WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids medical aspects

  1. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  2. Legal aspects of medical errors

    OpenAIRE

    Vučetić Čedomir S.; Vukašinović Zoran S.; Tulić Goran Dž.; Dulić Borivoje V.; Dimitrijević K.; Kalezić Nevena K.

    2011-01-01

    Healing people and medical care are together highly organized technological system with significant expert, ethical and legal regulative. Taking medical care is very sensitive area and it interfears deep into one’s integrity, so the law is necessary in this area as a regulator. The aim of work is to show medical errors from legal aspects and clinical practice. Errors, negligent conduct during the medical treatment and bad results of medical treatment are categories that can easily be sw...

  3. Medical physics: molecular aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual problems in medical physics have been considered. Features in the cell membrane structure promoting the action of anticancer drugs are studied. The mechanism of an invasive method for measuring the blood pressure is analyzed. The tension distribution in the left ventricle wall was calculated. Conditions that prevent magnetic particles, nanodiamonds, and fullerene molecules, which are used to transport drugs in human body, to aggregate in liquid systems are determined. A molecular mechanism of electric welding of biological tissues has been proposed, as well as a method to study the surface of biological structures, by using ultrasound. The origin of structural changes in human hair under the influence of chemicals is determined

  4. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  5. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered. (C.F.)

  6. First aid and basic life support: a questionnaire survey of medical schools in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An evalu

  7. Physics aids new medical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, fundamental physics has been a source of ideas for radiography and medical imaging. A new imaging method firmly rooted in particle physics was chosen by Time magazine as one of its "Inventions of the Year 2000". The award-winning invention in the medical science category was a scanner that combined the advantages of computer tomography with positron emission tomography. The use of these techniques, which depend on detecting and analysing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays or gamma rays respectively), show that detection techniques from particle physics have made, and continue to make, essential contributions to medical science. (0 refs).

  8. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained...

  9. Defects of organization in rendering medical aid

    OpenAIRE

    Shavkat Islamov

    2010-01-01

    The defects of organization at the medical institution mean disturbance of rules, norms and order of rendering of medical aid. The number of organization defects in Uzbekistan increased from 20.42%, in 1999 to 25.46% in 2001 with gradual decrease to 19.9% in 2003 and 16.66%, in 2006 and gradual increase to 21.95% and 28.28% (P

  10. Defects of organization in rendering medical aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat Islamov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The defects of organization at the medical institution mean disturbance of rules, norms and order of rendering of medical aid. The number of organization defects in Uzbekistan increased from 20.42%, in 1999 to 25.46% in 2001 with gradual decrease to 19.9% in 2003 and 16.66%, in 2006 and gradual increase to 21.95% and 28.28% (P<0.05 in 2005 and 2008. Among the groups of essential defects of organization there were following: disturbance of transportation rules, lack of dispensary care, shortcomings in keeping medical documentation.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.151 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1910.151 Section 1910.151..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Medical and First Aid § 1910.151 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall ensure the ready availability of medical personnel...

  12. Social, cultural and demographic aspects of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, R C

    1987-12-01

    Both on national and international levels, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a formidable challenge to social institutions and to cultural assumptions. Its effect thus far, in what must be considered the very early stages of a protracted and unprecedented epidemic, has been to exacerbate existing social tensions and divisions over a surprisingly wide field. Though international leadership by the World Health Organization has been met with an unusually high degree of multinational cooperation, AIDS has also stimulated a degree of xenophobia and racial friction that, if allowed to grow, could handicap global AIDS control and prevention efforts. PMID:3433754

  13. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry

  14. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  15. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

  17. [Selected marketing aspects in the hearing aids fitting and their distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojkin, Bogdan; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Swidzińska, Anna; Swidziński, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    The developing of free market in Poland gives medical firms of opportunities but also necessity of adoption for more and more individual needs of customers. This article presents some aspects of marketing on the hearing aids market. The conclusions are based on long observation and empirical research. Problems mentioned in it are connected with principles like distribution channels, specific customers services and promotion. It also shows relations between medical firms, specialists, doctors, audiologists and real customers. PMID:12094647

  18. 29 CFR 1926.50 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1926.50 Section 1926.50... Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the availability... employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines,...

  19. Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers tool is a locator tool designed to make data and information concerning HIV/AIDS resources more easily available...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1435 - Medical first aid guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical first aid guide. 154.1435 Section 154.1435 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Equipment § 154.1435 Medical first aid guide. Each vessel must have a copy of the IMO Medical First...

  1. [Three aspects of the medical ethos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, Michael; Marion-Veyron, Régis; Stiefel, Friedrich; Bourquin, Céline

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. Here, we describe three aspects of the medical ethos shaping medicine and the physicians: pragmatism, scientific rationality, and the individualistic embodiment of clinical practice. PMID:27039440

  2. [Legal aspects of networking of medical activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    Medical networks lack a legal definition. From the viewpoint of social law, this term means a form of organization of joint-service providers in a non-specified composition for the undertaking of medical care activities; from the point of view of occupational law, this consists of a loose form of joint practice. Such medical network can conclude treatment contracts with the patients and exchange patients' medical records. A practice network can take over services as contract partner of hospitals or other institutions, in the interest of improved competition chances within the integrated care system. The joining of a third partner is basically left open by the MBO, however according to SGB V this is possible only after approval by all contract partners. In advance of a planned medical care center, is it recommended to found a physician network as starting model. Before single practices fuse into a single enterprise, management-, tax-, legal-, as well as psychological aspects must be considered. PMID:15957655

  3. First Year Medical Students′ AIDS Knowledge and Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalraj Edwin R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.

  4. Medical and organizational aspects related to the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 13 September 1978, a severe radiation accident occurred in the city of Goiana in central Brazil. Approximately 250 people were directly affected by the radiation, receiving slight to very several external, partial or whole body irradiation, and presenting internal and external contamination. Fourteen patients developed some degree of marrow failure, eight developed the clinical signs and symptoms of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), and four eventually died of ARS complications. Twenty-eight people showed acute localized radiation injuries ranging from first to third degree. The circumstances of the event are described, the first-aid measures taken on the site, and the medical structure organized to triage and treat the casualties. Aspects relating to hospital contamination control, radiation protection and decontamination procedures are also discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  5. DICOM standard in computer-aided medical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines one of the promising standards to transmit images in medicine, in radiology in particular. the essence of the standard DICOM is disclosed and promises of its introduction into computer-aided medical technologies

  6. International aspects of the AIDS/HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, A M; Berkley, S; Ngugi, E; Gayle, H

    1995-01-01

    This review provides the reader with pertinent information on the epidemiology, prevention, and new technologies of the ongoing HIV pandemic. These aspects are key to international policy discussions surrounding the public health response to the international spread of HIV. Our understanding of the impact of AIDS on other diseases is evolving, as is our insight into the demographic and economic effects of the epidemic on the global community. Observations on the success of certain prevention strategies allow rational allocation of resources in newly affected epidemic areas. Information on the origin and nature of HIV transmission exemplifies the phenomenon of global emerging infections. As world populations are brought closer together through transportation, communication, trade, and commerce, insight into emerging infections of epidemic potential becomes increasingly important to the practitioner of public health. Although important, legal and social aspects of the epidemic will not be emphasized here. The epidemics of HIV/AIDS in the United States and Europe are not reviewed here. The global pandemic has recently been described in an overview in this publication to which the reader is also referred. PMID:7639874

  7. A Diagnostic Aid for Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Richard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Computer diagnosis has been shown in a University of Wisconsin study with medical students to assist the clinician through its ability to present a detailed diagnostic analysis of data collected on a patient. It can also document clearly the logic behind its differential diagnosis, making it a good tool for teaching medical decision-making. (LBH)

  8. AIDS-related Knowledge, Condom Usage Among Medical Postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge about safety/unsafty of sexual acts relating to HIV transmission, levels of embarrassment related to condom and condom usage among medical postgraduates. Methods From August to December, 1998, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was given to 271 new medical postgraduates from two medical colleges of Beijing and Hebei Province. Results There was a hazy understanding of the protective function of condom from AIDS among medical postgraduates. Only 14.4% medical postgraduates persisted in using condom, and 27.94% had never or almost never used it. The levels of embarrassment about condom were high. The median score was 3.55+0.98. Whether to use condom was related with the attitudes to condom, but not to AIDS. Conclusion There was some misunderstanding about condom and inconsistent condom usage in medical postgraduates. So it is essential to strengthen the sexual health education among them.

  9. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life. PMID:19143091

  10. SAFETY ASPECTS OF THE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR MEDICAL UTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Endre Ianosi

    2012-01-01

    To make sustainable the human life, in normal or specific medical situations, it is necessary to have adequate water resources. In medical utilization's of the water (dialysis, perfusable or liquid medication) some special water treatment systems and methods are necessary. These water treatment systems must accomplish some safety requirements. The safety of the patients relied to water treatment systems in medical utilization and the risk's identification are important aspects in this type of...

  11. [Medical professionalism: historical and religious aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez P, José Adolfo

    2006-03-01

    The essence of the medical profession resides in the medical act, whereupon a sick human being meets another with the power to heal him or her. The source of this power has evolved from the divinity itself through magic to science or acquired knowledge. This power implies acknowledgement of values that are inherent to the profession as well as responsibility toward one's own conscience and toward society, elements considered constitutive of what we now call professionalism. From antiquity these principles have evolved into behavioral codes containing variable components according to the different ages and cultures, but also permenent core values such as respect for life, altruism, and honesty, among others. Scientific and technological advances have magnified medical power but at the same time they have required that the philosophical and ethical principles that ought to inform professional practice be made explicit. This happens at a time when certitudes are questioned or abandoned, relativism and secularism pervade culture, and traditional medical values are challenged. Therefore, consensus attainment appears for some as the only legitimation of the ethics of professional medical acts, while for others the ancestral principles and values of medicine have permanent validity as objective goods based on the dignity of the human person. PMID:16676114

  12. Ethical aspect in medical radiation use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical radiation uses hold a specific position in radiation protection. Patients are purposely exposed to radiation while usually radiation exposure should be avoided. The radiation doses are (at least in principle) planned the risks may be estimated (again in principle). The hazards are justified by the medical benefit. Otherwise irradiation is a violation of physical integrity (article 2 Grundgesetz) that can be prosecuted. For patients no dose limits exist, the responsible physician decides on the real exposures. Justification and optimization are of predominant importance. The decision on the radiological measure, the applied technology is an ethically motivated decision besides the everyday routine.

  13. [Aspects of communication regarding medical malpractice suits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, János; Erdélyi, Kamilla

    2016-04-24

    Due to problems experienced in health care, there is an increased amount of malpractice suits nowadays. Nevertheless, some physicians are more likely to be sued, or more frequently sued, than others. Numerous studies indicate that this phenomenon fundamentally results from a lack of interpersonal and communication skills on the part of the sued doctor, namely, deficiencies in questioning the patient, listening, conveying information, etc. Communication is of pivotal importance in patient care vis-à-vis medical errors as well. The majority of physicians aim to conceal the error, albeit this may lead to further deterioration of the patient's condition. In institutions where open communication regarding errors was introduced within the medical team and toward the patient and their family alike, the number of malpractice suits decreased. It is crucial to establish a means of support for doctors, and to promote communication trainings, as well as a supportive legal environment. PMID:27084438

  14. Worker radiological protection: occupational medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposures experienced by workers are widely explained. The first evidences of biological effects, the implications for human health and the radiological protection have been covered. The conceptual structure that covers the radiological protection and adequate protection without limiting benefits, the scientific basis of radiology, the benefits and risks of the radiological protection are specified. The effective per capita doses are exposed in medical uses both for Latin America and for other regions in the average radiology, dental radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The manners of occupational exposures in the medicine are presented. Industrial uses have also its average effective dose in the industrial irradiation, industrial radiography and radioisotopes production. Within the natural radiation the natural sources can significantly contribute to occupational exposure and have their average effective dose. Occupational medical surveillance to be taken into industrial sites is detailed. In addition, the plan of international action for the solution of dilemmas of occupational exposures is mentioned and the different dilemmas of radioactive exposure are showed. The external irradiation, the acute diseases by radiations, the cutaneous syndrome of the chronic radiation, the radioactive contamination, the internal radioactive contamination, the combined lesion and accidental exposures are also treated

  15. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  16. Medical physics aspects of ophthalmic brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraocular melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye. Radiation therapy using ophthalmic plaque has proved successful in the management of various ocular lesions. Although a few centres were using 90Sr/90Y plaques for shallow turtlours some years ago, eye plaque therapy was not a common practice in India. A revived interest in the use of eye plaque therapy and very high cost of imported sources has led to the development and production of 125I seed sources by the Radiopharmaceuticals Division, BARC. This report presents a brief description on the clinical, dosimetry and radiation safety aspects of 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray and 125I gamma ray eye plaque applicators. This report has been divided in five Sections. Section I presents general introduction of ophthalmic brachytherapy including the structure of a human eye, types of ophthalmic plaques and characteristics of radioisotopes commonly used in such applications. A brief review of sources, applicators and dosimetry of 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta and 125I gamma ophthalmic plaques are given in Section II and Section III, respectively. Section IV contains the single seed dosimetry data of BARC OcuProsta 125I seed as well as dosimetry data of typical eye plaques loaded with BARC OcuProsta 125I seed. Quality assurance and radiation safety aspects of these eye applicators are described in Section V. A proforma of the application required to be filled in by the user institution for obtaining regulatory consent to start eye plaque therapy has also been appended to this report. (author)

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  18. Epilepsy in young adulthood : medical, psychosocial and functional aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gauffin, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the medical, cognitive and psychosocial consequences of epilepsy in young adulthood. Four studies were carried out with this patient group. The first two papers were based on a follow-up study regarding young adults with epilepsy that investigated medical and psychosocial aspects and compared the present results with those five years earlier. We then conducted focus group interviews with young adults with epilepsy and subjective cognitive decline to asse...

  19. Daily medication routine of adolescents with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the daily medication routine of adolescents with HIV/AIDS of ages 13 to 19 years, followed at a reference service. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed with 23 adolescents, using a quantitative approach. Data were collected using a form during appointments at the outpatient clinic. Univariate analysis revealed: females, in the initial phase of adolescence, and vertical transmission. The highlights were: lack of assiduity to appointments; unprotected sex; and consumption of alcohol. Regarding the daily medication routine, subjects depend on their parents or guardians, use strategies to remember to take the medications, and are unaware about the laboratory test for disease management and treatment. There is a need for educative intervention using information and communication technology, such as the Internet, to promote health and autonomy among adolescents. Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Adolescent Health; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Nursing.

  20. Ten Doctors Awarded 2015 Most Beautiful Doctors of China’s Overseas Medical-Aid Missions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2015-01-01

    A commonweal activity to commend Chinese doctors and medical teams on overseas medical-aid missions that have made prominent contributions to global medical and health services,especially those battling the Ebola epidemic,was launched in January.Dubbed the 2015"Boundless Love—Finding Most Beautiful Doctors of China’s Overseas Medical-Aid Missions",it was

  1. Hearing aids: Quality of life and socio-economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakiropoulou, E; Konstantinidis, I; Vital, I.; Konstantinidou, S; Kotsani, A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Hearing loss can significantly impair patient's quality of life, affecting communicative behavior, emotional and social function. This study assesses the impact of hearing aids on the quality of life of patients in a rural area and its correlation with socio-economic factors.

  2. Sociocultural and epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Troy D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Methods To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar™, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. Results UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Conclusions Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.6 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid. 50-204.6 Section 50-204.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.6 Medical services and first aid. (a) The... trained to render first aid. First aid supplies approved by the consulting physician shall be...

  4. Medical aspects of human population and personnel protection in case of accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper deals with the chronological description of the taken measures linked with medical aspects of safety assurance of the population and of the personnel at the elimination of the accident consequences. Attention is focused on the arrangement of the curative-and-prophylactic aid, on treatment of injured people. Irradiation levels for the population immediately after the accident. Time dose limits of the external and internal irradiation of the population of the contaminated territory, and of the personnel involved in the elimination activities are substantiated. Health of the population of the accident zone is estimated. 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Social accountability of medical education: aspects on global accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its programme with respect to meeting approved criteria. It is a means for quality assurance, but also a strong power to reinforce the need for improvement and reforms. It must be performed through internationally recognised and transparent standards and should foremost promote quality development. The social accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used worldwide and have been adopted to local needs in most parts of the world. They are framed to specify attainment at two levels: basic standards or minimum requirements and standards for quality development. The concept of social accountability is embedded in all parts of the WFME standards documents. In 2011, a revision of the standards for undergraduate education has been instituted. Strengthening of aspects on social accountability of medical education will be a particular concern. PMID:21774655

  6. MONITORING THE SAFETY ASPECTS OF OVER THE COUNTER MEDICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Subin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OTC medication is short for over the counter drugs. These medicines have become popular as they are available without a prescription from the doctor. These are medicaments that are usually used to relieve pain and to treat various symptoms of cold. Most of the over-the-counter users believe that these medications are safer and are devoid of unwanted side effects. But their use may become fatal sometimes when they are administered without knowing the prescription pattern, that is, when they are used without properly reading the directions on the label. More over, the consumers are not aware of the safety of these drugs and its frequent use may result in various adverse effects. It is the part of the patient to read out the label packaging instructions for OTC medications to know how much one should take, the possible side effects that may encounter and the various conditions that can result in poor choice of the drug. Various other aspects such as the recommended dose, contraindications and drug interactions should be considered before taking OTC drugs. Pharmacists and drug companies will have an increasingly important role in giving information and advice to the patients. This review highlights the safety aspects of OTC drugs. It summarizes the safety measures that should be taken into consideration when used among different age groups.

  7. Introduction to "Research on Demographic Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Rural Africa"

    OpenAIRE

    FFF2Susan NNN2Watkins; FFF2Jere R. NNN2Behrman; FFF2Hans-Peter NNN2Kohler; FFF2Eliya NNN2Zulu

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of papers presented at the conference "Research on Demographic Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Rural Africa", held at the Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, October 28-29, 2002. The aim of the conference was to provide a forum for the presentation of results, to an audience of experts, on a variety of demographic aspects relevant for the study of HIV/AIDS in rural Africa. The aim of this volume is to provide these results to a wider audience. Although th...

  8. Kinesitherapy: One of the most important aspects of medical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Kosta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kinesitherapy, as a part of physical therapy, represents one of the most important aspects of medical rehabilitation. It involves movement of various parts of the body, or of the whole body, using exercises in order to maintain, establish, develop and change functions of the locomotor apparatus and organs of locomotion. Aim The aim of kinesitherapy is to use all potentials of the treated patients, to achieve optimal recovery of the damaged function of locomotion. Classification Kinesitherapy includes active and passive exercises. Active exercises are divided into: active exercises with assistance, without assistance and active exercises with resistance. Indications and contraindications Kinesitherapy is applied in almost all medical branches in numerous pathological conditions, as well as a method of prevention. Practically, there are no absolute contraindications, and relative are extremely rare.

  9. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and first aid. 50.20-3 Section 50.20-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... first aid. (a) Medical treatment includes, but is not limited to, the suturing of any wound, treatment... treatment. Tetanus and flu shots are considered preventative in nature. First aid includes any...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1713 - Emergency medical assistance; first-aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. 75... Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. Each operator shall make arrangements in advance for obtaining... provided to the nearest point of assistance. Selected agents of the operator shall be trained in...

  11. The American Medical Association and the war on AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Hotchkiss, W S

    1988-01-01

    Since the identification of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981 as a distinct disease entity, the number of AIDS cases has steadily increased in the United States and throughout the world. Although the primary etiologic agent of AIDS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has been identified and the major means by which the virus is transmitted--sexual contact, use of contaminated needles by IV drug abusers, perinatally, and through blood or blood products--are also known, no vacc...

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PATIENTS' SATISFACTION LEVEL BY MEDICAL AID QUALITY IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE AND PLASTIC SURGERY SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganshin Igor Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction of patient is one of main parts of medical aid quality declared by WHO. Questionnaire of patients can elucidate mechanism of satisfaction from medical aid quality formed during treatment communication. Estimation of received information permits to compare different hospital activities and know image of medical aid created by patient's mention. Science results can be used to support management decision for choice of activities providing the higher quality signs of medical aid.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PATIENTS' SATISFACTION LEVEL BY MEDICAL AID QUALITY IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE AND PLASTIC SURGERY SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ganshin Igor Borisovich

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction of patient is one of main parts of medical aid quality declared by WHO. Questionnaire of patients can elucidate mechanism of satisfaction from medical aid quality formed during treatment communication. Estimation of received information permits to compare different hospital activities and know image of medical aid created by patient's mention. Science results can be used to support management decision for choice of activities providing the higher quality signs of medical aid.

  14. Introduction to "Research on Demographic Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Rural Africa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a set of papers presented at the conference AResearch on Demographic Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Rural Africa@, held at the Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, October 28-29, 2002. The aim of the conference was to provide a forum for the presentation of results, to an audience of experts, on a variety of demographic aspects relevant for the study of HIV/AIDS in rural Africa. The aim of this volume is to provide these results to a wider audience. Although the topics covered are diverse, ranging from methodological issues in the study of HIV/AIDS such as sample attrition to substantive issues such as fertility, divorce, and women's autonomy, the papers are united by their use of two similar data sets collected in rural Malawi and Kenya. This introduction thus begins by briefly describing the contents of the volume and the collaborators, and then focuses on a detailed description of the data used by all authors and on the threats to data quality in these contexts. We conclude that demographic studies of HIV/AIDS in rural Africa are likely to face similar threats, and that these should be routinely recognized and acknowledged.

  15. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  16. Skylab mission report, second visit. [postflight analysis of engineering, experimentation, and medical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the second Skylab flight. Other areas described include: the performance of experimental hardware; the crew's evaluation of the flight; medical aspects; and hardware anomalies.

  17. On the evaluation of the safety aspects of nanomaterials in medical devices – a regulatory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Eva; Chan, Christopher; Li, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is widely used in many aspects of the design and manufacture of medical devices. To date, many of these new medical devices, referred to as nano medical devices, have been submitted to health authorities for premarket regulatory review. There are ongoing discussions between medical device manufacturers and regulatory authorities regarding the standards and methods required for the evaluation process. Taking into consideration aspects including nano-toxicology and biocompatibili...

  18. Medical aspects of quality assurance in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three powerful national programs have been developed, and their acceptance and utilization in the United States have been accelerated by the recent development of managed competition. The first program was a model quality assurance program for day to day use in an individual radiation oncology facility. In addition to maintaining the physical aspects of the department, the medical side includes indicator items in patient evaluation and treatment and other measures that are periodically monitored. The entire process is comprehensive and is accepted by the Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation as being satisfactory evidence of ongoing quality assurance and quality improvement. The second program was the development of a set of standards for radiation oncology in the United States. These standards were developed in the past and have recently been expanded into a more comprehensive document that describes the appropriate performance by this specialty. The third program was a Practice Accreditation program. The Practice Accreditation program is an on-site review of structure and processes of patient care by a radiation oncologist and data manager. This intense on-site review generated data that is then compared to similar facilities and to national averages to judge the adequacy of patient management in the facility. We have observed recently that various managed care programs require this practice accreditation before their patients can be treated in contracting facilities. Lastly, the Council of the American College of Radiology has made some extremely positive statements in support of improving radiation oncology practice, and the positive effects of these council resolutions can be clearly shown on the practice

  19. Medical image computing and computer-aided medical interventions applied to soft tissues. Work in progress in urology

    OpenAIRE

    Troccaz, Jocelyne; Baumann, Michael; Berkelman, Peter; Cinquin, Philippe; Daanen, Vincent; Leroy, Antoine; Marchal, Maud; Payan, Yohan; Promayon, Emmanuel; Voros, Sandrine; Bart, Stéphane; Bolla, Michel; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Dusserre, Andrée

    2006-01-01

    International audience Until recently, Computer-Aided Medical Interventions (CAMI) and Medical Robotics have focused on rigid and non deformable anatomical structures. Nowadays, special attention is paid to soft tissues, raising complex issues due to their mobility and deformation. Mini-invasive digestive surgery was probably one of the first fields where soft tissues were handled through the development of simulators, tracking of anatomical structures and specific assistance robots. Howev...

  20. Medical student's perceptions of different teaching aids from a tertiary care teaching institution

    OpenAIRE

    Inderjit Singh Bagga; Vipin Goyal; Abhishek Singh; Hitesh Chawla; Shewtank Goel; Pooja Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been increasing interest and growing concern regarding the role of learning environment in undergraduate medical education. Student's feedback can play vital role in this regard. Aim of the study was conducted to access student's perception of different teaching aids in a medical college, with an aim to improve their use in didactic lectures. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the medical undergraduate students currently studying in the second...

  1. Social accountability of medical education: Aspects on global accreditation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation ...

  2. Regulations and legal aspects in management of medical waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Apostoloski, Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Medical waste, according to the law of waste management is waste generated in medical and health institutions (dispensaries, hospitals, polyclinics and outpatient clinics, dental clinics, veterinary stations etc.), originated as a product of used items and materials during diagnosis, convalescence, treatment and prevention in humans and animals. Medical waste is a risk to those who produce, package, store, transport, treat and perform disposition. The possibility of infection of some disea...

  3. Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabenko, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05. Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06. Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

  4. [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, A R; Babakhanian, R B; Isakov, V D

    2005-01-01

    Special literature (surgical, forensic-medical and criminalistic) is reviewed on classification, mechanisms of a harmful action and characteristics of injuries inflicted by non-lethal arms. Some details of such arms construction and damaging action are given. PMID:16130323

  5. MONITORING THE SAFETY ASPECTS OF OVER THE COUNTER MEDICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Subin; V.Vidya; O.A. Halima; G. Geethu; N. Devika

    2012-01-01

    OTC medication is short for over the counter drugs. These medicines have become popular as they are available without a prescription from the doctor. These are medicaments that are usually used to relieve pain and to treat various symptoms of cold. Most of the over-the-counter users believe that these medications are safer and are devoid of unwanted side effects. But their use may become fatal sometimes when they are administered without knowing the prescription pattern, that is, when they ar...

  6. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stag...

  7. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  8. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  9. The differences in health care utilization between Medical Aid and health insurance: a longitudinal study using propensity score matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Health care utilization has progressively increased, especially among Medical Aid beneficiaries in South Korea. The Medical Aid classifies beneficiaries into two categories, type 1 and 2, on the basis of being incapable (those under 18 or over 65 years of age, or disabled or capable of working, respectively. Medical Aid has a high possibility for health care utilization due to high coverage level. In South Korea, the national health insurance (NHI achieved very short time to establish coverage for the entire Korean population. However there there remaine a number of problems to be solved. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the differences in health care utilization between Medical Aid beneficiaries and Health Insurance beneficiaries.Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study from 2008 to 2012 using propensity score matching. Of the 2,316 research subjects, 579 had Medical Aid and 1,737 had health insurance. We also analyzed three dependent variables: days spent in the hospital, number of outpatient visits, and hospitalizations per year. Analysis of variance and longitudinal data analysis were used.The number of outpatient visits was 1.431 times higher (p<0.0001 in Medical Aid beneficiaries, the number of hospitalizations per year was 1.604 times higher (p<0.0001 in Medical Aid beneficiaries, and the number of days spent in the hospital per year was 1.282 times higher (p<0.268 for Medical Aid beneficiaries than in individuals with Health Insurance. Medical Aid patients had a 0.874 times lower frequency of having an unmet needs due to economic barrier (95% confidence interval: 0.662-1.156.Health insurance coverage has an impact on health care utilization. More health care utilization among Medical Aid beneficiaries appears to have a high possibility of a moral hazard risk under the Health Insurance program. Therefore, the moral hazard for Medical Aid beneficiaries should be avoided.

  10. Medical image computing and computer-aided medical interventions applied to soft tissues. Work in progress in urology

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne; Berkelman, Peter; Cinquin, Philippe; Daanen, Vincent; Leroy, Antoine; Marchal, Maud; Payan, Yohan; Promayon, Emmanuel; Voros, Sandrine; Bart, Stéphane; Bolla, Michel; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Dusserre, Andrée; Giraud, Jean-Yves; Long, Jean-Alexandre; Moalic, Ronan; Mozer, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, Computer-Aided Medical Interventions (CAMI) and Medical Robotics have focused on rigid and non deformable anatomical structures. Nowadays, special attention is paid to soft tissues, raising complex issues due to their mobility and deformation. Mini-invasive digestive surgery was probably one of the first fields where soft tissues were handled through the development of simulators, tracking of anatomical structures and specific assistance robots. However, other clinical domains, for instance urology, are concerned. Indeed, laparoscopic surgery, new tumour destruction techniques (e.g. HIFU, radiofrequency, or cryoablation), increasingly early detection of cancer, and use of interventional and diagnostic imaging modalities, recently opened new challenges to the urologist and scientists involved in CAMI. This resulted in the last five years in a very significant increase of research and developments of computer-aided urology systems. In this paper, we propose a description of the main problems rel...

  11. [Intercultural aspects of medical care for undocumented migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Hegerl, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In view of the cultural diversity in German society today, the time has long since come when medical care must adjust to its new clientele. This article provides an overview for doctors, medical personnel and psychologists of approaches, backgrounds and networks of migration to Germany, in particular over the little known undocumented migration. This migration has steadily increased in recent years. The author deals with the circumstances which create psychological problems for migrants and what happens when migrants living in this shadow world fall ill. In addition, the article offers an agenda for interculturally competent action in caring for documented and undocumented migrants. Dimensions of cultural differences such as collectivism versus individualism (most of the countries of origin of these migrants in Germany with or without documents are collectivistic) are explained along with differences in styles of communication. The following styles with their impact in actual practice are analyzed: indirect versus direct communication; emotional control versus expressiveness; functionalism versus relationship orientation. PMID:18421653

  12. [Psychological aspects of public activity of a forensic medical examiner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, E A; Buromskiĭ, I V

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, professional activity of forensic medical examiners has been gaining publicity which necessitates knowledge of individual psychologic personality traits, the ability to effectively communicate, and high vocational culture on the part of each specialist. The specific character of professional contacts of a forensic medical expert is self-evident taking into consideration that he (she) has to deal with a great variety of persons including law enforcement officials, law breakers and criminal offence victims, men and women, young and aged people, representatives of different social groups, subjects in a specific emotional state, etc. In order to organize efficacious cooperation with all these individuals, the expert must develop high communicative competence, possess knowledge of psychology of communication, abilities and skills necessary for the establishment and maintenance of professional and business contacts. PMID:19371013

  13. New technologies in medical aid given to veterans of Great Patriotic War of Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuldyakov V.A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the system of health care service in Saratov Regional Hospital for Veterans. The experience of medical aid given to veterans of Great Patriotic War and to participants of local conflicts has been generalized and highlighted in the work. New health care technologies have been developed and adopted. Analysis of innovative advantages has been performed

  14. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbæk, Annelli

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical audit on AIDS prevention in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study performed as 'lagged intervention'. At the time of comparison, the intervention group had completed 6 months of audit including...

  15. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in underg

  16. Medical and related aspects of the Goiania accident: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 13 September 1987, a radiation accident occurred in the city of Goiania in Central Brazil. Approximately 250 people were exposed to a 137Cs source from an abandoned radiotherapy unit. At least 14 patients showed some degree of bone marrow depression, and eight developed the classical signs and symptoms of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Twenty-eight people presented local radiation injuries ranging from first to third degree, and 104 individuals showed evidence of internal contamination. This paper describes the circumstances of the event, the first-aid measures taken, the criteria adopted for triage of the exposed population, and the radiation protection procedures used during the clinical management of the irradiated individuals

  17. General medical and related aspects of the Goiania accident, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent radiation accident occurred in the city of Goiania, central area of Brazil, approximately 250 people were exposed to a 137Cs source from a radiotherapy unit abandoned in a amedical clinic in that city. At least twelve patients showed some degree of bone marrow depression, from which eight developed the classical signs and symptoms of Acute radiation Syndrome (ARS). 28 people presented local radiation burns ranging from first to third degree. Around 100 people showed evidences of internal contamination due to the dissemination of the source powder. The authors describe the circumstances of the event, the first-aid measures taken at place, the criteria adopted during the triage of victims and the radiation protection procedures used during the management and treatment of the irradiated individuals. (author)

  18. Legal aspects of medical confidentiality in the occupational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J

    1976-08-01

    The law of confidentiality of medical information in the occupational setting is undeveloped and subject to change. Nevertheless, when a physician-patient relationship is established, all of the traditional trappings, including the duty to maintain confidences, go along with it. In other settings, such as preemployment physicals, examinees implicitly consent for their "fitness' for the job to be disclosed, but do not assume that specific findings will be disclosed without their informed and written consent. To promote physician automony and worker confidence in the occupational physician, an explicit policy of confidentiality should be developed and agreed to by both management and workers. This policy should spell out the conditions under which specific information will be made available to the employer and should guarantee the confidentiality of all other medical information. Workers should also be given routine access to their medical files, and offered the chance to refute and have amended information in them that they can demonstrate is inaccurate. In short, workers in the occupational setting should, in general, be treated like private patients. Such a policy will satisfy both the law and the ethical standards of physicians, and will promote worker trust in the occupational physician. PMID:956937

  19. Medical and legal aspects of teleradiology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In teleradiology, imaging data are transferred over a distance. This service is provided for the purpose of consulting or teleradiological reading in the narrower sense. Once a justification has been proposed in the latter, the examination is performed under the responsibility of a radiologist who is not present on site. The need for teleradiology services often derives from sparsely populated areas, a shortage of doctors, or the need for cost-efficient provision of radiological examinations. The providers and recipients of teleradiology services enter into an agreement specifying conditions for data transfer. The German ionizing radiation (medical exposure) regulations demand that the teleradiologist holds radiation protection qualifications and is able to reach the examination site within 45 - 60 minutes. In Germany, teleradiology services are still limited to nights, weekends, and vacations, although the German regulations allow an expansion under certain circumstances. Efforts to fundamentally change radiology in favor of teleradiology are putting the status of a radiological medical act as well as current teaching models at risk, thereby indirectly sustaining physician shortage. Transnational teleradiology services offer the possibility of cost reduction, taking advantage of out-of-hour reading and wage fluctuation. At the same time, such services are associated with deficits in quality and availability of personnel as well as the quality of medical services. In the long-term teleradiology concepts will fundamentally change radiology. Smaller radiology units will concentrate on daily business and fast reporting. Larger units also providing academic teaching can use teleradiology networks to offer specialized readings. (orig.)

  20. 76 FR 37154 - Covidien, Formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Covidien, Formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division, Including On- Site..., 2011, applicable to workers of Covidien, formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division, including on-site...-site at the Norwood, Massachusetts location of Covidien, formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division....

  1. Medical aspects of the Battle of Waterloo: the battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumplin, Mick

    2015-06-01

    The Duke of Wellington's polyglot army assembled for the Waterloo campaign was hastily aggregated and the Army Medical Department was somewhat short of staff and not entirely of the calibre of the department serving latterly in the Peninsular campaigns. The casualty rates during the battles of this campaign were high and the regimental and hospital staff struggled with the large number of casualties. Lack of stretcher bearers and transport were significant problems, which were compounded by the high density of the casualties. Three quarters of the surviving wounded rejoined their units. PMID:25525203

  2. [In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: current medical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentenich, H; Sibold, C; Tandler-Schneider, A

    2013-12-01

    Since the delivery of the first baby conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) in 1978, IVF has become a standard procedure in sterility treatment. In Germany, 78,000 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles are performed annually with a delivery rate per embryo transfer of about 20 %. The cumulative delivery rate after three trials is more than 50 %. The main medical problems are the high rates of multiple pregnancies of more than 20 %, which carry an increased risk for mothers (preeclampsia) and children (preterm delivery, lung immaturity, brain problems). Also singleton babies after IVF are more often too small (small for gestational age, SGA) and delivered preterm. As a result, proper counselling is necessary. New laboratory methods have increased the success rate. Cryopreservation techniques such as vitrification are standard for freezing oocytes, pronuclear-stage oocytes and embryos if they are not needed during the current treatment cycle. Continuous observation of embryos by time-lapse imaging helps to identify the best embryos for transfer. The current legislation in the German embryo protection act (Embryonenschutzgesetz) is the main problem. It is unclear how many fertilized oocytes can be cultured to achieve a transfer of one to three embryos. The prohibition of oocyte donation and surrogacy are not comprehensible from a medical, psychological, and ethical point of view. Reimbursement of publicly insured patients is restricted in comparison with other European countries. Married couples receive half of the payment for three IVF/ICSI cycles; non-married couples receive no payment at all. PMID:24337127

  3. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  4. Conjuring medical science: the 1986 referendum on AIDS/HIV policy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, C P

    1997-12-01

    Medical science occupies a peculiar status in American life. On the one hand, people often view medical science as a privileged and authoritative body of knowledge that transcends other kinds of knowledge. On the other hand, medical-scientific authority can be easily conjured from the popular symbols of science, e.g., credentials, technical terms, and white lab coats. This problem can be converted into an anthropological question of meanings and symbols, based on Geertz's interpretive anthropology and Baudrillard's sociology of hyperreality. This article uses these frameworks to explore the cultural construction of medical-scientific authority in the case of a 1986 referendum on AIDS/HIV policy in California. The interpretation of that construction raises some difficult problems concerning anthropology's treatment of medical science. PMID:9408902

  5. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group. PMID:24825685

  6. Medication for older people - aspects of rational therapy from the general practitioner's point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vass, M; Hendriksen, C

    2005-01-01

    prescribing practices.The authors recommend and present tools enabling the GP to focus on 'the core prescribing situation'. The logistics to optimise medication including compliance, the use of modern IT and better collaboration and communication between primary and secondary care are discussed. The authors...... social activity (including basal aids for hearing and sight)....

  7. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  8. Regulatory aspects of the radiation safety in the medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of the ionizing radiations can be stochastic and non-stochastic. These latter show a dose-effect relation with defined level of threshold dose. The stochastic effects lack of the threshold dose and the possibility of their occurrence is proportional to the received dose. The radiation protection objetive is to avoid the occurrence of the non-stochastic effects and to limit the probability of the stochastic effects, based on three principles: justification, dose limitation and optimization. All use of radiation source must be justified by real benefits; nevertheless, the risks are not limited, so dose limits to reduce them must be adopted. In the medical practice, both worker and patient expositions are considered. In case of patients, the concept of dose limits is not applied, but justification and optimization, are used. The Authorities of Radiological Inspection are: the National Atomic Energy Comission for the use of radioactive sources, and the Secretary of Health for X-ray equipments. Both organisms work in coordination since 1967 (M.E.L.)

  9. Animal poisoning - veterinary-medical and criminal-legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from approved or planned poisoning with agricultural purpose, an increase in the number of cases of intentional animal poisoning (primarily referring to cats and dogs has been detected in Serbia, and it is suspected that their number is significantly larger than the one shown by the official statistics data. Under the conditions prescribed by the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, such activities may represent the crime of killing and torture of animals, but also the crime of causing a general danger. It would be impossible to conduct the procedure of discovering and proving these criminal offences and the responsibility of their perpetrators without findings and opinion of forensic veterinary-medicine experts. They play an important role when it comes to site inspection, crime scene processing, collecting the samples from the crime scene, processing of samples and autopsy and exhumation of a potentially poisoned animal body. Just like other evidence in criminal procedure, findings and opinion of experts of veterinary medicine are estimated in accordance with the principle of free assessment of evidence. However, due to the specificity of such cases of killing and torture of animals, their impact on court’s decision on the existence of criminal offence and perpetrator’s liability is crucial. In this paper, the authors discuss the scope of animal poisoning in Serbia, particularly in Belgrade, analyze possible criminal - legal consequences of these illegal activities and point out to a significant role that experts of veterinary medical profession have in discovering and proving such cases and the liability of their perpetrators.

  10. Course on medical aspects of nuclear and radiation accidents. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tchernobyl event deflected the attention from other potential hazards related to ionizing radiation as can result from misfunction or misuse of radioactive sources widely applied in human medicine or in industry. It was only after the Goiania accident in Brazil that these radiation sources retrieved the attention they deserve. Around the world, great efforts have been undertaken by the producers and users of these sources, supported by scientific investigations and by legislative backing, to minimize to the greatest extent possible any risk to public health. Nevertheless, accidents involving serious overexposures of individuals cannot be excluded entirely for the future. It is therefore a matter of professional responsibility to carefully evaluate the experiences gathered in the wake of radiation accidents and proliferate this knowledge to those professionals-health physicists, decontamination specialists, medical and paramedical staff - that might be confronted with the consequences of an accident and from whose expertise and proper handling human lifes might depend. It was with this aim that the Atomic Energy Authority and the International Bureau of the Forschungszentrum Juelich undertook to organize a joint training course within the German-Egyptian governmental agreement on bilateral cooperation in scientific research and technological development signed on 11.4.1979. Selected experts from both sides convened and presented both compended text book knowledge as well as own recent scientific data reflecting the state of the art. This material was selected and prepared in order to fit the needs of the invited 25 Egyptian physicians and paramedical course participants who where to be given guidelines on how to react to radiation overexposure incidents. (orig.)

  11. Visiting Holocaust-Related Sites with Medical Students as an Aid in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Esteban; Ríos-Cortés, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students. The authors describe a study tour with medical students to Poland, to the largest Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz, and to the city of Krakow. The tour is the final component of a formal course entitled: "The Holocaust, a Reflection from Medicine" at the Autónoma University of Madrid, Spain. Visiting sites related to the Holocaust, the killing centers and the sites where medical experiments were conducted has a singular meaning for medical students. Tolerance, non-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both learnt and taught at the very place where such values were utterly absent. PMID:27430079

  12. Less is more? Loudness aspects of prescriptive methods for nonlinear hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Smeds, Karolina

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, about 10% of the adult population experienceshearing problems that cause them difficulties in everydaycommunication, and approximately 60 000 people are providedwith hearing aids each year. Despite the fact that modernhearing aids can facilitate speech communication in a widerange of listening environments, many hearing-aid users aredissatisfied with their hearing aids. It is likely that theclinical methods used for individual fitting of the hearingaids are not optimal. The current...

  13. ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF THE ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL AID TO CHILDREN WITH RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Malievsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    The article is devoted to an actual problem of pediatrics to the organization of medical aid to children with rheumatic diseases. The basic normative documents regulating works pediatric and rheumatological of service on municipal, regional and federal levels are reflected. The operational experience of the Republican center of children cardiorheumatology and artrology in Republic Bashkortostan is presented. The characteristic of the computer program «The Register of children with rheumatic d...

  14. Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhabenko, Nataliya; Zhabenko, Olena

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students) and nonmed...

  15. Analysis of calls to the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services in a Brazilian capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.

  16. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires that... drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible under the statute. The statute also...

  17. Implementation of Computer Aided Diagnosis System Based on Parallel Approach of Ant Based Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayabalan Jaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to develop Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system for the detection of brain tumor by using parallel implementation of ACO system for medical image segmentation applications due to the rapid execution for obtaining and extracting the Region of Interest (ROI from the images for diagnostic purposes in medical field. Approach: For ROI segmentation, metaheuristic based Parallel Ant colony Optimization (PACO approach has been implemented. The system has been simulated in the Mat lab for the parallel processing, using the master slave approach and information exchange. The scheme is tested up to 10 real time MRI brain images. Here parallelism is inherent in program loops, which focused on performing searching operation in parallel. Results: The computational results shows that parallel ACO systems uses the concept of the parallelization approach enabled the utilization of the intensity similarity measurement technique because of the capability of parallel processing. Conclusion: Medical image segmentation and detection at the early stage played vital roles for many health-related applications such as medical diagnostics, drug evaluation, medical research, training and teaching. Due to the rapid progress in the technologies for segmenting digital images for diagnostic purposes in medical field parallel Ant based CAD system are technologically feasible for Medical Domain which will certainly reduce the mortality rate.

  18. KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING HIV/AIDS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Panchsheel, Khan Mohammad Shibly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS affects the most productive age group, the knowledge of which is clouded with many myths and misconceptions. Objective: To determine the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of HIV/AIDS among the students of MBBS first year. Methodology: The students were asked to fill a pre-designed, structured, semi open ended questionnaire. All efforts were made to ensure the originality of the responses. Statistical Analysis: The data collected so, was analysed, tabulated and presented in the forms of percentages and proportions. Appropriate statistical tests applied, wherever applicable. Results: Among the total of 122 respondents, all of them have heard about HIV/AIDS and that it is caused by a virus. About 43.4% students believed that HIV infection means AIDS. The place where HIV testing is done, was known to about 78%. Knowledge about the routes of spread included; through infected injections (100%, through blood transfusion (98%, Unprotected Sexual contact (97.5%, Infected Mother to child (86%. The respondents were aware that it doesn’t spread through touching/hand shaking (99.2%, sharing food (93.4%, using common cups/glasses (89%, used clothes/towels/soap (88.5%. About 80% responded to have discussed about HIV/AIDS ever with anybody, while about 82% considered safe working with a patient of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Most of students were aware about the basic knowledge while they also had a misconception which implies that the students should be equipped more, especially since the beginning of their career.

  19. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  20. Bioorganic chemistry research in the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry - medical aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holý, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, Supplement (2004), s. 107. ISSN 1075-2617. [ International /3./ and European Peptide Symposium /28./. 05.09.2004-10.09.2004, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bioorganic chemistry research * medical aspects Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. [Current aspects of war surgery. From the trauma center to precarious medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdelette, P

    1997-01-01

    War, said Carl von Clausewitz, is a cameleon. In this century, each armed conflict has proved to be unique, particularly in its medical aspects, with its own features and teaching its won lessons. As recent events show, no conflict is a fact of the past. Medical care delivered to war casualties depend on the circumstances of the war, on the medical resources available, but also on the price that cultures or circumstances place on it. Everything separates these two paradigms; on the one hand the "precious" casualty of western armies whose medical support is organized in a concept (forward medical and surgical care, ultra-rapid medical evacuation) tailored to each case, and as close as possible to the medical care of a civilian trauma patient whose models remains the North-American ballistic wound managed in trauma centers; on the other hand, civilian victims, in large numbers, in poor and disorganized countries, often abandoned to their own fate or sorted by "epidemiological" triage, which guarantees a distribution, as efficient as possible, of limited medical care. In war, advanced medical care and precarious medicine may work side by side according to two logics which do not exclude one another and constantly improve. PMID:9297902

  2. Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula - status quo und future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Burghaus, Désirée; Bayer, Gudrun; Kindler-Röhrborn, Andrea; Heue, Matthias; Becker, Jan Carl

    2012-01-01

    The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany) revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany) in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively – using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students’ workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis – ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM) is obligatory. PMID:23255960

  3. Computer in radiology: Physicians memorandum and administration of medical practice aided by COMRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One year after introduction of the COMRAD EDP system of text processing to the radiological practice of the author, the advantages resulting for the physician and medical staff as well as for the transferring physician and their patients are presented and the econimic efficiency is determined. The high capacity of COMRAD including the automatic text processing for a complete computer aided administration of medical practice and the accounting department, is based on the advanced technological development of microelectronics and combined with a user specific software. The hardware equipment enables multiprogram processing, data processing in on-line operation as well as short access-time of stored data, due to the rapid tracertechnology of the computer. The software equipment, with text processing and a medical practice administration system, permits the regular workload to be handled efficiently and reliable. The main issue is text processing using a text rail. An integrated part of the result output is the performance capacity enabling automatic settlement of accounts with health insurance agencies and privatly insured patients. Statistical evaluation, for instance the daily performance efficiency of the practice can be recalled any time. An accounting system accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll and general accounting supplements the software package enabling a computer aided handling of all administrative tasks required in a radiological practice. (orig.)

  4. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Supinya Tewtrakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2006-01-01

    The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) using the multiplate integration assay (MIA). Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml), the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 =...

  5. Patients' attitudes to medical and psychosocial aspects of care in fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J;

    2003-01-01

    among infertile people. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological study based on questionnaires among all new couples attending five fertility clinics with a response rate of 80.0% and a total of 2250 patients. RESULTS: The vast majority of both men and women considered a high level of medical...... services for both men and women was high infertility-related stress in the marital, personal and social domain. CONCLUSIONS: A supportive attitude from medical staff and the provision of both medical and psychosocial information and support should be integral aspects of medical care in fertility clinics....... Although only a minority of the participants perceived professional psychosocial services as important, they should be available for patients whose infertility causes them much strain, especially for patients whose marital relationship suffered much because of infertility....

  6. Treating an HIV/AIDS Patient's PTSD and Medication Nonadherence with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Principle-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS patients with medication adherence problems are vulnerable to developing drug resistance, immune system degradation, and opportunistic infections. Poor adherence to antiretroviral medication regimens can be aggravated by psychiatric problems, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article presents the case study of a…

  7. Staying on the Roller Coaster with Clients: Implications of the New HIV/AIDS Medical Treatments for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    There have been dramatic improvements in the medical treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS. This article provides an overview of the new medical treatments, highlights some of the salient psychosocial issues that impact both clients and counselors, discusses common counselor responses, and suggests some helpful interventions. (Author/MKA)

  8. Development of an informative system on aspects of radiological protection in the medical practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today in day is difficult to imagine the development of the medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of diverse illnesses without the use of the ionizing radiations. In spite of the diffusion and application of these practices, the patients and the public in general don't have full conscience of like the procedures are carried out and the risks that these involve. For it diverse international and national organizations in the last years recommend to include in the programs of radiological protection, all the information that should be given to the patients and the one public that attend as users to the medical institutions to undergo to procedures that imply the use of the ionizing radiations. In Cuba a growing and quick tendency exists to the introduction of nuclear techniques for medical ends, however paradoxically the relative aspects to the communication to the patients and the public in general about the risks of the procedures to that they will be subjected and in consequence on the measures to minimize them is not adequate. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned, specialists of national centers linked to the control and consultant ship in the topics of radiological protection in the medical practices that use ionizing radiations, they worked in the country in the design of an information system that should contribute to elevate the population's culture before the mentioned aspects. The present work describes the structure of this system in function of the different medical attention levels of our national health system. Additionally it exposes the development of a package of varied informative and training tools among those that are folding, posters, guides, instructions, CD Show that its approach general and specific aspects of the uses and risks of medical practices in nuclear medicine, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy directed so much to health professionals, patients as public in general. (Author)

  9. Perioperative stress in dogs : Different aspects of manifestation and characteristics with medetomidine and acepromazine preanaesthetic medication

    OpenAIRE

    VÀisÀnen, Misse

    2006-01-01

    The series of investigations presented in this thesis examined different aspects of the manifestation of perioperative stress in client-owned dogs and compared the influences of two preanaesthetic medications. Data were obtained from 43 overtly healthy dogs that underwent ovariohysterectomy following preanaesthetic administration of medetomidine and butorphanol (MED) or acepromazine and butorphanol (ACE) (Study 1) and from 96 dogs that were recovering from day-case soft-tissue operations at h...

  10. Aspects Regarding the Medical Data Processing - The Statistical Study of Malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta ZEGAN; Cristina Gena DASCALU

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect in the analysis of medical data is represented by their statistical processing, which gives useful directions in finding the diagnosis and the most adequate treatment, especially when the amount of statistical data is very large and extended in time. We give an example in this paper, by presenting a statistical evaluation on a consignment of patients who have addressed the Dental Ambulatory for Children (Iaşi) for orthodontic consulting over a period of 10 years (2000 – 20...

  11. Progress in computer aided diagnosis for medical images by information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the history, present state and future view of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) based on processing, recognition and visualization of chest and abdominal images. A primitive feature of CAD is seen as early as in 1960's for lung cancer detection. Contemporarily, advances in medical imaging by CT, MRI, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in multi-dimensions require doctors to read those vast information, where necessity of CAD is evident. At present, simultaneous CAD for multi-organs and multi-diseases is in progress, the interaction between images and medical doctors is leading to developing a newer system like virtual endoscopy, objective evaluation of CAD systems is necessary for its approval to authorities like fluorescein diacetate (FDA) with use of receiver operating characteristics analysis, and thus cooperation of medical and technological fields is more and more important. In future, CAD should be responsible for individual difference and for change in disease state, usable simultaneously for time and space, more recognized of its importance by doctors, and more useful in participation to therapeutic practice. (R.T.)

  12. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Pim A.; Biersteker, Heleen A.; Biert, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Tan, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. Methods One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78%) and 69 (58%) participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. Results After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. Conclusions The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer. PMID:25382803

  13. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim A. de Ruijter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA and basic life support (BLS course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students. Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349 medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From these 120 students, 94 (78% and 69 (58% participated in retention tests of FA and BLS skills after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The assessment consisted of two FA stations and one BLS station. Results: After 1 year, only 2% passed both FA and BLS stations and 68% failed both FA and BLS stations. After 2 years, 5% passed and 50% failed both FA and BLS stations. Despite the high failure rate at the stations, 90% adequately checked vital signs and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation appropriately. Conclusions: The long-term retention of FA and BLS skills after a compulsory course in the first year is poor. Adequate check of vital signs and commencing cardiopulmonary resuscitation retained longer.

  14. Consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands: demographic and medical genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Kate, Leo P; Teeuw, Marieke E; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the presence of consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands, in the past and today, and concludes with a discussion of medical genetic aspects. First geographic characteristics, the demographic history, the genetic make-up of the native population, legal aspects and the public opinion are reviewed. Then data on the prevalence of consanguinity in the native population are presented for marriages since 1840, followed by data on consanguineous marriages among immigrants from countries with a tradition of close-kin marriages. It is estimated that approximately 1% of at-risk consanguineous couples are referred to clinical genetic centres for prospective genetic counselling in the Netherlands. This picture will change dramatically if and when next-generation sequencing is introduced to identify couples at ≥ 25% risk prospectively. PMID:25060279

  15. Analysis of the impact of digital watermarking on computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Gomez-Flores, Wilfrido; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Medical images (MI) are relevant sources of information for detecting and diagnosing a large number of illnesses and abnormalities. Due to their importance, this study is focused on breast ultrasound (BUS), which is the main adjunct for mammography to detect common breast lesions among women worldwide. On the other hand, aiming to enhance data security, image fidelity, authenticity, and content verification in e-health environments, MI watermarking has been widely used, whose main goal is to embed patient meta-data into MI so that the resulting image keeps its original quality. In this sense, this paper deals with the comparison of two watermarking approaches, namely spread spectrum based on the discrete cosine transform (SS-DCT) and the high-capacity data-hiding (HCDH) algorithm, so that the watermarked BUS images are guaranteed to be adequate for a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system, whose two principal outcomes are lesion segmentation and classification. Experimental results show that HCDH algorithm is highly recommended for watermarking medical images, maintaining the image quality and without introducing distortion into the output of CADx. PMID:26609802

  16. Computer Aided Concept for Enhancing Motivation and Thinking while Teaching and Learning Medical Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Gheorghe GLIGA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to refine the old computer aided concept we developed several years ago for teaching and learning medical physiology, by adding new tools to enhance motivation and thinking of both medical students and teachers. Since all the future exams of our University will rely mainly on a written, or even better, computerized multiple choice format, we focused on tools that motivate teachers in writing good multiple-choice questions (MCQ, not only for final exam but for teaching students as well, and tools to motivate students to perform MCQ tests during semester. We developed a concept of a Multifunctional or Enhanced MCQ which offer teachers, when using our software, the possibility to write questions with one statement and up to 10 answers which in their turn can be individually enabled or disabled by them. We conceived a precise protocol for calculation of Current P index and Current D index of each MCQ which is useful for a permanent, during semester, refining of poor quality questions or to adjust current overall difficulty of the MCQ set according to student performances and/or teacher expectancies.

  17. Design and implementation of a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, decision, indication for treatment, follow-up) as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high quality radiotherapy. Whilst it has long been recognized that the physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy are vital to achieve and effective and safe treatment, it has been increasingly acknowledged only recently that a systematic approach is absolutely necessary to all steps within clinical and technical aspects of a radiotherapy programme as well. The need to establish general guidelines at the IAEA, taking into account clinical medical physics, radiation protection and safety considerations, for designing and implementing radiotherapy programmes in Member States has been identified through the Member States' increased interest in the efficient and safe application of radiation in health care. Several consultants and advisory group meetings were convened to prepare a report providing a basis for establishing a programme in radiotherapy. The present TECDOC is addressed to all professionals and administrators involved in the development, implementation and management of a radiotherapy programme in order to establish a common and consistent framework where all steps and procedures in radiotherapy are taken into account

  18. 34 CFR 300.113 - Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices. 300.113 Section 300.113 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO...

  19. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  20. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis

  1. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoitsis, John [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece)]. E-mail: stoitsis@biosim.ntua.gr; Valavanis, Ioannis [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Mougiakakou, Stavroula G. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Golemati, Spyretta [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Nikita, Alexandra [University of Athens, Medical School 152 28 Athens (Greece); Nikita, Konstantina S. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Athens 157 71 (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  2. Setting up a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cancer is increasing, particularly because of the increase in life expectancy arising from worldwide improvements in standards of living. According to recent estimates of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately ten million new cases of cancer are being detected per year worldwide, with slightly more than half of the cases occurring in developing countries. By the year 2015 this number is expected to increase to about 15 million cases, of which two thirds will occur in developing countries. About half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy, either as part of their primary treatment or in connection with recurrences or palliative treatment. Radiotherapy is a multidisciplinary specialty which uses complex equipment and radiation sources for the delivery of treatment. It is estimated that approximately 3300 teletherapy machines are currently installed in developing countries. This figure is significantly below the estimated needs, of almost 5000 machines at present and about 10 000 machines by the year 2015. Taking this into account, in addition to the great need for qualified professionals (radiation oncologists, medical radiotherapy physicists, radiotherapy technicians, radiation protection officers, maintenance engineers, etc.), the future development of the medical infrastructure for cancer treatment appears to be a substantial undertaking. While the present publication discusses radiation treatment programmes alone, it is recognized that other components of comprehensive cancer management programmes, such as cancer prevention and diagnosis, also need to be addressed. It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, treatment decision making, indication for treatment and follow-up), as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment, must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high

  3. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  4. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  5. Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD): Methodological Aspects and Practical Applications in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianti, Eleonora

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) has deservedly gained increasing popularity in modern drug discovery (Schneider, G.; Fechner, U. 2005), whether applied to academic basic research or the pharmaceutical industry pipeline. In this work, after reviewing theoretical advancements in CADD, we integrated novel and stateof- the-art methods to assist in the design of small-molecule inhibitors of current cancer drug targets, specifically: Androgen Receptor (AR), a nuclear hormone receptor required for carcinogenesis of Prostate Cancer (PCa); Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5), implicated in PCa progression; and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1), essential to the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) during latent infections. Androgen Receptor. With the aim of generating binding mode hypotheses for a class (Handratta, V.D. et al. 2005) of dual AR/CYP17 inhibitors (CYP17 is a key enzyme for androgens biosynthesis and therefore implicated in PCa development), we successfully implemented a receptor-based computational strategy based on flexible receptor docking (Gianti, E.; Zauhar, R.J. 2012). Then, with the ultimate goal of identifying novel AR binders, we performed Virtual Screening (VS) by Fragment-Based Shape Signatures, an improved version of the original method developed in our Laboratory (Zauhar, R.J. et al. 2003), and we used the results to fully assess the high-level performance of this innovative tool in computational chemistry. STAT5. The SRC Homology 2 (SH2) domain of STAT5 is responsible for phospho-peptide recognition and activation. As a keystone of Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD), we characterized key residues responsible for binding. We also generated a model of STAT5 receptor bound to a phospho-peptide ligand, which was validated by docking publicly known STAT5 inhibitors. Then, we performed Shape Signatures- and docking-based VS of the ZINC database (zinc.docking.org), followed by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA

  6. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  7. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  8. Use of modern technology as an aid to medication adherence: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson SC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandra C Thompson, Adrian T WalkerCombined University Centre for Rural Health, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: As life expectancy increases, and with it the increased burden of chronic disease, there is increasing reliance on pharmaceuticals for primary and secondary prevention. However, adherence to the regime of treatment prescribed by the doctor is suboptimal for a wide range of reasons. This article explores the role of modern technology in trying to improve adherence to prescribed medications by searching peer-reviewed articles through the online PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the keywords “adherence”, “compliance”, “medication”, “pharmaceutical”, and “technology”, and further citation snowballing. Literature was reviewed to determine reasons for noncompliance and how technology is being used to improve patient adherence. The following factors potentially assist patients to maintain good adherence by helping minimize side effects or simplifying doses and regimens: electronic prescribing and use of shared electronic health records so that all care providers are aware of prescribed medications; reduced costs through improved manufacturing processes; dosing and appointment reminders and dosing aids; improved drugs which are more acceptable to the patient and have reduced side effects; and better condition monitoring by doctors and patients. The areas which are least amenable to positive changes are those that are intrinsic to the patient, such as self-efficacy and motivation, and the quality of the doctor–patient interaction, which impacts upon patients’ understanding of their disease and their trust and confidence in their health care provider. While many new approaches to assist adherence are reported regularly in the media and on the Internet, there is frequently little high-quality evidence to confirm the utility of the approach. Improving adherence is likely to

  9. Radiobiological aspects of application of interleucine as agents for the first aid under strong radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper substantiates the application of the interleucine-1 beta (IL-1) as an emergency medical care agent in case of the acute emergency exposure of a human being. During simulation experiments a human recombinant IL-1 was added to suspension of the affected bony marrow-cells extracted a few minutes following the total 5 Gy exposure of Fi male-mice (CBAxC57B1). Recombinant mouse IL-3 and GM-CSF agents (produced by Bering company, Germany) were used for comparison purpose (agent concentration constituted 100-10000 unit/ml). The incubated bony marrow cells were tested for trunk potencies in mice-recipients irradiated by 8.5 Gy dose during 24 h. Following nine days the colonies in their spleen and bony marrow cellular texture were estimated. IL-1 was shown to have the protective effect both on separated trunk type hemopoietic cells and on the whole body irradiated hemopoietic system. IL-1 turned to be similar to radiation-protective agents of polysaccharide nature and to radiation-protective EIR procedure. It is pointed out that IL-1 has no whole body toxic or any other by effects

  10. Dosimetric and medical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1987, in Goiania, a city of one million inhabitants and capital of the Brazilian State of Goias, a rotating assembly of the shielding head of a teletherapy unit was removed and the capsule containing 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) of 137Cs was dismantled. This serious radiological accident resulted in four fatalities, injuries to many people, and the widespread contamination of the central part of Goiania. This TECDOC describes the dosimetric and medical aspects of the Goiania accident, including the experience of some of the scientists and physicians who were involved in the management, monitoring and treatment of the victims. Many scientific papers have been published on the subject in different journals. This publication compiles up to data conclusions on the 10 year follow-up of the Goiania accident victims, and summarizes the experience that was acquired

  11. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  12. [Hygienic aspects with regard to nursing of home care patients with AIDS, chronic diseases and mental handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, H G; Flassak, H; Throm, W

    1995-04-01

    A human handicap is defined as a broad, hard and long lasting restriction of the mental development and the social integration. Groups of handicapped persons can be divided into mentally, psychologically, physically, sensory (blind, deaf) handicapped as well as into multiple disabled and chronically sick persons and those in need of care (old). New groups with demands for aid are among others people suffering from AIDS, psychologically sick (old) and people getting old as well as mentally, physically und multiple handicapped persons, people suffering from cancer, severely ill and dying people. For all handicapped people should be demanded the possibility of living almost normal lives. For all persons directly concerned as well as their families such a normal life should include: the right of self-determination and autonomy, the demand for complex styles of living and nearby care/support, the providing of respective infrastructures such as barrier free living and access to public institutions, access to public transport and homes fitting for handicapped persons, the demand for out-patient treatment by a complex range of various possibilities of support and finally, the providing of alternative forms of living in contrast to the traditional way of life of handicapped people like families or homes. Three important living areas can be derived from these ideas, namely: living conditions, education/professional and working field, social life/social environment. These important living areas require preventive measures, mainly advice and information centres, places to go early recognition and early promotion of handicapped people and those in risk of a handicap (especially children) as well as medical, professional and social rehabilitation or integration. Concerning the spectrum of support, aid and care in the homely area up to now already exists a variety of offers by out-patient services (information services, social units, mobile support services

  13. Practical aspects during sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The state of being free of living microorganisms is called sterility. The sterility state can be achieved by different means of sterilization. In practice the results of the process cannot be fully verified by tests, so the efficacy of the sterilization process must be validated. ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of product. Each product needs distinct protocol for bioburden determination and sterility testing. During time, the Microbiological Laboratories from Multipurpose Irradiation Center deals with different types of products, mainly for VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. Special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton, packed in large quantities. VDmax25 method can not be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU / pack, no matter which is the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for manufacturer, when choosing other method. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases the bioburden and sterility testing. These are time and money consuming. The costs can be reduced if taking into account some aspects. Reason for performing the bacteriostasis-fungistasis just for sterility testing will be given. The present study puts forward aspects during the validation studies for medical devices (cotton wool, cotton gauze, surgical sutures, dental screws), at IRASM Microbiological Laboratory.

  14. A STUDY ON AWARENESS ABOUT HIV/AIDS AMO NG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS OF BANGALORE MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the challenges in public health in India. Young people are more vulnerable for getting in contact with the disease. Medical students during their tenure of student life can play a pivotal role in knowledge transmission about th e disease to the general public. This study was conducted at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute to find out the awareness of HIV/AIDS among first year medical students. METHODOLOGY: A Cross sectional study was done among 250 MBBS students of Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute during the academic year of 2012 - 2013 . The information was collected from them within 2 - 3 weeks of admission to the course using pre - tested semi structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 18 ( + 1 years. Males comprised 64% and females comprised 36% of respondents. 29% of them were from rural background and 67% from Urban. 97% of the participants know that HIV causative agent is virus. 49% of them said it is contagious , 42% of them said non - contagious and 8.9% say they don’t know. They had adequate knowledge about modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was through blood transfusion , unsterilized instrument , and mother to child transmission. But regarding sexual transmission among tw o HIV infected person , 40% of them said it is safe . 92% of them felt HIV can be prevented by taking proper precautions. 94% of them got the information from mass media especially from TV. 55% of them received formal sex education in Schools and Colleges. CONCLUSION: Young medical students can be used as a resource persons for educating the youth at the community level.

  15. Update and overview of practical epidemiologic aspects of HIV/AIDS among injection drug users in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibanez, Scott S; Garfein, Richard S; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Purcell, David W; Paxton, Lynn A; Greenberg, Alan E

    2006-01-01

    In a changing public health landscape in which local, state, and federal agencies must confront threats of bioterrorism, emerging infections, and numerous chronic diseases, transmission of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) continues to be an important public health issue and one of the driving forces behind the HIV epidemic. Using a computerized MEDLINE search of published articles from January 1981 through October 2005, we conducted a literature review of practical epidemiologic aspects of HIV/AIDS among IDUs in the United States. Although recent trends indicate a decline in the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections associated with injection drug use, drug-use behaviors overall still account for 32% of new HIV diagnoses. Factors in addition to syringe sharing contribute to HIV transmission among IDUs: risky sexual behaviors, sharing of drug preparation equipment and drug solutions, and contextual and social factors. Promising approaches for HIV prevention include rapid HIV testing, office-based substance abuse treatment, behavioral interventions, improved communication about syringe exchange programs, and case management. HIV among IDUs continues to be an important public health problem in the 21st century. It is imperative that public health agencies continue to monitor and combat the HIV epidemic among IDUs to ensure that hard-won gains will not be eroded. PMID:16736357

  16. ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL AID FOR THE SPECIAL CONTINGENT ON THE TERRITORY OF THE KIROV REGION DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna SVINTSOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of the Great Patriotic War from autumn 1942 to spring 1945 is characterized as a period of transition and offensive initiatives of the Red Army. As a result of the successful advance of the Red Army at the fronts, there appeared a great number of prisoners of war; it became necessary to organize medical aid for the special contingent in the Soviet Union. Numerous specialized medical agencies were organized in the country, including special hospitals in the rear for prisoners of war and internees. Part of the special hospitals in the wartime was located on the territory of the Kirov region. The article is devoted to studies of the work of special hospitals in the region from early 1943 to spring 1945, their medical care, problems of their organization and results of their activities as well as special features of the contingent. 

  17. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  18. Use of dietary supplements among people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with vulnerability to medical misinformation on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman Seth C; Cherry Chauncey; White Denise; Jones Miche'l; Kalichman Moira O; Detorio Mervi A; Caliendo Angela M; Schinazi Raymond F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Use of dietary supplements is common among people living with HIV/AIDS. Because dietary supplements are used in the context of other health behaviors, they may have direct and indirect health benefits. However, supplements may also be associated with vulnerability to medical misinformation and unfounded health claims. We examined use of dietary supplements among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and the association between use of dietary supplements and believing medical ...

  19. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kwee Choy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA, in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.

  20. Safety aspects and patterns of medication use in pregnancy. With special focus on psychotropic medication and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Use of medications, including psychotropics, is common during pregnancy. Indeed, many women might be in need of pharmacotherapy during pregnancy in order to ensure maternalfetal health. However, discordant findings or lack of information about neonatal and maternal safety after use of psychotropics, in particular antidepressants, have so far posed significant challenges on practicing clinicians when assessing the risk of pharmacotherapy versus the risk of not medicated maternal illness. In ad...

  1. Legal and medical aspects of the ethics committee’s work relating to abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponjavić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary

  2. Health behavior predictors of medication adherence among low health literacy people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-09-01

    One particularly vulnerable population for HIV treatment non-adherence is persons with poor health literacy skills. For these individuals, it is important to simplify medication taking as much as possible by integrating medication adherence into other routine health behaviors. This study aims to ascertain the relationship between medication adherence and other health behaviors. Adults living with HIV (N = 422) completed intake measures and 3 months of unannounced pill counts. Endorsement of diet and exercise behaviors at intake predicted higher medication adherence, over and above other known predictors of medication adherence such as HIV symptoms, depression, social support, and stress. These results support integrating strategies for medication management into a constellation of routine health practices. PMID:25706334

  3. Ethical and hygiene aspects of the reprocessing of medical devices in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadian, Ojan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on safety and quality principles, for each medical device (MD, regardless of its declared status as single- or multi-use device, careful considerations must be made. This includes assessment whether reprocessing is economical and ecological meaningful, and technical feasible. So far, however, in Germany reprocessing of declared single use MD is legally allowed, provided that the above aspects are well covered. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate, when circumstances allow reprocessing of declared single-use MD. For reprocessing of single use MD the following preconditions must be fulfilled: * The security level of the reprocessed MD must be equivalent to the status of the newly delivered item; this means that a patient is not exposed to a higher risk through a reprocessed disposable MD than through the new, i.e. un-processed product. * The reprocessing must be based on a detailed risk assessment and risk analysis, and must be described in detail regarding selection of the reprocessing method. Additionally, all necessary safety- and quality assurance measures must be stated. * The reprocessing measure needs to be accompanied with a quality management system which determines and documents the responsibility of all stages of reprocessing; where the corresponding reprocessing procedures are well defined; and the efficacy of the procedure is proven by product-specific or product-group-specific tests and reports. The process must be validated according to recognised methods of science and technology, taking into account potential negative influences of the reprocessing on the properties of the material and the technical and functional safety. For reprocessing of MDs of the category Critical C the quality assurance must be certified by an accredited certifying body.

  4. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology med...

  5. Medical Comics as Tools to Aid in Obtaining Informed Consent for Stroke Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Yuichi; Sasajima, Hiroyasu

    2015-07-01

    Informed consent has now become common in medical practice. However, a gap still exists between doctors and patients in the understanding of clinical conditions. We designed medical comics about "subarachnoid hemorrhage" and "intracerebral hemorrhage" to help doctors obtain informed consent intuitively, quickly, and comprehensively.Between September 2010 and September 2012, we carried out a questionnaire survey about medical comics with the families of patients who had suffered an intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The questionnaire consisted of 6 questions inquiring about their mental condition, reading time, usefulness of the comics in understanding brain function and anatomy, pathogenesis, doctor's explanation, and applicability of these comics.The results showed that 93.8% responders would prefer or strongly prefer the use of comics in other medical situations. When considering the level of understanding of brain function and anatomy, pathology of disease, and doctor's explanation, 81.3%, 75.0%, and 68.8% of responders, respectively, rated these comics as very useful or useful.We think that the visual and narrative illustrations in medical comics would be more helpful for patients than a lengthy explanation by a doctor. Most of the responders hoped that medical comics would be applied to other medical cases. Thus, medical comics could work as a new communication tool between doctors and patients. PMID:26131830

  6. Medical student's perceptions of different teaching aids from a tertiary care teaching institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjit Singh Bagga

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Student's preferences and feedback need to be taken into consideration when using multimedia modalities to present lectures to students. Feasible student suggestions must be implemented for further improving the use of audio-visual aids during didactic lectures to make teaching learning environment better. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2788-2791

  7. Organisational aspects of the qualification and involvement of Medical Physicists in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specialist in Medical Physics has a key position in Quality Assurance process at diagnostic and therapeutic process and in Radiation Protection at medical use of ionizing radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation of IAEA recommend and the EURATOM Directives 96/23 and 97/43 require qualified expert in medical physics to be involved in all the activities with ionizing radiation. In radiotherapeutic process this expert shall be closely involved and in nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology this specialist shall be available. The International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) as well as a number of national organizations for Medical Physics in different countries have a clear concept for the qualification levels of the medical physics specialists, for the recognition scheme of their qualification and for the organization of the medical physics activities in a clinical environment. The legal requirements for medical physics expert's involvement in medicine is introducing in Bulgaria with the new Ordinance for Radiation Protection of Individuals at Medical Exposure that is expected to come into force in the beginning of next year. Some problems for discussion are submitted here finding necessary changes in the existing system for education and training of Medical physicists as well as in the organization of their involvement in health centers in the country. (author)

  8. Impact of continuous Medical Aid utilisation on healthcare utilisation: unique insight using the 2008–2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Na Rae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although there has been considerable discussion about the social safety net, few studies related to effect of duration of continuous receipt of Medical Aid on healthcare utilisation have been conducted. Therefore, we investigate whether the duration of receiving Medical Aid affected medical care utilisation. Setting Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study conducted from 2008 to 2012. Participants We included 11 783 samples. Interventions Estimating changes in their healthcare utilisation during specific time intervals (1, 2 and ≥3 years) after they switched from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number of outpatient visits. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.0.051-fold higher (p value: 0.434) among those who were Medical Aid beneficiaries for a continuous period of 1 year, 0.0.267-fold higher (p value: 0.000) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 2 years, and 0.0.562-fold higher (p value:<0.0001) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 3 years than it was among those who were beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Conclusions Our results reflect an association between the number of consecutive years of receiving Medical Aid and number of outpatient visits. Since duration of dependence is correlated with reduced exit rates, limits on length of benefits should be considered to strengthen the incentive to return to work. PMID:27053265

  9. Improving medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS: Leveraging the provider role and peer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi T

    2016-01-01

    African-American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV-related morbidity and mortality. To address the burden of HIV/AIDS among this at-risk population, there is need to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence and affect their care-seeking behavior and specifically adherence to antiretroviral treatment. A preliminary qualitative study was conducted with a sample of the target population (n = 10) using grounded theory as the methodological approach. Similarly, 21 healthcare providers - physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and case managers - were then interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts compared care-provider perceptions and narrated experiences with those from the patient participants. Themes related to patient care perceived to enhance medication adherence included (1) provider-patient relationship; (2) holistic and patient-centered care; (3) adequacy of patient education and counseling; (4) modeling adherence behavior; and (5) motivation. Two intervention strategies are proposed - Peer educators as an integral part of the care team and Patient Advisory Groups as a feedback mechanism to enhance effective delivery of patient care in the target population. This exploratory research lays a foundation for the design of targeted interventions to improve linkage to care and enhance medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26278429

  10. Stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Lyimo; S.E. Stutterheim; H.J. Hospers; T. de Glee; A. van der Ven; M. de Bruin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a proposed theoretical model examining the interrelationships between stigma, disclosure, coping, and medication adherence among 158 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in northern Tanzania. Perceived and self-stigma, voluntary and involuntary disclosure, positi

  11. A semantically-aided approach for online annotation and retrieval of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazos, George K; Gerostathopoulos, Ilias Th; Kolias, Vassileios D; Stoitsis, John S; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2011-01-01

    The need for annotating the continuously increasing volume of medical image data is recognized from medical experts for a variety of purposes, regardless if this is medical practice, research or education. The rich information content latent in medical images can be made explicit and formal with the use of well-defined ontologies. Evolution of the Semantic Web now offers a unique opportunity of a web-based, service-oriented approach. Remote access to FMA and ICD-10 reference ontologies provides the ontological annotation framework. The proposed system utilizes this infrastructure to provide a customizable and robust annotation procedure. It also provides an intelligent search mechanism indicating the advantages of semantic over keyword search. The common representation layer discussed facilitates interoperability between institutions and systems, while semantic content enables inference and knowledge integration. PMID:22254818

  12. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Otstavnov Stanislav Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors)  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity st...

  13. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asi...

  14. HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-six chloroform-, methanol-, and water- extracts of some plants used as self mediciation by AIDS patients were investigated for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities. Of these extracts, Boesenbergia pandurata (rhizome, chloroform extract) showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR, followed by Boesenbergia pandurata (rhizome, MeOH extract) and Alpinia galanga (rhizome, MeOH extract) with the inhibitions of 64.92, 51.92 and 48.70%, respectively, at concen...

  15. HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination issues from cross-cultural aspects of international social work

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Aysel

    2013-01-01

    Stefan Elbe (2005) in his writing about international security dimensions calls HIV/AIDS as a “global security threat” and emphasizes the importance of the disease acknowledgement by the scholars and international policy-makers. Indeed, HIV/AIDS is already for a long time not considered solely as a health problem, on the contrary, the medicalisation of the disease, remains one of the biggest obstacles to the global prevention and holistic treatment approaches. This research highlights those p...

  16. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 2 the Rade-Aid system post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 2 describes the RADE-AID project to develop a computer system which can be used to support the formulation of decisions on countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides. The system is intended as an aid following an actual accident and a tool for assistance in planning and training

  17. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  18. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  19. Antecedents of the People and Organizational Aspects of Medical Informatics: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Riley, Robert T.; Blyth, Andrew J. C.; Southon, Gray; Dixon, Bradley J.

    1997-01-01

    People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area—like medical informatics itself—is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with...

  20. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  1. Unforeseen ethical/legal complications with screening tests in the capitation model of medical aid schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rita-Marie; Gouws, Chris; Verschoor, Teuns

    2012-10-01

    In the South African health care system patients/consumers are divided into those who can afford private care and those who rely on state medical assistance. The system is under pressure to fund delivery of medical care to its beneficiaries. We consider the effects of different funding models on medicolegal liability of health professionals serving the private sector. Medical reasons should determine the service rendered. However, financial implications of services rendered and defensive practice of medicine also contribute to treatment received by a patient and its remuneration. Practitioners who commit to delivering a predetermined set of services within a particular time for a predetermined 'lump sum' are only paid for the service specifically requested. Should disease be found other than those contracted for, we argue that inaction with regard to that disease would be deemed to be negligent or unethical according to legal and ethical considerations. PMID:23034204

  2. Knowledge level estimation of medical workers participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children at a pre-hospital stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Popkov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Estimation of qualifying preparation of the doctors participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children. Material: On the basis of the developed test cards the analysis of doctors' knowledge level of the first help on the basic questions of emergency medicine is carried out. 120 doctors are interrogated. Results compared depending on age, work experience and presence of a qualifying professional category. Results: As a whole answers of respondents were distributed as follows: unsatisfactorily - 2,6 %; satisfactorily - 7,9 %; well - 18,4 %; perfectly - 71,1 %. Distinctions in a dale of right answers on separate sections of knowledge depending on the experience and a qualifying professional category are established. The conclusion: The weakest places in preparation of experts of the first help on which it is necessary to pay special attention in courses of postdegree preparation are revealed

  3. Groundwater Chemistry and Assessment of Its Effect on Health from the Aspect of Medical Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Varol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Geology and medicine are the oldest two sciences. Nowadays, medical geology is appeared to associate the researches related to environmental problems studied by geology and medical sciences. In the medical geology, researches related to effect of groundwater on human health is the most important subject. In this paper, elements which are the constituent of groundwater and health problems originated from those elements were explained. In addition, components polluting the groundwater widely were presented in detail. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 351-356

  4. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacetl J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaroslav Kacetl,1 Petra Maresova2 1Department of Applied Linguistics, 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Introduction: The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas.Aim: This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens.Methods: The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU and the US.Results: Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. Keywords: senior citizen, medical devices, legislation, ethical aspects

  5. 对外医疗援助的新思维%Innovation of Chinese Medical Foreign Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善纲; 浦金辉; 赵育新; 杨铭; 谢峻

    2013-01-01

    我国对外医疗援助取得了巨大成功.但面对新形势,需要在认识、机制、管理、结构、舆论和预案等方面进一步创新:在认识方面,要充分认识援外医疗具有超越政治的便利,它是国际关系的试金石和外交斗争的角力点.在机制方面,应实现援助的一体化,达到全非洲“一盘棋,共进退”;从提高现有资金的效率、丰富合作形式、收取费用和利用国际资金等方面入手,改善医疗队的造血机能以减轻国家的财政负担;开发非官方机制,拓展合作领域,灵活处理产权,提高对外医疗援助的抗击打能力和战斗力.在管理方面,应从医疗队的派遣、队长的选拔和队员的管理入手,完善和探索切实有效的管理制度.在结构上,或可建立非洲总医院,以实现医疗队的升级与升格.在舆论上,要主动作为,正确应对,掌控国际话语权.同时制定各种规避风险的预案.通过以上方式,提高我国对外医疗援助的实效,实现受援国民众健康与我国战略利益的双赢.%Whereas great successes had achieved of China's medical foreign aid,new problems were encountered recent years.Those should be innovated in the fields of recognitions,mechanisms,managements,structures,public opinions and preparatory programs.In the area of recognitions,the beyond-political convenience of the aid should be fully understood and the touchstone role in international relations and the wrestle point in diplomatic struggles should be recognized completely.In mechanisms,in order to improve the endurance and vitality of medical foreign aid,an integrated situation interpreted as "complete game,closely aligned" should be cultivated.Such ways as utilizing the existing funds efficiently,enriching the forms of cooperation and adopting international funds could be applied as the hematopoietic mechanisms of the medical teams to alleviate the financial burden of the state.At the same time,unofficial mechanisms should

  6. Responding to medical crises: AIDS treatment, responsibilisation and the logic of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The framing of HIV/AIDS as a crisis has facilitated the rollout of large-scale intervention programmes that represent an enormous effort at mainstreaming biomedical rationalities and neoliberal notions of responsibilisation and self-care. Based on a 'logic of choice' (Mol 2008) and 'responsibilised citizenship' (Robins 2005a), although veiled in a language of rights and partnership, the heavy focus on individual behaviour and a pharmaceutical 'solution' to AIDS shifts the burden of responsibility for the success of the heavily funded programmes onto the shoulders of the patients and conceals alternative forms of responsibility. Analysing how HIV-positive people in Tanzania navigate life with HIV and the complex treatment regimens, this paper looks beyond biomedical rationality, which places the preservation of individual biological life at the centre of its logic, and analyses people's constant struggle to negotiate the meaning of 'responsible behaviour' in the context of their lived realities. This repositions the notion of responsibility in the realm of the social and reveals the rationality behind apparently irrational practices. PMID:23898836

  7. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  8. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otstavnov Stanislav Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports. Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource. The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.

  9. Emerging medical informatics with case-based reasoning for aiding clinical decision in multi-agent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Colloc, Joël; Jacquet-Andrieu, Armelle; Lei, Kai

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to depict the methodological steps and tools about the combined operation of case-based reasoning (CBR) and multi-agent system (MAS) to expose the ontological application in the field of clinical decision support. The multi-agent architecture works for the consideration of the whole cycle of clinical decision-making adaptable to many medical aspects such as the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, therapeutic monitoring of gastric cancer. In the multi-agent architecture, the ontological agent type employs the domain knowledge to ease the extraction of similar clinical cases and provide treatment suggestions to patients and physicians. Ontological agent is used for the extension of domain hierarchy and the interpretation of input requests. Case-based reasoning memorizes and restores experience data for solving similar problems, with the help of matching approach and defined interfaces of ontologies. A typical case is developed to illustrate the implementation of the knowledge acquisition and restitution of medical experts. PMID:26133480

  10. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  11. Atomic bomb suffering and Chernobyl accident lessons learnt from international medical aid programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooperative medical projects between Nagasaki University and countries of the former USSR have had being performed in mainly two regions: Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk since 1990 and 1995, respectively. The 21st Center of Excellence (COE) program of ''International Consortium for Medical Care of Hibakusha and Radiation Life Science'' recently established in Nagasaki University can now serve our knowledge and experience much more directly. Its activity can be further extended to the radiocontaminated areas around the world, and based on the lessons of the past, it can indeed contribute to the future planning of the Network of Excellence (NOE) for Radiation Education Program as well as Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance under the auspices of the WHO-REMPAN. Within the frame of International Consortium of Radiation Research, a molecular epidemiology of thyroid diseases are now conducted in our departments in addition to international medical assistance. The clue of radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis may give us a new concept on experimental and epidemiological approaches to low dose radiation effects on human health, including those of internal radiation exposure. Concerning the role and responsibility of our work to the public, to avoid unnecessary radiophobia and to correctly understand radiation hazard and safety, we must build a bridge between basic research and widely open public education. Therefore, it is of high necessity to continuously work on clarification of the effects of ionizing radiation on human beings worldwide and to contribute the development of general guideline of radiation safety and radiation hazard, and to strive for the creation of substantiated radiation protection programs. (author)

  12. A review of technological and clinical aspects of robot-aided rehabilitation of upper-extremity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaiasl, Mahdieh; Mahdioun, Seyyed Hamed; Jaryani, Poorya; Yazdani, Mojtaba

    2016-05-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and loss of motor function. Millions of people around the world are effected by it each year. Stroke results in disabled arm function. Restoration of arm function is essential to regaining activities of daily living (ADL). Along with traditional rehabilitation methods, robot-aided therapy has emerged in recent years. Robot-aided rehabilitation is more intensive, of longer duration and more repetitive. Using robots, repetitive dull exercises can turn into a more challenging and motivating tasks such as games. Besides, robots can provide a quantitative measure of the rehabilitation progress. This article overviews the terms used in robot-aided upper-limb rehabilitation. It continues by investigating the requirements for rehabilitation robots. Then the most outstanding works in robot-aided upper-limb rehabilitation and their control schemes have been investigated. The clinical outcomes of the built robots are also given that demonstrates the usability of these robots in real-life applications and their acceptance. This article summarizes a review done along with a research on the design, simulation and control of a robot for use in upper-limb rehabilitation after stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Reviewing common terms in rehabilitation of upper limb using robots Reviewing rehabilitation robots built up to date Reviewing clinical outcomes of the mentioned rehabilitation robots. PMID:25600057

  13. Advice from a medical expert through the Internet on queries about AIDS and hepatitis: analysis of a pilot experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marco

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advice from a medical expert on concerns and queries expressed anonymously through the Internet by patients and later posted on the Web, offers a new type of patient-doctor relationship. The aim of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of questions about AIDS and hepatitis made to an infectious disease expert and sent through the Internet to a consumer-oriented Web site in the Spanish language. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Questions were e-mailed and the questions and answers were posted anonymously in the "expert-advice" section of a Web site focused on AIDS and hepatitis. We performed a descriptive study and a temporal analysis of the questions received in the first 12 months after the launch of the site. A total of 899 questions were received from December 2003 to November 2004, with a marked linear growth pattern. Questions originated in Spain in 68% of cases and 32% came from Latin America (the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. Eighty percent of the senders were male. Most of the questions concerned HIV infection (79% with many fewer on hepatitis (17%. The highest numbers of questions were submitted just after the weekend (37% of questions were made on Mondays and Tuesdays. Risk factors for contracting HIV infection were the most frequent concern (69%, followed by the window period for detection (12.6%, laboratory results (5.9%, symptoms (4.7%, diagnosis (2.7%, and treatment (2.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a great demand for this type of "ask-the-expert" Internet service, at least for AIDS and hepatitis. Factors such as anonymity, free access, and immediate answers have been key factors in its success.

  14. Medical and radiological aspects of emergency preparedness and response at SevRAO facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation has the overall goal of promoting improvements in radiation protection in Northwest Russia. One of the projects in this programme has the objectives to review and improve the existing medical emergency preparedness capabilities at the sites for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. These are operated by SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and in Gremikha village on the Kola Peninsula. The work is also intended to provide a better basis for regulation of emergency response and medical emergency preparedness at similar facilities elsewhere in Russia. The purpose of this paper is to present the main results of that project, implemented by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre. The first task was an analysis of the regulatory requirements and the current state of preparedness for medical emergency response at the SevRAO facilities. Although Russian regulatory documents are mostly consistent with international recommendations, some distinctions lead to numerical differences in operational intervention criteria under otherwise similar conditions. Radiological threats relating to possible accidents, and related gaps in the regulation of SevRAO facilities, were also identified. As part of the project, a special exercise on emergency medical response on-site at Andreeva Bay was prepared and carried out, and recommendations were proposed after the exercise. Following fruitful dialogue among regulators, designers and operators, special regulatory guidance has been issued by FMBA to account for the specific and unusual features of the SevRAO facilities. Detailed sections relate to the prevention of accidents, and emergency preparedness and response, supplementing the basic Russian regulatory requirements. Overall it is concluded that (a) the provision of medical and sanitary components of emergency

  15. Myelodysplastic syndromes: aspects of current medical care and economic considerations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Meessen, Axel; Schmitz, Stephan; Tsamaloukas, Anton; Vollmer, Tanja; Wedding, Ulrich; Plesnila-Frank, Carlotta; Schramm, Wolfgang; Berger, Karin

    2008-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of diseases mainly affecting older people. The use of an increasing number of therapeutic options depends on a systematic risk stratification of the patients. A high percentage of MDS patients need blood transfusions as supportive care, which influence quality of life and cause a great part of the costs generated by MDS therapy. In this article which is based on a workshop about the burden of MDS held in October 2006 in Munich, MDS is discussed with regard to different aspects: current therapies, transfusion medicine, geriatrics, quality of life, and health economic aspects. PMID:18787357

  16. ADVANTAGES OF PLASTINATED HUMAN BODY IN MEDICAL EDUCATION AND ITS LEGAL & ETHICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plastination is a scientific procedure or technique of preservation of body or body parts useful in anatomy and forensic medicine department for medical education. Exhibition of preserved human body and body parts, that are prepared using a plastination technique revealing inner anatomical structures, is called Body Worlds (German title: “Körperwelten”. The use of plastinated specimens has greatly assisted students in their understanding of anatomy and gross pathology and their being able to correlate these specimens with radio graphical images of the human body. Several ethical and legal questions may arise while considering adoption of a plastinated human body as teaching tools in medical education. Here, we have focused our attention over basic scientific concepts with legal and ethical issues in relation to use of plastinated human bodies in medical education.

  17. Antecedents of the people and organizational aspects of medical informatics: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, N M; Riley, R T; Blyth, A J; Southon, G; Dixon, B J

    1997-01-01

    People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area--like medical informatics itself--is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with research with significant potential to ease the introduction and on-going use of information technology in today's complex health systems. These academic areas contribute research data and core information for better understanding of such issues as the importance of and processes for creating future direction; managing a complex change process; effective strategies for involving individuals and groups in the informatics effort; and effectively managing the altered organization. This article reviews the behavioral and business referent disciplines that can potentially contribute to improved implementations and on-going management of change in the medical informatics arena. PMID:9067874

  18. Attitude of medical students towards the use of audio visual aids during didactic lectures in pharmacology in a medical college of central India

    OpenAIRE

    Mehul Agrawal; Rajanish Kumar Sankdia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students favour teaching methods employing audio visual aids over didactic lectures not using these aids. However, the optimum use of audio visual aids is essential for deriving their benefits. During a lecture, both the visual and auditory senses are used to absorb information. Different methods of lecture are and ndash; chalk and board, power point presentations (PPT) and mix of aids. This study was done to know the students' preference regarding the various audio visual aids, ...

  19. Ethical aspect in medical radiation use; Ethische Aspekte der medizinischen Strahlenanwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Juergen

    2014-07-01

    Medical radiation uses hold a specific position in radiation protection. Patients are purposely exposed to radiation while usually radiation exposure should be avoided. The radiation doses are (at least in principle) planned the risks may be estimated (again in principle). The hazards are justified by the medical benefit. Otherwise irradiation is a violation of physical integrity (article 2 Grundgesetz) that can be prosecuted. For patients no dose limits exist, the responsible physician decides on the real exposures. Justification and optimization are of predominant importance. The decision on the radiological measure, the applied technology is an ethically motivated decision besides the everyday routine.

  20. [Medical aspects and driving history of drivers with higher class automobile driver's licenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, F

    1982-02-01

    In the medical part of our paper we have shown the chauffeurs are a high-risk group with respect to hypertension, lumbar pain, and overweight. The analysis of drivers' offenses, yearly kilometers driven and years of driving in the three groups of taxi, lorry and coach drivers shows that coach chauffeurs have significantly better driving records. PMID:6461985

  1. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically. PMID:26346030

  2. Personality preference influences medical student use of specific computer-aided instruction (CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halsey Martha

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality preference, which can be related to learning style, influences individual utilization of CAI applications developed specifically for the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods Personality preferences of students were obtained using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI test. CAI utilization for individual students was collected from entry logs for two different web-based applications (a discussion forum and a tutorial used in the basic science course on human anatomy. Individual login data were sorted by personality preference and the data statistically analyzed by 2-way mixed ANOVA and correlation. Results There was a wide discrepancy in the level and pattern of student use of both CAI. Although individual use of both CAI was positively correlated irrespective of MBTI preference, students with a "Sensing" preference tended to use both CAI applications more than the "iNtuitives". Differences in the level of use of these CAI applications (i.e., higher use of discussion forum vs. a tutorial were also found for the "Perceiving/Judging" dimension. Conclusion We conclude that personality/learning preferences of individual students influence their use of CAI in the medical curriculum.

  3. Rational medication use review: a quality assurance/improvement process for HIV/AIDS treatment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Fomundam

    2015-02-01

    Methods: A comprehensive data collection tool was developed to systematically and retrospectively capture relevant data from randomly selected ART patient files in the four ART facilities. Results: ART data from 157 patients receiving ART services from four facilities was extracted and analysed. WHO stage 4 AIDS defining diseases were recorded in 125 (79.6% of the patients at the time of ART initiation. The most frequent opportunistic infections and/or co-morbidities were cryptosporidiosis (14.4%, HIV wasting (14.4%, tuberculosis (13% and candidiasis (17.4%. 97.8% of the patients were taking concomitant medicines. A large percentage of patients (72.4% had done a baseline CD4 test before initiation of therapy with a majority of the patients (85.8% getting their lab results within one week of the collection of the specimens. For some patients (9%, it took up to 8 weeks to get test results. About 21.8% of the patients were hospitalized at least once while on ART and 11.2% of the hospitalized patients died. Conclusion: RMUR is a simple and accurate strategy that can be appropriately modified to suite local settings. It offers a cost-effective and participatory method of identifying any factors that may negatively affect the quality and desired outcomes of ART enabling prompt correction and continuous improvement of treatment related outcomes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 383-390

  4. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals. PMID:17051499

  5. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career. PMID:24179019

  6. Health aspects of Arctic exploration – Alaska's medical history based on the research files of Dr. Robert Fortuine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Murray

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Robert Fortuine provided basic medical care to Alaska Native people, chronicled the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration and through a number of influential publications, was the first to thoroughly document and analyse Alaska's Medical History. This overview of his published work will provide the reader with a detailed overview, so that they can begin to explore Dr. Fortuine's many published works in more detail. Objective . This review will explore Alaska's Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration through the research files and the 10 most significant publications of Dr. Robert Fortuine. Design . Review of Dr. Fortuine's major works and the master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. The master bibliography is a merger of 55 separate bibliographies, which provides a wealth of bibliographic information. This paper will describe his 10 most significant publications, 2 of which began as a journal issue. Results . Dr. Fortuine was a prolific writer throughout his career, publishing 134 articles and books. He wrote papers and books on Alaska's medical history, tuberculosis and health care delivery from Russian–America through the Public Health Service efforts in the territory and then the State of Alaska. The master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. This list has a significant number of entries for tuberculosis with almost one-third of the entries including this heading. Others dwell on the history of “pre-contact” health, the history of Alaska Native health care, the history of the Alaska Department of Health, especially the tuberculosis programme, the role of the US Public Health Service and traditional medicine. He completely reviewed every Governors’ and the US Surgeon General's reports in regard to Alaska content. This paper describes his 10 most significant publications. Conclusions . Robert Fortuine's published works offer a wealth of information and insight

  7. Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kleniewska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented. Med Pr 2013;64(4:569–578

  8. The main principles of medical rehabilitation of the injured persons in the system of organization of medical aid after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of clinical examination of participants of liquidation of the after-effects of the accident (LAA) at Chernobyl for several years are presented. For participants of LAA with an acute radial disease of various degree of severity, a great importance is attached to the aspect of local radial injuries (LRI). The following principles of their medical rehabilitation have been elaborated; generally roborant treatment along with psycho-therapeutic correction, therapy of radial cataract (surgical); prophylaxis and therapy of late manifestations of LRI; treatment and prophylaxis of concomitant somatic diseases; efficient provision of employment of patients and their return to active social position in family and society life. The complex of rehabilitation measures for participants of LAA exposed to radiation without development of acute radial disease should contain generally accepted principles; thorough and timely diagnostics and treatment of general somatic diseases; correction of the consequences of mental stress, sanitation of life regimen with rational nutrition and physical strain. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  9. Medical and Social Aspects of High Amputations in Patients with Obliterating Atherosclerosis of Lower Extremities

    OpenAIRE

    Gudz, I. M.; Hnatyshchak, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities is one of the main causes of limb ischemia, that can result in high amputation of the lower limb (HALL). Despite the large number of publications on this subject, medical and social effects of HALL on the patients’ life are studied insufficiently. In some studies a significant impact of financial situation, the level of education, and accessibility of qualified vascular surgery care on the HALL index was stated. As this intervention is con...

  10. Overview of legal aspects of Continuing Medical Education/ Continuing Professional Development in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Chakhava, George; Kandelaki, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Improved patient safety and quality of health care are of great importance to the Continuing Medical Education/Continuing Professional Development (CME/CPD) system in Georgia. In particular, those involved in the delivery of frontline care have an inherent duty to ensure that they are competent and skilful in providing good care for patients. An effective system should support physicians across a number of key areas including: • Providing patient care; • Promoting health improvement, wellness...

  11. Epidemiologic Aspects of Medical Retirement from the Republic of Korea Army due to Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to report the epidemiologic characteristics of medical retirement from the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army due to visual impairment and to suggest a practical screening system for the draft. The medical records of 423 eyes of 301 patients who retired from the ROK Army due to visual impairment were reviewed retrospectively between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were grouped by the presence of trauma, and each group was subdivided by military rank. We analyzed demographic and ophthalmic data, including the etiology of ophthalmologic disease. The etiology was classified into 5 anatomical categories (ocular surface, lens, retina, optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway, and extraocular muscle and orbit), which were then subdivided into the type of disease. The mean age was 24.5 years, and non-traumatic mechanisms accounted for 81.1% (343/423 eyes) of medical retirements. Visual acuity was better in patients without trauma. In enlisted soldiers, disease in the optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway was the most common anatomical category (40.5%), and primary open angle glaucoma (30.8%), retinal dystrophy (18.3%), congenital cataract (14.5%), and retinal detachment (9.7%) were the four most common diseases. Most medical retirements due to visual impairment resulted from non-traumatic mechanisms, even though patients were young. The fundus examination and visual field test would be more useful tools than a conventional vision test for large-scale draft screening for the most common two disease types: primary open angle glaucoma and retinal dystrophy. PMID:27051249

  12. ADVANTAGES OF PLASTINATED HUMAN BODY IN MEDICAL EDUCATION AND ITS LEGAL & ETHICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi; Anurag; Praveen; Abha; Mishra,, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Plastination is a scientific procedure or technique of preservation of body or body parts useful in anatomy and forensic medicine department for medical education. Exhibition of preserved human body and body parts, that are prepared using a plastination technique revealing inner anatomical structures, is called Body Worlds (German title: “Körperwelten”). The use of plastinated specimens has greatly assisted students in their understanding of anatomy and gross pathology and their being able to...

  13. Aspects of Medical and Psychological Rehabilitation of Patients after Aesthetic Breast Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kirill V. Gordon; Eduard S. Khudoev

    2013-01-01

    Breast prosthesis with aesthetic purposes is widespread throughout the world and has been rapidly spreading within Russia in recent years. Since the frequency of breast postoperative complications and repeated surgery does not tend to decrease, it is advisable to examine patients more thoroughly to choose the appropriate surgery. Postoperative medical rehabilitation is also required to improve the psycho-emotional state, prevent early and delayed postoperative complications and increase the q...

  14. ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  15. 海上医疗急救训练的主要问题与思考%Main Problems and Suggestions of Medical First Aid Training at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓波; 栾振涛; 曲凤祥; 汪恩海

    2012-01-01

    介绍了海上医疗急救训练的特点,分析了其存在的问题,指出应从生理性、适应性、全科业务、海上救援与自救、急救环节等5个方面加强训练,为进一步做好海上医疗急救训练提供指导和参考.%The features and main existing problems of medical first aid training at sea are analyzed. It is pointed out that the training should be strengthened from physiology, adaptivity, general business, maritime rescue and self-help, and first aid links, which provides guidance and reference for a better job in first aid training. [Chinese Medical Equipment Joumal,2012,33(4);100,103

  16. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications: Biological and medical aspects (present status, development and expectations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different multidisciplinary therapeutic strategies and technical approaches are used today in cancer therapy. Among the techniques involving ionizing radiation, therapeutic applications of radioactive nuclides deserve a particular interest ; some clinical indications are well established, while several others are now being investigated, and some of them are promising. The efficacy of radionuclides in therapy often depends on technical factors such as specific activity, purity, chemical presentation, availability, etc. These factors are closely related, at least partly, to the production methods. This justifies the organization of the present Consultant's meeting by the IAEA. Brief information on cancer, its socio-economic aspects, and some data concerning cure rate are presented first

  17. Medical Aid, Repression, and International Relations: The East German Hospital at Metema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) built a hospital in a remote part of Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border. The project evolved in a complex combination of contexts, including the general foreign policy goals of the GDR, its specific alliance with Ethiopia, the famine of 1984-85, civil war in Ethiopia, and a controversial resettlement program by the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam. Though almost unknown today, it was a high-profile project at the time, which received the personal support both by Erich Honecker in the GDR and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia. However, their interest was directed more at the political goals the project was expected to serve than at the hospital itself. Both the preparation and the implementation of the project were extremely difficult and almost failed due to problems of transportation, of red tape, and of security. The operation of the hospital was also not ideal, involving frustrated personnel and less than complete acceptance by the local population. Ironically, for all its practical difficulties, the hospital has outlived both governments and their political goals, surviving as a medical institution. PMID:26037639

  18. Stem cells: An insight into the therapeutic aspects from medical and dental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sunil, P M; Nirmal, R Madhavan; Sathiyajeeva, J; Saravanan, Balasubramanian; Senthileagappan, A R

    2015-08-01

    The recent advancements in the field of stem cell (SC) biology have increased the hope of achieving the definitive treatments for the diseases which are now considered incurable such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and other chronic long standing conditions. To achieve this possibility, it is necessary to understand the basic concepts of SC biology to utilize in various advanced techniques of regenerative medicine including tissue engineering and gene therapy. This article highlights the types of SCs available and their therapeutic capacity in regenerative medical and dental fields. PMID:26538878

  19. Database for a systems analytical approach to studying the medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main elements of the program data base were the all-Union distribution register and the SDACHA computer system (Chernobyl accident data system) which ensured reliable functioning of the PRIORRA expert system (acronym stands for ''taking of optimum decisions in the event of a radiation accident''). The development of criteria for the optimum selection of countermeasures follows three paths - medical, economic and social - and is based on a regulatory document entitled ''criteria for taking decisions or measures to protect the population in the event of a reactor accident''. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs

  20. The use of stimulant medications for non-core aspects of ADHD and in other disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinita, Eugenia; Coghill, David

    2014-12-01

    Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD. There is some evidence that psychostimulants may improve outcomes in those with treatment resistant depression, reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive performance in schizophrenia, and that methylphenidate may reduce binge eating in those with bulimia nervosa. In general medicine, whilst the evidence is at times contradictory, psychostimulants have been shown in some studies to be effective treatments for chronic fatigue and narcolepsy, and to improve outcomes post stroke, post head injury, in dementia and various cancers. It seems likely that these effects often result from a combination of, reduction in fatigue, improvements in concentration and cognitive functioning and a lifting of mood which may be a direct or indirect consequence of the medication. Further studies seem warranted and these should focus on efficacy, effectiveness and long term safety. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24951855

  1. Disentangling the stigma of HIV/AIDS from the stigmas of drugs use, commercial sex and commercial blood donation – a factorial survey of medical students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kong-Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS related stigma interferes with the provision of appropriate care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, programs to address the stigma approach it as if it occurs in isolation, separate from the co-stigmas related to the various modes of disease transmission including injection drug use (IDU and commercial sex (CS. In order to develop better programs to address HIV/AIDS related stigma, the inter-relationship (or 'layering' between HIV/AIDS stigma and the co-stigmas needs to be better understood. This paper describes an experimental study for disentangling the layering of HIV/AIDS related stigmas. Methods The study used a factorial survey design. 352 medical students from Guangzhou were presented with four random vignettes each describing a hypothetical male. The vignettes were identical except for the presence of a disease diagnosis (AIDS, leukaemia, or no disease and a co-characteristic (IDU, CS, commercial blood donation (CBD, blood transfusion or no co-characteristic. After reading each vignette, participants completed a measure of social distance that assessed the level of stigmatising attitudes. Results Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed statistically significant levels of stigma associated with AIDS, IDU, CS and CBD. The layering of stigma was explored using a recently developed technique. Strong interactions between the stigmas of AIDS and the co-characteristics were also found. AIDS was significantly less stigmatising than IDU or CS. Critically, the stigma of AIDS in combination with either the stigmas of IDU or CS was significantly less than the stigma of IDU alone or CS alone. Conclusion The findings pose several surprising challenges to conventional beliefs about HIV/AIDS related stigma and stigma interventions that have focused exclusively on the disease stigma. Contrary to the belief that having a co-stigma would add to the intensity of stigma attached to people with HIV/AIDS

  2. Longitudinal PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education Develops Lifelong-Learning Habits and Clinical Competencies in Social Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yumiko; Matsushita, Susumu; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is popular in medical education in Japan. We wished to understand the influence of PBL on the clinical competence of medical residents, using self-assessment and observer assessment. Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWMU) implemented PBL longitudinally (long-time) for four years, and on this basis we analyzed whether long-time PBL education is useful for clinical work. A self-assessment questionnaire was sent to junior and senior residents who were alumni of several schools, and an observation-based assessment questionnaire to senior doctors instructing them. Respondents were asked if they had used the PBL process in daily clinical tasks, and if so in what processes. Senior doctors were asked whether TWMU graduates perform differently from graduates of other schools. TWMU graduates answered "used a lot" and "used a little" with regard to PBL at significantly higher rates than other graduates. As useful points of PBL, they mentioned extracting clinical problems, solving clinical problems, self-directed leaning, positive attitude, collaboration with others, presentation, doctor-patient relations, self-assessment, and share the knowledge with doctors at lower levels and students. Observer assessments of TWMU graduates by senior doctors represented them as adaptive, good at presenting, good at listening to others' opinions, practical, selfish, and eager in their instructional practice. Longitudinal PBL can be a good educational method to develop lifelong-learning habits and clinical competencies especially in terms of the social aspect. PMID:26725844

  3. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278). PMID:26565514

  4. Update and Overview of Practical Epidemiologic Aspects of HIV/AIDS among Injection Drug Users in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Santibanez, Scott S.; Garfein, Richard S.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Purcell, David W.; Paxton, Lynn A.; Greenberg, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    In a changing public health landscape in which local, state, and federal agencies must confront threats of bioterrorism, emerging infections, and numerous chronic diseases, transmission of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) continues to be an important public health issue and one of the driving forces behind the HIV epidemic. Using a computerized MEDLINE search of published articles from January 1981 through October 2005, we conducted a literature review of practical epidemiologic aspects ...

  5. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator. PMID:21404547

  6. [Aspects of the mind-body relationship in the perspective of medical history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the article three kinds of history writing about the mind-body relationship are presented: History as a puzzle, history as a connection of important pieces into meaningful narrative traditions and history as an investigation into the changing importance and meaning of concepts and discussions in medical history. In particular, ideas behind "Begriffsgeschichte" are presented in detail. The history of imagination is given as an example of the usefulness of tracing concepts and discussions back in time and looking for modern representations. Discussions on the power of imagination initiated the first clinical trials in the 18th century. Emphasis on the power of the mind, self-efficacy and self-care has today substituted earlier discussions on the power of imagination. PMID:20509455

  7. [Medical, psychological, social and gender aspects of aging in modern Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V S; Sidenkova, A P; Borovkova, T A; Berezina, D A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors considered controversial issues ambiguous attitude to the aging process of the population of the Russian Federation on the basis of a number of individual differences--psychological, social, sexual, and medical. The thesis is that, unfortunately, the fight against aging appears rather to be more a struggle with an already existing old age, and you need to develop preventive measures against aging much earlier than is currently done. Submissions own research confirm this position. The system of training, adjustment to a new level of life, to the new conditions associated with aging process, in the form of a special kind of multidisciplinary centers that carry out the tasks of improving health and young is proposed. PMID:25306663

  8. The Case of Pharmacological Neuroenhancement: Medical, Judicial and Ethical Aspects from a German Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A G; Northoff, R; Hildt, E

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) describes the use of psychoactive drugs for the purpose of enhancing cognition (e. g., fatigue, concentration, memory etc.) by healthy subjects without medical need. Drugs used for this purpose can be divided into freely available, over-the-counter drugs (e. g., methylxanthines such as caffeine), prescription drugs (e. g., antidementia drugs, methylphenidate) and illicit drugs (e. g., illicit amphetamines). Clinical studies have shown that the aforementioned substances only have limited pro-cognitive effects and have considerable safety risks and side effects.The German judicial perspective shows legal differences between substances (drugs, food, food supplements, fortified food) that can be bought in a supermarket, drugs that can be bought in a pharmacy as over-the-counter- (OTC-) drugs, drugs with or without the need for a prescription and illicit drugs. Supermarket drugs and fortified food can be sold freely and follow the general rules of civil and penal law; regarding acquisition, parents are responsible for their children. OTC drugs require special information about therapy. Regarding prescription drugs, there are legal problems caused by an off-label use and the non-medical purposes of PN drugs. Furthermore, prescription stimulants for PN are governed by the specialized law for narcotics, and their use might be punished. Beyond the general lack of rules for regulation for PN drug use there are specific needs for prevention (e. g., control of the black market, etc.).Possible future policy will depend, among others, on the probability with which effective PN drugs with an acceptable risk-benefit ratio will be available, on individual and societal implications, and on public opinion towards PN. While 4 different general policy scenarios can be identified, it is important to advance a broad societal debate on PN to collect relevant empirical data and to address enhancement-related conceptual issues. PMID:26252723

  9. Computer-aided learning--a solution for the training needs of users & maintainers of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladinejad, F; Roberts, J R

    1997-01-01

    It can be argued that the strategic role of training and assessment in the use and maintenance of medical equipment for the delivery of safe and efficient healthcare is underestimated. While there has been frequent comment on this issue, the resources provided for this activity are most often insufficient. New methods are required to deliver regular, cost-effective training within the working environment, at the time and place of need. Similarly, the administrative workload has to be automated--and thus reduced--if training is to improve in both frequency and content. Computer-aided learning has had increasing and diverse application in education and training over the past few decades. The sophistication of software tools and the reduced cost of the necessary hardware makes this a viable and appropriate method for application in the field of Clinical Engineering. However, this technology has not yet been fully exploited to provide instruction in the use and maintenance of equipment. In this paper, it is proposed that computer-based training packages should not only be a source of interactive instruction and assessment, but also act as rapidly accessible reference materials or simulators of the actual device for the purpose of fault finding or troubleshooting. Brief details of a sample package are given for training in the use and maintenance of the Siemens Elema Servo Ventilator 900C. PMID:10179108

  10. Perfil da automedicação no Brasil Aspects of self-medication in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio D. Arrais

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os dados apresentados fazem parte de um estudo multicêntrico sobre automedicação na América Latina realizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. Objetivou-se traçar um perfil da automedicação através da análise da procura de medicamentos em farmácias sem prescrição médica ou aconselhamento do farmacêutico/balconista. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: As especialidades farmacêuticas foram classificadas pelo código "Anatomical Therapeutical Classification" e analisadas sob quatro aspectos qualitativos: valor intrínseco, essencialidade (lista da OMS e Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME, combinação em dose fixa e necessidade de prescrição médica. RESULTADOS: Foram solicitadas 5.332 especialidades farmacêuticas (785 diferentes princípios ativos, sendo 49,5% combinações em dose fixas, 53,0% de valor intrínseco não elevado, 44,1% sujeitos a prescrição médica, 71,0% não essenciais e 40,0% baseados em prescrições médicas anteriores. Os medicamentos mais solicitados foram analgésicos (17,3%, descongestionantes nasais (7,0%, antiinflamatório/antireumático e antiinfecciosos de uso sistêmico, ambos com 5,6%. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados sugerem que a automedicação no Brasil reflete as carências e hábitos da população, é consideravelmente influenciada pela prescrição médica e tem a sua qualidade prejudicada pela baixa seletividade do mercado farmacêutico.INTRODUCTION: The data presented are part of a World Health Organization (WHO multicenter study of self-medication in Latin America. Brazilian sites included: Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza, the city of S. Paulo and outlying locations. The objective was to characterize self-medication practices by analyzing drugs sought by consumers in pharmacies without a physician's prescription. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Drugs were classified according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification codes, and analyzed with respect to 1 intrinsic value; 2 recognition as

  11. Bioethical aspects of basic research and medical applications of human stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new discoveries, the extraordinary dynamism in human stem cell (SC research, and the great expectations of the benefits in clinical treatment of many diseases are on the edge of unparalleled advances in both: 1 the understanding of basic mechanisms of cell differentiation and development and 2 the translation from basic research to new clinical therapies. Human stem cells are obtained from different sources, such as embryo, fetal, and adult tissues, in vitro induction (iPS cells or transdifferentiation. The evidence that these cells are pluripotent (or multipotent, meaning they have the ability to differentiate into all body tissues or tissues of the same lineage, raises the possibility that they could regenerate diseased or damaged tissue in diseases that until now have had no effective treatments. Human stem cell research and therapy raise important bioethical considerations because of the human nature of these cells and their peculiar characteristics. Here we discuss the bioethical aspects of basic human SC research and the conditions necessary for the translation of basic preclinical research into clinical use of SC.

  12. Physiological and Medical Aspects That Put Women Soldiers at Increased Risk for Overuse Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Fleischmann, Chen; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place female soldiers at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Average aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at a disadvantage compared with men in performing military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights, or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier. Their smaller size, skeletal anatomy, and different bone geometry also predispose women to a higher incidence of exercise-related injuries. Consequently, the attrition rate of female soldiers in combat units is higher than that of their male counterparts. This review summarizes the literature on gender-related physiological and anatomical differences that put female soldiers at an increased risk of exercise-related injuries. PMID:26506172

  13. The physical and physiological aspects of xenon isotopes in nuclear medical applicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for trapping radioactive xenon waste from nuclear medical departments has been investigated. Adsorption of xenon acivitaded charcoal was found to be an efficient trapping method. A large gain in capacity was found when the trap was refrigerated, and permitted a large number of patient investigations before break-through of xenon occurred. By heating charcoal traps to 250-350 degrees C, adsorbed xenon gas is freed and is thus made available for re-use. A technique for room-air monitoring of xenon-leakage from patient investigations is described, where the room-air is continously pumped through a small charcoal filter, mounted close to a detector. The low gammaenergy of Xe-133, 81 keV, introduces problems for in vivo measurements due to the small differences in the energies of the primary and Compton-scattered photons. Influence of scatter and of hemispheric cross-talk was studied for cerebral blood-flow measurements. It was shown that substantial artefacts are introduced in the calculation of regional gray matter flow. The applicability of the xenon-washout technique for liver blood-flow measurements in rat was investigated. (author)

  14. Medical aspects of the development of an environmental data base taking into account experience in keeping population related cancer records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to the medical aspects of the development of an environmental data base taking into account experience in keeping population related cancer records. Information on the data and associated problems for maintaining such data bases of the National Cancer Registry (NRC) of the former GDR are presented. NRC data on cancer occurrence in individuals or groups covers the entire territory of the former GDR; they can be combined with data on occupational or environmental exposure available from other institutions. Information on radiation related health risks in the southern districts (e.g. Saxony) are also available. Data were used for health planning, epidemiological research etc. It is concluded that in collecting data the different items should be classified as core items and optional items with appropriate priority. (author). 9 refs

  15. Regulatory aspects of the medical and occupational exposures in the application of the radiosynoviortesis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiosynoviortesis is a to therapeutic proceed that consists in the injection of a radiopharmaceutical beta transmitter in the synovial cavity of the articulations affected by arthropaties. With it is achieved to cause the fibrosis and remodeling of the synovial membrane obtaining a remarkable improvement in the patients that it includes the disappearance of the pain and the increase of the flexibility of the treated articulation. The technique began to be carried out from 1952 in Europe when it was injected Au196 in patients affected by rheumatoid arthropaties and starting from then it has gone winning followers in Canada, United States, Australia and some countries of Latin America. Their results are satisfactory and they have been endorsed by the practice. In Cuba it was carried out at November 16, 2002 a clinical essay with the use of this technique, the same one was Graduate by the National Center of Nuclear Safety, in their condition of Regulatory Authority, for it the National Institute of Hematology and Immunology presented the technical documentation that bases its safety. However for the generalization of this technique and their inclusion in the Nuclear Medicine services already existent, the Regulatory Authority has indicated a group of requirements that should be kept in mind in a such way that the application of the Radiosynoviortesis fulfills the Regulation of those 'Basic Norms of Radiological Safety' effective in our country. The present work exposes the particularities and challenges that the Radiosynoviortesis outlines from the point of view of the Radiological Protection, as well as the technical aspects that should be kept in mind for its Licensing, in such way that the is guaranteed safety of the same one in the relative thing to the radiological protection of the patients, those workers and the one publishes. The work reaffirms the feasibility of this to therapeutic proceed from the point of view of the radiological protection, proposing

  16. 医学生规范化急救技能培训探讨%Discussion of training standardized first aid skills to medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉英; 钟春玖

    2008-01-01

    在医学生中开展急救技能培训,目的 是使医学生掌握规范化的急救知识和技能.复旦大学上海医学院在八年制临床医学专业学生中开设了"基本生命支持技能培训"选修课程,结合教学模型和电子模拟人系统,模拟现场急救环境进行教学.选修该课程的大部分学生认为,结合电子模拟人进行急救培训的教学方法有助于增强学习临床急救技能的信心,对开展规范化急救知识和技能的培训很有价值.%To develop first aid skills in medical students, the objective is that medical students are trained to grasp standardized knowledge and skills of first aid. Using electronic simulations, "basic life support skills training" selective course is set for the medical students of Shanghai Medical College of Fu- dan University. Most of the students think the teaching method of using electronic simulations will build up their learning confidence and it is valuable to develop the knowledge and skills of first aid.

  17. Important radiation protection aspects of the operation of a commercial medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since July 1991 the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a 30 MeV H'- ion Medical Cyclotron (Model; CYCLONE 30, Manufacturer: Ion Beam Applications, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium). During routine isotope production operations at the cyclotron a thick copper substrate plate electroplated with thin layer of selected enriched target material are bombarded with 30 MeV proton beam current up to 450 μA. The nuclear reaction of protons with the copper atoms result in the reduction of prompt evaporation neutrons with a peak energy of ∼ 1.8 MeV. These evaporation neutrons slow down via multiple collisions with the concrete shielding walls of the target cave, bounce back to the,interior space of the cave activating the cyclotron parts, beam tube components and other utilities installed in the irradiation cave. After the completion of 60 hour isotope production run, gamma dose equivalent rates of ∼105 μSvh-1 were measured at contact with the target irradiation stations and beam collimators. Evidently, these gamma rays emitted from the activated cyclotron components impose crucial radiation exposure hazard problems for the cyclotron maintenance technicians. Experiments had been carried out in order to identify the specific pathways of cyclotron component activation and to assess the probable personnel radiation exposure during handling of the activated cyclotron parts. The cool-down (radioactive decay) of the activated cyclotron components was estimated experimentally at different target bombardment conditions using the wall mounted gamma area monitors interfaced to the Health Physics Data Acquisition System. The gamma dose equivalent rates at contact with various locations of interest at the target irradiation station and at the typical work areas of the maintenance personnel were carefully recorded with a radiation (gamma) survey instrument during the three years operation period of the cyclotron. A

  18. Research trends in biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering: 3D bioprinting, surface modification, nano/micro-technology and clinical aspects in tissue engineering of cartilage and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Bang, Sumi; Cho, Younghak; Lee, Sahnghoon; Lee, Inseop; Zhang, ShengMin; Noh, Insup

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses about biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering of bone and cartilage, after previous scientific commentary of the invitation-based, Korea-China joint symposium on biomimetic medical materials, which was held in Seoul, Korea, from October 22 to 26, 2015. The contents of this review were evolved from the presentations of that symposium. Four topics of biomimetic medical materials were discussed from different research groups here: 1) 3D bioprinting medical materials, 2) nano/micro-technology, 3) surface modification of biomaterials for their interactions with cells and 4) clinical aspects of biomaterials for cartilage focusing on cells, scaffolds and cytokines. PMID:27148455

  19. Technical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy at the BNL Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, is a 3 MW heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies. Early BNL work in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) used a beam of thermal neutrons for experimental treatment of brain tumors. Research elsewhere and at BNL indicated that higher energy neutrons would be required to treat deep seated brain tumors. Epithermal neutrons would be thermalized as they penetrated the brain and peak thermal neutron flux densities would occur at the depth of brain tumors. One of the two BMRR thermal port shutters was modified in 1988 to include plates of aluminum and aluminum oxide to provide an epithermal port. Lithium carbonate in polyethylene was added in 1991 around the bismuth port to reduce the neutron flux density coming from outside the port. To enhance the epithermal neutron flux density, the two vertical thimbles A-3 (core edge) and E-3 (in core) were replaced with fuel elements. There are now four fuel elements of 190 grams each and 28 fuel elements of 140 grams each for a total of 4.68 kg of 235U in the core. The authors have proposed replacing the epithermal shutter with a fission converter plate shutter. It is estimated that the new shutter would increase the epithermal neutron flux density by a factor of seven and the epithermal/fast neutron ratio by a factor of two. The modifications made to the BMRR in the past few years permit BNCT for brain tumors without the need to reflect scalp and bone flaps. Radiation workers are monitored via a TLD badge and a self-reading dosimeter during each experiment. An early concern was raised about whether workers would be subject to a significant dose rate from working with patients who have been irradiated. The gamma ray doses for the representative key personnel involved in the care of the first 12 patients receiving BNCT are listed. These workers did not receive unusually high exposures

  20. A Ferromagnetic Foreign Body at the Lateral Aspect of the Mandibular Ramus in a Medically Compromised Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Nakayama, Y; Yamamoto, I; Matsusue, Y; Shimotsuji, H; Kirita, T

    2016-01-01

    A case of a ferromagnetic foreign body in a medically compromised patient was reported. The patient was a 45-year-old male who consulted our department complaining of a foreign body accidentally impacted in the right cheek. X-ray examination revealed a foreign body at the lateral aspect of the right mandibular ramus. The removal of the foreign body was scheduled, but the patient did not return for the procedure. After 8 years he revisited our department for the removal of the foreign body, because it had been found to be ferromagnetic and a barrier to MRI examination. X-ray examination confirmed the foreign body was located at the same site as 8 years prior. Although the patient was suffering from liver cirrhosis with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, the foreign body was successfully removed under general anesthesia. The foreign body was 12 × 5 × 1 mm, weighed 0.48 g, and was ferromagnetic. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. X-ray examination confirmed the removal of the foreign body. Since the surgery, the patient has been in generally stable condition with no complications. This case was a rare example of a foreign body that needed to be removed for medical examination.

  1. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research. PMID:26606413

  2. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  3. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  4. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  5. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Bagewadi, Harish G; Rekha M S; Sabari Anandh JV

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s) and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP) Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72) participated in the stud...

  6. Attitude of Iranian Medical Oncologists Toward Economic Aspects, and Policy-making in Relation to New Cancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabali Daroudi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although medical oncologists can have an important role in controlling the cost of cancer treatment, there is little information about their attitudes toward the cost of cancer treatment and the impact of cost on their treatment recommendations, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. In this study, we assessed the attitude of Iranian medical oncologists toward some economic aspects of new cancer drugs. Methods We translated a questionnaire that was used in similar studies in the United States and Canada into Persian and modified it according to the local setting in Iran. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed by oncologists before being used in the survey. We distributed the questionnaire and collected the data from 80 oncologists who participated in the 13th Annual Congress of the Iranian Society of Medical Oncology and Hematology (ISMOH. Results Fifty-two oncologists participated in our study (a response rate of 65%. The majority of oncologists stated that drug costs and patient out-of-pocket (OOP costs influence their treatment recommendations (92% and 94%, respectively. Most oncologists (70% felt that they are ready enough to use cost-effectiveness information in their treatment decisions, and 74% believed that patients should only have access to cancer treatments that are cost-effective. Most oncologists agree that the government should have control over drug prices, and more use of cost‐effectiveness data is required for decision-making about cancer drug coverage. Ninety-one percent of oncologists said that they always or frequently discuss cancer treatment costs with their patients. Oncologists believed that academic groups (research centers and scientific societies (81% and the Ministry of Health (MoH (43% are the most eligible groups for determining whether a drug provides good value. Conclusion Iranian medical oncologists are ready to participate in the health technology assessment

  7. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD. PMID:27213780

  8. 加强120急救中心院前急救医疗服务体系的管理%Strengthening Administration of Pre-hospital Care Medical Service System in 120 First-aid Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹤峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:为完善120急救中心院前急救医疗服务体系,强化其管理,寻求最佳方式。方法分析当前120急救中心急救医疗服务体系管理中的不足,并提出相应的解决方案与措施。结果120急救中心院前急救医疗服务体系中存在着急救意识淡薄、信息获取模糊、救护人员医疗技术水平较低三个方面的不足,解决当前的现状则需要建立行之有效的急救医疗服务体系。结论加强120急救中西院前急救医疗服务体系的管理,对加强120应对临时事故的应对能力有着重要的现实意义。%Objective To improve the 120 emergency center of pre-hospital emergency medical services system, strengthen its management, seeking the best way. Methods Analyzing the 120 emergency center management of emergency medical services system is insufficient, and put forward corresponding solutions and measures. Results The 120 emergency center in the pre-hospital emergency medical services system there exists a weak consciousness of first aid, access to information fuzzy, rescuers have a relatively low level of medical technology, the shortage of the three aspects, the current situation requires to build a effective emergency medical service system. Conclusion To strengthen 120 ifrst aid of pre-hospital emergency medical service system of Chinese and western management, to strengthen the response capacity in coping with temporary accident have important practical signiifcance.

  9. Medical Aspects of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... useful to have neuropsychological testing for brain injuries. Neuropsychological testing is expensive but may be useful for those who need to document learning or processing disabilities for school or work. Where Can Survivors Get Help? The ...

  10. Demographic, medical and visual aspects of Dia- betic Retinopathy (DR and Diabetic Macular Edema (DME in South African diabetic patients*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Y. Sukha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate some of the demographic, medical, and visual aspects of diabetic retinopathy (DR and diabetic macula edema (DME in diabetics attending an urban clinic in Johannesburg, Gauteng.Design: In this cross-sectional study, 202 diabetic patients were recruited. Demographic variables included age, gender, race, age of diagnosis, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM, and social habits. Medical variables included systemic conditions present, blood pressures, body mass indices (BMI, lipid profiles, glycerated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and other biochemical data. Visual variables included distance, pinhole and near visual acuities, contrast visual acuities (CVA, refractive status, colour vision, central visual field evaluation with the Amsler grid, intraocular pressures (IOP, fundus photography and administration of the Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI questionnaire. All variables were compared between diabetic subjects with and with-out DR and DME in both right and left eyes.Results: Overall prevalence of DR was 22.8% and DME 12.5%. In DR subjects, significant results indicated that Whites were more likely to present with DR (p = 0.002. Subjects with DR had a higher mean duration of DM (p = 0.002 and a higher mean diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.035. Autorefraction suggested that more myopia and less astigmatism might be associated with DR. A higher mean CVA at the 2.5% level in DR was significant in both the right eyes (p = 0.042 and left eyes (p = 0.035. These subjects also reported a higher mean IVI score in the consumer and social interaction domain (p = 0.032. Similarly, DME subjects displayed a higher mean duration of DM (p = 0.042 and a higher mean diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.048. A higher mean CVA was associated at both the 10% level: right eyes (p = 0.021; and left eyes (p = 0.046, and at the 2.5% level: right eyes (p = 0.033 and left eyes (p = 0.045. A higher mean IVI score in leisure and work (p = 0.026, consumer and social

  11. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Patients' attitudes to medical and psychosocial aspects of care in fertility clinics: Findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J; Sångren, H; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, T; Blaabjerg, J; Hald, F; Andersen, A Nyboe; Rasmussen, P E

    2003-01-01

    services for both men and women was high infertility-related stress in the marital, personal and social domain. CONCLUSIONS: A supportive attitude from medical staff and the provision of both medical and psychosocial information and support should be integral aspects of medical care in fertility clinics......BACKGROUND: The aims were (i) to identify gender differences in motivations to seek assisted reproduction and gender differences in expectations about medical and psychosocial services and (ii) to examine factors that predict the perceived importance of, and intention to use, psychosocial services...... among infertile people. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological study based on questionnaires among all new couples attending five fertility clinics with a response rate of 80.0% and a total of 2250 patients. RESULTS: The vast majority of both men and women considered a high level of medical...

  13. Total body irradiation for bone marrow graft. Results of a national survey on protocols and conditions of their application. Part I: medical and logistic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted during 1986 evaluated medical and logistic aspects of total body irradiation for bone marrow graft, with particular analysis of type of protocol and functional consequences. Current tendencies were determined by comparison of findings with those of a survey conducted within the framework of the GEGMO in 1984

  14. Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Tympanic Membrane Contact Hearing Aid. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the tympanic membrane contact hearing aid into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the tympanic membrane contact hearing aid's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26803881

  15. 大学生急救能力相关调查及比较研究%First aid ability related investigation and comparative study of medical students and non medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 黄丹; 武继文

    2016-01-01

    ①目的全面了解大学生基础急救技能的掌握情况与培训需求。②方法采取方便抽样的调查方式,对南京城区医学与非医学专业大学生急救相关情况进行初步调研。③结果889.%的大学生知道急救电话是120,自评“会操作”各单项基础急救技能的概率在10%左右;947.%以上的大学生认为有必要掌握基础急救技能;网络电视和学校培训是目前大学生获得急救知识的主要途径;认为培训最佳场所是学校的大学生相对较多,培训最佳方式选择利用专门的人体模型模拟练习的占大多数;医学生急救技能明显高于非医学生。④结论大学生对急救技能需求较强,对大学生的急救技能培训工作十分迫切;培训地点可选择在校园内,讲座结合模拟练习应是最佳培训方式。医学院校可以在大学城急救培训中发挥积极作用。%[ABBSTRACT] Objective To fully understand the students'basic first aid skills and training needs . Methods Taking the convenience sample survey method ,the relevant circumstances of the first aid a‐bility of the medical and non medical college students in Nanjing city were investigated preliminarily . Results Only 88 9.% of the students know the emergency telephone number is 120 .The ratio of self -assessment "mastering the operation"of each individual basic first aid skill is around 10% .More than 94 7.% college students think it is necessary to grasp the basic first aid skills .Network and television to‐gether with school training are the main ways to obtain first aid knowledge for college students .More college students believe that the best place for training is campus and the best way is the simulative ex‐ercising on specialized human model .Medical students'first aid skills were significantly higher than those of non medical students .Conclusion Students have strong demand for first aid skills ,and first aid Publicity and training

  16. 医学专业和非医学专业大学生艾滋病知信行比较研究%Comparative Study of AIDS KAP between Medical Students and Non-medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连肖; 肖模银

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To Learn the acknowledgement,highly-risky behaviors and attitudes towards AIDS among medical students and non-rnedical students in the comprehensive university, in order to find out the defects in health-care education of AIDS and to provide scientific suggestions for drawing up all-sides and systemic measures for health education.Methods: A total of 299 medical students and 1412 non-medical students were selected by using the stratified cluster sampling method in a comprehensive university and surveyed by self-designed questionnaire.Results: The difference of AIDS awareness and attitude between medical students and non-medical students was significant-There are some students who used to have dangerous behaviors of AIDS in both medical students and non-medical students^ and the difference of behaviors between two groups is not significant. The students mainly get information of AIDS from media, like telecast and internet. Conclusion: Medical students' score is better than that of non-medical students in AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward AIDS, both of the two majors have a high awareness of the three major routes of AIDS transmission and basic knowledge of AIDS. Based on different characteristics and demands of different departments in universities, university authorities should draw up a systematic and particular health education measures on AIDS, meanwhile, universities should make full use of the professional status of medical students, and let them play a role of YPE to other non-medical students. Arouse the whole society to give health education of AIDS to students.%目的:了解综合性大学医学专业和非医学专业学生艾滋病相关的知识、行为以及态度,为制定全面系统的大学生艾滋病健康教育提供科学建议.方法:自行设计调查问卷,采用多级分层整群抽样方法选取医学生229名、非医学生1412名进-问卷调查.结果:医学生与非医学生对艾滋病基本知识和传播途径

  17. Attitude of medical students towards the use of audio visual aids during didactic lectures in pharmacology in a medical college of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In our study we found that students preferred mixture of audio visual aids over other teaching methods. Teachers should consider the suggestions given by the students while preparing their lectures. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 416-422

  18. Post-graduated course 'Basic aspects of medical physics in nuclear medicine': theoretical/practical intensive version: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using national and international recommendation about human resource in nuclear medicine, a group of experts organized a national course for the education and training of physicist who works in Cuban hospital, adapted to national condition and practice of nuclear medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University School in Medicine and content three intensive theoretic and practical courses (15 days of full time duration each), complemented with 4 months full time in Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert and 2 months at distance with practical task. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and write final test. When all docent activities finish the students should pass a final evaluation by a testing board composed for (at least) three accredited experts. The first theoretical/practical course included 19 physicists who work in hospital, the second 17 and the third 16 students. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the partial final tests included: true or false choice (with 10 aspects to verify, 1 point/correct answer) and questions to write developed answer. The average result was 83.02 points/ students (range 65-100 points). The students evaluated satisfactory the quality of different courses (in anonymous poll), reporting like very good; the quality of conferences, excellent; the usefulness of different charters, very good; the support bibliography, and recommended the repetition of this kind of education and training in order to warranty the human resource, in the same way and content, and included others item in the future. Conclusion: the theoretical/practice intensive courses of this post-graduated course were successful and satisfied the objective of education and training of medical physicist in nuclear medicine. (author)

  19. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system. PMID:24943655

  20. 医学实习生艾滋病知识认知程度及态度调查分析%Investigation on knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS among intern medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽; 唐承

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge awareness and attitudes among intern medical students towards acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) in clinical practice.Metbods The self-designed questionnaire was adopted to conduct randomly the survey on AIDS knowledge and attitudes among 67 intern medical students in our hospital by secret ballot.Results The ways to get information of human immune deficiency virus(HIV)/AIDS among intern medical students were from the school education,multimedia publicity and TV.The scores of students in medical practice on AIDS knowledge were higher(18.3±2.3) and the scores of the students from oral medicine were significantly higher than those of the students from clinical medicine and medical imaging [(19.5±2.4)scores vs(18.0±2.2) scores,(17.2±2.0)scores,P <0.05].The percentage of correct answer on window period was only 55.2%(37/67).But the attitude of intern medical students towards HIV/AIDS patients was not optimistic with a score of(15.0±2.4)scores.The difference between the boys and the girls was statistically significant[(18.2±2.8) scores vs(18.3±2.1)scores,P <0.05].There was no correlation between AIDS knowledge and attitudes(P =0.343).Conclusions The intern medical students know the AIDS knowledge very well,but the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients need to be improved.The teaching hospitals can increase the education efforts in all aspects of clinical teaching in conjunction with the students' professional characteristics.%目的 了解实习阶段医学生对艾滋病知识的认知程度和态度,为教学医院开展医学实习生教学培训提供依据.方法 采用自行设计调查问卷,随机对在我院实习的67名医学实习生采取不记名方式进行艾滋病认知及态度问卷调查.结果 医学实习生获取HIV/AIDS知识的途径主要来自学校教育、多媒体宣传、电视.医学实习生对艾滋病知识得分较高[(18.3±2.3)分],口腔医学生得分明显高于临床医

  1. Home Improvement in HIV Primary Care: Investigating the Patient-Centered Medical Home Model for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Erin Gael; Crowley, Megan; Howard, Kim Ammann; Pavel, M Paoloma

    2015-10-01

    This article details the processes and findings of a 3-year demonstration project implementing population health management and the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model in 3 community health centers in Alameda County, California. The article provides a first look at the PCMH Continuum, a tool for aiding staff in conceptualizing and implementing complex organizational change. Findings of the project evaluation also are shared, comprising a road map for other organizations looking to implement population health management, panel management, and PCMH. The article reflects on lessons learned and best practices from the demonstration project. PMID:25867483

  2. Development of an informative system on aspects of radiological protection in the medical practices; Desarrollo de un sistema informativo sobre aspectos de proteccion radiologica en las practicas medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Gonzalez R, N.; Hernandez A, R.; Valdes R, M.; Cardenas H, J.; Zaldivar H, W. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa C.P. 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Diaz B, M.; Machado T, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: gladys@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Today in day is difficult to imagine the development of the medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of diverse illnesses without the use of the ionizing radiations. In spite of the diffusion and application of these practices, the patients and the public in general don't have full conscience of like the procedures are carried out and the risks that these involve. For it diverse international and national organizations in the last years recommend to include in the programs of radiological protection, all the information that should be given to the patients and the one public that attend as users to the medical institutions to undergo to procedures that imply the use of the ionizing radiations. In Cuba a growing and quick tendency exists to the introduction of nuclear techniques for medical ends, however paradoxically the relative aspects to the communication to the patients and the public in general about the risks of the procedures to that they will be subjected and in consequence on the measures to minimize them is not adequate. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned, specialists of national centers linked to the control and consultant ship in the topics of radiological protection in the medical practices that use ionizing radiations, they worked in the country in the design of an information system that should contribute to elevate the population's culture before the mentioned aspects. The present work describes the structure of this system in function of the different medical attention levels of our national health system. Additionally it exposes the development of a package of varied informative and training tools among those that are folding, posters, guides, instructions, CD Show that its approach general and specific aspects of the uses and risks of medical practices in nuclear medicine, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy directed so much to health professionals, patients as public in general. (Author)

  3. Preliminary results and prospects for research performed by the scientists of Ministry of Health of Ukraine on Chernobyl accident medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of scientific management of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, as well as scientific researches of 23 scientific research institutes, 11 medical institutes, 6 scientific practical establishment were analyzed to cover Complex ecological research programme on Chernobyl accident outcomes for 1986-1990 (medical aspects). The data about the health of communities, epidemiology, peculiarities of the course, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of inner organs and systems disorders and diseases in the exposed persons, which were obtained on the basis of environment radiologic are reported

  4. Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP): the most common opportunistic infection observed in HIV/AIDS cases at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Tok, E L; Tan, C L; Tan, W H; Teo, W S; Leow, H F

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted among 59 HIV/AIDS patients with opportunistic infections admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre between 2000 and 2009. Fifty-five point nine percent of cases were Chinese, 25.4% were Malays, 11.9% were Indians and 6.8% were of unknown ethnic origin. The male:female ratio was 2.9:1 (44 males and 15 females). The highest prevalence (38.9%) occurred in the 30-39 year old age group. Men comprised 47.7% and women 53.3%; the majority of both were married. The majority of cases were Malaysians (89.8%) and the rest (10.2%) were immigrants. Most of the patients (18.6%) were non-laborers, followed by laborers (11.9%), the unemployed (5.1%) and housewives (3.4%). The most common risk factor was unprotected sexual activity (20.3%). The two most common HIV/AIDS related opportunistic infections were Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP) (62.7%) and toxoplasmosis (28.8%). Seventy-two point nine percent of patients had a CD4 count 500 cells/microl. Eleven point nine percent of cases died during study period. A low CD4 count had a greater association with opportunistic infections. Most of the patients presented with fever (44.1%), cough (42.4%) and shortness of breath (28.8%). Detection of the etiologic pathogens aids clinicians in choosing appropriate management strategies. PMID:23077803

  5. Medical communication and technology: a video-based process study of the use of decision aids in primary care consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Ruth; Murtagh Madeleine; Rapley Tim; Heaven Ben; Kaner Eileen; Thomson Richard; May Carl

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Much of the research on decision-making in health care has focused on consultation outcomes. Less is known about the process by which clinicians and patients come to a treatment decision. This study aimed to quantitatively describe the behaviour shown by doctors and patients during primary care consultations when three types of decision aids were used to promote treatment decision-making in a randomised controlled trial. Methods A video-based study set in an efficacy trial...

  6. Medical communication and technology: a video-based process study of the use of decision aids in primary care consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the research on decision-making in health care has focused on consultation outcomes. Less is known about the process by which clinicians and patients come to a treatment decision. This study aimed to quantitatively describe the behaviour shown by doctors and patients during primary care consultations when three types of decision aids were used to promote treatment decision-making in a randomised controlled trial. Methods A video-based study set in an efficacy trial which compared the use of paper-based guidelines (control with two forms of computer-based decision aids (implicit and explicit versions of DARTS II. Treatment decision concerned warfarin anti-coagulation to reduce the risk of stroke in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Twenty nine consultations were video-recorded. A ten-minute 'slice' of the consultation was sampled for detailed content analysis using existing interaction analysis protocols for verbal behaviour and ethological techniques for non-verbal behaviour. Results Median consultation times (quartiles differed significantly depending on the technology used. Paper-based guidelines took 21 (19–26 minutes to work through compared to 31 (16–41 minutes for the implicit tool; and 44 (39–55 minutes for the explicit tool. In the ten minutes immediately preceding the decision point, GPs dominated the conversation, accounting for 64% (58–66% of all utterances and this trend was similar across all three arms of the trial. Information-giving was the most frequent activity for both GPs and patients, although GPs did this at twice the rate compared to patients and at higher rates in consultations involving computerised decision aids. GPs' language was highly technically focused and just 7% of their conversation was socio-emotional in content; this was half the socio-emotional content shown by patients (15%. However, frequent head nodding and a close mirroring in the direction of eye-gaze suggested

  7. Assimetria nas relações internacionais, propriedade industrial e medicamentos anti-aids Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Costa-Couto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a assimetria nas relações internacionais entre países no que diz respeito ao reconhecimento da propriedade industrial no setor específico da indústria farmacêutica. O foco é o impacto destas relações no acesso a medicamentos anti-retrovirais (ARV, questão de interesse mundial em face da sua relação com o desenvolvimento das nações. A disputa de interesses no campo e o posicionamento de alguns países frente às leis patentárias, ao longo do tempo, apontam um cenário pouco favorável para acesso aos medicamentos anti-aids pelos países que não pertencem ao núcleo do sistema mundial. O sucesso do programa brasileiro de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis (DSTs e Aids nas negociações dos preços dos ARV, ao contrário, aponta para novas possibilidades de enfrentamento desta realidade. A saída parece ser o fortalecimento interno dos Estados Nacionais e um papel ativo das Agências do Sistema das Nações Unidas na defesa dos interesses humanos coletivos.This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  8. MEDICAL AND LITERARY ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF THE FILARIASIS BY Wuchereria Bancrofti IN CARTAGENA AND COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor-Tribin Hugo Armando

    2014-01-01

    Description exists in the Colombian medical words of a disease that had high prevalence in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, since the 16th century until half of the 20th century. The filariasis by Wuchereria bancrofti due to the impacting clinical symptoms that it caused, it was thoroughly described and considered. Medical documents and travel chronicles describe to the patients and the personal and social impacts of the disease, just like the measures that were applied. They wer...

  9. An Internet-based exercise as a component of an overall training program addressing medical aspects of radiation emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, K; Aghababian, R V; Hirsch, E F; Screnci, D; Boshyan, A; Ricks, R C; Samiei, M

    2000-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials continues to increase worldwide in industry, medicine, agriculture, research, electrical power generation, and nuclear weaponry. The risk of terrorism using weapons of mass destruction or simple radiological devices also has increased, leading to heightened concerns. Radiation accidents occur as a consequence of errors in transportation of radionuclides, use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial monitoring and sterilization procedures, and rarely, nuclear power generation. Compared to other industries, a small number of serious radiation accidents have occurred over the last six decades with recent cases in the Republic of Georgia, Peru, Japan, and Thailand. The medical, psychological, and political consequences of such accidents can be considerable. A number of programs designed to train medical responders in the techniques of radiation accident management have been developed and delivered in many countries. The low frequency of serious radiation accidents requires constant re-training, as skills are lost and medical staff turnover occurs. Not all of the training involves drills or exercises in which responders demonstrate learning or communication over the broad spectrum of medical response capabilities. Medical preparedness within the context of a total emergency response program is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. This paper describes an effort to enhance medical preparedness in the context of a total program of international cooperation and conventions facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The paper concludes that novel application of telecommunications technology as part of a training activity in radiation accident preparedness can help address gaps in training in this field in which preparedness is essential but experience and practical field exercises are lacking. PMID:11183457

  10. Aspects of Spirituality in Medical Doctors and Their Relation to Specific Views of Illness and Dealing with Their Patients' Individual Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to analyse which aspects of spirituality are of relevance for medical doctors in a mostly secular society and how their spiritual/religious attitudes are related to specific views of illness, their dealing with patients' individual situation, and finally physicians' life satisfaction. Data from an anonymous survey enrolling 237 medical doctors from Germany (mean age 45.7 ± 9.6, 58% male, 42% female indicated that secular forms of spirituality scored highest, while specific religious orientation had the lowest scores. Physicians with a specific specialization in complementary/alternative medicine (CAM or anthroposophic medicine differed from their conventional counterparts with respect to specific aspects of spirituality; however, the specific views associated with these specialisations were only weakly to moderately correlated with physicians' view on the meaning of illness and how they assume that they would deal with their patients' individual situation. Of interest, the specific aspects of spirituality were negatively correlated with the view of “illness as a meaningless interruption” of life, indicating that physicians with a spiritual attitude would see illness also as a chance for an “individual development” and associated with a “biographical meaning” rather than just a “useless interruption” of life.

  11. A HUMAN RELIABILITY-CENTERED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOB AIDS FOR REVIEWERS OF MEDICAL DEVICES THAT USE RADIOLOGICAL BYPRODUCT MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is engaged in an initiative to risk-inform the regulation of byproduct materials. Operating experience indicates that human actions play a dominant role in most of the activities involving byproduct materials, which are radioactive materials other than those used in nuclear power plants or in weapons production, primarily for medical or industrial purposes. The overall risk of these activities is strongly influenced by human performance. Hence, an improved understanding of human error, its causes and contexts, and human reliability analysis (HRA) is important in risk-informing the regulation of these activities. The development of the human performance job aids was undertaken by stages, with frequent interaction with the prospective users. First, potentially risk significant human actions were identified based on reviews of available risk studies for byproduct material applications and of descriptions of events for byproduct materials applications that involved potentially significant human actions. Applications from the medical and the industrial domains were sampled. Next, the specific needs of the expected users of the human performance-related capabilities were determined. To do this, NRC headquarters and region staff were interviewed to identify the types of activities (e.g., license reviews, inspections, event assessments) that need HRA support and the form in which such support might best be offered. Because the range of byproduct uses regulated by NRC is so broad, it was decided that initial development of knowledge and tools would be undertaken in the context of a specific use of byproduct material, which was selected in consultation with NRC staff. Based on needs of NRC staff and the human performance related characteristics of the context chosen, knowledge resources were then compiled to support consideration of human performance issues related to the regulation of byproduct materials. Finally, with

  12. Integration geschlechtersensibler Aspekte in die medizinische Lehre - Status Quo und Zukunftsperspektiven [Integration of gender-specific aspects into medical curricula - status quo und future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] The consideration of gender aspects in clinical routine is of high importance towards an individualized patient care and a starting point of diversity medicine. Gender-specific awareness is an indispensable basis for an optimized medical treatment. A current study at the medical faculties of Muenster and Duisburg-Essen University (Germany revealed an insufficient knowledge among students and lecturers in this area. An interdisciplinary, international workshop took place in Muenster (Germany in May 2012 on the topic how to integrate gender aspects into medical curricula in the future aiming at a better health care for both sexes in long term. This position paper summarizes the conclusions. It was suggested to teach gender-specific contents from the first semester comprehensively – using standardized definitions and a gender-neutral language, since it is crucial not to increase the students’ workload any further. The key to success is to implement gender aspects by using meaningful examples on a regular basis – ideally in a longitudinal manner. The content of teaching should be selected by the lecturers and full professors and be considered within students´ exams. To reach these goals, an absolute support of the respective medical faculties as well as the integration of these gender-specific learning objectives into the national competence-based learning catalogue for medical education (NKLM is obligatory.[german] Die Berücksichtigung von Geschlechteraspekten im klinischen Alltag ist ein wichtiger Schritt auf dem Weg zu passgenauer Medizin und der Beginn einer.Kenntnisse über geschlechtersensible Aspekte in der Medizin sind eine essentielle Grundlage für eine optimale PatientInnenversorgung. Diese Kompetenz ist sowohl unter Studierenden als auch Lehrenden unzureichend vorhanden - wie eine aktuelle Studie der Universitäten Münster und Duisburg-Essen belegt. Am 30./31. Mai 2012 fand in Münster ein internationaler

  13. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  14. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B.; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. OBJECTIVES This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. SOURCES OF DATA The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. PROCEDURES The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. RESULTS The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include 1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; 2) assess the population, need, and context; 3

  15. Oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture. A critical evaluation of the various methods clarifies positive and negative aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocci Velio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Besides oxygen, several other gases such as NO, CO, H2, H2S, Xe and O3 have come to age over the past few years. With regards to O3, its mechanisms of action in medicine have been clarified during the last two decades so that now a comprehensive framework for understanding and recommending ozone therapy in various pathologies is available. O3 used within the determined therapeutic window is absolutely safe and more effective than golden standard medications in numerous pathologies, like vascular diseases. However, ozone therapy is mostly in practitioners' hands and some recent developments for increasing cost effectiveness and speed of treatment are neither standardized, nor evaluated toxicologically. Hence, the aim of this article is to emphasize the need to objectively assess the pros and cons of oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture in the hope that ozone therapy will be accepted by orthodox medicine in the near future.

  16. Oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture. A critical evaluation of the various methods clarifies positive and negative aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Besides oxygen, several other gases such as NO, CO, H2, H2S, Xe and O3 have come to age over the past few years. With regards to O3, its mechanisms of action in medicine have been clarified during the last two decades so that now a comprehensive framework for understanding and recommending ozone therapy in various pathologies is available. O3 used within the determined therapeutic window is absolutely safe and more effective than golden standard medications in numerous pathologies, like vascular diseases. However, ozone therapy is mostly in practitioners' hands and some recent developments for increasing cost effectiveness and speed of treatment are neither standardized, nor evaluated toxicologically. Hence, the aim of this article is to emphasize the need to objectively assess the pros and cons of oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture in the hope that ozone therapy will be accepted by orthodox medicine in the near future. PMID:22146387

  17. Ethico-legal aspects of hospital-based blood transfusion practice; implications of professional negligence to medical practitioners: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkuma J.A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion is predominantly a hospital-based practice in many resourceconstrained economies like Nigeria, wherein the sourcing, storage, processing and clinical use of blood and blood products resides in the often financial and manpower constrained hospitals. Aim: To identify the ethical and legal issues related to hospital-based blood transfusion practice for medical practitioner. Methods: Relevant articles retrieved via PubMed/MEDLINE and Google scholar search engines were used. Results: This review found that, medical practitioners are directly or vicariously liable in professional negligence in hospital-based transfusion injuries. The potential weaknesses in hospital-based blood transfusion practice as ethically identified include; transfusion transmissible infections, blood group incompatibility, haemolytic transfusion reaction, failure to obtain informed consent and challenges of haemovigillance. However from the cases considered, medical practitioners are more professionally liable where they withhold a transfusion or transfuse blood group incompatible transfusion or fail to obtain an informed consent for blood transfusion especially amongst Jehovah’s Witness adherents. Conclusion: Medical practitioners at hospital-based transfusion centres are professionally liable for negligence due to blood transfusion injuries by their clinical, laboratory or general administrative oversight at different levels of hospital management. It is recommended that, they carry out this duty cautiously. While error reporting should be encouraged, litigations against them should be pursued cautiously in order not to encourage defensive blood transfusion practices in fear of claims or litigations to the disadvantage of the patients. Mediation or arbitration systems which are faster, less expensive and often less punitive but help strengthen the blood transfusion services should be encouraged.

  18. SCIENTIFIC AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF RADIATION HYGIENE TRAINING IN THE MILITARY MEDICAL ACADEMY AFTER S.M. KIROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Omelchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents materials describing the historical stages of the development of radiation hygiene training in the Military Medical Academy after S.M. Kirov. Particular attention is paid to the development of scientific, methodological and pedagogical potential of the staff of naval and radiation hygiene department. The main achievements of doctoral and teaching staff in the radiation hygiene training are presented.

  19. MEDICAL AND LITERARY ASPECTS OF THE HISTORY OF THE FILARIASIS BY Wuchereria Bancrofti IN CARTAGENA AND COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor-Tribin Hugo Armando

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Description exists in the Colombian medical words of a disease that had high prevalence in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, since the 16th century until half of the 20th century. The filariasis by Wuchereria bancrofti due to the impacting clinical symptoms that it caused, it was thoroughly described and considered. Medical documents and travel chronicles describe to the patients and the personal and social impacts of the disease, just like the measures that were applied. They were extrapolated to the literature, especially for Gabriel García Márquez, who recreates the disease in three of his works. With own strategies of the medicine and European surgery of the epoch, as well as the contributions and indigenous traditions, it was approached for many years in Cartagena de Indias. In the Colombian medical words of the 19th and 20th century, the approach and the clinical and therapeutic considerations that were realized for then could be observed just like the increasing borders between the empiricism and the nascent etiological scientific treatment. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2: 374-381. KEYWORDS History of medicine, Filarial elephantiasis, Wuchereria bancrofti.

  20. Medical handling of accidentally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 the International Atomic Energy Agency issued a publication in the IAEA Safety Series entitled Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury (Safety Series No. 47). The contents were directed to first aid and early medical treatment of workers who might be concerned in an accident involving exposure to radiation, whether external or internal. The present manual is the first of a set of three safety series publications dealing with assessment and treatment of overexposures which will constitute an articulated system of documents covering all aspects of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of overexposures. This document establishes a set of general criteria and recommendations to aid specialists involved in the medical handling of overexposed persons. It deals with the medical management of individual patients or small groups of patients under close medical supervision. 14 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  1. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  2. [Modern aspects of combat maxillofacial trauma (review of foreign scientific-medical publications during 2012-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebnev, G A; Bolekhan, V N; Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Parfenov, V D; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-04-01

    The current article is dedicated to the modern aspects of combat maxillofacial trauma as they have been presented in 2012-2013 scientific publications. It has been shown that due to employment of more and more powerful explosive devices the facial trauma over the last decade has occurred more frequently and become more severe. Some new methods of facial injuries treatment are being tested now, among them KSL-W antimicrobial decapeptide, new bone regenerative biocompatible materials, scar-healing mesenchymal and adipose-derived stem cells, and a custom automated face dressing platform. PMID:24000612

  3. Oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture. A critical evaluation of the various methods clarifies positive and negative aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bocci Velio; Zanardi Iacopo; Travagli Valter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Besides oxygen, several other gases such as NO, CO, H2, H2S, Xe and O3 have come to age over the past few years. With regards to O3, its mechanisms of action in medicine have been clarified during the last two decades so that now a comprehensive framework for understanding and recommending ozone therapy in various pathologies is available. O3 used within the determined therapeutic window is absolutely safe and more effective than golden standard medications in numerous pathologies, l...

  4. Ethical and legal aspects of medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the Netherlands in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ancient times in Greece lived a very wise man. He told physicians; when you treat patients be aware you will 'do good and no harm'. From this specific point of view I kindly ask attention for legal and ethical dimensions of medical exposures of ionizing radiation. This paper gives first a resume of the basic safety standards for radiation protection. Second it gives the legal instruments a patient in the Netherlands has to exercise his right of self-determination. Third, it pays attention to a basic ethical norm for professional attitude. And finally, it brings forward a guideline for self regulation by professionals. (author)

  5. General aspects of meteorology and wind flow patterns at the National Medical Cyclotron site, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an assessment into the consequences of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW., Australia, two meteorological stations were installed to monitor the winds, temperatures and atmospheric dispersion conditions. The data will be used to assess environmental impacts of the Cyclotron's operation. In spite of the relatively poor performance of the stations, the wind data indicated significant effects of local buildings and the general urban surface roughness features. The prevailing winds during the study were from the north-north-west at night and south-south-west or north-east sea breezes during the day. Atmospheric stability/dispersion categories were typical of an urban heat island location. 11 refs., 10 tabs, 6 figs

  6. Analysis of the education principle of first aid skills and knowledge for non medical university students%非医科大学生急救知识技能教育原则探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱娜

    2014-01-01

    For better training of first-aid knowledge and skills for non medical university students,combined with the group characteristics of non medical university students and campus characteristics,we put forward four principles of first aid education for non medical university students:the scientific principle,the practical principle,the practicability principle and the principle of universality.%目的:为更好地培养非医科大学生的急救知识技能,本文结合非医科大学生群体特征及校园特点,提出了非医科大学生急救知识教育的4项原则:即科学性原则、实践性原则、实用性原则和普及性原则。

  7. AIDS: Dynamics and Rehabilitation Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Henry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) confronts the rehabilitation professional with a number of concerns. This paper reviews literature on the diagnosis, epidemiological factors, psychosocial elements, medical intervention of AIDS, and rehabilitation issues involved in serving AIDS patients. (JDD)

  8. Medical and Dental Guidance Notes. A Good Practice Guide on all Aspects of Ionising Radiation Protection in the Clinical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine York: IPEM 225 pp, ISBN: 1-903613-09-4. This book is the much awaited replacement for the old yellow 'Guidance Notes' published in 1988 by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). Since then nearly all Regulations covering the use of ionising radiation have been updated. The Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) established a working group in 1999 to produce a first draft for consultation (produced in April 2000) and to consider subsequent comments to this draft. The final document, published by IPEM, is therefore the end product of numerous contributions from professionals working in healthcare and wide consultation with professional bodies, the NRPB, UK Health Departments, Environment Agencies and the HSE. The notes provide general guidance on good practice - not just legal requirements. Radiation Protection Advisers and Medical Physics Experts may well have instigated slightly different arrangements locally. The publication has been available in electronic form on the IPEM website ( www.ipem.org.uk/publications/IRR99.html) for a few months. This has been useful for quick access to advice and for searching for particular topics but is difficult to read in large sections. Although it can be downloaded, the main documented is protected so that it can not be printed and specific text can not be 'cut and pasted'. The appendices are in a separate file that can be printed. Although the chapter paragraph numbers are consistent between the electronic and papers versions, the page numbers are different. The new guidance is ring bound, so, apart from at the beginning and end of the book, it is generally easy to open it out and lay it flat. The book consists of 19 chapters and 21 appendices and, with 225 pages, is considerably more extensive than the old notes. It begins with the general measures for radiation protection followed by radiation protection of persons undergoing medical exposures

  9. Indoor air pollution. Chemical, physiological, hygienic, medical and toxicological aspects; Innenraum-Luftverunreinigungen. Chemie, Physiologie, Hygiene, Medizin und Toxikologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botzenhart, K.; Mueller, H.E.; Strubelt, O.

    2001-07-01

    The book starts by presenting the fundamentals of indoor air hygiene with all relevant chemical, physical and physiological data, standards, criteria of comfort and tolerance levels. Indoor air pollutants are combustion products, volatile organic substances, dust, fibres, radon and bio-aerosols. They are analyzed toxicologically in consideration of the dose/time effect principle and of NOEL, ADI, immission MIC and MPC levels. The somatic and psychosomatic reactions that can be defined in medical terms are described, and the complex symptoms of SBS are derived from them. SBS is a phenomenon with serious consequences: Either the building must be modified to ensure more wholesome living and working conditions, or else the inhabitants need psychological consulting. [German] Das Buch behandelt zunaechst die Grundlagen der Luft- und Wohnungshygiene mit ihren relevanten chemischen, physikalischen und physiologischen Kenndaten, Normwerten, Behaglichkeitskriterien und Toleranzschwellen. Schadstoffe in Innenraeumen sind Verbrennungsprodukte, fluechtige organische Verbindungen sowie Staeube, Fasern, Radon und Bioaerosole. Sie werden toxikologisch unter Beruecksichtigung des Dosis-Zeit-Wirkungsprinzips sowie von NOEL, ADI-, Immissions-, MIK- und MAK-Werten beurteilt. Die medizinisch fassbaren somatischen und psychosomatischen Reaktionen werden beschrieben und daraus die komplexe Symptomatik des SBS abgeleitet. Es macht entweder eine Gebaeudesanierung notwendig oder die psychologische Betreuung der Betroffenen. (orig.)

  10. Improving mining technology and organization of labor in the light of medical-biological aspects of physical health of miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, P.V.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Davydova, N.N.; Dyatlova, L.A. (Kuzbasskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Transfer to a contract-bonus system in mines of the Severokuzbassugol' and Leninskugol' associations (USSR) increased coal mining productivity by 42.2-54.4%, but, at the same time, problems concerning miners' health were noted. Presents data on the productivity and labor conditions of contract teams working at coal mining and in development faces. The influence of noise and vibration induced stresses on organisms of underground workers is analyzed. Investigations showed that 3 stages of exhaustion are likely to develop and that the most vulnerable are the cardiovascular system and the respiratory tract. The 3 stages of exhaustion and ability to recover were studied on mining machine operators and drivers of heading machines. Data showed that during the 1985-89 period, 972 miners received disability certificates; the rate of disability was 2.6 miners per 1 Mt of coal; 40.5% of miners over 40 years working on labor-intensive jobs had three or more chronic diseases which could cause permanent disability. In the structure of disability, cardio-vascular system cases accounted for 25%, osseous-muscular system cases for 20% and pulmonary diseases for 13%. Stresses the need for every mine to maintain its own medical center equipped with inhalation therapy, psychological relief, acupuncture and physiotherapy facilities.

  11. The “humane” aspect of international aids: An evaluation of global poverty reduction programs from a human rights-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu İçağasıoğlu Çoban

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, as the most devastating problem of the contemporary society, is at the core of economical and social policies at the national and international level. Beyond the economical discourse, poverty is basically the violation of the rights raised from being human. In this sense, struggle against poverty should be accepted as the struggle for human rights. But different criterions in definition and measurement of poverty reveals that there is no universally standart solution for the problem. Under these circumstances, it is also questionable that there is a universal and standart way of struggle against poverty. International organizations has a unique position with their different policies and programmes at the global level for struggling against poverty. In this study, which aims to evaluate the international aids through the lens of human rights perspective, the international aid organizations having an important effect on the economical stability of the World’s economy after World War II (i.e.UNDP, IMF and World Bank and their financial support and structural adjustment programmes was chosen for the focus of analysis. It is aimed to introduce the contradictions between the human rights philosophy and mechanisms of these programmes.

  12. 非医学专业大学生现场急救知识需求及认知现状%Medical Professional College Students On-site First Aid Knowledge Needs and Cognitive Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向希; 刘璇

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解非医学专业大学生现场急救知识需求及认知现状。方法采用整群抽样对我校337名非医学专业学生,利用自设急救知识调查问卷进行问卷调查。结果非医学专业大学生急救基本知识(22.30±5.87),意外事故损伤急救(25.50±7.63),心肺复苏(5.85±2.26),处于较低水平。结论非医学专业大学生急救知识处于较低水平,应该采用相应措施提高急救知识水平。%Objective To understand the scene first aid medical college students knowledge needs and cognitive status.Methods Cluster sampling of 337 medical students in our school, using its own first aid knowledge questionnaire survey.Results The medical professional college students' basic knowledge about first aid 22.30 ±5.87,emergency accident injury 25.50 ±7.63,5.85 ±2.26 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in a low level. Conclusion The medical professional college students first aid at lower levels, should adopt corresponding measures to improve the level of first aid.

  13. Self-Medication and Memory in an Elderly Canadian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Heather M.; Dobson, Keith S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated predictive value of three aspects of memory potentially related to success or failure in self-medication program. Results showed that combination of memory measures successfully discriminated between those subjects who advanced in program and those who did not. Results provide information that will aid in improving selection process…

  14. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Stress factors action on the population health evaluation, especially on the emergency workers remains one of the most important problems of the contemporary medicine. In this line the Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) that took place on the 26th April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station (NPS) is an eloquent example. Radioactive substances produced in the result of CNA fell out in a significant part of the Europe, including the Republic of Moldova territory, affecting more than 5,000,000 persons. In CNA consequences liquidation participated a lot of military staff including a great number of reservists. Lack of previous experience in the field (it was the first large-scale nuclear accident) made it impossible to prepare specially trained personnel for CNA limitation and liquidation. Consequently a lot of military staff even from the first days presented to medical authorities with a gamma of symptoms, which were henceforth characterized as somatic diseases after detailed investigations. Ionizing radiation influence on the health status of the participants in diminishing of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (PDCCNA) evaluation is difficult enough and so calls for an ample multilateral study applying modern diagnostic techniques. Large studies were yet conducted in the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus. Acquired data suggests the existence of noticeable deteriorating effect of ionizing radiation produced secondary to CNA with the increased incidence of health status disturbances in affected population. Approximately 3500 inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova took part in the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation. Study objective comprises the determination of clinical, immunological and cytogenetic features in PDCCNA from the Republic of Moldova and their descendants. Between 1996 and 2005 period 850 patients - participants in removal of consequences of Chernobyl

  15. Medical and biological aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident influence on the population of the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete test of publication follows. Stress factors action on the population health evaluation, especially on the emergency workers remains on e of the most important problems of the contemporary medicine. In this line the Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) that look place on the 26th April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (CNPS) is an eloquent example. Radioactive substances produced in the result of CNA fell out in a significant part of the Europe, including the Republic of Moldova territory, affecting more than 5,000,000 persons. In CNA consequences liquidation participated a lot of military staff including a great number of reservists. Lack of previous experience in the field (it was the first large-scale nuclear accident) made it impossible to prepare specially trained personnel for CNA limitation and liquidation. Consequently a lot of military staff even from the first days presented to medical authorities with a gamma of symptoms, which were henceforth characterized as somatic diseases after detailed investigations. Ionizing radiation influence on the health status of the participants in diminishing of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (PDCCNA) evaluation is difficult enough and so calls for an ample multilateral study applying modern diagnostic techniques. Large studies were yet conducted in the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus. Acquired data suggests the existence of noticeable deteriorating effect of ionizing radiation produced secondary to CNA with the increased incidence of health status disturbances in affected population. Approximately 3500 inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova took part in the Chernobyl nuclear accident consequences liquidation. Study objective comprises the determination of clinical, immunological and cytogenetic features in PDCCNA from the Republic of Moldova and their descendants. Between 1996 and 2005 period 850 patients - participants in removal of consequences of Chernobyl

  16. Medical aid in earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo; SONG Shuang-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ General condition Population growth, urbanization process speeding up, fast industry development, especially irrational exploitation of the land, water resources, and forest, get our living environment worse and worse. A sound ecological system of the globe becomes unbalance. As a result, natural disasters have the tendency to increase.

  17. A comparative evaluation of different teaching aids among fourth term medical students to improve the knowledge, attitude and perceptions about pharmacovigilance: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish G. Bagewadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Study was designed to assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s and to evaluate the effectiveness of different teaching aids.Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based pre- and post-test on (KAP Knowledge, Attitude, Perception about pharmacovigilance. Students were given handouts regarding pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting one week before the educational interventions. Fourth term medical students (n=72 participated in the study. They were randomly allocated into group A (n=24, group B (n=24 and group C (n=24. A pre-validated 20-point questionnaire on Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR’s reporting was distributed to each group of students before the educational intervention to know their awareness. The interactive educational interventions on Pharmacovigilance were given using Overhead projector (OHP and transparencies to group A students, Black board (BB method to group B students, Power point presentation (PPT method to group C students respectively. Theoretical content was the same in all the educational interventions. The chi-square test and one way ANOVA was used for statistical calculation.Results: The overall response rates were expressed as percentages, Mean±SD. The Mean Pre-KAP scores on knowledge was (7.7±0.48 but the total post- KAP scores after (OHP, (BB, and (PPT were (12.1±0.39, (17.4±0.3, (19.4±0.21 respectively. The correct response rates were found to be statistically significant (P<0.001.The feedback from the students was encouraging; handouts before the class were greatly welcomed.Conclusion: The study greatly imparted knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADR’s reporting and students preferred power point presentations the most.

  18. The role of industrial-sanitary laboratory of medical aid station of Federal administration in prophylaxis of emergency situations at the plants of nuclear-energy complex and liquidation of their after-effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the example of several radiation accidents the author summarized the personal practical experience in organization of work in industrial-sanitary laboratories based at the nuclear energy plants of nuclear-energy complex, in respect of prophylaxis of emergency radiation situations and liquidation of their after-effects. It is pointed out that successful activity in rendering emergency medical aid in emergency situations, caused by radiation accidents, is possible only subject to close contact of science, practical medical care and sanitary service which should become a part of the uniform public health system. 4 refs

  19. [The liver and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  20. Current medical aspects of pantethine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Zoltán; Vécsei, László

    2009-07-30

    Pantethine, the stable disulfide form of pantetheine, is the major precursor of coenzyme A, which plays a central role in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A is a cofactor in over 70 enzymatic pathways, including fatty acid oxidation, carbohydrate metabolism, pyruvate degradation, amino acid catabolism, haem synthesis, acetylcholine synthesis, phase II detoxification, acetylation, etc. Pantethine has beneficial effects in vascular disease, it able to decrease the hyperlipidaemia, moderate the platelet function and prevent the lipid-peroxidation. Moreover its neuro-endocrinological regulating role, its good influence on cataract and cystinosis are also proved. This molecule is a well-tolerated therapeutic agent; the frequency of its side-effect is very low and mild. Based on these preclinical and clinical data, it could be recommended using this compound as adjuvant therapy. PMID:19685700

  1. Medical aspects of sports injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, I D

    1981-01-01

    The aims of medicine in sport--treatment and prevention of injury of high-performance athletes, rehabilitation--and its beneficial effects are considered. The types of sporting injuries are described. Collision and contact sports tend to be characterised by injuries caused by direct or indirect trauma, while athletic injuries tend to result from a variety of factors that, instead of producing excellence as intended, produce injury. The physiological changes in a top-class sportsman may also b...

  2. Medical Aspects of Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Thiel, David H.; Schade, Robert R.; GAVALER, JUDITH S.; Shaw, Byers W.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Starzl, Thomas E.

    1984-01-01

    The methods used to screen prospective candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation are described. Both the indication and the contraindications for the procedure are discussed. The timing of the procedure during the course of an individual candidate’s liver disease is also discussed. Additionally, the institutional requirements of a liver transplant center are identified. Finally, the problems experienced by a liver transplant patient and his physician during the postoperative period are ...

  3. Object in Eye or Skin, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newsletter | contact Share | Object in Eye or Skin, First Aid A A A A splinter is considered a ... and should be conducted while awaiting medical assistance. First Aid Guide In the case of a foreign object ...

  4. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  5. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  6. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  7. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  8. A Survey of the knowledge of emergency medicine and first aid in medical students%医学生对急诊医学和院前急救知识认识度的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慧琳; 林珮仪; 莫均荣; 陈洁如

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of acceptance of Emergency Medicine and the abilities of first aid in senior medical students, and study the methods of how to improve their abilities and skills.Methods A random sample survey methodology.Results A total of 146 medical students of clinical medicine were surveyed.99.32% of student believed that emergency medicine was essential and necessary in their learning process.The knowledge of first aid would play important role for their future work.55.48% of students considered that there were partial overlaps in teaching content in emergency medicine and internal medical and surgery.Senior medical students accessed to knowledge mainly through books,followed by the Internet,television and newspapers and their first aid knowledge and skills were poor.Conclusion Emergency medical teaching should be focused on highlighting its characteristics.The visualization of the operation and standardized assessment will help to strengthen students' mastery of first-aid knowledge and skills.%目的 了解医学生对开设《急诊医学》课程的认可度和院前急救知识的知晓现状,探讨急诊医学课程中针对高年级医学生急救知识与技能培训的方法.方法 采取随机抽样的调查方法.结果 调查某医学院临床医学专业146名学生,99.32%的学生认为开设《急诊医学》是非常有必要和有必要,接受急救知识的系统培训对以后的工作也非常重要.55.48%的人认为急诊医学是内科、外科的部分重复;高年级的医学生对急救知识有一定的了解,其获得知识的途径主要来源于书籍,其次分别是网络、电视和报纸,但实际掌握急救知识和技能的程度仍欠佳.结论 急诊医学授课应注重其特点,操作形象化和考核规范化可能有助于加强医学生对急救知识和技能的掌握.

  9. HIV and/or AIDS-related deaths and modifiable risk factors: A descriptive study of medical admissions at Oshakati Intermediate Hospital in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Mgori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High rates of HIV infection have decreased life expectancy in many African countries. Regardless of worldwide efforts to escalate treatment, care and prevention strategies, the number of deaths due to AIDS-related disorders is still high. Local healthcare workers suspect that there are modifiable factors in the care of HIV and/or AIDS patients which can be identified and improved.Aim: To describe the HIV and/or AIDS-related causes of adult mortality and identify modifiable factors amongst patients admitted to Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia.Methods: Data was extracted retrospectively and coded using the modified CoDe protocol for AIDS. Modifiable factors relating to the patient, health system or clinical care were identified using a standardised data collection tool.Results: A total of 177 HIV and/or AIDS patients were identified, 94 (53.1% were male and 120 (68% had a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL. The common HIV-related causes of death were tuberculosis (25.9%, renal failure (15.8%, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (11.3%, cryptococcal meningitis (9%, HIV wasting syndrome (7.9% and AIDS-defining malignancy (7.9%. The analysis revealed 281 modifiable factors; patient-related factors were the most common (153 [54.4%], followed by health system factors (97 [34.5%] and healthcare personnel factors (31 [11%].Conclusion: Our findings have highlighted the challenges in overall HIV and/or AIDS inpatient care and surrounding primary care facilities. The identification of specific modifiable factors can be used to reduce mortality by providing training as well as rational monitoring, planning and resource allocation.

  10. Experience in Teaching Pharmacology to Foreign Students at Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University and the Importance of Using Visual Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Sheremeta, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacology as one of the basic medical sciences is studied by students of all medical faculties all over the world. Deep understanding of the processes occurring in the human body under the influence of drugs and the possible adverse reactions is necessary for medical staff of any branch of medicine and pharmacy. Mastering profound theoretical knowledge and practical skills in pharmacology by students is a necessary prerequisite for subsequent successful mastering clinical disciplines and f...

  11. 医学生与非医学生艾滋病知信行和知识获取的差异分析%Analysis of differences in AIDS-related knowledge,attitude,behavior and knowledge acquisition between medical students and non-medical students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚蒙蒙; 谷利斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解医学生与非医学生在艾滋病(A ID S )知识、态度、行为和知识获取方面的基本情况及差异,为高校制订合理的健康教育策略提供相关依据。方法运用AIDS知识、态度、行为、知识获取调查问卷对440名在校大学生进行调查,其中医学生与非医学生各220名,运用SPSS19.0分析调查结果。结果医学生和非医学生在AIDS知识问卷和态度问卷方面的平均得分比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。医学生发生婚前性行为的概率为3.96%,非医学生为7.62%。医学生与非医学生获得AIDS知识的主要途径均为报纸、杂志,电视、电影,最愿意获得AIDS知识的途径为电视、电影。结论高校应联合家庭,运用大学生喜闻乐见的方式对其进行AIDS教育,重点加强非医学生在非传播途径知识、对AIDS患者/感染者的态度、预防知识等方面的教育。%Objective To understand the basic information and differences in the AIDS-related knowledge ,attitude ,behavior and knowledge acquisition between the medical students and the non-medical students to provide the related basis for formulating the ra-tional health education strategy in the colleges and universities .Methods The questionnaires of the AIDS-related knowledge ,atti-tude ,behavior and knowledge acquisition were used to perform the survey on 440 college students including 220 medical students and 220 non-medical students .The SPSS19 .0 software was adopted to analyze the survey results .Results The statistical differ-ences existed between the the medical students and the non-medical students in the average scores of the AIDS-related knowledge and attitude questionnaires(P<0 .05) .The propability of premarital sexual behavior was 3 .96% in the medical stedents and 7 .62%in the non-medical students .The main routes for obtaining the AIDS knowledge in the medical students and the non-medical students were

  12. Teleradiology network system and computer-aided diagnosis workstation using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    We have developed the teleradiology network system with a new information security solution that provided with web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. We are studying the secret sharing scheme as a method safely to store or to transmit the confidential medical information used with the teleradiology network system. The confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of the damage and intercept. Secret sharing scheme is a method of dividing the confidential medical information into two or more tallies. Individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Our method has the function of RAID. With RAID technology, if there is a failure in a single tally, there is redundant data already copied to other tally. Confidential information is preserved at an individual Data Center connected through internet because individual medical information cannot be decoded by using one tally at all. Therefore, even if one of the Data Centers is struck and information is damaged, the confidential medical information can be decoded by using the tallies preserved at the data center to which it escapes damage. We can safely share the screen of workstation to which the medical image of Data Center is displayed from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. Moreover, Real time biometric face authentication system is connected with Data Center. Real time biometric face authentication system analyzes the feature of the face image of which it takes a picture in 20 seconds with the camera and defends the safety of the medical information. We propose a new information transmission method and a new information storage method with a new information security solution.

  13. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  14. Venomous Animals and Their Victims: A Program for Sophomore Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, James J.

    1977-01-01

    In the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences program, lectures are given on the recognition and general biology of dangerous reptiles and anthropods, the nature of animal venoms, immunological aspects of envenomation, and treatment of bites and stings. Both first-aid and clinical management are included. (Author/LBH)

  15. Cytomegalovirus viral load kinetics in patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to a medical intensive care unit: a case for pre-emptive therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simnikiwe H Mayaphi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is associated with severe diseases in immunosuppressed patients; however, there is a lack of data for pre-emptive therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: This was a retrospective study, which enrolled patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (CD41,000 copies/ml at baseline testing had significantly higher mortality compared to those who had 5,100 copies/ml and did not receive ganciclovir had 100% mortality compared to 58% mortality in those who received ganciclovir at VLs of >5,100 copies/ml, 50% mortality in those who were not treated and had low VLs of <5,100 copies/ml, and 44% mortality in those who had ganciclovir treatment at VLs of <5,100 copies/ml (p = 0.084, 0.046, 0.037, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed a significantly increased mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS who had high CMV VLs, and suggests that a threshold value of 1,000 copies/ml may be appropriate for pre-emptive treatment in this group.

  16. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  17. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  18. 宁波市非医学专业大学生院前急救能力现状调查%Pre-hospital First-aid of Non-medical College Students in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡苏珍; 冯小君; 郭玲玲; 董燕艳

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解宁波市非医学专业大学生院前急救能力现状,为更好地开展大学生院前急救培训提供基础。方法采用多阶段抽样法,先在宁波市12所高等院校中方便抽样选取7所,再随机抽取专业、班级,最终选取752名在校非医学专业大学生和各校的院前急救培训管理人员作为调查对象,采用自行设计的问卷分别从学生和学校2个层面开展调查,并对所得结果进行分析。结果学生:本组调查对象院前急救知识、态度和行为的得分分别为(8.42±1.92)分,(18.72±1.91)分和(25.77±4.65)分。40.1%的调查对象有院前急救培训经历,有培训经历者的院前急救知识、态度、行为较未培训者高。学校:被调查的学校开展院前急救培训的组织形式主要有3种:开设急救课程,在其他课程中穿插以及开展红十字救护员培训,不同组织形式在培训学时、培训内容等方面均有所不同。结论宁波市非医学专业大学生的院前急救知识水平有待提高,对急救的重要性有较好的认识,院前急救行为仍需改善。院前急救培训的组织形式多样,但培训效果不理想。%Objective To understand the status quo of pre-hospital first-aid ability of non-medical college students in Ningbo and to provide the reference for the training of pre-hospital first-aid for college students. Methods With multistage sampling method, 752 non-medical college students and adminstrative staff of pre-hospital first-aid training from 7 institutes of higher learning in Ningbo were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire. Results Among students, the knowledge, attitude and practice of pre-hospital first-aid were 8.42 ±1.92, 18.72 ±1.91, 25.77 ±4.65 respectively and 40.1% of the interviewees had received pre-hospital first-aid training and those once received training got higher score in KAP of pre-hospital first-aid than those not

  19. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  20. AccessMedicine – eine perfekte Lernunterlage für das Medizinstudium / AccessMedicine – a perfect learning aid for the medical curriculum (Product Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalstieg, Burhard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AccessMedicine (http://www.accessmedicine.com/features.aspx is an innovative online resource that provides students, residents, clinicians, researchers, and other health professionals with access to more than 50 medical book titles, updated content, thousands of photos and illustrations, interactive self-assessment, case files, diagnostic tools, a comprehensive search platform, and the possibility to download content to mobile devices. Updated frequently and expanded continuously, AccessMedicine provides fast and direct access to the information necessary for completing evaluations, diagnoses and case management decisions, as well as pursuing research or medical education. The newly designed homepage reflects the diversity of AccessMedicine users, allowing individuals to customize their own view of the site through their personal profile. Now users can decide whether they prefer a rich view of available features, a comprehensive list of McGraw-Hill's leading medical textbooks or a powerful advanced search interface as their homepage with a top-level tabbed navigation, semantic search engine, and recent updates and enhancements available on all views. Following an interview with university professor Dr. Richard März from the Medical University Vienna, department for Research and International Relations and Special Unit for Medical Education. Interview was carried out by Mr. Burkhard Schmalstieg, Senior Sales Executive for McGraw-Hill.

  1. Computer-aided recording of automatic endoscope washing and disinfection processes as an integral part of medical documentation for quality assurance purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Stefanie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reprocessing of medical endoscopes is carried out using automatic cleaning and disinfection machines. The documentation and archiving of records of properly conducted reprocessing procedures is the last and increasingly important part of the reprocessing cycle for flexible endoscopes. Methods This report describes a new computer program designed to monitor and document the automatic reprocessing of flexible endoscopes and accessories in fully automatic washer-disinfectors; it does not contain nor compensate the manual cleaning step. The program implements national standards for the monitoring of hygiene in flexible endoscopes and the guidelines for the reprocessing of medical products. No FDA approval has been obtained up to now. The advantages of this newly developed computer program are firstly that it simplifies the documentation procedures of medical endoscopes and that it could be used universally with any washer-disinfector and that it is independent of the various interfaces and software products provided by the individual suppliers of washer-disinfectors. Results The computer program presented here has been tested on a total of four washer-disinfectors in more than 6000 medical examinations within 9 months. Conclusions We present for the first time an electronic documentation system for automated washer-disinfectors for medical devices e.g. flexible endoscopes which can be used on any washer-disinfectors that documents the procedures involved in the automatic cleaning process and can be easily connected to most hospital documentation systems.

  2. 大数据辅助的老年医疗改善对策%Measures to Improve the Elderly Medical Big Data Aided

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 张晓明; 孟庆民

    2015-01-01

    随着大数据分析与挖掘技术不断成熟,大数据分析与挖掘技术使得医疗行业信息化获得了飞越式的发展。文章先概述了我国人口老龄化和大数据技术进展,接着针对日益增长的老年化医疗问题,提出一种大数据驱动的老年医疗应用框架。%With big data analysis and mining technology continues to mature, big data analysis and mining technology makes the medical information obtained over type development. This paper ifrst outlines the progress of the aging of our population and big data technology, then in view of aging increasing medical problems, put forward the medical application framework for large data driven.

  3. Electronic Medical Record Writing Aided System Based on Text Mining%基于文本挖掘的电子病历书写辅助系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周民

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medical record system is widely used in the hospital .Because of the particularity of occupation ;the doctor is impossible to fast input as professionals .Therefore the method which helps doctors quickly entry medical record information is studied ,and based on text mining technology ,an auxiliary system for electronic medical record system is pro-posed .The system carries on the excavation to the general information of medical records using data mining technology ,con-struct different lexicon for different types of medical records ,and uses Pinyin initials instead of Chinese characters input to speed up the medical record entry speed .%电子病历系统广泛应用于医院的管理系统中,由于职业的特殊性,医生在录入病历时不可能像专业人员那样快速录入,论文研究了帮助医生快速录入病历信息的方法,并基于文本挖掘技术提出了一种电子病历书写辅助系统,该系统利用数据挖掘技术对病历中的常用信息进行挖掘,为不同类型的病历构建不同的词库,并利用拼音首字母缩写代替汉字输入来加快病历的录入速度。

  4. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recent......' (which will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  5. [Russian Red Cross Society and its role in providing medical aid to wounded and sick people during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budko, A A; Chigareva, N G

    2014-09-01

    Russian Red Cross Society during the First World War played a significant role in health care, preservation of human life and return of millions of experienced soldiers to duty. The Red Cross Society formed and sent to the front their medical institutions (military hospitals, hospitals, hospital trains, etc.), trained medical nurses, charity nurses and orderlies of the Red Cross. Famous professor-surgeons worked as the consultants of the Red Cross Society, under their leadership were organized mobile surgical units. Society has created mobile nutrition and dressing units, X-ray units, psychiatric reception and collection points. The Red Cross Society assisted the military Department in the fight against infectious diseases. PMID:25546970

  6. 艾滋病医护人员工作压力源、应对方式与工作倦怠的关系%Relationship of Job Burnout of medical staff caring for HIV/AIDS with Job Stress Sources and Coping Styles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧民; 李莉; 张晓慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解艾滋病医护人员工作倦怠与工作压力源和应对方式的关系.方法 采用中式工作倦怠量表(CMBI),简易应对方武问卷(SCSQ)以及自编工作压力源问卷对342名艾滋病医护人员进行调查.结果 ①工作倦怠3个维度与工作压力源和应对方式的多个因素有显著相关关系(P< 0.05和0.01).②管理问题和职业风险的压力对情感耗竭以及职业风险对人格解体的预测作用均极其显著(P<0.01);消极应对对于情感耗竭和人格解体具有显著正向预测作用(P< 0.01和0.05),而积极应对对成就感降低具有显著反向预测作用(P<0.01).③Amos路径分析表明,职业风险的压力和消极应对方式直接影响情感耗竭和人格解体,人际排斥的压力直接影响成就感降低,而积极应对反向作用于成就感降低;消极应对在压力源和工作倦怠中起着部分的中介作用.结论 应当重视艾滋病医护人员的工作压力问题,指导他们使用积极的应对方式,以降低其工作倦怠水平,提高工作生活质量.%OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship of job burnout of medical staff caring for HIV/AIDS with job stress sources and coping styles. METHODS 342 medical staff caring for HIV/AIDS were examined with Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), Simplified Coping Style, Questionnaire (SCSQ) and Job Stress Sources Inventory. RESULTS ①Three aspects of Job burnout have significant correlation with several aspects of the job stress sources and coping styles (P < 0.05 & P < 0.01). ② Stress of management and occupational risk can predict emotional exhaustion, and occupational risk can predict depersonalization significantly (P < 0.01) positively. Negative coping style can predict emotional exhaustion and depersonalization positively (P < 0.01 & P< 0.05). The positive coping style can predict low personal accomplishment negatively (f < 0.01). ③Path analysis with Amos shows that occupational risk and

  7. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  8. Characterizing HIV medication adherence for virologic success among individuals living with HIV/AIDS: Experience with the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort

    OpenAIRE

    B. Biswas; Spitznagel, E.; Collier, A.C.; Gelman, B.B.; McArthur, J.C.; Morgello, S; McCutchan, J A; CLIFFORD, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed HIV related illness from terminal to chronic by suppressing viral load which results in immunologic and clinical improvement. Success with ART is dependent on optimal adherence, commonly categorized as >95%. As medication type, class and frequency of use continue to evolve, we assessed adherence levels related to viral suppression. Using a cross-sectional analysis with secondary data (n = 381) from an ongoing multi-site study on impact of ART on the Ce...

  9. Information resources to aid parental decision-making on when to seek medical care for their acutely sick child: a narrative systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, Sarah; Roland, Damian; Jones, Caroline HD; Thompson, Matthew; Lakhanpaul, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. Methods 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal T...

  10. Information resources to aid parental decision-making on when to seek medical care for their acutely sick child: a narrative systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, S; Roland, D; Jones, C.H.; Thompson, M.; Lakhanpaul, M; ASK SNIFF study group

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. METHODS: 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal...

  11. “Why me and not my neighbour?” HIV/AIDS care and counselling in a traditional African context.

    OpenAIRE

    AC van Dyk

    2001-01-01

    HIV/AIDS in Africa places a tremendous burden on the nursing profession. Hospitals are inundated with very sick and dying AIDS patients and nurses often find that their role as healers has shifted to a great extent to that of caregivers, counsellors and educators. AIDS also calls for nurses to go beyond the strict Western-based bio-medical model to be able to help and understand patients who come from a traditional African background. This article discusses relevant aspects of the traditional...

  12. 加强120急救中心院前急救医疗服务体系的管理%Strengthening administration of pre-hospital care medical service system in 120 first-aid center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明锐

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To enhance emergency management and establish and further improve pre-hospital emergency medical service center management system,so as to provide better service to patients. METHODS This article summarized the common security risks of the work in 120 emergency centers, and targeted to explore the corresponding emergency medical service management solutions. RESULTS To improve 120 emergency operations and management, it was necessary to establish and improve pre-hospital emergency medical service system, improve the care management system, emergency aid mechanism and regulate treatment. CONCLUSION 120 emergency center pre-hospital emergency medical service system plays an important role in the rescue capabilities of hospitals.%目的 加强急救管理,建立并完善急救中心院前急救医疗服务体系,进一步为患者服务.方法 总结120急救中心园区急救工作中的常见安全隐患,并有针对性急救医疗服务管理对策.结果 主要安全隐患为急救人员急救意识不强、信息提取不清晰、操作技能不熟练等;针对上述问题,应建立并完善院前急救医疗服务体系,健全护理管理体系,加强教育与培训,完善紧急救援机制和规范救治工作.结论 做好120急救中心院前急救医疗服务体系的运行和管理,对提升突发事件医疗救援能力具有重要意义.

  13. Understanding physicians' response to AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, K M; Shapiro, M.; Skinner, H A; Eakin, J; Kelner, M

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to comprehend physicians' extreme reaction to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) have met with great difficulty since the disease brings into question traditional norms and assumptions. As the medical profession struggles to develop guidelines and policies to help it deal with this disease, it can draw on very little systematic research on the effect of AIDS on physicians' attitudes and practices. We suggest a framework developed from the literature on physicians' and society...

  14. Prevenção da AIDS no período de iniciação sexual: aspectos da dimensão simbólica das condutas de homens jovens AIDS prevention in the period of sexual initiation: aspects of the symbolic dimension of the conduct of young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Barcellos Fontanella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Para aprofundar a compreensão sobre o uso não consistente do preservativo, objetivou-se caracterizar aspectos das significações simbólicas das práticas sexuais de jovens do sexo masculino. Entrevistas de 42 sujeitos, cujas iniciações sexuais começaram no final dos anos 90, foram abordadas qualitativamente por meio de análise de enunciados e interpretadas sob as perspectivas teóricas dos roteiros sexuais e do habitus masculino. Eles enfatizaram a importância de exames sorológicos e da análise biográfica das parceiras (para gerar "confiança" e tenderam a utilizar uma semiotécnica não fundamentada para avaliar o estado de saúde delas. Estabeleceram uma tipologia diádica: parcerias "não fixas" e "fixas", exercitando respectivamente dois tipos de roteiros quanto ao uso do preservativo: para prevenção de AIDS-DST e gravidez ou somente para prevenir gravidez. As narrativas resultariam, dentre outros fatores, de um processo de biomedicalização de aspectos de suas sexualidades e de anseios de relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais estáveis e monogâmicos. Entre os participantes, as importantes e recentes mudanças nos roteiros sexuais intrapsíquico e interpessoal não parecem ser, por ora, acompanhadas de mudanças igualmente profundas nos roteiros culturais ou de habitus masculino.To acquire an in-depth grasp of the non-consistent use of condoms, an attempt was made to characterize aspects of the symbolic meanings of sexual conduct in a group of young males. Interviews with forty-two subjects whose sexual initiation occurred in the late 1990s were qualitatively assessed by an analysis of statements interpreted under the theoretical perspectives of sexual scripts and male lifestyle and values. Participants emphasized the importance of blood testing and a biographical analysis of their partners (to generate 'trust' and tended to use personal criteria to assess the state of their partners' health. They established a dyadic typology of

  15. 综合模拟人在灾害医学救援急救技能培训中的应用%Application of simulator first aid skills training in disaster medical rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永达; 刘宿; 闫红; 陈力勇; 陈强; 胡弋; 彭霁

    2015-01-01

    急救技能是灾害医学救援过程中非常重要的救援手段,一些急救技能在平时的临床工作中应用较少,从而导致相关医务人员对这些技能的掌握不够熟练。采用综合模拟人的培训具有接近真实、可操作、可重复等特点和优势。培训方案以通气、止血、包扎、固定、搬运、基础生命支持六大基本技能为主,通过模拟真实灾害场景以及模拟病例编写,对受训者进行单个急救技能的针对性培训,以及多个急救技能的综合运用能力训练。培训效果评估中对受训者单个技能进行考核,以成绩优良为目标;在综合技能运用能力的考核中同时也注重急救小组的团队配合能力。通过这种应用综合模拟人的培训及评估,受训者能在短时间内最大程度掌握各种急救技能。%First aid skills are very important in the process of disaster medical rescue methods. Some first aid skills is rarely applied in clinical work at ordinary times, resulting in relevant medical personnel grasp of these skills being not enough skilled. This training method combined with the sim-ulator, has the characteristics and advantages of being close to the real, operational and repeatable. The main training program consists of 6 basic skills such as ventilation, hemostasis, bandaging, fixing, handling, basic life support. By simulating the real disaster scenario and simulation cases, we have targeted a single first aid skills training and multiple comprehensive ability training of first aid skills to trainees. To evaluate the training effect we have examined the individual skills of our trainees, with excellent performance as the goal, and in the comprehensive skills ability assessment we have paid attention to the emergency team's team cooperation ability. By the application of comprehensive simu-lation training and evaluation, the trainees can master all kinds of first aid skills in a short period of time.

  16. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  17. AIDS, a development challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447

  18. First aid advisor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang [Texas A & M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  19. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  20. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences of...

  1. Transformações da "aids aguda" para a "aids crônica": percepção corporal e intervenções cirúrgicas entre pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids From "acute AIDS" to "chronic AIDS": body perception and surgical interventions in people living with HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianna Meireles Dantas de Alencar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após dez anos de uso da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência, um novo problema surge: a síndrome lipodistrófica do HIV, uma distribuição irregular de gordura no corpo, decorrente do uso das medicações anti-retrovirais. Se no início da epidemia, a aids era caracterizada, sobretudo, pela magreza, hoje - tempos de "aids crônica"- estamos, uma vez mais, diante do estigma sobre o corpo, só que, paradoxalmente, com sinal trocado - o acúmulo "desordenado" de gordura no corpo. Este artigo apresenta e compara as mudanças corporais percebidas por pessoas que vivem com HIV e aids, ocorridas nos últimos anos da epidemia, com a utilização dos anti-retrovirais. Foram analisadas 32 entrevistas qualitativas com pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids, realizadas nos anos de 1999 e 2005. Ao nos depararmos com as novas questões emergentes e analisarmos sua interação com a crescente disponibilidade e utilização de tecnologias, fica a forte sensação de ressurgimento, sob nova forma, dos mesmos paradoxos previamente existentes nos tempos da aids aguda: o impacto dos sinais e um certo tipo de ressurgimento da desesperança quanto ao futuro de vida dessas pessoas.The Brazilian government has been providing free and universal access to the HAART therapy for people living with HIV and AIDS for ten years. Since then, many epidemiological characteristics have changed, and AIDS passed scientifically and medically to be classified as a chronic condition. This qualitative study aims to comprehend the challenges posed by self-perception of body changes experienced by people living with AIDS during recent years, as a result of prolonged use of antiretroviral medication.With this purpose, in 1999 and 2005, 32 semi-structured interviews with HIV positive individuals were held in the State of Sao Paulo to capture the challenges occurred during this period, in particular with regard to the lipodystrophy syndrome. The analysis of the data indicates that even with

  2. Study on AIDS related knowledge and homosexual cognition attitude and behavior among medical college students%医学生艾滋病知识及对同性恋认知态度与行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈舸; 郑武雄; 林丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解福建省高校医学生艾滋病相关知识及对同性恋的认知、态度和同性性行为情况,为在高校中开展艾滋病预防工作和大学生中同性恋研究提供依据.方法 采用整群抽样方法,对某医学院校492名在校大学生进行匿名问卷调查.结果 对艾滋病传播途径的知晓率较高,均超过85%;而对蚊虫叮咬不会传播的知晓率只有64.0%.对同性恋的认知与态度,37.6%的学生认为是正常的生活方式,42.1%认为社会应该接纳同性恋现象,63.4%认为有必要在学校增加有关同性恋方面的健康教育.8.3%的学生承认有过性行为,0.6%的学生承认尝试过同性性行为.结论 高校医学生对同性恋的认知还存在较多误区,有必要进行同性恋相关健康教育,应结合学生的特点有针对性地开展高校预防艾滋病宣传教育工作.%Objective To investigate AIDS related knowledge and homosexual cognition, attitude and behavior a-mong medical college students in Fujian Province, so as to provide a hasis for further researches regarding homosexuality and AIDS prevention. Methods 492 students selected by cluster sampling from a medical college were surveyed with anonymous uniform questionnaires. Results The awareness rate of AIDS transmission route were over 85%. However, only 64% of the students gave the correct answer to the guestion of mosquito bite could not spread HIV. In cognition and attitude towards homosexuality, 37. 6% took it as a normal lifestyle, and 42. 1% thought that the society should have basic understanding and tolerance of homosexual lifestyle, 63. 4% identified that it was necessary to provide health education towards homosexuality in schools; 8. 3% admitted having had sex experience, and 0. 6% admitted having tried homosexual intercourses. Conclusion Many students' cognition towards homosexuality was not correct. It is necessary to strengthen health education on homosexuality, and efficient work

  3. Clinical profile and factors associated with mortality in hospitalized patients with HIV/AIDS: a retrospective analysis from Tripoli Medical Centre, Libya, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaka, N S; Garred, N A; Zeglam, H T; Awasi, S A; Abukathir, L A; Altagdi, M E; Rayes, A A

    2015-09-01

    In Libya, little is known about HIV-related hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality. This was a retrospective analysis of HIV-related hospitalizations at Tripoli Medical Centre in 2013. Of 227 cases analysed, 82.4% were males who were significantly older (40.0 versus 36.5 years), reported injection drug use (58.3% versus 0%) and were hepatitis C virus co-infected (65.8% versus 0%) compared with females. Severe immunosuppression was prevalent (median CD4 count = 42 cell/μL). Candidiasis was the most common diagnosis (26.0%); Pneumocystis pneumonia was the most common respiratory disease (8.8%), while cerebral toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 8.4% of patients. Current HAART use was independently associated with low risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.33), while central nervous system symptoms (OR 4.12), sepsis (OR 6.98) and low total lymphocyte counts (OR 3.60) were associated with increased risk. In this study, late presentation with severe immunosuppression was common, and was associated with significant in-hospital mortality. PMID:26450860

  4. Medical aspects of renewable energy shown by the example of German hospitals; Umweltmedizinische Gesichtspunkte der regenerativen Energieerzeugung am Beispiel deutscher Krankenhaeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waschnewski, R.

    2007-07-01

    To what extend are renewable energy sources used in German hospitals? This is the main objective, this is paper is dealing with. The energy consumption profile is very specific in hospitals. In a questionnaire based study, 79 hospitals have been questioned to elucidate the current situation in German hospitals with respect to energy consumption, and to get an idea of the proportion of alternative energy sources already in use. Our analysis reveals that 14% of the hospitals analysed are already using renewable energy sources. Main sources already utilized are photovoltaic, solar thermal devices, and to a lower extend geothermic energy as well comes into operation. Almost three quarters of the questioned institutions claim, they are aware of funding possibilities and the option of contracting with respect to providing financial support in relation to aquisition of new establishments of alternative energy systems within their institution. Roughly half of the hospital's technical supervisors are aware of the precise energy potential of their institution. The situation about information and awareness with respect to possibilities related to the usage of green energy is deficient and should be improved, but the openness with respect to the topic in general seems to be very positive and advantage of that climate should be taken. Our survey allowed to get an initial estimate on the green energy situation in German hospitals. The focus of the discussion is channeled towards the environmental aspects of the energy production. The survey data allow to conclude that the current information situation is deficient. The data further provide insight into what are the main barriers with respect to the use of renewable energy. Based on our results future analyses can not focus on specific aspects and further evaluate approaches allowing to extend the usage of alternative energy sources in hospitals. (orig.)

  5. Online Finding Aids: Are They Practical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Christina J.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the uses, practicality, and problems involved in creating online finding aids by state-funded university archivists across the nation. It examines various aspects of online finding aids such as financial considerations, its importance as a research tool, timelines, demographics, and use. The more technical side is also…

  6. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  7. Sanidad Militar y aspectos sanitarios en Fernando Poo durante el gobierno de los brigadieres (1859-1869 The Medical Service and medical aspects in Fernando Poo during the government of the brigadiers (1859-1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Granda Orive

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La aprobación en 1858 del primer estatuto orgánico de la colonia estableció una nueva organización administrativa y militar para las islas con la que se buscaba dar un impulso a la colonización de Guinea. Durante los diez años de vigencia de este decreto hubo al frente de la gobernación de estas posesiones cuatro Brigadieres de Ejército y fue una sección del Cuerpo de Sanidad Militar la encargada de la asistencia sanitaria de la población. Se estudia en este trabajo su creación y actividad así como las condiciones ambientales y sanitarias que influyeron en su trabajo.The first organic statutes of the colony passed in 1858, established a new administrative and military organization for the islands which tried to push forward the colonization of Guinea. During the ten years of applicability of this decree the governors of these possessions were four Army brigadiers, while a Medical Service platoon was responsible for the medical care of the population. In this article its creation and activities are studied as well as the environmental and sanitary conditions that had an impact on its work.

  8. Investigating the condition of medical counseling and some of clinical aspects for fasting in holy month of Ramadan from the perspective of diabetic and hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahmoudian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although fasting has many benefits for health, it can be dangerous for patients. So it is necessary that physicians have adequate information about clinical aspects of fasting and they should advice patients. Therefore in this study we analyses the condition of physicians counseling about fasting from the perspective of patients. Methods:In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, patients with diabetes and hypertension who were going to doctors in Isfahan in holy month of Ramadan of 2012 and 2013 completed the questionnaires. A valid self-regulation questionnaire including patient`s satisfaction from the quality of physicians counseling about fasting (In the area of education, evaluation of the patient condition, communication /relationship with patients, caring for diseases in holy Ramadan and the incidence of symptoms in fasting had been used with  = 0.76. The patients completed the questionnaire after visit. The data was analyzed by Independent t-test, chi-square, Regression, one-way ANOVA in the19 spss software. Results: 285 patients, 199(69.8% female and 86(30.2% male, were selected. The mean satisfaction score of counseling was 70.50 ±13.23. The highest score (75.36±14.16 was referred to counseling of physician, and the least score (66.09±18.84 to patient assessment by physician. Mean score of Patients' satisfaction of specialists was higher than of general practitioner (p-value

  9. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  10. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104751

  11. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104750

  12. The energy and climate fund. State aid legal aspects of the promotion of energy efficient and emission reducing projects; Der Energie- und Klimafonds. Beihilferechtliche Aspekte der Foerderung energieeffizienter und emissionsmindernder Vorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Julia

    2011-09-15

    In the next years, substantial grants and subsidies for the support of energy-efficient and emission-reducing projects should be paid from the separate estate of the 'Energy and Climate Fund'. This can be state aids regarded as notifiable which are a subject of a prohibition of realization of paragraph 108 sect. 3 clause 3 AEUV till to its approval by the European Commission. Recently, the Federal Court has ruled that the ban on implementing is a protection law in the meaning of paragraph 823 para 2 BGB (German Civil Law). On this basis, in German courts competitors may complain against the payment or withdrawal of non-approved state aids.

  13. HIV/AIDS患者脉象与中医证候的多重对应分析%Multiple correspondence analysis of association between traditional Chinese medical syndromes and pulse manifestations of HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 施念; 杨永利; 施学忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索多重对应分析模型在HIV/AIDS患者脉象与中医证候关系中的应用。方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样,从河南省5个艾滋病高发县中随机抽取HIV/HIDS患者1 277例进行体检及问卷调查。结果:脉象与实证在2个维度的Cronbach系数分别是0.559和0.241,在2个维度的特征根是2.011和1.277;湿热内蕴与脉沉、脉弱和脉虚有联系;湿热蕴毒与脉数和脉滑有联系;邪结皮肤与脉细有联系;肝郁气滞与脉弦有联系。脉象与虚证在2个维度的Cronbach系数分别是0.558和0.242,在2个维度的特征根是2.010和1.279;脾气虚弱与脉沉、脉虚和脉弱有联系;肺脾气虚与脉弦和脉滑有联系;气阴两虚、气血亏虚与脉细有联系。结论:多重对应分析可以揭示HIV/AIDS患者脉象与证候间的联系;在建立HIV/AIDS证候标准时,要充分考虑到脉象特征。%Aim: To explore the application of multiple correspondence model in the association between traditional Chinese medical (TCM) syndromes and pulse manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: Multistage random cluster sampling technique was used to select 1 277 HIV/AIDS patients from 5 counties in Henan province. The information of physical examination and questionnaire was collected. Results: Multiple correspondence model of pulse manifestation and excessive syndrome showed that Cronbachs Alphas were 0. 559 and 0. 241 , and eigenvalues were 2. 011 and 1. 277 in two dimensions. Syndrome of dampness-heat accumulated interior was related with sunken pulse, weak pulse and feeble pulse. Syndrome of dampness-heat and accumulated-toxin was related with rapid pulse and slippery pulse. Syndrome of accumula-ted-pathogen skin was related with thready pulse. Syndrome of liver depression and qi stagnation wag related with stringy pulse. Multiple correspondence model of pulse manifestation and deficiency syndrome showed that Cronbach's Alphas were 0.558 and 0

  14. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  15. Practical aspects of change management at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic at the University Hospital of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sobkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objectives. Recent changes to the Polish healthcare system have forced healthcare managers and administrators to implement modern instruments for strategic and operations management. The main aim of the study was to analyze the effect of managerial decisions in the area of human resources, resulting from the adopted restructuring program, on the economic situation of the OGCH, PUMS. material and methods. The research material comprised of secondary sources on finance, accounting and human resources data: financial statements, analysis of costs incurred by individual hospital departments, reports on the implementation of NHF contracts for providing health services and on hospital workforce at the time of the study, as well as the results of patient satisfaction survey at the OGCH, PUMS. results. After implementation of the restructuring program all clinics apart from one – Surgical Gynecology Clinic – reached better beds occupancy rates in 2012 as compared to 2009, as well as significantly improved profit/per hospital bed. Over the course of three years, since the launch of the hospital restructuring program, a significant (20% increase in the revenues from selling healthcare services and a simultaneous decrease (2% of the operating cost was observed. conclusions. Inclusion of department heads into the decision making processes of managerial accounting seems to be necessary to improve the overall financial condition of a hospital. However, it requires a more flexible hospital structure, what can be achieved by implementing a divisional organizational structure, which grants individual organizational units a certain autonomy in the process of making medical-financial decisions.

  16. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  17. HIV/AIDS epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C

    2000-10-14

    In this paper, Charles Todd comments that the report of Evan Wood and colleagues illustrates the dangers of taking a narrow medical view of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa. It runs the risk of reversing the growing realization that the HIV/AIDS epidemic in southern Africa is a broad, social, cultural, political, and economic issue rather than a purely medical one. Todd raises the point that Wood and colleagues did not model the costs associated with the voluntary testing and counseling that should accompany a prophylaxis program. To this effect, a more helpful approach on meeting basic health needs and eradicating poverty would be to compare the impact of such levels of expenditure. It is also emphasized that the title of the paper of Wood and colleagues is misleading, implying that the focus of the modeling was sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, when it was in fact South Africa alone. Accordingly, the gross domestic product of South Africa per person is higher than that of nearly all other sub-Saharan African countries, and health expenditure is 10-20 times greater. PMID:11073053

  18. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  19. AIDS as a social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, F J

    1987-01-01

    AIDS as a new lethal and at present incurable sexually transmitted disease is already having remarkable social repercussions not yet fully explicit and hence it can be termed a social phenomenon. Political, behavioural, economic and legal reactions and social responses such as stigmatization, changes in the sick role and the growth of voluntary organizations and international collaboration are described. Communication, education and information aspects of AIDS are considered using material from the press and it is clear that a massive educational approach to modify behaviour must be the basis for a control programme. PMID:3317877

  20. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative ...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  3. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A

    2016-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  4. Impact of medical informatics on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S M

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, medical informatics has become a well-recognized branch of medicine. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines information technology and various specialties of medicine. The impact of medical informatics on medical education is advancing along with the rapid developments in computer science. Departments of medical informatics or similar divisions have appeared in schools of medicine in Taiwan in the past 5 years. At National Taiwan University College of Medicine, we offer curricula in basic computer concepts, network concepts, operating systems, word processing, database and data processing, computer media resources, multimedia computer statistics, intelligent health information systems, medical diagnostic support systems, and electronic medical record systems. Distance learning has also been favorably accepted on this campus. Recently, we proposed the concept of a virtual medical campus, which will break the physical barriers of time and space. We expect this revolution to influence every aspect of medicine, especially medical education. PMID:10705693

  5. MEDICAL ETHICS COURSE IMPROVES MEDICAL PROFESSIONALISM: MEDICAL STUDENTS´ OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Training physicians who are expert in many medical aspects is the most improtant mission of medical universities. One of these aspects, is professional behavior achievement. One of the important goals in training of ethics, is recognition of conflicts in different parts of ethics and having logical viewpoint for resolving and analyzing these conflicts. This descriptive and analytical study was done to evaluate the efficacy of medical ethics education in medical students´ professional attitudes improvement. One hundred and two medical students were selected randomly in different steps of education and were questioned and their opinions correlation with stage of education and gender were evaluated. There was a significant difference between female viewpoint (in roles of ethic course which is presented in preclinical step in professional attitude improvement (P = 0.009 and also a significant difference was seen in the viewpoint score between student stage with intern stage (P = 0.031. Medical students in educational student stage believe ethic course improve medical professionalism. Since there is no special course to train medical students in professionalism, some interventions are required in this field to improve this aspect of physicians' professional life.

  6. Aspectos quirúrgicos del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida: revisión del tema y presentación de 5 casos Surgical aspects of AIDS: review of the subjetc and presentation of 5 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lerma

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre los aspectos quirúrgicos del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA, con base en los artículos publicados en los años 1980-1988, haciendo especial énfasis en las características clínicas de la entidad que la hacen susceptible de tratamiento quirúrgico. Como la incidencia del SIDA continúa en aumento la evaluación y la intervención quirúrgica oportunas se requerirán con mayor frecuencia. Se llama especialmente la atención sobre la etiología del abdomen agudo bien sea por Infecciones oportunistas o por neoplasias. Se Insiste en el diagnóstico diferencial y se analizan las pautas para el manejo adecuado. Finalmente, se presenta la estadística de los 5 casos de SIDA que requirieron intervención quirúrgica, entre los 34 de este síndrome diagnosticados en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, desde el año 1.984.

    A review of the literature on surgical complications of AIDS Is presented. It is based on articles published between 1980 and 1988, with special emphasis on the clinical characteristics that make these complications surgically treatable. As the frequency of AIDS Increases timely surgical evaluation and intervention will become more necessary. Attention is called to acute abdomen induced by opportunistic infections or neoplasias. Differential diagnosis and management are discussed. Finally, the 5 cases of AIDS that required surgical interventions among the 34 patients with this syndrome observed since 1984 at Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, Colombia, are analyzed.

  7. [Legal aspects of sports injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R H B

    2005-05-01

    Victims of sports injuries have to be advised about aspects of legal liablity, especially in case of luxation or avulsion of teeth, since there still may be dental consequences years later. The transference of information by the first-aid-dentist to the sportsman's own dentist should take place with care. If the patient has no family dentist, the first-aid-dentist should at least keep the sportsman free of pain, for example by starting endodontic treatment. Because sports injuries mostly occur beyond normal practice-hours, there may be reasons to deviate from the clinical guideline. PMID:15932047

  8. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  9. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  10. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  11. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  12. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  14. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  15. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  16. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  17. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  18. Sports medical aspects of fitness and wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, G.; Siegfried, I

    2010-01-01

    Kongreßbericht: Seminar des Arbeitskreises Sportmedizin der Akademie für ärztliche Fortbildung und Weiterbildung der Landesärztekammer Hessen. Bad Nauheim, 18.03.2006. Ziel des Seminars war, sportmedizinische und präventivmedizinische Aspekte zu Fitness und Wellness zu präsentieren und hierbei insbesondere auf die historische Entwicklung der Sportmedizin einzugehen sowie Techniken und Wirkungen verschiedener Massageformen und ganzheitliche asiatische Gesundheitsansätze und Bewegungskünste zu ...

  19. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  20. Industrial accidents in radiological controlled areas: the importance of radiation protection in the organisation of the emergency aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some disappointments when the first French nuclear units were started, it became clear that all the aspects linked to radio-protection needed to be taken into account in the context of emergency aid in the case of an industrial accident in radiological controlled area. In the case of an accident involving people, on-site first aid is provided by permanent services of the power plant. These teams are trained in first aid and fire-fighting. They are well trained in radioprotection. The specificity of an industrial event in controlled zone is that the victims' conventional injuries, whether it be a wound, a burn or a fracture, can be complicated by radioactive contamination. If it is justified, the exterior emergency services (firemen and medical teams) sire immediately called in. These teams are not necessarily trained in radioprotection. (authors)

  1. 十堰市医学院大学生院前急救知识认知现况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis on the Medical College Stu-dents' Awareness of Pre-hospital First-aid Knowledge in Shiyan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 丁旭

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解十堰市医学院大学生对院前急救知识认知情况,以及急救技能的掌握情况,进行现况调查并分析。方法:采用分层随机整体抽样方法,以调查问卷形式对医学院临床医学专业大一到大四共444名大学生进行调查并对结果进行分析。结果:调查中51.34%的人接受过急救培训,33.09%的人主动系统地学习过急救知识,仅0.73%的人认为自己掌握的知识全面。结论:医学生自主学习急救知识能力差,对急救技能掌握有待进一步提高,需加强对急救知识技能学习的重视,理论学习和技能培养并重。%Objective:To keep abreast of medical college students' awareness of pre-hospital first-aid knowledge and mastery of first-aid skills in Shiyan City by investigating and analyzing the current situation. Method: Stratified random sampling was em-ployed to investigate 444 clinical medicine majors of all grades in the form of questionnaire, and the result was analyzed. Results:51.34% of the investigated have received first-aid training;33.09% of them learned first-aid knowledge systematically of their own accord; only 0.73% of them hold that they have an overall mastery of first-aid knowledge. Conclusion:Medical stu-dents' abilities to learn first-aid knowledge autonomously are poor and their mastery of first-aid skills remains insufficient, in-dicating that they should attach more importance to the learning of first-aid knowledge and skills and pay equal attention to theory learning and skill development.

  2. [Clinical aspects of AIDS at the Calmette hospital in Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia A report on 356 patients hospitalized in the Medicine "B" Department of the Calmette Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichith, K; Chanroeun, H; Bunna, P; Nyvanny, N; Thavary, S; Kosal, S; Crepin, P

    2001-01-01

    A study on AIDS subjects carried out at the Calmette Hospital in Phnom-Penh between the 1st January 97 and the 30th December 98. The objective of this study was to describe the most frequent clinical manifestations as well as the opportunistic infections according to the 1993 CDC classification (purely clinical classification). Three hundred and fifty six AIDS patients hospitalized in medicine B were included in our study. A complete file was prepared for each subject, specifying his/her social and family situation, profession, sexual behavior and history. The clinical condition was specified and the paraclinical examinations were recorded. The average age was 35 years with 250 men and 106 women, i.e. a M/F sex ratio of 2.4. The majority of male contaminations were due to sexual relationships with multiple partners, 82%, and women with a single partner was of 78%. The use of condoms was of 60% (versus 40% occasional); the extent of drug-addiction was 1.12% (4 cases). A history of STD was found in 56% of cases. The presenting symptoms most frequently found were asthenia, anorexia, fever and weight-loss. In decreasing order, the clinical manifestations often associated were: weight-loss > 10% or a catechetic condition 58.70% (209/356), fever > 38 degrees C >1 month 53% (189/356), diarrhea (> one month) 41.60% (148/356). The most frequent opportunistic infections were: oral candidiasis 51.40% (183/356) and 40% are oro-oesophageal (oral candidiasis + dysphagia or odynphagia), pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculoses (TB) 43.50% (155/356) (pulmonary TB in 65.16%, TB of the lymph nodes 23.22% and disseminated TB and cerebral TB 11.61%), cryptococcal meningitis 11.80% (42/356) and pneumocystosis 6.50% (23/356), CMV retinitis 1.12% (4/356). The other opportunistic manifestations such as toxoplasmosis and Kaposis sarcoma are much more rarely encountered due to the difficulties of the paraclinical diagnosis. The mortality in the department was of 17.40% (62/356). In

  3. interdisciplinary aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Symmetry is a universal principle in nature, sciences and arts. Generally speaking symmetry means that something looks the same when observed from certain different aspects. Symmetry is almost always broken – more or less, directly (in praxis) or spontaneously (in quantum field theory). There are discrete and continuous symmetries. Various forms of discrete symmetries – like bilateral, translative or rotative – associated with the field of arts, can also be recognized in our natu...

  4. Crisis Management Aspects of Bam Catastrophic Earthquake: Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis manage­ment during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran.Methods: Data needed for this systematic review were collected through search­ing PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis.Results: Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Manage­ment aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information manage­ment. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. Conclusion: The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed.

  5. THE EUROPEAN UNION STATE AID: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venig Adelina

    2015-07-01

    the Commission on the complaints form. The Commission is obliged under the Procedural Regulation to act on any evidence of potential illegal aid and will therefore take complaints seriously, but all these aspects are described in the present research.

  6. Lessons from traditional medical and health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeka, I C

    1981-01-01

    Unlike hospital-oriented western medical practice, traditional medical science and technology include aspects of botany, anatomy, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Indigenous medical treatment has been successful in extensive comminuted fractures, psychosomatic disorders, and frantic manic psychosis. Traditional practitioners also work to prevent disease. They often advise against marriages that might perpetuate diseases. Traditional birth attendants and doctors in Africa, Asia, and Latin America routinely perform external cephalic versions on women with breach birth presentations thereby avoiding the need for often risky and undesirable cesarean sections. In many cultures, traditional birth attendants and female advisors from within and outside immediate families are among the regular local services available to mothers during gestation and early child care periods. Breastfeeding, which has been discouraged in industrialized countries, is nutritious and partially serves as a form of contraceptive to aid in child spacing, especially if lactation is prolonged. In most hospitals in developing countries, in contrast to western hospitals, the mother is encouraged to stay with her sick child to provide psychological support and assist with feeding and some aspects of care and treatment. Family organizations and extended families help in child bearing, care and nurturing and continues into socialization and adolescence. PMID:12310946

  7. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  8. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  9. [Military medical doctrine and the development of the concept of disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, E A; Nazarenko, G I; Zhizin, V N

    1993-04-01

    On the basis of their own experience and literature concerning liquidation of the disaster consequences the authors analyse limitations in the disaster health care system. The article shows the trends towards the improvement of medical aid during catastrophes of peaceful period, taking into account various aspects of military doctrine and, especially, the casualty care staging system. It is stressed that the disaster health care procedures will depend on the structure of sanitary losses, characteristic features of the scene of an accident and the dynamics of medical environment. PMID:8328140

  10. The 1987 radiation accident in Goiania: medical and organizational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present works describes the circumstances of the accident occurred on 13 September 1987, in Goiania (Brazil), when two scavengers removed a teletherapy device a 50.9 TBq (1375Ci) cesium source, from a clinic. They took the apparatus home and tried to dismantled it. The authors describe the circumstances of the event, the first aid measures taken on the site, and the medical structure organized to triage and treat the casualties. Aspects relating to hospital contamination control, the environment, and radioprotection and decontamination procedures are also discussed. (L.M.J.)

  11. Medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Christie M

    2008-11-01

    Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers. PMID:19061760

  12. HIV/AIDS and Croatian Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojša; Greiner, Nina

    2006-01-01

    Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the count...

  13. Computer-Aided Modelling Methods and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The development of models for a range of applications requires methods and tools. In many cases a reference model is required that allows the generation of application specific models that are fit for purpose. There are a range of computer aided modelling tools available that help to define the...... shows a taxonomy of aspects around conservation, constraints and constitutive relations. Aspects of the ICAS-MoT toolbox are given to illustrate the functionality of a computer aided modelling tool, which incorporates an interface to MS Excel....

  14. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  15. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman has ... Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion

  16. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  17. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  18. Psychosocial aspects and HIV/Aids: a comparative bibliometric study of the published articles between Brazil and Spain / Aspectos psicossociais e HIV/Aids: um estudo bibliométrico (1992-2002 comparativo dos artigos publicados entre Brasil e Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work examines the published papers related to the HIV/Aids topic between 1992-2002 comparing Brazilian and Spanish indexed publications at PsychoINFO. The papers collect were analyzed within seven categories: 1 country where the work was performed; 2 authors' profession; 3 journal's country; 4 language; 5 used methodology; 6 work's target population; and 7 topics researched. The results showed similar amount of published papers in both countries. It was found that most part of the Brazilian studies are performed in partnership between national and foreign institutions, resulting in international English-written publications, while the Spanish studies are both developed and published in Spain. The physicians are the professionals who publish more in both countries, and the predominant methodology is quantitative. Target population and investigated topics reflect the epidemiological data and the social reality of both countries.

  19. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  20. To reiterate the concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jie HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01

  1. ISD Designed Medical Specialist Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Samuel K., Jr.; Chagalis, George P.

    The Basic Medical Specialist course has one of the largest enrollments of the U.S. Army's Academy of Health Sciences; 11,000 soldiers were trained in this course in 1977 and 1978. Training encompasses both emergency first aid (for field medics) and basic nursing skills. A task force working to improve Army training developed this course, in…

  2. Aspectos psicossociais e HIV/Aids: um estudo bibliométrico (1992-2002 comparativo dos artigos publicados entre Brasil e Espanha Psychosocial aspects and HIV/Aids: a comparative bibliometric study of the published articles between Brazil and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo examina os artigos publicados sobre os aspectos psicossociais relacionados ao tema HIV/Aids entre 1992 e 2002 comparando as publicações de Brasil e Espanha indexadas ao PsychINFO. O material encontrado foi analisado a partir de sete categorias: 1 país onde foi realizado o estudo; 2 profissão do autor; 3 país da revista; 4 idioma; 5 metodologia empregada; 6 população; e 7 tema da pesquisa. Os resultados mostraram uma quantidade similar de artigos publicados nos dois países. Verificou-se que grande parte dos estudos brasileiros são realizados em parceria entre centros nacionais e estrangeiros, resultando em publicações em revistas internacionais de língua inglesa, enquanto que os estudos espanhóis são feitos e publicados principalmente dentro da Espanha. Os médicos publicam mais em ambos países, e a metodologia predominante é a quantitativa. A população e os temas investigados refletem os dados epidemiológicos e a realidade social dos dois países.The present work examines the published papers related to the HIV/Aids topic between 1992-2002 comparing Brazilian and Spanish indexed publications at PsychoINFO. The papers collect were analyzed within seven categories: 1 country where the work was performed; 2 authors' profession; 3 journal's country; 4 language; 5 used methodology; 6 work's target population; and 7 topics researched. The results showed similar amount of published papers in both countries. It was found that most part of the Brazilian studies are performed in partnership between national and foreign institutions, resulting in international English-written publications, while the Spanish studies are both developed and published in Spain. The physicians are the professionals who publish more in both countries, and the predominant methodology is quantitative. Target population and investigated topics reflect the epidemiological data and the social reality of both countries.

  3. In defence of medical ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kottow, M H

    1999-01-01

    A number of recent publications by the philosopher David Seedhouse are discussed. Although medicine is an eminently ethical enterprise, the technical and ethical aspects of health care practices can be distinguished, therefore justifying the existence of medical ethics and its teaching as a specific part of every medical curriculum. The goal of teaching medical ethics is to make health care practitioners aware of the essential ethical aspects of their work. Furthermore, the contention that ra...

  4. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  5. General Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Gerhard

    Epothilone is a microbial product, and thus its history may be traced back to the discovery of the respective microbe, Sorangium cellulosum, a bacterium belonging to the taxonomic group of myxobacteria, which originally has been described by Roland Thaxter in 1892 (1). Today this group of organisms comprises around 40 species, one of which is Sorangium cellulosum. For a long time, myxobacteria were only known for their gliding motility and sophisticated life cycle, although it had been occasionally speculated that they might produce secondary metabolites like actinomycetes or bacilli (2). In 1975 Hans Reichenbach and his group at the German Centre for Biotechnology (GBF; now called the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research) set out to isolate strains of myxobacteria from soil samples collected all over the world, and to examine their secondary metabolism. In 1978, while work was already ongoing, I joined them and took over the chemistry part. In the same year the first structure of a myxobacterial metabolite, ambruticin, was published by a group from Warner-Lambert (3) making us very confident of being on the right track. Ambruticin had been isolated from a Sorangium cellulosum strain, and was identified as a unique cyclopropane polyketide structure exhibiting potentially useful antifungal properties. Ambruticin and its derivatives had been developed for medical application for some time, and recently gained new interest (4).

  6. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews...

  7. Medical support for Adventure Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Adventure Racing has recently become a popular sport. In the past medical and paramedical staff were frequently positioned at checkpoints throughout the course of the race. Presently there is a developing role for appropriately qualified individuals to access the course by biking, running or swimming and then providing injured racers with on-site first aid prior to their transfer to the nearest medical checkpoint. These medical staff should have not only appropriate first aid skills but also rock rescue techniques, rappelling and other basic rope work as well as be athletically fit. This article explores the new role and attempts to outline what characteristics may be required. PMID:15537411

  8. Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/ AIDS attended in a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Andreia Fleck Reinato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/AIDS under inpatient treatment in a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. METHOD: a cross-sectional study undertaken in two units specialized in attending people living with HIV/AIDS, in the period August 2011 - July 2012. Socio-demographic and clinical data was collected through individual interviews and from the medical records; samples of nasal secretion were collected with Stuart swabs on the first day of inpatient treatment. Ethical aspects were respected. RESULT: of the 229 individuals with HIV/AIDS hospitalized in this period, 169 participated in the study, with Staphylococcus aureus being identified in the culture tests of 46 (27.2% of the individuals, resistance to oxacillin being evidenced in 10 (21.8% participants. CONCLUSION: the results of the research indicate that the prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/AIDS in the specialized units was considered relevant, possibly contributing to future investigations and, moreover, to the implementation of measures to prevent and control this pathogen in this population.

  9. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  11. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  12. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  13. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  14. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  15. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  16. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  17. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  18. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  19. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  20. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  1. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  2. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  3. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  4. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  5. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  6. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  7. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. The empirical work is based upon micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university. We focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. A novel aspect of our modeling strategy is that, consistent with the view of some professional fundraisers, we allow the receipt of a given form of aid per se to affect alumni giving. At the same time, our mo...

  8. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  9. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  10. Aid and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categoriz...

  11. A Study On The Frequency Of Different Types Of Optical Low Vision Aids Prescribed For Low Vision Patients Examined In The Clinic Of Optometry, Faculty Of Rehabilitation Sciences Shahid Beheshti University Of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghassemi Broumand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Different diseases can be the cause of low vision. In the case of low vision, visual acuity with conventional optical devices such as glasses and contact lenses is between” 20/70 to 20/200”. To improve the visual performance in these patients, low vision aids are prescribed.The types of prescribed low vision aids vary in different diseases. The purpose of this study is to determine the type and frequency of optical aids prescribed for low vision patients examined in optometry clinic of Rehabilitation faculty of shahid Beheshti University in 1387. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 204 low vision patients went under investigation. In the present study variables including type and rate of refractive error, visual acuity with the best correction, type of diseases and type of prescribed optical low vision aids were investigated.Results: The frequency of prescribed distance glasses in diabetic retinopathy was 97%, age related macular degeneration 86.2%, Stargarts 92%, retinitis pigmentosa 86.4% and albinism 88.2%, Also the frequency of prescribed microscope in diabetic retinopathy was 81.82% , age related macular degeneration 48.27%, Stargarts 40% , retinitis pigmentosa 35.3% , albinism 35.3% and the frequency of prescribed magnifier in diabetic retinopathy was18.18%, age related macular degeneration 24.12% , Stargarts 52%, retinitis pigmentosa18.18% and albinism 29.4%.Conclusion: In many low vision conditions, it is more suitable to prescribe distance glasses rather than telescope. In this study the distance glass with the frequency of 84.8% is seen more acceptable in comparison with the telescope with the frequency of 41.7%. Among near optical low vision aids, microscope with the frequency of 50.5% is more accepted by the patients compared to magnifier with the frequency of 26% and CCTV with the frequency of 0.50%.

  12. Application of Ozone Concentration Detection in the Medical Aspects and Its Development%臭氧浓度检测在医疗方面的应用及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海龙; 成少彦; 宋俊杰

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces some commonly used methods of ozone concentration detection,including chemical method, UV absorption method, and electrochemical method etc, introduces the latest four ozone concentration sensors, and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each method. In addition, the article emphatically introduces the ozone's applications and development in the medical aspects. Prospects for the use of ozone concentration detection, ozone treatment and ozone therapy instrument are also demonstrated in it. The literature collected and reviewed on ozone concentration detection and ozone therapy includes 37 papers in English, and 50 papers in Chinese.but only 30 articles among them are included in this review (19 in Chinese and 11 in English) , according to the principle of eliminating the old information and repetitive contents. The present paper selects only those on ozone, ozone concentration, ozone therapy and ozone therapy instrument.%本文评述了几种常用的臭氧浓度检测方法,包括化学法、紫外线吸收法和电化学法等,介绍了四种最新的臭氧浓度传感器,总结了各种方法的利弊;另外还着重介绍了臭氧在医疗卫生方面的应用及发展,并对臭氧浓度检测、臭氧治疗和臭氧治疗仪的应用前景进行了展望.共收集到关于臭氧浓度检测以及臭氧治疗的英文文献37篇,中文文献50篇.按照排除资料年久和内容重复的原则,选取包括臭氧、臭氧浓度、臭氧治疗和臭氧治疗仪的文献.总共纳入30篇(中文文献19篇、英文文献11篇)符合要求的文献.

  13. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  14. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  15. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  16. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  17. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  18. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  19. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  20. Computer aided detection (CAD): an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Castellino, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Computer aided detection (CAD) is a technology designed to decrease observational oversights—and thus the false negative rates—of physicians interpreting medical images. Prospective clinical studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer detection with CAD assistance. This overview briefly describes the metrics that have been used to define CAD system performance.

  1. Rethinking the medical in the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Desmond; Jenkins, Elinor; Mawhinney, Rebecca; Cosgrave, Ellen; O'Mahony, Sarah; Guest, Clare; Moss, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    To clinicians there are a number of striking features of the ever-evolving field of the medical humanities. The first is a perception of a predominantly unidirectional relationship between medicine and the humanities, generally in terms of what the arts and humanities have to offer medicine. The second is the portrayal of medical practice in terms of problems and negativities for which the medical humanities are seen to pose the solution rather than viewing medicine as an active and positive contributor to an interdisciplinary project. Paradigms that fail to recognise the contributions of medicine and its practitioners (including students) to the medical humanities, this paper argues, will continue to struggle with definition and acceptance. This paper explores the possibilities for advancing the medical humanities through recognition of the contribution of medicine to the humanities and the importance of engaging with the arts, culture and leisure pursuits of doctors and medical students. Our research shows the richness of cultural engagement of medical students, their broad range of cultural interests and their ability to contribute to research and scholarship in the medical humanities. Mutual recognition of strengths, weaknesses and differences of scholarly approach is critical to successful development of the enterprise. Recognising and building on the interests, sympathies and contributions of medicine and its practitioners to the medical humanities is a fundamental component of this task. Future directions might include introductory courses for humanities scholars in aspects of healthcare and medicine. PMID:26944516

  2. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  3. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women. PMID:21574329

  4. Unfocused response to AIDS in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaren, L

    1997-01-01

    Indonesia has a population of more than 200 million among which less than 500 official cases of HIV/AIDS have been recorded. The number of estimated cases is far greater. High rates of male migration, widespread prostitution, high rates of sexually transmitted disease infection, the absence of sex education for youth, women's low status, and the absence of a national AIDS awareness campaign were cited in 1993 as reasons why HIV would spread quickly throughout Indonesia. Access to basic information about AIDS remains a problem for both urban and rural populations in Indonesia. A national AIDS strategy was made public in 1993 by President Suharto. Supported by the Australians, the plan comprehensively covers almost every key aspect in managing HIV/AIDS. The plan since its release, however, has been largely ignored and the government has done little aside from a handful of television public service announcements, a few pamphlets distributed by the Department of Health, a few small HIV surveillance projects which have yielded little useful information, and the training of government officials to provide AIDS education. Approximately 15 nongovernmental organizations have been actively and successfully conducting AIDS prevention work. PMID:12320962

  5. Aid with Multiple Personalities

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Jose G. Montalvo; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The existing research on foreign aid offers inconclusive evidence on the factors that make aid effective. In this paper, we study the supply of aid money in 112 developing countries over the period 1960-1999 and find that the presence of multiple donors in a given country renders aid less effective. In particular, an aid-receiving country at the median of the donor fractionalization distribution will grow one percentage point faster than a country at the 75th percentile. This is in part becau...

  6. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.

  7. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and disposable medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of disposable products in medical care has become one of the essential tools in the prevention of cross-contamination and nosocomial infections. This is especially important in the transfer of vital diseases like hepatitis and, more recently, AIDS. The widespread use of disposables has been made possible by the availability of cheap materials (plastics) for its manufacture, the large scale/low cost production and development of industrial sterilization techniques. The emphasis here is on radiation sterilization techniques and their importance at the industrial level. Technical, economical, safety and other aspects are compared with other techniques, mainly based on the use of toxic gases. Sterilization of plastic medical products and pharmaceuticals is discussed. The comparative analysis indicates much higher reliability of radiation sterilization combined with higher safety standards at acceptable or lower cost, as compared with other techniques. (author). 169 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  9. AIDS and journalism. Infinitely tougher job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkaria, B

    1994-12-01

    Balanced, purely informative stories about HIV/AIDS in India rarely see the light of day. Denied access to information from the medical and administrative establishments which want coverage exclusively on their terms, reporters are unable to understand the complexities of the AIDS pandemic and report in an informed, responsible manner. Editors find AIDS stories too depressing or offensive to conservative readers, and therefore relegate the stories to less important slots or encourage only sensational articles which, for example, have freely exposed people infected with HIV. The public will lose their fears about HIV/AIDS only when they learn that AIDS is an issue of public health, not of public morality. To that end, the press in India has, however, made some positive contributions. In particular, the press exposed the contamination of the blood supply, the plight of prostitutes, the existence of bogus social workers profiting from the pandemic, and how HIV-positive patients are kicked out of private hospitals once their HIV status has been determined. Now that funds are being made available for AIDS research and prevention, journalists are urgently called upon to not simply count the number of infected individuals, but to play the socially responsible role of watchdog, ensuring that funds against AIDS are being correctly spent. PMID:12319129

  10. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the...... determinants of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  11. A Brief Analysis of Medical Students in Popularizing the Superiority of First Aid Knowledge to the Public%浅析医学生向公众普及急救知识的优越性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚睿; 孙建刚; 金盼盼; 谢小龙; 陈辰; 肖敏

    2014-01-01

    O bjective U sing the advantages of m edical college student,to explore the effective m ethod for m edical students to popularize the first aid know ledge,and then in order to im prove the skills of m edical college students and the em ergency consciousness and first-aid practiceabilityofthepublic.M ethods BasingonThetheoryoffirstaidknowledge,medicalcollegeschoolscansetuparespondingclubor a volunteerteam ,w hich can be hired a professionalem ergency teacherto guide,and the public can be adopted O perationaltraining through the w ays such as the blackboard new spaper of first aid know ledge,addressing first aid know ledge of on the scene,scene play,opusculum , scene sim ulation and so on. R esults W ith the high participation enthusiasm , M edical students's ow n professional know ledge and Social experience has been im proved obviously In the process of popularizing first-aid know ledge;W hile the Public m aster the basic first aid know ledge and skills w ith high participation consciousness.C onclusion T he subject of m edical college students volunteers,novelty and obvious to give a series of first-aid know ledge training to the public,w hich is of profound significance for further prom oting the people first aid know ledge.%目的:利用高校医学生自身优势,探讨医学生向公众普及急救知识的有效方法,从而提高医学生实践能力及公众的急救意识和急救技能。方法医学院校可成立相关社团或者志愿者队伍,聘请专业急救老师进行指导,以急救知识理论为基础,通过急救知识板报、急救知识现场讲解、情景剧、小品、现场模拟等方式对公众进行操作培训。结果高校医学生参与积极性高,普及急救知识过程中,自身专业知识,社会经验等综合素质得到明显提高;公众参与意识强,基本急救知识和急救技能熟练掌握。结论对公众进行系列急救知识培训,以高校医学生志愿者

  12. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  13. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized ...

  14. European Financial Aid Use for Environmental Protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valentina RADULESCU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the basic theoretical aspects and the policy of the European Union, which is financed by a number of budgetary instruments. Under this policy, Romania is qualified for financial aid to support economic and social development of the country. This aid is considerably higher than that the aid received by the pre-accession PHARE, ISPA and SAPARD programs. The EU serves for the financing of policies, the largest amounts being allocated to the common agricultural policy. The paper bring in details on several aspects such as: what are the structural funds, which are institutions that manage them, and the ways of accessing these funds.

  15. Some aspects of chelation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notions used in chelation chemistry are defined and the possibilities of the experimental recognition of complex formation are described. A review of the quantitative aspects of chelation is given, especially under biological conditions. Some rules concerning the general behaviour of the various metal ions and the organic ligands in chelation phenomena are presented and the specificity problem is discussed. The present status of the decontamination of the main fission products, e.g. rare-earth metals and strontium, with the aid of complexing agents is analysed from a chemical point of view. (author)

  16. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. PMID:26260323

  17. Medical Art Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Birgül

    2012-01-01

    Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical...

  18. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  19. Pediatric emergency medical services and their drawbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Foraih Al-Anazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To survey the literature on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services (PEMS with an aim to focus its drawbacks and emphasize the means of improvement. Materials and Methods: Published articles selected for inclusion were based on the significance and understanding of literature search on different aspects of PEMS. To meet this criterion, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Uptodate, Med Line, comprehensive databases, Cochrane library and the Internet (Google, Yahoo were thoroughly searched. Results: PEMS provide out-of-hospital medical care and/or transport the patients to definitive care. The task force represents specialties of ambulance transport, first aid, emergency medical care, life saving, trauma, emergency medicine, water rescue, and extrication. Preliminary care is undertaken to save the patients from different medical exigencies. The techniques and procedures of basic and advanced life-support are employed. A large number of weaknesses are recorded in PEMS system, such as ambulance transport irregularities, deficit equipment, lack of expertise, and ignorance of the pre-hospital care providers. These are discussed with special reference to a few examples of medical exigencies. Conclusions: The appointments in PEMS should be regularized with specific qualifications, experience, and expertise in different areas. Responsibility of PEMS should not be left to pre-hospital care providers, who are non clinicians and lack proper education and training. Pediatricians should be adequately trained to play an active role in PEMS. Meetings should be convened to discuss the lapses and means of improvement. Networks of co-operation between pre-hospital providers and experts in the emergency department should be established.

  20. The impact of nursing leadership and management on the control of HIV/AIDS: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawafleh, Hani; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on an aspect of a larger ethnographic study that sought to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on the practice of primary care nurses in Jordan. Nursing leadership and the style of management adopted by senior nursing and medical administrators at the Ministry of Heath were identified as factors impacting on the practice of the nurses and their capacity to raise community awareness and contribute to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. The study was undertaken in three rural and three urban primary health care centres (PHCC). Data collection included participant observation, key informant interviews, and document analysis. These data informed the development of descriptive ethnographic accounts that allowed for the subsequent identification of common and divergent themes reflective of factors recognized as influencing the practice of the nurse participants. PMID:23181375

  1. Medical Information Resources Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Jiying; Zhan Youxiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper expatiates on the recent medical information resource development and utilization in China. A comparison isdrawn between the medical information resource development and utilization in China and developed countries in five aspects: outlay of medical information resources, constructing and sharing of medical information resources, medical information policy and related rules of law, revelation of library collections and quadratic exploiture, etc. Finally some suggestions are put forward for the medical information resource development in China.

  2. Symphonic electronic music: social aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Enfi A.

    2011-01-01

    In the article «Sympho-electronic music as deep-essential psychotherapy's tool of art-humanitarian practice» we provide definitions and characteristics of the new musicological concepts: «sympho-electronic music» (SEM), and show many benefits of using this music in depth-essential psychotherapy of art-humanitarian creativity, based on the implementation of major principles and basic medical-psychological aspects of the Essence Coding Theory (ECT). Demonstrated...

  3. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid, but the...... AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the...

  4. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  5. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  6. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  7. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  8. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  9. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  10. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using Aspect......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  11. 城市维稳伤员院前急救药材及器械品类配置的应用研究%Application study of the wounded first-aid medical equipment kind of urban peace-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹坤鹏; 陶发胜; 何新建

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨城市维稳条件下伤员院前急救药材及器械品类的配置标准,提高综合医院应急救援能力.方法 收集新疆地区2009年以来293例因暴力事件入院患者的资料,并对其进行回顾性分析,采用系统分析法、专家深度访谈法对城市维稳伤员救治药材、器械需求进行划分和配置.结果 按照模块划分原则,获得由31种药品、12类耗材及55种器械组成的模块库,其中包括药材和器械通用模块2个,专用模块3个.结论 通过对城市维稳伤员院前急救药材及器械的规范化设计,将提高城市暴力活动条件下药材及器械供应与需求的一致性和针对性.%Objective In the urban peace - making conditions Lo study the wounded first - aid medicine equipment safeguard, Lo improve the first - aid ability of hospilal. Methods Make the 293 cases of violence in the hospilal as the object which since 2009, using review analysis, syslem analysis method, experts depth interview melhod lo divide wounded first - aid medical equipmenl kind of urban peace - making. Results According lo module dividing principle, acquired module base by 31 kinds of drugs, 12 groups consumables and 55 kind of inslrumenl , including two medicinal materials equipmenl general module, three special module. Conclusion Through the standardization design of the wounded first - aid medical equipment kind of urban peace - making, will improve the consistency and pertinence of medicinal materials equipmenl supply and demand in urban violence.

  12. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  13. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  14. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  15. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend on...... demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  16. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  18. [The level of first aid and basic life support for the next generation of physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life support. We determined the level of first aid and basic life support of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Of the 300 junior do

  19. Medical assistance in case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical service is a prerequisite for work license of nuclear installation. Every nuclear installation incorporate in their safety procedure also medical emergency plan. Usually the medical emergency plan consists of several degrees of action: 1. First aid, 2. First medical treatment, 3. Treatment in regional hospital, 4. Treatment in special institution (centre for radiation medicine). This paper discusses organization and activities of Centre for Radiation Medicine and Protection - Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb

  20. A survey and intervention study on lab first-aid knowledge of the freshmen in a medical university in Hunan province%湖南某高校医学一年级学生实验室急救知识调查干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳强; 蒋倩倩; 张海燕; 王迎燕; 朱勇飞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To know the medical freshmen’s awareness of laboratory safety and first aid knowledge in a medical university in Hunan province, and explore effective approaches to improve it.Methods By cluster random sampling method, 245 freshmen were collected and divided experimental and matched group. A pocket guide detailing laboratory safety and first-aid knowledge was provided to experimental group and some explanations were given to them at the same time, while no intervention was conducted to the matched group. Both the groups were surveyed through a questionnaire related to laboratory safety and first aid knowledge not only before the intervention but also after it.Results In this survey, only the three questions concerning temporary treatment of fractures or suspected fractures, first-aid measures of scratches and cuts with sharp objects, and awareness of chemical injuries in the first survey were relatively answered better in both groups, covering a correction rate of more than 70%. But after the intervention, the treatment group had a better accuracy in 18 of all the 20 questions except the rest two about fractures and chemical injuries.Conclusions Knowledge of laboratory safety and first aid has to be improved greatly to the medical freshmen, and effective intervention may help the students to improve a lot in relevant knowledge.%[目的]了解湖南某高校医学院一年级学生对实验室急救知识的掌握情况,探索提高大学生实验室急救知识的有效途径。[方法]整群随机抽样法抽取245名医学院一年级学生,随机分为实验组和对照组,向实验组大学生发放实验室安全和急救知识速查手册并进行讲解,对照组则不进行任何干预,每组均于干预前和干预后发放实验室安全和急救知识问卷进行测试。[结果]第一次调查时,20个问题中两组大学生仅有“骨折或可疑骨折时简单处理”、“被玻璃等利器割伤后的急救”和“对

  1. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of the medications on your hearing and balance systems. The team will discuss with you how these side effects will affect your quality of life. What are the effects I may notice from ... speech is affected. Balance problems can also occur as a result of ...

  2. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  3. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  4. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  5. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a...... positive and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  6. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  7. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  8. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  9. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...... labour capacity that prevents the real exchange rate from appreciating....

  10. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  11. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  12. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  13. 急救医疗仪器设备对急诊科护士的情绪影响%First aid the emotional impact of medical instruments and equipment for emergency nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董妮; 仲月霞; 焦大脉; 王静; 屈卓军

    2013-01-01

    急诊每天要接诊大量的危重症患者,同样急诊科护士每天要使用各种医疗器械对病人进行抢救。抢救室的尿骚、腥臭,血腥味,消毒液的味道,还有各种抢救仪器的辐射,噪音,病人的哭喊,以及来自医患纠纷可能导致医护人员的人身受到威胁,这些都无形之中给医护人员带来了巨大的情绪影响,这将多多少少影响医护人员给病人的救治,本文旨在通过对急诊护士情绪压力的分析,督促全社会应该关爱护士,理解她们,在就诊时,能多一份容忍,这样,让医护人员有一个良好、愉悦的心情去救治患者,达到双赢的目的。%Every day a lot of emergency admissions critically ill patients,the same emergency nurses every day to use all kinds of medical devices for rescuing the patients. Resuscitation room, the stench of urine, bloody flavor,the taste of disinfectant,the noise radiation,and various rescue equipment,patient cries, as well as from medical dispute could lead to the health-care workers threatened,these are invisible to the medical staff brought great emotional impact, which will influence the medical team the patient's treatment,this paper aims to analyze the emotional stress of nurses n emergency department,supervise the whole society should care nurses, understand them,in clinic,more tolerant,so,let the medical staff have a good, pleasant mood to treat patients, achieve the win-win purpose.

  14. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  15. HIV/AIDS in prisons: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In a report released on 20 November 2002, entitled Action on HIV/AIDS in Prisons: Too Little, Too Late--A Report Card, the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network concluded that despite repeated studies and nearly ten years of recommendations for urgent and pragmatic action, the response of Canadian governments to HIV/AIDS, HCV, and injection drug use in prisons remains inadequate. Only a few weeks later, the House of Commons Special Committee on Non-Medical Use of Drugs released its report, which contained a number of recommendations to the Correctional Service of Canada. Although the Committee avoided talking about needle exchange programs in prisons, it did recommend them! Meanwhile, in Ireland, not even condoms or bleach are provided. PMID:14719487

  16. An introduction to medical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook teaches all aspects and methods of biometrics as a field of concentration in medical education. Instrumental interpretations of the theory, concepts and terminology of medical statistics are enhanced by numerous illustrations and examples. With problems, questions and answers. (orig./CB)

  17. An Aided Tool for Enterprise Network Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯径; 马小骏; 顾伯萱; 顾冠群

    2000-01-01

    With the rapid development of network technologies, it is necessary to make use of an aided tool (AT) to help enterprise network design (END). The AT must process many requirements qualitatively and quantitatively, and then give out the logical network guidance and preferred solution. The AT also needs to carry out a simulation program, and gives the feasibility report. This paper will introduce the authors' research work on above aspects.

  18. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittinghoff Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. Methods The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Results Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p Conclusion Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS.

  19. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  2. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  3. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  4. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  5. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  6. Development of a computer-aided design system for comparative medical animal experiments%比较医学动物实验计算机辅助设计系统的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡樱; 杨斐; 俞伊军; 高诚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an application software for researchers to design comparative medical animal experiments as well as to learn the designing process independently. Methods The technical information of comparative medical animal researches were screened according to the “science, ethic, economic” principle of laboratory animal usage. The candidate data were analyzed and organized on the basis of relational database schema theory. The framework was designed and the modules were set up refered to the rules and features of comparative medical animal experiment process.The whole program was developed in an user-oriented way by using C + + and MFC library. Result Five modules, including model selecting module, laboratory animal module, environment and condition module, laboratory process module and program output module were established along with the related information database, and the test of whole software was conducted. Conclusions The CAD system for comparative medical animal experiment developed in this study is effective and easy to use in designing animal experiment and self-learning of the design process based on PC.%目的 开发一款辅助研究者设计比较医学动物实验方案和学习实验设计的应用软件.方法 根据实验动物应用的"科学、伦理、经济"原则筛选比较医学动物实验技术资料,运用关系数据库架构原理分析和组织入选数据,通过解析比较医学动物实验规律和特点设计程序框架和模块,采用C++语言、MFC库进行面向用户的程序设计.结果 建立了程序相关资源库和模型选择、实验动物、环境条件、实验步骤、方案输出5个功能模块,并完成整个软件测试.结论 研发成功比较医学动物实验计算机辅助设计系统,该系统能够基于微型计算机为用户提供有效、易用的动物实验辅助设计和自助学习功能.

  7. Impacts to HIV/AIDS of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Taşçı

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. HIV/AIDS is one of the vital problems of our century. HIV/AIDS is not merely a medical disease but also is a problem, which possesses economical, cultural, psychological and social dimensions. Women are more vulnerable to HIV than men because of biological and cultural factors. Besides women who carry HIV virus experience difficulty in taking care of their own health, they also carry the burden of possibility that their children and other members of the family might catch HIV virus. Most often, social support is insufficient and the conditions brought by treatment cannot be utilized appropriately due to external interventions. Most of the problems that women under the risk of HIV run into are largely social rather than medical. Many women infected with HIV were isolated because they didn’t get of sufficient social support or didn’t equal time for their care and it is thought that this inequality still continues. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women's empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic.

  8. TRANSLATION PROBLEMS IN MEDICAL TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    OĞUZ, Derya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to emphasize the fact that the translation of medical texts represents a special area in translation, and that the most important aspect of medical text translation is being aware of the purpose and intent behind these translations. Medical text translation is not an area in which any person engaged in translation can work effectively. The translator first needs to have a considerable scientific background and experience. The translator’s task, in this context, is t...

  9. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage of...... data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  10. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness of...... foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  11. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid in...

  12. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of...... the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  13. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  14. Nuclear medicine applications in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aids patients are liable to more than one medical problem at anyone time as the number of CD4 cells decrease and the viral load increases. Problems are related to multiple causes of opportunistic Infections, malignant lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. Laboratory tests, sputum analysis and bronchial lavage have problems of decreased sensitivity. morphologic Imaging modalities such as chest X-ray, CT or MRI has problems of specificity. Nuclear medicine techniques has the advantage of total body functional imaging that can visualize more than one organ. The use nuclear medicine imaging is recommended when the diagnosis is uncertain and for initiation of proper treatment. Gallium-67 citrate total body scans acquired at 4 hours following the IV injection and at 24-48 hours has been very useful for the early diagnosis of opportunistic infections such as PCP, TB, Disseminated Mycobacterium avii complex; MAI, malignant lymphoma and various forms of AIDS related colitis. Sequential thallium and gallium scan help to differentiate Kaposi sarcoma (thallium positive, gallium negative) from opportunistic infections (gallium positive, thallium negative) and malignant lymphoma (thallium and gallium positive). Gallium is the most convenient radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the heart. Thallium and Tc-99m Sestamibi are useful for the differentiation of intracranial toxoplasmosis from malignant lymphoma. The presentation will illustrate different examples and will explain the limitations of all these tests. (author)

  15. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  16. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is...... crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  17. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The paper present the methodologies and tools developed in the framework of Performance Aided Design (PAD), a term that indicates the shift in the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools from a mere translation in a digital environment of the operations once carried on paper, to an evolving...... paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics, and...

  18. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  19. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... sustained future growth, Mozambique will have to develop its capacity to maximise the benefits from its natural resources while ensuring at the same time the necessary framework is put in place to promote constructive integration in international markets...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  20. World AIDS Day 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196