rescue, Carrie, the aspiring Cinderella, resolvedly leaves the men she ever depended on and eventually becomes a successful actress. Sister Carrie, the most impressive heroine of Theodore Dreiser, is a contradictory character. Some accuse her of realizing her ambition with immoral means. However, some others take sympathy with her courage, determination, and aspiration. By analyzing the most distinguished quality of Sister Carrie - her aspiration, this essay is to illustrate from the perspective of feminism that women are not limited by their sex. Ignoring her own sex as well as the conventional attitude toward women in a male-dominated society, sister Carrie, full of aspiration, takes an active pan in creating and determining her own lives and her own futures..

  18. Bartter syndrome in two sisters with a novel mutation of the CLCNKB gene, one with deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre; Merouani, Aicha; He, Ning; Pei, York

    2011-09-01

    This article describes two sisters with type III Bartter syndrome (BS) due to a novel missense variant of the CLCNKB gene. The phenotypic expression of the disease was very different in these two siblings. In one sister, the disease followed a very severe course, especially in the neonatal period and as a toddler. Both the classic symptoms and the biochemical features of the syndrome were striking. In addition, she presented with sensorineural deafness, a complication yet unreported in this subtype of BS In contrast, the least affected sister was symptom free and the biochemical features of the disease although present remained discrete throughout the prolonged follow-up. It is suggested that such a difference in the phenotypic expression of the disease is possibly secondary to the modifier effect of a gene and/or results from environmental factor(s). PMID:21479528

  19. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  20. RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant sisters during DNA break repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J.

    2014-02-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms. Although many reactions that occur during homologous recombination are known, it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy, we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether homologous recombination can occur efficiently between distant sister loci that have segregated to opposite halves of an E. coli cell. We show that a site-specific DSB in one sister can be repaired efficiently using distant sister homology. After RecBCD processing of the DSB, RecA is recruited to the cut locus, where it nucleates into a bundle that contains many more RecA molecules than can associate with the two single-stranded DNA regions that form at the DSB. Mature bundles extend along the long axis of the cell, in the space between the bulk nucleoid and the inner membrane. Bundle formation is followed by pairing, in which the two ends of the cut locus relocate at the periphery of the nucleoid and together move rapidly towards the homology of the uncut sister. After sister locus pairing, RecA bundles disassemble and proteins that act late in homologous recombination are recruited to give viable recombinants 1-2-generation-time equivalents after formation of the initial DSB. Mutated RecA proteins that do not form bundles are defective in sister pairing and in DSB-induced repair. This work reveals an unanticipated role of RecA bundles in channelling the movement of the DNA DSB ends, thereby facilitating the long-range homology search that occurs before the strand invasion and transfer reactions.

  1. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM, congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign differing in degree (younger sister had more marked changes.

  2. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  3. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  4. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  5. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  6. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  7. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  8. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  9. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  10. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  11. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  12. "If I only touch her cloak": the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in New Orleans hospital, 1834-1860.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyejung Grace; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2015-04-01

    This study is about the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in New Orleans' Charity Hospital during the years between 1834 and 1860. The Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph was founded in 1809 by Saint Elizabeth Ann Bailey Seton (first native-born North American canonized in 1975) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Seton's Sisters of Charity was the first community for religious women to be established in the United States and was later incorporated with the French Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in 1850. A call to work in New Orleans' Charity Hospital in the 1830s meant a significant achievement for the Sisters of Charity, since it was the second oldest continuously operating public hospitals in the United States until 2005, bearing the same name over the decades. In 1834, Sister Regina Smith and other sisters were officially called to Charity Hospital, in order to supersede the existing "nurses, attendants, and servants," and take a complete charge of the internal management of Charity Hospital. The existing scholarship on the history of hospitals and Catholic nursing has not integrated the concrete stories of the Sisters of Charity into the broader histories of institutionalized medicine, gender, and religion. Along with a variety of primary sources, this study primarily relies on the Charity Hospital History Folder stored at the Daughters of Charity West Center Province Archives. Located in the "Queen city of the South," Charity Hospital was the center of the southern medical profession and the world's fair of people and diseases. Charity Hospital provided the sisters with a unique situation that religion and medicine became intertwined. The Sisters, as nurses, constructed a new atmosphere of caring for patients and even their families inside and outside the hospital, and built their own separate space within the hospital walls. As hospital managers, the Sisters of Charity were put in complete charge of the hospital, which was never seen in other hospitals. By

  13. Brothers and Sisters: A Source of Support for Children in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Lucy; Edwards, Rosalind; Mauthner, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Whilst UK schools move towards U.S "big brother" style mentoring systems for children, are actual brothers and sisters becoming an invisible source of support to deal with bullying in everyday life? This paper reports on research with children aged 7-13 about their experiences and understandings of their relationships with their brothers and…

  14. They Came with a Purpose: Educational Journeys of Nineteenth-Century Irish Dominican Sister Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Irish Catholic teaching sisters were major actors in the development of education systems in New World countries such as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Immigrants themselves, they faced a number of key challenges as they sought to adapt Old World cultural and educational ideas to the education of the immigrant…

  15. When the Sisters Said Farewell: The Transition of Leadership in Catholic Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael P., S.J.

    2012-01-01

    "When the Sisters Said Farewell" tells an important story of the contributions of Catholic elementary schools to the United States by chronicling the experiences and insights of religious women (nuns) who were the last members of their communities to serve in parish elementary schools, and of those lay men and women who were the first to serve in…

  16. Characteristics of Alcoholism among Catholic Sisters: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Virginia M.

    1989-01-01

    Obtained information on addiction history, intervention and treatment, and family and community patterns from 221 Catholic Sisters in residential treatment for alcoholism. Findings suggest that, although respondents were similar to other women in their vulnerability to addiction, they carried added burdens because of societal expectations of…

  17. Nuclear thread bridging the sister cells prior to radiation-induced cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intercellular protoplasmic bridges between sister cells prior to radiation-induced cell fusion were examined by various methods which included time-lapse photography, chemical staining, autoradiography, and scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that these bridges contained nuclear material and that fusion occurred mainly as a consequence of chromosome or chromatin bridges

  18. Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Sister's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen

    2016-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or sister. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…

  19. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  20. Study on Sister Carrie’s Purity from the Society and Her Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yu-xia; Dong Ting-jian

    2014-01-01

    Dreiser’s Sister Carrie often has negative comments, while her pursuit of happiness and ideal with pure faith under the dark social environment deserve study. Her characters shown in the struggle of life and her love affairs has been stated, which proves Carrie’purity in chasing dreams in the dirty society.

  1. Analyzing of Sister Carrie's Independence Process from the Perspective of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜新新

    2015-01-01

    "Sister Carrie" is published when the American society is in the transition from traditional industry to modern industry.Modern industrial not only provide opportunity to the development of city,but also offer some employment opportunities to the people,while the survival pressure for living is also increased.People's thought also undergo a tremendous change.They even feel puzzled andconfused.

  2. Social Functioning among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    1998-01-01

    Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their sisters, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)

  3. Two sisters with mental retardation, cataract, ataxia, progressive hearing loss, and polyneuropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Begeer, J H; Scholte, F A; van Essen, A J

    1991-01-01

    Two sisters are described with a disorder characterised by mental retardation, congenital cataract, progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and signs of peripheral neuropathy. Progressive hearing loss, ataxia, and polyneuropathy became evident in the third decade. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed including the syndromes described by Berman et al and Koletzko et al.

  4. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  5. Teaching Sisters and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching Sisters, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…

  6. Oculocutaneous albinism and bruising in two sisters--probable Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, J. P.; Gray, A.; Richards, F

    1995-01-01

    Cases of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome may present to the dermatologist, ophthalmologist or haematologist. Classically the diagnosis rests on the triad of oculocutaneous albinism, a bruising tendency and the presence of characteristic pigmented-containing cells in the bone marrow. Specific tests of platelet function can, however, suggest the diagnosis without recourse to invasive techniques. We describe the disease in two young sisters.

  7. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  8. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  9. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  10. The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes, and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.

  11. Arrangement of nuclear structures is not transmitted through mitosis but is identical in sister cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that chromosomes are non-randomly organized during interphase, it is not completely clear whether higher-order chromatin structure is transmitted from mother to daughter cells. Therefore, we addressed the question of how chromatin is rearranged during interphase and whether heterochromatin pattern is transmitted after mitosis. We additionally tested the similarity of chromatin arrangement in sister interphase nuclei. We noticed a very active cell rotation during inte...

  12. The Sahiba☆ Sisters Foundation in Tanzania: Meeting organizational and community needs

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Maoulidi

    2003-01-01

    Salma Maoulidi asks how her network The Sahiba Sisters Foundation working with women in Muslim societies can contribute to today's development agenda with strong organizational and institutional impact. She explores this question in light of the experiences of the Tanzanian network. She argues that the organization's existence is threatened by a conservative religious establishment and a hostile donor and political climate and has to respond through sound organizational management if it is to...

  13. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has r...

  14. Early roman-period Nazareth and the sisters of Nazareth convent

    OpenAIRE

    Dark, Ken

    2012-01-01

    First discovered by accident in 1884 – and thereafter informally investigated by workmen, nuns and clergy, for several decades – the archaeological site at the Sisters of Nazareth convent in central Nazareth has remained unpublished and largely unknown to scholarship. However, work by the Nazareth Archaeological Project in 2006–10 showed that this site offers a full and important stratified sequence from ancient Nazareth, including well-preserved Early Roman-period and later features. These i...

  15. Analysis of Interpersonal Relationship in the Consumer Society Context in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩秀

    2009-01-01

    Carrie's characterization is a familiar topic in the criticism in Sister Carrie. However, how it could be re-viewed in the context of the consumer society is relalively a new issue. This paper attempts to analyze the interpersonal relationship in the context of a consumer society. It explores the consumer society's influences on the lovers and family. In addition, it points out Dreiser's ambivalent attitude towards consumer ideology.

  16. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Nitin; Jethani Jitendra; Narendran Kalpana; Kanth L

    2011-01-01

    Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM), congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them als...

  17. Brothers delay menarche and the onset of sexual activity in their sisters

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2010-01-01

    The higher costs of sons compared with daughters extends to a negative effect of brothers on the lifetime reproductive success of their siblings in subsistence and preindustrial societies. In societies with fewer resource constraints, one might expect that these effects would be limited or non-existent. This study investigates the costs of brothers and sisters in a contemporary western society of adult Australians. Girls with elder brothers had a delayed age at menarche. Younger brothers were...

  18. Analyzing of Sister Carrie’s Independence Process from the Perspective of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜新新

    2015-01-01

    "Sister Carrie" is published when the American society is in the transition from traditional industry to modern industry.Modern industrial not only provide opportunity to the development of city,but also offer some employment opportunities to the people,while the survival pressure for living is also increased.People’s thought also undergo a tremendous change.They even feel puzzled and confused.

  19. 最后消息:Bodies of JFK Jr.,Wife,Sister-in-Law Found

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony; Munroe

    1999-01-01

    Searchers have found the bodies of John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife CarolynBessette Kennedy and her sister Lauren as well as a large piece of their crashedplane off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard, officials said Wednesday. Massachusetts Sen. Edward Kennedy and his two sons headed for the crashsite on a U. S. Coast Guard vessel after the bodies and wreckage (残骸) were

  20. Genomic basis of ecological niche divergence among cryptic sister species of non-biting midges

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Hanno; Greshake, Bastian; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Hankeln, Thomas; Pfenninger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of understanding the evolutionary forces driving niche segregation of closely related organisms. In addition, pinpointing the genes driving ecological divergence is a key goal in molecular ecology. Here, larval transcriptome sequences obtained by next-generation-sequencing are used to address these issues in a morphologically cryptic sister species pair of non-biting midges (Chironomus riparius and C. piger). Results: More than eight thousand orthologous open re...

  1. RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant sisters during DNA break repair

    OpenAIRE

    Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J.

    2013-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms 1 . Although many reactions that occur during HR are known 1-3 , it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells is lacking. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether HR can occur efficiently between distant sister loci that have segregate...

  2. Shigella Strains Are Not Clones of Escherichia coli but Sister Species in the Genus Escherichia

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin

    2012-01-01

    Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form sister species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. ...

  3. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  4. An Eco-feminist Comparison between Sister Carrie and My Antonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翌

    2014-01-01

    According to human history, there are varieties of ways through which the feminine aspect of nature faced and in many cases, overcame oppression. One of the ways this phenomenon displays itself is in the literary works that we deem as realis⁃tic and an expression of the norms and customs of the society in question. Sister Carrie and My Antonia are two such literary pieces that embody the struggles and triumphs of women in the 19th and most of the early 20th century. In creating such monu⁃mental and naturalistic adaptations, both authors are able to present the case of two migratory women from different backgrounds but confined by the norms and mannerisms of the society around them. The struggles that each of these characters undergoes is an expression of the underlying constraints that the paternal and chauvinistic society of their time places upon both women and the natural world. The eco-feminist agenda, however, gets a more elaborate representation in My Antonia than in Sister Carrie due to a variety of factors that serve to illuminate the differences between these two iconic stories. This paper makes a thorough comparison between two literary works—Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser and My Antonia by Willa Cather from the perspec⁃tive of eco-feminism.

  5. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR, Navarre Marsh, and Darby Marsh outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979...

  6. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar...

  7. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report...

  8. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report...

  9. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  11. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  12. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  13. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  14. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  15. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  16. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  17. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  18. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  19. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  20. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  1. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  2. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  3. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  4. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  5. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  6. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  7. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  8. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  9. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  10. Association of Perceived Racial Discrimination with Eating Behaviors and Obesity among Participants of the SisterTalk Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M.; Kirtania, Usree; Shiriki K. Kumanyika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, te...

  11. Gay men with AIDS and their families of origin: an analysis of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, G

    1996-05-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:8722141

  12. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  13. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  14. Aid and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categoriz...

  15. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  16. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  17. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  18. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  19. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  20. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  1. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  2. Aid with Multiple Personalities

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Jose G. Montalvo; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The existing research on foreign aid offers inconclusive evidence on the factors that make aid effective. In this paper, we study the supply of aid money in 112 developing countries over the period 1960-1999 and find that the presence of multiple donors in a given country renders aid less effective. In particular, an aid-receiving country at the median of the donor fractionalization distribution will grow one percentage point faster than a country at the 75th percentile. This is in part becau...

  3. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  4. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the...... determinants of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  5. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  6. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  7. Emergence of ethnochoreology internationally: The Janković sisters, Maud Karpeles, and Gertrude Kurath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunin Elsie Ivancich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fifty-year (1962-2012 period has been shown as a history of ethnochoreology supported by living memories of members of the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology. Recently uncovered and juxtapositioned correspondence of three predecessors within earlier years of the International Folk Music Council (IFMC broadens the history. This article reveals the emergence of ethnochoreology during the 1950s with publications of the two Janković sisters in Serbia with that of Gertrude Kurath in the United States, alongside correspondence with Maud Karpeles, the unheralded founder of the IFMC.

  8. The Conflict Between the Traditional Value and Reality In Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾庆媛; 陈飞; 孙胜强; 常利娜; 张罗斌

    2009-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser relates a story of Carrie's rise from a poor country girl to a Broadway star in Sister Carrie.An attempt is rnade in this paper to analyze the cold society.Byway of analyzing this unequal and cruel reality to prove:in the world only the fittest can survive.the standards and requirements of morality are challenged and the traditional value is suspected.In the cold reality.any way that Can protect oneself or survivein the wodd is sensible,morality and traditional value are weak and mcaningless.

  9. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as a first sign of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Li Bai; Qi Zhang; Waqas Masood; Noman Masood; Yin Tang; Chun-Hui Cao; Qi-Han Fu

    2012-01-01

    Sister Mary Joseph's nodule (SMJN) refers to a metastatic tumor of the umbilicus.It is a rare entity which arises from a malignancy in the intra-abdominal cavity.We herein describe a patient who presented with SMJN as his first sign of pancreatic cancer.It is an even more unusual case of SMJN.We therefore,suggest that pancreatic cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when an umbilical mass is found.With the progress made in surgical procedures and other modalities,an early diagnosis will dramatically improve the prognosis of the patients.

  10. The Naturalism in Tess of the D'Urbervilles and Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原燕婷

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nowadays, literature study is almost perfectly and profoundly cultivated by scholars and educators all around the world, thus, the exploration in this field is progressing much slower, and comparison literature is raising its head steadily in modern literature circles. Accordingly, the comparison between Tess of the d'Urbervilles and Sister Carrie is rarely done, although the naturalism in the two novels has been colossally studied and nearly reached the peak of its maxim, the author still feel obliged to connect them through the clue-"naturalism" to attain a unique but unanimous effect of literature study.

  11. Resolution of Sister Centromeres Requires RanBP2-Mediated SUMOylation of Topoisomerase IIα

    OpenAIRE

    Dawlaty, Meelad M.; Malureanu, Liviu; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Kao, Esther; Sustmann, Claudio; Tahk, Samuel; Shuai, Ke; Grosschedl, Rudolf; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    RanBP2 is a nucleoporin with SUMO E3 ligase activity that functions in both nucleocytoplasmic transport and mitosis. However, the biological relevance of RanBP2 and the in vivo targets of its E3 ligase activity are unknown. Here we show that animals with low amounts of RanBP2 develop severe aneuploidy in the absence of overt transport defects. The main chromosome segregation defect in cells from these mice is anaphase-bridge formation. Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), which decatenates sister ce...

  12. Macrocephaly, epilepsy, autism, dysmorphic features, and mental retardation in two sisters: a new autosomal recessive syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Orstavik, K H; Strømme, P; van Ek, J.; Torvik, A; Skjeldal, O H

    1997-01-01

    We report two sisters with macrocephaly, epilepsy, and severe mental retardation. The first child was a 14 year old girl born at term after a normal pregnancy, with birth weight 3600 g and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 36 cm (75th centile). Her head size increased markedly during the first six months of life, and was later stable at 2-3 cm above the 97.5th centile. Her development was characterised by psychomotor delay, epilepsy, and autistic features. Her face appeared mildly dysmorphi...

  13. Caroli's disease in two sisters; Diagnosis by ultrasonography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, M.; Muren, C.; Schmidt, D. (Sabbatsberg' s Sjukhus, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Sabbatsberg' s Sjukhus, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    Caroli's disease is a rare congential disease with multiple segmental dilatations of the bile ducts. It may present in two forms: One (the simple form) with segmental dilatations only, and the other with dilatations combined with fibroangioadenomatosis, frequently complicated by portal hypertension. The disease is thought to be recessively inherited, but few familial cases have been reported. We have observed two sisters with the disease, one with the simple form, the other with fibroangioadenomatosis. Their case histories and diagnostic findings, with special reference to ultrasonography and computed tomography, are presented, and the potential for diagnosis by different imaging modalities is discussed. (orig.).

  14. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid, but the...... AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the...

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  16. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  17. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  18. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  19. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  20. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. PMID:24851802

  1. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  2. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  3. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  4. Three Sisters Mountain Village development transformation of old coal mine properties into modern day use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the development of the Three Sisters Mountain Village, located close to Canmore, Alberta. The paper provided the history and background of the mining and development of the site. It discussed underground mining methodology and planned housing and industrial development. The village included plans for 10,000 residential homes, 2 golf courses, a wellness centre, a school, commercial buildings and wildlife corridors. Environmental concerns were also addressed, as Canmore contains a series of natural wildlife corridors, which act as migration and travelling routes for elk and deer as well as cougars, grizzly bears, and other animals. These routes are essential for the survival of the different herds and animal species. The development progress strategy was discussed. The Three Sisters Mountain Village Development commissioned Golder Associates Ltd. to study and address the environmental concerns of the stakeholders regarding the migrating routes of wildlife. Mining works mitigation, including mapping of the constraint zones, knowledge of subsidence issues and the effects of subsidence on structural stress and the ability to analysis field data to predict potential problems was also presented along with a methodology for mitigation and choice of backfill material to be used to fill the mine workings. The advantages of using concrete paste backfill were also identified

  5. Exploring the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient: Contrasting the sister fern genera Phegopteris and Pseudophegopteris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald SCHNEIDER; Li-Juan HE; Jeannine MARQUARDT; Li WANG; Jochen HEINRICHS; Sabine HENNEQUIN; Xian-Chun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the latitudinal biodiversity gradient has been studied using various approaches.Here,we employ a comparative phylogenetic approach to infer evidence for the hypothesis that differences in diversification rates are one of the main factors contributing to the assembly of this gradient.We infer the phylogeny of the two sister genera Phegopteris and Pseudophegopteris.The two genera are distinct in their species richness (4 vs.20 spp.) and their preferences to temperate to subtropical (Phegopteris) or tropical climates (Pseudophegopteris).Using sequences of three plastid DNA regions,we confirm the monophyly of each genus and infer the inter-and intra-generic phylogenetic differentiation of the sister clades.We recover evidence for distinct net-diversification rate between the two genera,which may be caused either by a higher extinction risk of temperate Phegopteris or a higher speciation rate of tropical Pseudophegopteris.We discuss our results in the context of our current knowledge on the speciation processes of ferns.We conclude on the crucial influence of other factors such as the rise of the Himalaya on the diversification of these fems.

  6. ADA2 deficiency: case report of a new phenotype and novel mutation in two sisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uettwiller, F; Sarrabay, G; Rodero, M P; Rice, G I; Lagrue, E; Marot, Y; Deiva, K; Touitou, I; Crow, Y J; Quartier, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: describe the phenotype compound heterozygote for mutations in CECR1 in two children. We describe the clinical and immunological phenotype, including the assessment of ADA2 activity, cytokine expression, interferon-stimulated and neutrophil-stimulated gene signatures, and the results of CECR1 sequencing. The first patient presented with intermittent fever, cutaneous vasculitis, myalgia and muscle inflammation on MRI leading to a provisional diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa. Subsequently, two cerebral lacunar lesions were identified following a brain stroke. Clinical features improved on anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. The first patient's sister demonstrated early-onset, long-lasting anaemia with mild biological inflammation; at the ages of 3 and 5 years, she had presented 2 acute, transient neurological events with lacunar lesions on MRI. CECR1 sequencing identified both sisters to be compound heterozygous for a p.Tyr453Cys mutation and a previously undescribed deletion of exon 7. ADA2 activity was reduced by 50%. Neutrophil-stimulated genes were not overexpressed, but interferon-stimulated genes were. The expression of a panel of other cytokine transcripts was not significantly altered. In conclusion, searching for CECR1 mutation or assessing ADA2 activity should be considered in patients with an atypical presentation of inflammatory disease. PMID:27252897

  7. ADA2 deficiency: case report of a new phenotype and novel mutation in two sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uettwiller, F; Sarrabay, G; Rodero, M P; Rice, G I; Lagrue, E; Marot, Y; Deiva, K; Touitou, I; Crow, Y J; Quartier, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: describe the phenotype compound heterozygote for mutations in CECR1 in two children. We describe the clinical and immunological phenotype, including the assessment of ADA2 activity, cytokine expression, interferon-stimulated and neutrophil-stimulated gene signatures, and the results of CECR1 sequencing. The first patient presented with intermittent fever, cutaneous vasculitis, myalgia and muscle inflammation on MRI leading to a provisional diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa. Subsequently, two cerebral lacunar lesions were identified following a brain stroke. Clinical features improved on anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. The first patient's sister demonstrated early-onset, long-lasting anaemia with mild biological inflammation; at the ages of 3 and 5 years, she had presented 2 acute, transient neurological events with lacunar lesions on MRI. CECR1 sequencing identified both sisters to be compound heterozygous for a p.Tyr453Cys mutation and a previously undescribed deletion of exon 7. ADA2 activity was reduced by 50%. Neutrophil-stimulated genes were not overexpressed, but interferon-stimulated genes were. The expression of a panel of other cytokine transcripts was not significantly altered. In conclusion, searching for CECR1 mutation or assessing ADA2 activity should be considered in patients with an atypical presentation of inflammatory disease. PMID:27252897

  8. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  9. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  10. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  11. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  12. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a...... positive and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  13. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  14. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  15. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  16. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  17. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...... labour capacity that prevents the real exchange rate from appreciating....

  18. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  19. Wanita Penjaja Agama Kepemimpinan Sister Aimee Semple McPherson dalam Novel: Elmer Gentry, Oil!, dan The Loved One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursaktiningrum Nursaktiningrum

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies how three famous American writers portray Sister McPherson (1890-1944, a controversial female religious leader, in their novels. Placing the novels written by Lewis, Sinclair, and Waugh in the context of American society, this study aims to reveal how Sister McPherson crossed gender boundaries and reinvented tradition in American religious institutions. By combining religious teachings and the advancement of popular culture, she broke the old religious tradition and succeeded in popularizing the religion she embraced.

  20. Love as harm reduction: fighting AIDS and stigma in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the summer of 2009, I visited a humble orphanage for children with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam. Here, like many parts in the world, the very existence of marginalized people with stigmatized illness is hidden away. Relegated to the shadows of society, these children lacked something more fundamental than housing, shelter, nutrition and medications. They lacked families to love and care for them unconditionally. One might think it self-evident that a visit to an orphanage for children with HIV would be profound, but the profundity wasn't where I expected to find it. It was in how the children had created their own family, loving each other like brothers and sisters, and the way the priest who operated the shelters was more than a Father, he was a dad to dozens of children. This is an account of love as harm reduction in the Mai Tam orphanage in Ho Chi Minh City.

  1. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  3. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  4. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  5. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  6. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  7. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  8. Laparoscopic Scar: a mimicker of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule on positron emission tomography/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography/CT is an established imaging method in the diagnosis and staging of cancers. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiotracer in positron emission tomography/CT. It is a tumour viability agent and usually its uptake within a lesion reflects the presence of a viable tumour tissue. However, false-positive FDG uptake is known to occur in benign processes of either inflammatory or infectious aetiology. We describe FDG uptake at the site of laparoscopic scar that mimicked Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma. Here, the knowledge of the patient's history and subtle imaging findings helped in accurate staging of the patient. In this case report, we emphasize the value of the knowledge of the patient history and awareness of different pitfalls of FDG to achieve a correct diagnosis on positron emission tomography/CT

  9. RARE CASE REPORT: WERNER’S SYNDROME - PREMATURE AGING SYNDROME SEEN IN TWO SISTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Werner’s syndrome is a premature aging syndrome with au tosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It is a rare case, hence early identification of disease and genetic counseling is important. AIM: To describe the clinical features of Werner‘s Disease in two siblings. CLINICAL PRESENTATION : A 34 year old female cam e with recurrent ulcers on lower limb, she was operated for bilateral cataract, hypopigmentation in B/L extensor surface of arm and waist, absence of axillary and pubic hair, loss of subcutaneous fat and the patient appeared old. Her younger sister, 33yea r old female came with similar complaints but less severe and had diabetes mellitus. H/O consanguineous marriage in parents. RESULT : Skin biopsy: Epidermis was thinned out, appendages are sparse and dermis showed thick hyalinised collagen. CONCLUSION : With Clinical features of premature aging, h/o consanguineous marriage, positive family history a diagnosis of Werner’s disease was made

  10. Comparing methods of estimating strength parameters for fissured clays at Seven Sisters Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, D.P.; Yereniuk, V.A. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Some instabilities have been observed at several dyke locations at the Seven Sisters Generating Station, Manitoba since construction in the late 1940s. The foundations of the dykes are fissured plastic clays. Slope stabilizing methods have been proposed by a number of researchers since the late 1970s for estimating strength parameters for fissured plastic clays. This paper reports on four methods which were used for estimating Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters for stability analyses involving nine dyke locations where instability has been reported in the past. Correlation is established between the calculated safety factors and observed performance in an effort to determine the most appropriate method for this site. It was determined that the most appropriate method was that proposed by P.J. Rivard and Y.Lu in the late 1970s. 16 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  12. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage of...... data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  13. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness of...... foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  14. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid in...

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of...... the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  16. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  17. The Arabidopsis B-sister MADS-box protein, GORDITA, represses fruit growth and contributes to integument development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kalika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Tobón, Emilio; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2010-04-01

    The MADS-box family of transcription factors have diverse developmental roles in flower pattern formation, gametophyte cell division and fruit differentiation. The B-sister MADS-box proteins are most similar to the B-class floral homeotic proteins, and are expressed in female reproductive organs. The Arabidopsis B-sister MADS-box protein, TT16, is necessary for inner integument differentiation. We have functionally characterized the only other B-sister MADS-box gene in Arabidopsis, AGL63, renamed here as GORDITA (GOA). A loss-of-function mutation in goa or reduction of endogenous GOA expression results in larger fruits, illustrating its novel function in regulating fruit growth. Consistent with its function, GOA expression is detected in the walls of the valves and throughout the replum of the fruit. Our phenotypic and molecular analyses of 35S::GOA and goa plants show that GOA controls organ size via cell expansion. Further, functional studies of goa tt16 double mutants have shown their additive role in controlling seed coat development, and have revealed the importance of GOA expression in the outer integument. Together, our studies provide evidence of a new regulatory role for a B-sister MADS-box gene in the control of organ growth. PMID:20088901

  18. Scaling the Heights of Heaven: Sister M. Rosalia Walsh and the Use of Story in "The Adaptive Way"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lucinda A.

    2007-01-01

    The work of Sister M. Rosalia Walsh and the Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart gave impetus to the reemergence of the use of story in catechetical materials designed and published in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century. Focused on catechetical needs of Catholic children who did not attend Catholic schools, The Mission…

  19. The Discernment Process of the Sisters of Saint Dominic regarding the Continued Sponsorship of Its Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavis, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the factors that a congregation of women religious, the Sisters of Saint Dominic of Caldwell, New Jersey, must consider in order to continue its sponsored relationship and the extent of this sponsored relationship with its secondary educational ministries for the future. This descriptive and…

  20. The sister-group relationships of the largest family of lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Divakar, Pradeep K; Dal Grande, Francesco; Otte, Jürgen; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Wedin, Mats; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-10-01

    Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi. In spite of its importance for fungal diversity, its relationships with other families in Lecanorales remain poorly known. To better understand the evolutionary history of the diversification of lineages and species richness in Parmeliaceae it is important to know the phylogenetic relationships of the closest relatives of the family. A recent study based on two molecular loci suggested that either Protoparmelia s. str. or a group consisting of Gypsoplaca and Protoparmelia s. str. were the possible sister-group candidates of Parmeliaceae, but that study could not distinguish between these two alternatives. Here, we used a four-locus phylogeny (nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7) to reveal relationships of Parmeliaceae with other potential relatives in Lecanorales. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that Protoparmelia is polyphyletic, with Protoparmelia s. str. (including Protoparmelia badia and Protoparmelia picea) being most closely related to Parmeliaceae s. str., while the Protoparmelia atriseda-group formed the sister-group to Miriquidica. Gypsoplaca formed the sister-group to the Parmeliaceae s. str. + Protoparmelia s. str. clade. Monophyly of Protoparmelia as currently circumscribed, and Gypsoplaca as sister-group to Parmeliaceae s. str. were both significantly rejected by alternative hypothesis testing. PMID:24119410

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory's Sister Laboratory Collaborations on Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. L.; Sinkule, B. J.; Apt, K. E.

    2003-02-25

    The DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) ''Sister Laboratory'' program allows for bilateral technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy for developing nations. The program establishes a direct line of communication between U.S. scientists and the nuclear research and scientific communities in participating countries.

  2. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or Sister § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determinations of relationship are...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  4. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  5. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is...... crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  6. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The paper present the methodologies and tools developed in the framework of Performance Aided Design (PAD), a term that indicates the shift in the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools from a mere translation in a digital environment of the operations once carried on paper, to an evolving...... paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics, and...

  7. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  8. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... sustained future growth, Mozambique will have to develop its capacity to maximise the benefits from its natural resources while ensuring at the same time the necessary framework is put in place to promote constructive integration in international markets...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  9. World AIDS Day 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  10. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  11. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Casual contact, such as hugging Mosquitoes Participating in sports Touching items that were touched by a person ... 20 years. People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high ...

  12. House OK's Russian aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance

  13. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  14. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  15. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  16. Aid and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Filippo Presbitero

    2013-01-01

    Managing and identifying risks are a key challenge for Low Income Countries (LICs), which are extremely vulnerable to exogenous shocks. However, the use of risk management tools by developing countries is quite limited. The paper discusses in which ways aid could strengthen the capacity of LICs to deal with vulnerability to external shocks and to manage capital flows. We provide some novel empirical evidence on the potential role of aid as output stabilizer and shock absorber in recipient cou...

  17. Chagas' disease and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidian, Anil K; Louis M Weiss; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV/AIDS. Some individuals with HIV and chronic T. cruzi infection may experience a reactivation, which is most commonly manifested by meningoencephalitis. A reactivation myocarditis is the second most common manifestation. These presentations may be difficult to distinguish from toxoplasmosis in individuals with HIV/AIDS. The overlap of HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi infection occurs not only in endemic ar...

  18. [The liver and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  19. World AIDS Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 刘保行

    2005-01-01

    December first was World AIDS Day. Last year, the campaign (运动;活动) centered on women and girls. They made up almost half of all people infected with the virus HIV that causes AIDS. And H1V was spreading faster among women than men in most areas of the world. These findings (发现) werefrom the yearly report by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, a UN agency

  20. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem...... is the way in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  1. Speciation processes in putative island endemic sister bat species: false impressions from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hao-Chih; Chen, Shiang-Fan; Fang, Yin-Ping; Cotton, James A; Parker, Joe D; Csorba, Gábor; Lim, Burton K; Eger, Judith L; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chou, Cheng-Han; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Cases of geographically restricted co-occurring sister taxa are rare and may point to potential divergence with gene flow. The two bat species Murina gracilis and Murina recondita are both endemic to Taiwan and are putative sister species. To test for nonallopatric divergence and gene flow in these taxa, we generated sequences using Sanger and next-generation sequencing, and combined these with microsatellite data for coalescent-based analyses. MtDNA phylogenies supported the reciprocally monophyletic sister relationship between M. gracilis and M. recondita; however, clustering of microsatellite genotypes revealed several cases of species admixture suggesting possible introgression. Sequencing of microsatellite flanking regions revealed that admixture signatures stemmed from microsatellite allele homoplasy rather than recent introgressive hybridization, and also uncovered an unexpected sister relationship between M. recondita and the continental species Murina eleryi, to the exclusion of M. gracilis. To dissect the basis of these conflicts between ncDNA and mtDNA, we analysed sequences from 10 anonymous ncDNA loci with *beast and isolation-with-migration and found two distinct clades of M. eleryi, one of which was sister to M. recondita. We conclude that Taiwan was colonized by the ancestor of M. gracilis first, followed by the ancestor of M. recondita after a period of allopatric divergence. After colonization, the mitochondrial genome of M. recondita was replaced by that of the resident M. gracilis. This study illustrates how apparent signatures of sympatric divergence can arise from complex histories of allopatric divergence, colonization and hybridization, thus highlighting the need for rigorous analyses to distinguish between such scenarios. PMID:26475683

  2. AIDS ORPHANS GET SPECIAL VISITOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  3. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  4. A constitution for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  5. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  6. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand;

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...... interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  7. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  8. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for...

  9. Geographic determinants of gene flow in two sister species of tropical Andean frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Cannatella, David C

    2014-01-01

    Complex interactions between topographic heterogeneity, climatic and environmental gradients, and thermal niche conservatism are commonly assumed to indicate the degree of biotic diversification in montane regions. Our aim was to investigate factors that disrupt gene flow between populations and to determine if there is evidence of downslope asymmetric migration in highland frogs with wide elevational ranges and thermal niches. We determined the role of putative impediments to gene flow (as measured by least-cost path (LCP) distances, topographic complexity, and elevational range) in promoting genetic divergence between populations of 2 tropical Andean frog sister species (Dendropsophus luddeckei, N = 114; Dendropsophus labialis, N = 74) using causal modeling and multiple matrix regression. Although the effect of geographic features was species specific, elevational range and LCP distances had the strongest effect on gene flow, with mean effect sizes (Mantel r and regression coefficients β), between 5 and 10 times greater than topographic complexity. Even though causal modeling and multiple matrix regression produced congruent results, the latter provided more information on the contribution of each geographic variable. We found moderate support for downslope migration. We conclude that the climatic heterogeneity of the landscape, the elevational distance between populations, and the inability to colonize suboptimal habitats due to thermal niche conservatism influence the magnitude of gene flow. Asymmetric migration, however, seems to be influenced by life history traits. PMID:24336965

  10. Reproductive isolation between sympatric sister species, Mussaenda kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglai Luo; Tingting Duan; Shuai Yuan; Shi Chen; Xiufeng Bai; Dianxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive isolation defines the biological species concept and plays a key role in the formation and maintenance of species. The relative contributions of different isolating stages has been suggested to be closely associated with phylogenetic relatedness. Few studies have focused on the relative contributions of pre- versus post-zygotic mechanisms, and even fewer have been conducted under strict phylogenetic frameworks. Pre-and post-zygotic reproductive isolation stages have been investigated in the sister species Mussaenda kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba. The two species have partly overlapping distribu-tion ranges and flowering times, while the principal pollinators differed strikingly for them, demonstrating strong pre-zygotic isolations. Natural hybrids were detected by simple sequence repeat markers and their maternal parents were identified based on chloroplast gene sequen-ces. Five out of 81 individuals were suggested to be hybrids that fall into the categories F2, BC1, and BC2 by the NewHybrids analysis. Interspecific crossings resulted in significantly reduced fruit set and seed germination rates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed short Kimura-2-parameter distance between M. kwangtungensis and M. pubescens var. alba. These findings strongly supported the hypothesis that for species with a closer phylogenetic relationship, pre-zygotic isolation plays an important part in limiting gene exchange in sympatric areas.

  11. On Sister Carrie from Feminist Perspective and its Influence on Chinese Modern Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武毅; 叶青

    2013-01-01

    Sister Carrie is a famous naturalistic novelist-Theodore Dreiser’s first novel in the first 20th century. It tells a story of a young rural woman Carrie how to become the red Broadway actress from the bottom of society, and the story vividly depicts the survival state and psychological and ideological process of Carrie. When it was published, it attracted attentions of critics from domestic and abroad at large, and they researched it from different perspectives. But most of their researches discussed from the materialism angle to concern with the expression of Determinism and Darwinism. So far, few people made the research from the topic of Carrie’s pursuit of self-achievement and perspective of feminist. Actually, not only did Carrie restrict on the material pursuit, but also boldly in pursuit of the self-achievement of new women. This paper aims at Carrie how to pursue the self-achievement of new women, and the influence of feminist to Chinese modern women.

  12. A Tale of Two Sisters: Age, Agency and Tradition among the Yugan Khanty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wiget

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Categorical oppositions such as Tradition and Modernity are oftenemployed to explain conventional behavior, because there is a presumed consonance between the goals of the agent and the values of the context in which the agent acts, but such categorical oppositions do not seem to effectively model acts of choosing. An individual Khant experiences a sense of participating in several social identities, each providing a context for forming intentions to act, mobilizing resources, seeking legitimation, and following through on commitments to act. Among the Khanty the sense of belonging to an age cohort differs from other biologically-marked categories such as clan, patriliny, even gender, by having no particular prescriptions associated with it. It is a ‘modern’ phenomenon in two senses of the word: first, historically, it seems to have been brought into being through a modern institution, the boarding school; second, it is ‘modern’ in the sense that it is perceived as an empowering category, liberating one from the constraints of tradition. This paper, based on the authors’ fifteen-year-long association with two Khanty sisters, raised in a taiga settlement, explores the values implicit in choices they make as they begin to define for themselves a path towards an adult identity.

  13. Double effect, all over again: the case of Sister Margaret McBride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Bernard G

    2011-08-01

    As media reports have made widely known, in November 2009, the ethics committee of St. Joseph's Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, permitted the abortion of an eleven-week-old fetus in order to save the life of its mother. This woman was suffering from acute pulmonary hypertension, which her doctors judged would prove fatal for both her and her previable child. The ethics committee believed abortion to be permitted in this case under the so-called principle of double effect, but Thomas J. Olmsted, the bishop of Phoenix, disagreed with the committee and pronounced its chair, Sister Margaret McBride, excommunicated latae sententiae, "by the very commission of the act." In this article, I take the much discussed Phoenix case as an occasion to subject the principle of double effect to another round of philosophical scrutiny. In particular, I examine the third condition of the principle in its textbook formulation, namely, that the evil effect in question may not be the means to the good effect. My argument, in brief, is that the textbook formulation of the principle does not withstand philosophical scrutiny. Nevertheless, in the end, I do not claim that we should then "do away" with the principle altogether. Instead, we do well to understand it within the context of casuistry, the tradition of moral reasoning from which it issued. PMID:21597907

  14. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences. PMID:27026021

  15. Palaeopathological diagnosis after 2500 years. The case of Imakhetkherresnet, sister of priest Iufaa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouhal, E; Nĕmecková, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of palaeopathological studies has been traditionally the determination of a diagnosis of any found pathological change. If based merely on skeletal evidence, most of them proved to be only tentative. Our case of the mature female Imakhetkherresnet, sister of the lector-priest Iufaa, having preserved scraps of soft tissue, enabled a precise diagnosis. Her skeletized mummy was discovered in Iufaa's unmolested tomb dating late 26th Dynasty at Abusir (Egypt) by the Czech Institute of Egyptology in 2001. A large smooth-walled cavity moulded by pressure of a relatively hard, globular and lobulated tissue mass was found inside the sacrum, growing in hour-glass shape outside it. By macroscopic and radiographic examination its diagnosis was suggested, while by histological analysis with histochemical tests and comparison with a recent case, the origin of the hollow could be "clinically" determined. It was caused by a benign tumour, originating in the nerve sheath, called neurilemmoma (schwannoma, neurinoma). This kind of tumour, occurring in the sacrum relatively rarely, was never before described in the palaeopathological literature. PMID:19591384

  16. Homozygous Inactivating Mutation in NANOS3 in Two Sisters with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing understanding of female reproduction, the molecular diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is seldom obtained. The RNA-binding protein NANOS3 poses as an interesting candidate gene for POI since members of the Nanos family have an evolutionarily conserved function in germ cell development and maintenance by repressing apoptosis. We performed mutational analysis of NANOS3 in a cohort of 85 Brazilian women with familial or isolated POI, presenting with primary or secondary amenorrhea, and in ethnically-matched control women. A homozygous p.Glu120Lys mutation in NANOS3 was identified in two sisters with primary amenorrhea. The substituted amino acid is located within the second C2HC motif in the conserved zinc finger domain of NANOS3 and in silico molecular modelling suggests destabilization of protein-RNA interaction. In vitro analyses of apoptosis through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy show that NANOS3 capacity to prevent apoptosis was impaired by this mutation. The identification of an inactivating missense mutation in NANOS3 suggests a mechanism for POI involving increased primordial germ cells (PGCs apoptosis during embryonic cell migration and highlights the importance of NANOS proteins in human ovarian biology.

  17. Competitive avoidance not edaphic specialization drives vertical niche partitioning among sister species of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujic, Alija B; Durall, Daniel M; Spatafora, Joseph W; Kennedy, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    Soil depth partitioning is thought to promote the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal communities, but little is known about whether it is controlled by abiotic or biotic factors. In three bioassay experiments, we tested the role of vertical soil heterogeneity in determining the distributions and competitive outcomes of the EM sister species Rhizopogon vinicolor and Rhizopogon vesiculosus. We planted Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings into soils that were either a homogenized mix of upper and lower depths or vertically stratified combinations mimicking natural field conditions. We found that both species colonized the upper or lower soil depths in the absence of competition, suggesting that their distributions were not limited by abiotic edaphic factors. In competition within homogeneous soils, R. vesiculosus completely excluded colonization by R. vinicolor, but R. vinicolor was able to persist when soils were stratified. The amount of colonization by R. vinicolor in the stratified soils was also significantly correlated with the number of multilocus genotypes present. Taken together, our findings suggest that the differential vertical distributions of R. vinicolor and R. vesiculosus in natural settings are probably attributable to competition rather than edaphic specialization, but that soil heterogeneity may play a key role in promoting EM fungal diversity. PMID:26391726

  18. Sister Mary Joseph nodule as the presenting sign of disseminated prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph′s nodule is referred to as metastasis of visceral malignancy to the umbilicus. Most common primaries are in the gastrointestinal or genital tract, while other locations are rare. We recently encountered a 76-year-old male who was referred to the surgery clinic with an erythematous nodule in the umbilicus measuring 6 cm in diameter with complaints of painless profuse hematuria. History revealed severe obstructive voiding symptoms of 2-year duration, along with significant loss of weight and difficulty in walking. A detailed examination showed hard nodular hepatomegaly, along with grade IV prostatomegaly. Serum prostate-specific antigen was 3069 ng/ml. A pelvic radiograph displayed multiple osteolytic lesions, while ultrasonography showed multiple iso- and hypoechoic lesions in both lobes of the liver, suggestive of metastasis. Histopathology of a Tru-cut biopsy of the prostate confirmed an adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 9 with umbilical metastasis. The patient was on regular follow-up and died 3 months later.

  19. Pediatric familial neuromyelitis optica in two sisters with long term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Mullaguri, Naresh; Weinshenker, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Neuromyelitis optica causes bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis. Although usually sporadic, 3% of cases of neuromyelitis optica are familial. The interval over which attacks continue and the long term prognosis for pediatric-onset neuromyelitis optica are not well defined. We describe two patients with pediatric familial neuromyelitis optica with the longest clinical follow-up of a pediatric case reported in the literature to our knowledge. One woman developed blindness with bilateral eye involvement within a few weeks at age 3. This was followed by transverse myelitis with paraparesis at age 19 leading to diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. Her serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibody was later found to be positive. She continued with sporadic myelitis-related relapses but remained ambulant until age 40 when she had a more severe relapse. There was evidence of longitudinal extensive T2 hyperintensity in the thoracic spinal cord. Her sister also developed blindness at age 3.5 followed by myelitis 1year later with multiple relapses of gait impairment until her death from pneumonia at age 21. These patients represent the rare occurrence of neuromyelitis optica in children within the same family and show that this disease can have prolonged periods of remission but a continued tendency to relapse, supporting the need for lifelong immunosuppression. PMID:26898580

  20. Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in sister-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2012-09-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.

  1. Sister-City Relationships As a Form of Inter-Organizational Cooperation: Exploratory Case Studies in the Portuguese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário FRANCO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify, characterize and understand sister-city relationships in Portuguese municipalities as a particular form of inter-organizational cooperation. There is however a great lack of research on this phenomenon, and a study on this subject was therefore carried out in three cities/municipalities. The instrument for data collection was the semi-structured interview with local authority representatives, and the data processing technique was content analysis. Based on the results obtained in this investigation, we can say that the kind of inter-organizational cooperation most widely used is sister-city relationships. Close relationships, friendship, exchange of experiences, sharing common needs, culture and economic interest are advantages achieved with this type of relationship between cities. The benefits allow better development of the municipalities involved. Some guidelines to be used as a basis for future research are also presented.

  2. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be...

  3. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health days Meetings and consultations 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. In 2015, 1.1 (940 000– ...

  4. Computer aided magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the elements of a computer aided magnet design system is outlined. The methods of solving the field equations are briefly reviewed, followed by a survey of available codes. Particular examples of the use of RAL codes in solving 3D magnetic design problems are given. Future developments are discussed. (author)

  5. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  7. AIDS, a development challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447

  8. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    OpenAIRE

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate.

  9. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  10. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  11. AIDS Overspill to Everyman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Xu Wenqing, national project officer of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), recently issued a warning that the men/women ratio of HIV infection in China now stands at 5:5. This indicates that AiDS now threatens other than intravenous drug users, sex workers and hemophiliacs.

  12. Apartheid and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  13. DIAPASON, supervision aid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diapason, a supervision aid system, gives to the operator a synthetic representation of the process. It permits to predict the evolution of the process in order to realize an anticipated control; in incidental conditions, it permits a precocious detection and gives a default diagnostic. It comprises 3 modules used in a spent fuel reprocessing simulator. 9 refs

  14. Oesophageal candiasis in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Ranga, Rupender K.; Singh, Jagat; Yadav, Rohtas

    2003-01-01

    With the explosion in the number of AIDS patients, many of these are likely to consult to otolaryngologists the head & neck is a rather common site to be affected. Sometimes only oesophageal candidiasis is the presenting feature as in the present case which is being reported show typical radiological appearance. the differential diagnosis and treatment of nesophageal candidiasis is briefly discussed

  15. Aid Projects Benefit Xigaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the thirdnational conference onwork in Tibet held by theCPC Central Committeeand the State Council meeting in July1994, Shanghai and Shandong provincedecided to provide aid to the Xigazearea from May 1995 onwards. Thefourth conference on work in Tibet heldin May 2001 again established that the

  16. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  17. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been d

  18. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  19. First aid advisor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang [Texas A & M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  20. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles; WOOD; William; HARRINGTON; Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  1. Gay male domesticity on the small screen: queer representations of gay homemaking in six feet under and brothers & sisters

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaenens, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    This article acknowledges that contemporary representations of gay domesticity in popular television fiction are often shaped by the discourse of heteronormativity. However, drawing on the potential of popular culture to resist heteronormativity, this article argues that representations of gay domesticity can also be interpreted in terms of queer resistance. To this end, a textual thematic analysis of Brothers & Sisters and Six Feet Under was conducted to illustrate how these instances of res...

  2. Novices, Nuns, and Colegio Girls: The Adrian Dominican Sisters in the U.S. and Dominican Republic, 1933-61.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Elizabeth Dilkes

    2014-01-01

    This project traces the shared history between novices, nuns and “Colegio Girls” across national boundaries weaving together American Catholic History, the history of education, the history of women, and the cultural history of the Dominican Republic during the Trujillo era. When three American Catholic Sisters arrived in the Dominican Republic in 1945 they had no idea how to speak Spanish, that the country was under the control of a dictator, or how to begin the process of buildi...

  3. Wd(a+) red blood cells in two sisters of a Hei//om Khoisan family in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, P; Smart, E; Marks, M; Botha, M C

    1990-01-01

    Two sisters in a Hei//om family of the southern African Khoisan race in Namibia were found to have Wd(a+) red blood cells. Wda is a low-frequency antigen identified so far only in a European family in Canada and a family in Holland. The Wda gene may have had an independent origin in the Khoisan. Alternatively, the Hei//om population may have acquired it through miscegenation. PMID:2265851

  4. An Analysis of Personal Factors that Determine Carrie’s Self -Actual-ization in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuang-shuang

    2014-01-01

    In Dreiser’s novel Sister Carrie, the heroine Carrie’s self-actualizing natures are reflected in her self-actualization ef-fort. Those natures include the acceptance of reality and potential to be actress, etc., which play the crucial role of her star jour-ney and self-actualizing effort. Therefore, every woman should have the spiritual spirit;and, at the same time, pursue nobler spiri-tual life.

  5. Shared Legacies, Disparate Outcomes: Why American South Border Cities Turned the Tables on Crime and Their Mexican Sisters Did Not

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro H. Albuquerque

    2005-01-01

    The article evaluates crime trends in south border American and Mexican sister cities using panel data analysis. The region offers a unique assessment opportunity since cities are characterized by shared cultural and historical legacies, institutional heterogeneity, and disparate crime outcomes. Higher homicide rates on the Mexican side seem to result from deficient law enforcement. Higher population densities in Mexican cities appear to also be a factor. Cultural differences, on the other ha...

  6. Chromatin dynamics during cell cycle mediate conversion of DNA damage into chromatid breaks and affect formation of chromosomal aberrations: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzoudi, Georgia I.; Hatzi, Vasiliki I. [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , 15310 Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Donta-Bakoyianni, Catherine [Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, University of Athens Dental School, Athens (Greece); Pantelias, Gabriel E., E-mail: gabriel@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , 15310 Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece)

    2011-06-03

    The formation of diverse chromosomal aberrations following irradiation and the variability in radiosensitivity at different cell-cycle stages remain a long standing controversy, probably because most of the studies have focused on elucidating the enzymatic mechanisms involved using simple DNA substrates. Yet, recognition, processing and repair of DNA damage occur within the nucleoprotein complex of chromatin which is dynamic in nature, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding. The present work reviews experimental work designed to investigate the impact of chromatin dynamics and chromosome conformation changes during cell-cycle in the formation of chromosomal aberrations. Using conventional cytogenetics and premature chromosome condensation to visualize interphase chromatin, the data presented support the hypothesis that chromatin dynamic changes during cell-cycle are important determinants in the conversion of sub-microscopic DNA lesions into chromatid breaks. Consequently, the type and yield of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations at a given cell-cycle-stage depends on the combined effect of DNA repair processes and chromatin dynamics, which is cell-cycle-regulated and subject to up- or down-regulation following radiation exposure or genetic alterations. This new hypothesis is used to explain the variability in radiosensitivity observed at various cell-cycle-stages, among mutant cells and cells of different origin, or among different individuals, and to revisit unresolved issues and unanswered questions. In addition, it is used to better understand hypersensitivity of AT cells and to provide an improved predictive G2-assay for evaluating radiosensitivity at individual level. Finally, experimental data at single cell level obtained using hybrid cells suggest that the proposed hypothesis applies only to the irradiated component of the hybrid.

  7. AIDS: there's hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  8. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  9. Communication Between Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Inconclusive Genetic Test Results and Their Daughters and Sisters Years After Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Jessica E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Riel, Els; Kars, Marijke C; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2016-06-01

    Inconclusive genetic test results including screening recommendations for the breast cancer patients and their first-degree relatives are the most common outcomes of BRCA 1/2 testing. Patients themselves should communicate these results to their relatives. Our aim was to explore communication of breast cancer genetic counseling results with daughters and sisters over a long period of time. Breast cancer patients, who had received an inconclusive DNA test result 7-14 years earlier, completed a self-report questionnaire. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. Of the 93 respondents, 85 (91 %) considered themselves responsible for communicating genetic test results to relatives. In-depth interviews (n = 14) showed, that counselees wanted 'to hand over' their responsibilities to communicate the test results and screening recommendations to their sisters. Although most patients had informed their daughters and sisters about the genetic test results, usually little is spoken about genetic test results and screening recommendations once the duty of informing is completed. We recommend that, similar to the procedure for BRCA1/2-mutation carriers, a separate letter for first-degree relatives of patients with an inconclusive test result should be provided. In this way information about risks and screening recommendations can be verified by family members years after genetic testing has been completed. PMID:26446011

  10. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Auxin and Cytokinin Regulating Somatic Embryogenesis in Different Sister Lines of Cotton Cultivar CCR124

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenzhen Xu; Chaojun Zhang; Xueyan Zhang; Chuanliang Liu; Zhixia Wu; Zuoren Yang; Kehai Zhou

    2013-01-01

    To get a broader view on the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis (SE) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.),global analysis of cotton transcriptome dynamics during SE in different sister lines was performed using RNA-Seq.A total of 204 349 unigenes were detected by de novo assembly of the 214 977 462 Illumina reads.The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements were positively correlated with the RNA-Seq results for almost all the tested genes (R2 =0.841,correlation was significant at the 0.01 level).Different phytohormone (auxin and cytokinin) concentration ratios in medium and the endogenous content changes of these two phytohormones at two stages in different sister lines suggested the roles of auxin and cytokinin during cotton SE.On the basis of global gene regulation of phytohormone-related genes,numerous genes from all the differentially expressed transcripts were involved in auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways.Analyses of differentially expressed genes that were involved in these pathways revealed the substantial changes in gene type and abundance between two sister lines.Isolation,cloning and silencing/ overexpressing the genes that revealed remarkable up-or down-expression during cotton SE were important.Furthermore,auxin and cytokinin play a primary role in SE,but potential cross-talk with each other or other factors remains unclear.

  11. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055

  12. Psyche’s Sisters: Ambivalence of Sisterhood in Twentieth-century Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and evaluates representations of problematic sisterly relationships in twentieth-century Irish women’s stories which display an emphasis on ambivalence and sibling rivalry.  The paper is based primarily on the literary output of Mary Lavin, Clare Boylan, Moy McCrory, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne, Jan Kennedy, Mary Morrissy and Claire Keegan.  The paper seeks, by reference both to feminist studies and Irish women’s short stories, to demonstrate the consequences and causes of a divided sisterhood which itself may be traced back to a suppression of expression of female solidarity embedded in western culture and manifested in western literary heritage.  Typically, such stories depict a conflict sourced in the need to develop self-identity and framed within the constraints imposed by separate social roles.  This kind of conflict results potentially in rivalry, antagonism, ambivalence, and the domination of one sibling by another.  Daughters/sisters are often depicted in these stories both as competing with each other for limited resources and also as seeking a sense of personal identity through mutual polarisation.  There are also stories into which are woven undertones of domination disguised as sisterly closeness, for which the actual motivation seems to be a repressed aspiration for intimacy.

  13. Foreign Aid and Consumption Smoothing; Evidence From Global Food Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Tiongson; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Global food aid is considered a critical consumption smoothing mechanism in many countries. However, its record of stabilizing consumption has been mixed. This paper examines the cyclical properties of food aid with respect to food availability in recipient countries, with a view to assessing its impact on consumption in some 150 developing countries and transition economies, covering 1970 to 2000. The results show that global food aid has been allocated to countries most in need. Food aid ha...

  14. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar...

  15. [Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Marsh, Darby Marsh: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, West Sister Island NWR, Navarre Marsh, and Darby Marsh outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976...

  16. Amid the Pointing and the Horror beyond the Clean Flame——On Quentin's Confession of Incest with His Sister Caddy in The Sound and the Fury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹宇

    2007-01-01

    The connotation of "incest" in Quentin's narration goes beyond what Faulkner would admit.It reflects not only the complex relationship between Quentin and his sister Caddy, but also the angst the protagonist feels in pursuit of infinitude.

  17. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar...

  18. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar...

  19. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  20. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Warmann, Stephan A. [Portage, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    , inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, “sister ” fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how sister rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE’s obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.

  1. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, ''sister'' fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how sister rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE's obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.

  2. Women and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) The human ... HIV, is a sexually transmitted infection and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Today, about one in four Americans ...

  3. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  4. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  5. Ten Common First Aid Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Latest in Workplace Safety Ten Common First Aid Mistakes These days, there are countless resources to ... We’ve listed some of the most common first aid mistakes below, along with the correct response methods. ...

  6. Global NeuroAIDS roundtable

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, J.; Achim, CL; Boivin, MJ; Brew, BJ; Clifford, DB; Colosi, DA; Ellis, RJ; Heaton, RK; Gallo-Diop, A; Grant, I; Kanmogne, GD; Kumar, M; Letendre, S; Marcotte, TD; Nath, A

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable" in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin Amer...

  7. Aid allocation and fragile states

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises research on aid allocation and effectiveness, highlighting the current findings of recent research on aid allocation to fragile states. Fragile states are defined by the donor community as those with either critically poor policies or poorly performing institutions, or both. The paper examines the research findings in the broader context of research and analysis on how aid should and is being allocated across all developing countries. Various aid allocation models and th...

  8. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.)

  9. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  10. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  11. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  12. AIDS: Dynamics and Rehabilitation Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Henry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) confronts the rehabilitation professional with a number of concerns. This paper reviews literature on the diagnosis, epidemiological factors, psychosocial elements, medical intervention of AIDS, and rehabilitation issues involved in serving AIDS patients. (JDD)

  13. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  14. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul; Klein, J.A.; Wu, D.T.

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees of......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  15. Transitional justice and aid

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Sirkku K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...

  16. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy

  17. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  18. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul;

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  19. [AIDS in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  20. Pregnancy and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, R

    1988-02-01

    Since the first cases of a new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described by Oleske et al. and Rubinstein et al. in children in 1983, we have witnessed an ever-increasing number of such observations. As serology is not being performed on all pregnant women in many European countries, obstetricians must try to identify those belonging to risk groups: intravenous drug abusers, natives of affected regions or women having travelled to these areas, women having numerous sexual partners, presenting with other sexually transmitted diseases or living with infected individuals, prostitutes, transfused women. If the woman belongs to risk groups, HIV antibody testing is to be done at the beginning of pregnancy. The risks for the mother remain ill-defined, due in part to the difficulties inherent in keeping track of heroin abusers. Aggravation is certain if the mother is affected with AIDS or an associated syndrome called ARC (AIDS-related complex). It is debatable and at least rarer if the mother presents no clinical symptoms. Infant risks are becoming better known. The existence of materno-fetal contamination by transplacental route is undebatable. However, contamination during delivery or during the passage through the maternal genital tract cannot be excluded. The proportion of contaminated infants is approximately 40%. The disease in the infant is highly dangerous. According to these data, the procedure adopted by most obstetricians is the following: abortion is recommended at the first trimester of the pregnancy, a free choice is left open for the woman at the second trimester and at the third trimester delivery is carried out naturally. Caesarean sections are only done when there are obstetrical indications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3281969

  1. [New perspectives in the discussion about AIDS -- the importance of the eating metaphor in Malawi. Work in progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A

    1996-01-01

    In Malawi culinary metaphors are applied in describing bodily processes. The author carried out her research during May through September 1995 to ascertain how people talked about AIDS, how the healers conceptualized AIDS, and what kind of communication existed on the part of the government. Conversations were held with squatters at the peripheries of the capital Lilongwe, the local healer of the village of Chinzapo was interviewed, and materials of official announcements were collected. The Chichewa word chirombo means wild beast but also plainly virus. Other words were also used to describe AIDS meaning the disease or the virus. HIV was thought of as invisible or as an insect that devours the body until the victim dies. The connection of eating and sexuality was illustrated by the analysis of the song book of the 1995 National AIDS Song Contest, which indicated sexuality was being conceptualized orally. One song advises parents to feed their daughters well by giving them sex education and referring to potential sex partners as rotten figs. The deadly appetite of women who desire men is also expressed by using eating-related metaphors: taste, to try by mouth, "myself I have eaten today (slept with a man)". The presence of the eating-related metaphors in the context of AIDS is palpable on different levels in society and culture, which is characterized by matrilineality and witchcraft. If an man dies in this society, his children are not his inheritors, rather those of his sister are. The split loyalty of a man towards his sister and her children, on the one hand, and towards his wife and their own children often leads to charges of witchcraft. The witch's power is dreaded as it is supposed to eat the body. PMID:12292566

  2. Computer aided engineering drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Dubey, N H

    2006-01-01

    This book caters to the need of First Year Engineering Students desiring to achieve a firm footage in the Subject Computer Aided Engineering Drawing. The formulation and methodology of the contents in this book is that one can easily understand the finer details of the subject and can master them with regular practice. It is essential that every on involved in engineering field must understand CAD for Drawing. This book contains well-illustrated figures along with theory for explaining procedures wherever necessary. A large number of solved and unsolved problems are provided so that one can ge

  3. Refocusing disaster aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  4. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  5. First aid at mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This Code of Practice has been approved by the Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. It gives practical guidance on the requirements placed on employers and self-employed persons by the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 as they now apply to mines and comes into effect on 1 October 1993 which is the date on which the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 come into force.

  6. The Monopolin Complex Crosslinks Kinetochore Components to Regulate Chromosome-Microtubule Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, Kevin D.; Yip, Calvin K.; Ee, Ly-Sha; Walz, Thomas; Amon, Angelika; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (MIT)

    2010-09-27

    The monopolin complex regulates different types of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in fungi, ensuring sister chromatid co-orientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis I and inhibiting merotelic attachment in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitosis. In addition, the monopolin complex maintains the integrity and silencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats in the nucleolus. We show here that the S. cerevisiae Csm1/Lrs4 monopolin subcomplex has a distinctive V-shaped structure, with two pairs of protein-protein interaction domains positioned {approx}10 nm apart. Csm1 presents a conserved hydrophobic surface patch that binds two kinetochore proteins: Dsn1, a subunit of the outer-kinetochore MIND/Mis12 complex, and Mif2/CENP-C. Csm1 point-mutations that disrupt kinetochore-subunit binding also disrupt sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I. We further show that the same Csm1 point-mutations affect rDNA silencing, probably by disrupting binding to the rDNA-associated protein Tof2. We propose that Csm1/Lrs4 functions as a molecular clamp, crosslinking kinetochore components to enforce sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I and to suppress merotelic attachment in S. pombe mitosis, and crosslinking rDNA repeats to aid rDNA silencing.

  7. Psyche’s Sisters: Ambivalence of Sisterhood in Twentieth-century Irish Women’s Short Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines and evaluates representations of problematic sisterly relationships in twentieth-century Irish women’s stories which display an emphasis on ambivalence and sibling rivalry.  The paper is based primarily on the literary output of Mary Lavin, Clare Boylan, Moy McCrory, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne, Jan Kennedy, Mary Morrissy and Claire Keegan.  The paper seeks, by reference both to feminist studies and Irish women’s short stories, to demonstrate the consequences and causes of a divided...

  8. Karyotype and genome size of Iberochondrostoma almacai (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and comparison with the sister-species I. lusitanicum

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Monteiro; Cláudia Carvalho; Maria João Collares-Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to define the karyotype of the recently described Iberian endemic Iberochondrostoma almacai, to revisit the previously documented chromosome polymorphisms of its sister species I. lusitanicum using C-, Ag-/CMA3 and RE-banding, and to compare the two species genome sizes. A 2n = 50 karyotype (with the exception of a triploid I. lusitanicum specimen) and a corresponding haploid chromosome formula of 7M:15SM:3A (FN = 94) were found. Multiple NORs were observed in both species (i...

  9. Sister mary joseph′s nodule: A case of umbilical cutaneous metastasis with signet ring cell histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Valid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastasis of a visceral malignancy to the umbilicus is known as "Sister Mary Joseph′s nodule". It is a rare clinical sign indicating advanced, metastasizing intraabdominal cancer. We report a 50-year-old man who developed metastatic skin cancer in the form of semicircular indurated plaque on top of which was a firm mobile rounded nodule at the umbilical area. Histopathological examination demonstrated diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff and mucicarmine positive signet ring cells, suggesting gastric carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed that these cells were positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, suggesting epithelial origin.

  10. AIDS-related myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  11. Talking about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.

  12. HIV/AIDS epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C

    2000-10-14

    In this paper, Charles Todd comments that the report of Evan Wood and colleagues illustrates the dangers of taking a narrow medical view of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa. It runs the risk of reversing the growing realization that the HIV/AIDS epidemic in southern Africa is a broad, social, cultural, political, and economic issue rather than a purely medical one. Todd raises the point that Wood and colleagues did not model the costs associated with the voluntary testing and counseling that should accompany a prophylaxis program. To this effect, a more helpful approach on meeting basic health needs and eradicating poverty would be to compare the impact of such levels of expenditure. It is also emphasized that the title of the paper of Wood and colleagues is misleading, implying that the focus of the modeling was sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, when it was in fact South Africa alone. Accordingly, the gross domestic product of South Africa per person is higher than that of nearly all other sub-Saharan African countries, and health expenditure is 10-20 times greater. PMID:11073053

  13. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  14. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  15. Aid, social policy, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the 'Paris-style' aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future glo...

  16. The Consequences of Merit Aid

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Since the early Nineties, a dozen states have established broad-based merit aid programs. The typical program waives tuition and fees at public colleges and universities in one's home state. Unlike traditional merit programs, such as the National Merit Scholarship, this aid requires relatively modest academic performance and provide scholarships to hundreds of thousands of students. This paper examines how merit aid programs in seven states have affected an array of schooling decisions, payin...

  17. Aid and sectoral labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is significant and positive both in the tradables and the nontradables sectors. The paper thus finds no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in devel...

  18. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  19. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  20. Reducing HIV Risk among Transgender Women in Thailand: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Sisters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawa, Duangta; Firestone, Rebecca; Ratchasi, Sindh; Dowling, Olivia; Jittakoat, Yaowalak; Duke, Alex; Mundy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Transgender women are particularly at risk of HIV infection, but little evidence exists on effective HIV prevention strategies with this population. We evaluated whether Sisters, a peer-led program for transgender women, could reduce HIV risks in Pattaya, Thailand. The study used time-location sampling to recruit 308 transgender women in Pattaya into a behavioral survey in 2011. Coarsened exact matching was used to create statistically equivalent groups of program participants and non-participants, based on factors influencing likelihood of program participation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated effects of any program participation and participation by delivery channel on: condom use at last sex; consistent condom and condom/water-based lubricant use in the past 3 months with commercial, casual, and regular partners; and receipt of HIV testing in the past 6 months. Program coverage reached 75% of the population. In a matched sub-sample (n = 238), participation in outreach was associated with consistent condom/water-based lubricant use with commercial partners (AOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.64–6.31). Attendance at the Sisters drop-in center was associated with receiving an HIV test (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.47–4.52). Dedicated transgender-friendly programs are effective at reducing HIV risks and require expansion to better serve this key population and improve HIV prevention strategies. PMID:24204750