WorldWideScience

Sample records for aid to families with dependent children

  1. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  2. Income Effects of Divorce in Families with Dependent Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Tjøtta, Sigve

    2002-01-01

    Marital splits may affect the economic well-being of families with children significantly. We study the economic effects of divorce in such families in Norway, using administrative information on more than 60,000 individuals. In the typical case, where the mother has custody, the mother (and child) lacks behind before maintenance payments, but after adding these, the outcomes at the median are very similar. However, the median pre-post divorce income reduction is larger for custodial women th...

  3. Teaching Basic First-Aid Skills against Home Accidents to Children with Autism through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    It is known that children with DD can learn first-aid skills and use whenever needed. Applying first-aid skills was taught to three inclusion students with autism through "first-aid skills training package". In the study multiple probe design with probe trials across behaviors was used. The findings indicated that first-aid skills training package…

  4. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…

  5. Family gym: a model to promote physical activity for families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Hoffman, Jessica A; Thomas, Jordan; DuBois, Matthew; Agrawal, Tara; Griffin, Daphne; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine Locke; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Wirth, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    This report describes Family Gym, a family-centered model that (1) provides free access to physical activity for low-income families in the inner city; (2) targets young children (3-8 years) and their families; (3) engages families together in physical activity; and (4) stimulates social interaction among families.

  6. Predictors of Hearing Aid Use Time in Children with Mild-to-Severe Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; Spratford, Meredith; Moeller, Mary Pat; Oleson, Jacob; Ou, Hua; Roush, Patricia; Jacobs, Shana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated predictors of hearing aid (HA) use time for children with mild-to-severe hearing loss (HL). Barriers to consistent HA use and reliability of parent report measures were also examined. Method: Participants included parents of 272 children with HL. Parents estimated the amount of time the child used HAs daily.…

  7. "Fighting the system": Families caring for ventilator-dependent children and adults with complex health care needs at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of individuals with complex health care needs now receive life-long and life-prolonging ventilatory support at home. Family members often take on the role of primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of families giving advanced care to family members dependent on home mechanical ventilation. Methods Using qualitative research methods, a Grounded Theory influenced approach was used to explore the families' experiences. A total of 15 family members with 11 ventilator-dependent individuals (three children and eight adults were recruited for 10 in-depth interviews. Results The core category, "fighting the system," became the central theme as family members were asked to describe their experiences. In addition, we identified three subcategories, "lack of competence and continuity", "being indispensable" and "worth fighting for". This study revealed no major differences in the families' experiences that were dependent on whether the ventilator-dependent individual was a child or an adult. Conclusions These findings show that there is a large gap between family members' expectations and what the community health care services are able to provide, even when almost unlimited resources are available. A number of measures are needed to reduce the burden on these family members and to make hospital care at home possible. In the future, the gap between what the health care can potentially provide and what they can provide in real life will rapidly increase. New proposals to limit the extremely costly provision of home mechanical ventilation in Norway will trigger new ethical dilemmas that should be studied further.

  8. ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF THE ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL AID TO CHILDREN WITH RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Malievsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    The article is devoted to an actual problem of pediatrics to the organization of medical aid to children with rheumatic diseases. The basic normative documents regulating works pediatric and rheumatological of service on municipal, regional and federal levels are reflected. The operational experience of the Republican center of children cardiorheumatology and artrology in Republic Bashkortostan is presented. The characteristic of the computer program «The Register of children with rheumatic d...

  9. Expanding Supports to Improve the Lives of Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Mary Bower; Matthews, Amy L.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience increased stress and challenges compared with families of typically developing children. We highlight the need for family-centered approaches to reduce family stress, and we elaborate on some of the most central universal needs for families with a child…

  10. Pulmonary diseases in children with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunistic infections evident in children with AIDS are similar to those reported in adults. However malignant lymphoma or sarcoma are seen in only 4%. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently seen. CMV infections, streptococcus pneumonia and lung infections causes by gram negative bacterial infections occur as well. In cases with lymhoid interstitial pneumonia evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection is common in children. (orig./MG)

  11. The relationship between expressed HIV/AIDS-related stigma and beliefs and knowledge about care and support of people living with AIDS in families caring for HIV-infected children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, M; Ross, M W; Karuri, K; Orrs, M; D'Agostino, A

    2005-10-01

    At the end of 2001, AIDS-related deaths had left an estimated 900,000 living orphans in Kenya (UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiology fact sheet, Kenya report, 2004). Many of those orphans are also HIV+. In Eastern Kenya, the Lea Toto Kangemi Outreach Program provides support to families caring for HIV+ children, many of whom are orphaned or soon to be orphaned. A major challenge for these families is the stigma attached to the family. In 2003, the Kangemi Program conducted a household survey of client families. We examined markers of expressed stigma and the association between expressed stigma and other demographic and belief/knowledge domains. The focus of the present study was the specific belief/knowledge domain surrounding care/support of HIV+ persons. Our goal was to explore this domain in the Kangemi families and to examine its relationship to expressed stigma. We created an AIDS-related stigma scale from selected items in the household survey and cross-tabulated stigma scores with care/support knowledge items. We found significant associations between less expressed stigma and greater care/support knowledge. Our results have implications for interventions that reduce expressed stigma and/or improve quality of care.

  12. Children affected with HIV/AIDS: Information of HIV/AIDS in five Colombian cities*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Trejos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe information about HIV/AIDS in a youth population under 18 years of age affected with HIV/AIDS and caregivers in five Colombian cities: Cali, Buenaventura, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, and Cartagena. Methods: 286 personal surveys were conducted: 11 of children who were aware of their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS and 275 of caregivers of children who did not know their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS. The surveys were conducted in health institutions in the State and private sectors and private, using instruments in line with training programs from participating institutions to inquire about HIV/AIDS. Descriptive analysis was performed of the data and tabulation was done with the SPSS program. Results: Most children who knew their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS report that by acquiring the HIV virus, they may develop other diseases; however, half of these fail to recognize that AIDS weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. The children surveyed partly recognized the HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment mechanisms, while caregivers possess adequate information on the disease. We found reasons to delay the delivery of diagnosis by caregivers 96.2% (N=275 related to avoiding psychological harm to the children, and that if they were to know said status, they might inadvertently disclose this to others, probably exposing them to stigma and/or discrimination. Likewise, professionals providing health services to HIV seropositive children express lack of training regarding the proper procedure and age to reveal such information. Conclusions: It is a priority to enhance the capacity, information, and education of patients about effects, characteristics, manifestations, and treatment of the disease within the comprehensive health management processes conducive to supporting affected families.

  13. The Experiences and Perceptions of Five Elementary School Counselors: Providing Family Counseling to Families of Children with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Granato, Laura A,

    1999-01-01

    Family systems counseling is a powerful and beneficial counseling technique that has been effective in treating families of children with learning disabilities. Family counseling has been effective in many settings, but has not been explored as a school counselor intervention. This research is a qualitative study exploring school counselorsâ experiences and perceptions while providing family counseling to families of children with learning disabilities. This counseling included a minimum...

  14. Comparison of Peer and Self-Video Modeling in Teaching First Aid Skills to Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) compare peer and self-video modeling in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in teaching first aid skills to children with intellectual disability and (2) analyze the error patterns made in probe sessions to determine whether the children who took the role of sufferers during the first aid skill sessions…

  15. Rural children's attitudes to people with HIV/AIDS in Mali: the causes of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research among young people and other community members in rural Mali elicited knowledge and attitudes with regard to HIV/AIDS. Findings indicated that rumours concerning methods of infection are likely to increase the stigmatization of those with the disease. The most frequently stated mode of transmission involved urinating in a place where someone with AIDS had already urinated. Shared clothes, food and water were seen as sources of infection. Both children and teachers recommended that people with AIDS be isolated. Even talking to them would lead to a risk of infection. Discriminatory views were likely to have been reinforced by parents and community elders who possessed the same misinformation. The notion that AIDS results from sexual encounters between young women and dogs belonging to white people in Côte d'Ivoire was also widespread. These discourses may reflect perceived xenophobia and risk to migrants associated with current tensions between the two countries, together with misgivings about Western sexual liberalism. A holistic educational programme is proposed to address not simply HIV/AIDS, but the social context in which infection occurs, with view to combating stigma and discrimination associated with not just HIV but also with migration in this setting. PMID:21972829

  16. Responses to Children's Media Use in Families with and without Siblings: A Family Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John J.; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on family development theory, this study provides insight into how family stages with and without siblings are related to media habits and effects. Two national samples (N = 527 and N = 1,257) present a cross-sectional snapshot of media uses in families across three stages of family life: families with preschoolers (2-6 years), with…

  17. Pilot study to evaluate children with hearing aids through PEACH and TEACH in a rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingamdenne Paul Emerson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the use of functional measures in hearing aid benefit assessment of children (n = 60 in a rural community. Children with age ranging from 6 months to 15 years with moderately severe to profound hearing loss were evaluated. They were evaluated by functional measures PEACH and TEACH which were translated into local language (Tamil. The relationship between PEACH and TEACH was calculated using SPSS and Chi-square tests. It was found that PEACH and TEACH questionnaires can be easily administered in the rural community and gives a quantitative measure of the effect of amplification. It gave caregivers a motivation to take an active part in the rehabilitation. This model of using functional evaluation tools to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of amplification can be applied in children in developing countries.

  18. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  19. Couple relationships in families with dependent children after a diagnosis of maternal breast cancer in the United Kingdom: Perspectives from mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Roslyn; Puthussery, Shuby; Swinglehurst, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the facilitators and the barriers to couple relationships in families in the UK with dependent children after a diagnosis of maternal breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 participants, including 10 couples and three women whose partners did not take part. Recorded interviews were analyzed using a thematic approach identifying themes and patterns in the interview transcripts and categorizing them using a framework. Key individual and contextual factors perceived as barriers or facilitators to couple relationships included: being a "young" family with young children, frustration and resentment from male partners, women's reactions to the illness, individual communication styles, differing needs for "personal space," body image concerns, and social support. Findings indicated the need for strengthening "family focus" in services with adequate support for male partners. Health and family services should consider variability in the experiences of couples with dependent children and be sensitive to the needs of partners alongside the women. PMID:27295387

  20. A behavioral family intervention to improve adherence and metabolic control in children with IDDM

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, Melanie Jean

    1992-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral family intervention on adherence and metabolic control in insulin dependent diabetic children (IODM). Specifically, assumption of regimen responsibilities between the parent and child were manipulated to facilitate regimen adherence. The intervention delivered was a target-specific behavioral contract extended sequentially across four target behaviors (Le., blood glucose testing, insulin injections, diet, and exercise). Regimen...

  1. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

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    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  2. Family Responses to the Social Inclusion of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Sara Ashencaen

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on findings from a qualitative study of care-giving Arab Muslim families of children with developmental disabilities in the United Arab Emirates. The perceptions of mothers in relation to family acceptance and social inclusion issues are explored. Parental views of existing provision are also considered with regard to existing…

  3. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

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    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  4. Subsequent Births in Families of Children with Disabilities: Using Demographic Data to Examine Parents' Reproductive Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors determined family reproductive patterns after the birth of a child with (vs. without) a disability. Using Tennessee birth records, the authors examined families of children with Down syndrome (N = 1,123), spina bifida (N = 368), and population group (N = 734,189). Families of children with Down syndrome and with spina bifida were more…

  5. From Mothers' Pensions to Aid to Dependent Children in the Great Plains: The Course from Charity to Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Alton

    2012-01-01

    The most important third-party movement in American history emerged out of the social and economic chaos brewing in the Great Plains in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The maelstrom, labeled Populism, contained a powerful, indeed a truly revolutionary message--that man was his brother's keeper. This concept proved to have…

  6. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning.

  7. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26228480

  8. Prenatal and Family Risks of Children Born to Mothers with Epilepsy: Effects on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…

  9. The Family Map: A Tool for Understanding the Risks for Children in Families with Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokony, Patti A.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Johnson, Danya; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bradley, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the findings from our assessments of children and their families in two Head Start programs using the Family Map. Specifically, we used the Family Map assessment tool to identify risks to children associated with alcohol and drug use in families with young children. Practical suggestions are offered to administrators about the…

  10. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  11. A Mulditisiciplinary Model of Family Therapy with people living with HIV/AIDS

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    Ismael Fernando Díaz Oropeza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The multidisciplinary model includes Family Therapy with persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Its theoretical basis is based in Medical Family Therapy, biopsychosocial and systemic perspectives. Collaborative and narrative therapies, solution building and reflecting team‘s ideas are combined in clinical practice. As results, families have normalized illness’ impact, they have co generated possibilities such as strengthening of abilities for coping problems related to illness though agency, communion, empowerment, normalizing, reframing and mobilizing family resources.

  12. Working with Parents to Promote Children's Literacy: A Family Literacy Project in Uganda

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    Parry, Kate; Kirabo, Elizabeth; Nakyato, Gorreth

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of family practices to children's acquisition of literacy and describes attempts to influence such practices through the institution of family literacy programmes. One of these is the Family Literacy Project in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which both served as a model and provided material for a similar…

  13. Inverse association of natural mentoring relationship with distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS

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    Munakata Tsunetsugu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of the AIDS-orphaned children crisis in sub-Saharan Africa has so overstretched the resource of most families that the collapse of fostering in the sub-region seems imminent (UNICEF, 2003, fueling the need for a complementary/alternative care. This paper examines the probability of the natural mentoring care to ameliorate distress mental health in children orphaned by AIDS. Methods 952 children, mean age about 14 years, from local community schools and child-care centers in Kampala (Uganda and Mafikeng/Klerksdorp (South Africa towns participated in the study. The design has AIDS-orphaned group (n = 373 and two control groups: Other-causes orphaned (n = 287 and non-orphaned (n = 290 children. We use measures of child abuse, depression, social discrimination, anxiety, parental/foster care, self-esteem, and social support to estimate mental health. Natural mentoring care is measured with the Ragins and McFarlin (1990 Mentor Role Instrument as adapted. Results AIDS-orphaned children having a natural mentor showed significant decreased distress mental health factors. Similar evidence was not observed in the control groups. Also being in a natural mentoring relationship inversely related to distress mental health factors in the AIDS-orphaned group, in particular. AIDS-orphaned children who scored high mentoring relationship showed significant lowest distress mental health factors that did those who scored moderate and low mentoring relationship. Conclusions Natural mentoring care seems more beneficial to ameliorate distress mental health in AIDS-orphaned children (many of whom are double-orphans, having no biological parents than in children in the control groups.

  14. Gay men with AIDS and their families of origin: an analysis of social support.

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    Kadushin, G

    1996-05-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:8722141

  15. Helping Young Children Deal with Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Donna S.; Botkin, Darla; Quick, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Urges teachers to be aware of the types of family violence, their prevalence, and the common effects of family violence on young children. Explores indicators of abuse and neglect, factors that protect against family violence, suggestions for creating a nurturing classroom climate, and the role of early childhood professionals in cases of abuse.…

  16. Family therapy with intellectually and creatively gifted children.

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    Moon, S M; Hall, A S

    1998-01-01

    Few family therapists have expertise in the psychology of giftedness, and little research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of family therapy with talented children and their families. The purposes of this paper are: (1) to provide family therapists with information on the unique psychosocial stressors associated with giftedness and (2) to stimulate further research and development on the efficacy of family therapy in alleviating distress and actualizing potential in gifted and talented children and their families. The paper provides a critical overview of the existing research literature on gifted children and their families. First, current conceptualizations of giftedness are described. Then the research literature on the characteristics of intellectually and creatively gifted children and their families is reviewed with an emphasis on the endogenous (individual) and exogenous (systemic) factors that can create or exacerbate psychosocial problems. Finally, we suggest an eclectic, eco-systemic approach to three common concerns that bring gifted children and their families to therapy.

  17. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  18. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D

    2015-04-01

    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836

  19. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  20. Working with Families of Young Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This user-friendly book presents research-based best practices for serving families of children with special needs from birth to age 6. Expert contributors demonstrate how early intervention and early childhood special education can effectively address a wide range of family concerns, which in turn optimizes children's development and learning.…

  1. Race, Ethnicity and Nativity, Family Structure, Socioeconomic Status and Welfare Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Becerra, Rosina M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether immigrant welfare recipients from particular racial and ethnic subgroups were more likely to depend on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) than native-born recipients from other racial and ethnic subgroups. Results did not indicate that foreign-born racial and ethnic subgroups were more likely to depend on AFDC than…

  2. Exploring the spiritual needs of families with seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Betty; Wittenberg, Elaine; Battista, Vanessa; Walker, Gay

    2016-08-01

    Although we know that families of seriously ill children experience spiritual distress, especially at the end of the child's life, there is little information on the specific spiritual needs of families. In order to develop further training for nurses in paediatrics and help nurses develop skills for communicating about spirituality, this research examined the spiritual needs of families based on nurses' experiences with families of seriously ill children. Nurses' experiences revealed that families' anger with God, blame/regret, forgiveness, and ritual and cultural traditions are salient spiritual needs requiring effective nurse communication skills to support families of ill children. PMID:27568778

  3. The Efficacy of Family Camp Experience for Families Who Have Children with Visual Impairments. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; Kleinschmidt, Julia

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to address the paucity of research on the efficacy of camps for children with visual impairments and their families. The study evaluated the performance of a two-day camp for families with young visually impaired children at the Utah Schools for the Deaf and the Blind whose program was based on perceived family needs and…

  4. Infliximab dependency in children with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, D; Pedersen, N; Lenicek, M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, infliximab dependency has been described. AIM: To assess frequency of ID in 82 consecutive Crohn's disease children treated with infliximab 2000-2006 and to describe clinical and genetic predictors of long-term infliximab response. METHODS: A phenotype model of infliximab....../partial response. In long-term outcome, 22% maintained prolonged response, 12% had no response, while 66% became infliximab dependent. Perianal disease and no previous surgery were associated with infliximab dependency (OR 5.34, 95% CI: 1.24-22.55; OR 6.7, 95% CI: 1.67-26.61). No association was found with studied...... polymorphisms. The cumulative probability of surgery 50 months after starting infliximab was 10% in infliximab dependency, 30% in prolonged responders and 70% in nonresponders (P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-six per cent of children became infliximab dependent. Perianal disease and no surgery prior...

  5. [Parental cancer--parents ways of coping, family functioning, and psychosocial adjustment of dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Führer, Daniel; Ernst, Johanna; Brähler, Elmar; Herzog, Wolfgang; von Klitzing, Kai; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Children exposed to parental cancer have an increased risk of mental health problems. However, the parental illness itself and its features do not predict children's psychological adjustment. Parent- and family-related factors are more predictive for children's well-being and the incidence of psychopathological symptoms, respectively. This study focuses on parental ways of coping with illness from both, the ill and healthy parent's perspective, and the relationship with family functioning and children's adjustment. Results show a significant impact of parental coping styles on children's health-related quality of life and psychopathological symptoms and, furthermore, that this relationship is mediated by aspects of family functioning. This study support the importance of family systems approaches. Implications for further studies and practical issues are discussed. PMID:22950338

  6. From experience of rendering of the psychological aid to families of migrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass moving of the population from the contaminated regions is the feature of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences . In result it in families has changed customary a way of life, a gap of family and friendly ties has taken place, prosperity has changed, family traditions have begun to vary and etc.. The correction of the family relations as the form of the psychological aid to the children is widely used by clinical psychologists, psycho physicians, psychiatrists, but last time by school psychologists and social teachers too. For achievement of the therapeutic effect it is necessary to decide two problems - both understanding by the members of family of a role of own personality features in a distortion of operation of family and correction of inadequate reactions of the members of family

  7. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: a multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18, 2008-April 28, 2008. The study populations were parents/caretakers and children living with HIV/AIDS who were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 390 children/caretaker pairs were included in the study. Two hundred forty three children (62.3% were between 6-9 years of age. HIV/AIDS status was known by 68 (17.4% children, 93 (29% caretakers reported knowing the child's serostatus two years prior to our survey, 180 (46.2% respondents said that the child should be told about his/her HIV/AIDS status when he/she is older than 14 years of age. Children less than 9 years of age and those living with educated caregivers are less likely to know their results than their counterparts. Children referred from hospital's in-patient ward before attending the HIV clinic and private clinic were more likely to know their results than those from community clinic. CONCLUSION: The proportion of disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children is low. Strengthening referral linkage and health education tailored to educated caregivers are recommended to increase the rate of disclosure.

  8. Vulnerability of families with children with intestinal stomas

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Ferraz Lazarini Zacarin; Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga; Renata Olzon Dionísio de Souza; Daianne Cibele de Souza Borges; Giselle Dupas

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal stomas cause transformations in the body and create specific and continuous needs for care that imply in hospitalization and surgeries. In this context, we applied the concept of family vulnerability in order to identify the vulnerability of the family living with a child who has intestinal stoma. It is a qualitative study which interviewed the mothers of children with this chronic condition. We used narrative analysis based on the concept of family vulnerability. The results displ...

  9. Invisible Contributions in Families with Children and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    For many years there has been an underlying pathology within the literature about families with children and adults with intellectual disabilities (Helff & Glidden, 1998). This literature has emphasized stress and burden, incapacity and dependency, leading to negative stereotyping of families in this context. Over the last 2 decades research has…

  10. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringas, Maria L; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M; Ortega, Maria A; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E; Morales, Lilia M; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT "Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol" just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974

  11. Effectiveness of Music Therapy as an aid to Neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Bringas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT Auditory Attention plus Communication (ACC protocol just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, highlight/comfort the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions.

  12. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringas, Maria L; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M; Ortega, Maria A; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E; Morales, Lilia M; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT "Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol" just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions.

  13. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringas, Maria L.; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A.; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M.; Ortega, Maria A.; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E.; Morales, Lilia M.; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT “Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol” just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974

  14. Care arrangements of AIDS orphans and their relationship with children's psychosocial well-being in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Qun; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-03-01

    There is an estimated 100,000 children orphaned by AIDS in China, but data on the care arrangement of these orphans are limited. In this study, we examine the relationship between AIDS orphans' care arrangement and their psychosocial well-being among a sample of AIDS orphans in rural China. A total of 296 children who lost both parents to AIDS participated in the study, including 176 in orphanages, 90 in kinship care and 30 in community-based group homes. All participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their traumatic symptoms, physical health and schooling. Data reveal that the AIDS orphans in group homes reported the best outcomes in three domains of psychosocial well-being, followed by those in the orphanages and then the kinship care. The differences in psychosocial well-being among the three groups of children persist after controlling for key demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that the appropriate care arrangement for AIDS orphans should be evaluated within the specific social and cultural context where the orphans live. In resource-poor regions or areas stricken hardest by the AIDS epidemic, kinship care may not sufficiently serve the needs of AIDS orphans. Community-based care models, with appropriate government and community support preserving the family style and low child-to-caregiver ratio may constitute an effective and sustainable care model for the best interest of the AIDS orphans in developing countries. PMID:20587602

  15. Work-family and family-work conflicts amongst African nurses caring for patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehlogonolo Makola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South African nursing environments are marked by various incapacitating stressors. This study explores work-family (W-F and family-work (F-W conflicts as aspects of stress amongst nurses working with patients who have AIDS.Objectives: The study sought to determine the value of W-F and F-W conflicts as predictors of work and family satisfaction, as well as turnover intentions and the moderating role of supervisor and significant other support, amongst nurses caring for patients with AIDS in public hospitals within the Capricorn and Mopani districts, Limpopo Province.Methods: The study used a cross-sectional design, with data collected at one point only. Ninety-one nursing staff provided the data for the study by completing structured, self-administered surveys. Analysis involved computing correlations of all study variables. Thereafter, associated variables were used as predictors. In each predictive analysis, the nurses’ stress served as a control variable, W-F and F-W conflicts were the independent variables and significant others and supervisor supports were moderators. Interaction terms were derived from independent and moderator variables.Results: Although the findings of the study were not generally supportive of the hypotheses advanced, they nevertheless showed, amongst other findings, that F-W conflict predicted work satisfaction whilst W-F conflict predicted turnover intentions. Moreover, significant other support had a direct effect on family satisfaction whilst supervisor support moderated reports of W-F conflict and experiences of work satisfaction.Conclusions: The study showed that inter-role models that appear to be established in the context of developed societies require some further investigations in South Africa.

  16. Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

  17. Parental Adjustment, Marital Relationship, and Family Function in Families of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…

  18. SELECTED SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH AMONG FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojžíšová Adéla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information on the social determinants of health that affect families with children with disabilities. Results are based on a study of the project: Social determinants of health in the selected target groups. The qualitative study using in-depth interview. File sub-research consisted of six complete families with a child with disabilities in the age range of 6-15 years. Families were selected by stratified purposive sampling. The aim of the qualitative study using in-depth interviews to identify the key social determinants of health for families caring for a child with a disability and their subsequent examination of quantitative research strategies within the project ZSF JU. Significant issues have proven to social support, stress and social status. Stress of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities is not affected by the sex of the child and is not dependent on the age of the mother. Social networkof families is made up of close family, friends, community and the professionals who assist them in the care of children with disabilities. Parents consider it very important need to share their difficulties, both at the institutional level and a personal level. Central to the care of their children consider quality social and health services, provided primarily to non-profit sector or sectors of church organizations. Based on the results of qualitative research on families with a child with disabilities, it is clear that the most important for respondents to maintain the social status of the permanence of at least one family member full-time and given the age of the child with disabilities and other children in the family and the opportunity to find part-time the second member of the family. Social and health services are those instruments from the perspective of the social determinants of health, thanks to which can effectively prevent the risk of social exclusion of families with children with disabilities.

  19. Understanding Families with Children with Special Needs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing dialogues and exchanges for special education programs between China and the rest of the world as the development continues in China. Policy makers, administrators, and educators need to keep in mind the historical and cultural backgrounds when working with families with children with special needs in China. Together, this…

  20. Psychotherapy with children in refugee families who have survived torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    1997-01-01

    Children of refugee families who have survived torture often have emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural problems as well as problems with learning. In order to understand the difficulties of these children, we have to recognize the complicated interaction of cumulative traumatic strain...

  1. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Meadan, Hedda; Doubet, Sharon; Hess, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Research has frequently focused on needs, preferences, and practices of families of young children with disabilities. Surprisingly, relatively little seems to be known about how families use technology to gain information about and support their needs, even though Web-based and other information and communication technology applications have…

  2. Families of children with congenital heart disease: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Holly; Roscigno, Cecelia I; Hanson, Cherissa C; Swanson, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 and 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute launched two initiatives to encourage treatment innovations and research on children with heart disease and their families. Since then, no systematic reviews have examined the evidence regarding the impacts of having a child with congenital heart disease (CHD) on families. This review synthesized key findings regarding families of children with CHD, critiqued research methods, described what has been done, and provided recommendations for future inquiry. Databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Women's Studies International, and PsycINFO. The literature search followed the PRISMA guidelines. As a result, ninety-four articles were reviewed. Four major themes were derived: parents' psychological health, family life, parenting challenges, and family-focused interventions. In conclusion, while they found parents having psychological symptoms, researchers did not explore parents' appraisals of what led to their symptoms. Research is needed to explore parents' experiences and expectations. PMID:26404115

  3. Development of a voice database to aid children with hearing impairments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of software for voice analysis or training, for people with hearing impairments, a database having sounds of properly pronounced words is of paramount importance. This paper shows the advantage that will be obtained from getting an own voice database, rather than using those coming from other countries, even having the same language, in the development of speech training software aimed to people with hearing impairments. This database will be used by software developers at the School of Engineering of Mar del Plata National University.

  4. Development of a voice database to aid children with hearing impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, M. G.; Agüero, P. D.; Tulli, J. C.; Gonzalez, E. L.; Uriz, A. J.; Cervellini, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the development of software for voice analysis or training, for people with hearing impairments, a database having sounds of properly pronounced words is of paramount importance. This paper shows the advantage that will be obtained from getting an own voice database, rather than using those coming from other countries, even having the same language, in the development of speech training software aimed to people with hearing impairments. This database will be used by software developers at the School of Engineering of Mar del Plata National University.

  5. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control Among Patients with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    BAUER, LANCE O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to 4 subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the biological father with diagnoses of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in the biological mother. Cognitive control was evaluated during a tas...

  6. Family Resiliency, Uncertainty, Optimism, and the Quality of Life of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frain, Michael P.; Berven, Norman L.; Chan, Fong; Tschopp, Molly K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to contribute to the understanding of quality of life as it is experienced by a community-based, nonclinical sample of individuals with HIV/AIDS by applying family resiliency theory and cognitive appraisal concepts of uncertainty and optimism. Through the use of a Web-based survey, 125 individuals with HIV/AIDS…

  7. Family structure and mothers' caregiving of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, Debra; Ganong, Lawrence

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine differences in the experiences of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis who are in diverse family structures (first-marriage families, stepfamily households, single-parent households). In particular, mothers' perceptions of children's health, adherence to prescribed treatments, and help received from others were compared and predictors of treatment adherence were examined. Children's health and adherence to treatment regimens were not related to family structure. Mothers had the major responsibility for seeing that cystic fibrosis treatments were followed, regardless of family structure. Single mothers received less help than married and repartnered mothers. Married fathers helped with treatments more than nonresidential divorced fathers and stepfathers. Implications for nursing practice and suggestions for future research are offered.

  8. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively. PMID:23197385

  9. Three-year experience with the Sophono in children with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss: tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization compared to a bone-anchored hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Rik C; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M

    2016-10-01

    Bone conduction devices (BCDs) are advocated as an amplification option for patients with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss (UHL), while other treatment options could also be considered. The current study compared a transcutaneous BCD (Sophono) with a percutaneous BCD (bone-anchored hearing aid, BAHA) in 12 children with congenital conductive UHL. Tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization abilities with both types of BCD were studied retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years for the Sophono users (n = 6) and 4.7 years for the BAHA users (n = 6). In each group, two patients had stopped using their BCD. Tolerability was favorable for the Sophono. Aided thresholds with the Sophono were unsatisfactory, as they did not reach under a mean pure tone average of 30 dB HL. Sound localization generally improved with both the Sophono and the BAHA, although localization abilities did not reach the level of normal hearing children. These findings, together with previously reported outcomes, are important to take into account when counseling patients and their caretakers. The selection of a suitable amplification option should always be made deliberately and on individual basis for each patient in this diverse group of children with congenital conductive UHL.

  10. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  11. The comparison of balance performance among children with cochlear implantation, post-aural aid and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Ahmad pour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study was carried out to compare balance performance between children with cochlear implants and post-aural aid and normal children. Methods: The present study was done on 67 severe to profound hearing impaired children. Of these, 21 children with an average age of 7 years and 4 months (±1.7 wore cochlear implant, 46 children with an average age of 7 years and 7 months (±1.7 wore post-aural aid and 60 children with an average 8 years and one month (±11 months were considered as a control group. All of the children were tested with the 9-stage balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency2 (BOT2. Results: The mean total BOT2 score of hearing impaired children was significantly lower than the normal group (P≤0.001. The mean total BOT2 score among children with cochlear implant, post-aural aids and normal group showed that cochlear implant group significantly performed weaker than the other two groups (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Hearing impaired children particularly children with cochlear implant are exposed to the risk of balance deficit. Hearing impaired children specially those who wear cochlear implants must be screened for vestibular hypofunction.

  12. Theory-of-Mind Development in Oral Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants or Conventional Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the context of the established finding that theory-of-mind (ToM) growth is seriously delayed in late-signing deaf children, and some evidence of equivalent delays in those learning speech with conventional hearing aids, this study's novel contribution was to explore ToM development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Implants…

  13. Music in the family: music making and music therapy with young children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Songs and singing games are a healthy part of young children's social, emotional and cognitive development. Such shared music making can facilitate and strengthen relationships between parents and children. Family health workers can encourage carers' informal uses of music with their children. In cases of developmental delay, disability, severe illness or family stress, music can continue to have a significant role in supporting children and parents. In some cases referral to specialist music therapy services may be appropriate for assessment and/or treatment.

  14. Department of Defense Report and Plan on Services to Military Dependent Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Military families who have a member with autism would like to have expanded options for providing care, easing financial burden, and increasing the prospect for greater results for their family member. The Department of Defense (DoD) issued a report in July, covering its belief in the efficacy of applied behavior analysis (ABA) as a form of…

  15. The Impact of Children with High-Functioning Autism on Parental Stress, Sibling Adjustment, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The article discuses a study conducted to investigate the impact of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) on parental stress, sibling adjustment, and family functioning; the study involves a sample of parents of 15 children with HFA and parents of 15 matched control children who completed questionnaires measuring the dependent variables. The…

  16. Family Context and Young Children's Responses to Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J.; Fauchier, Angele; Oliver, Pamella H.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Rios, Martha A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Family context can affect children's vulnerability to various stresses, but little is known regarding the role of family variables on children's reactions to natural disaster. This prospective study examined the influence of predisaster observed parenting behaviors and postdisaster parental stress on young children's distress following…

  17. Residential Treatment Following Outpatient Treatment for Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Study of Child and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the question was explored whether children with a mild intellectual disability (MID) who were placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment differ significantly on child and family characteristics from children with MID and not placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment. The records of the…

  18. Stresses and Coping Strategies of Chinese Families with Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peishi; Michaels, Craig A.; Day, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 368 families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities in the People's Republic of China were gathered to understand the stresses that families experience and the coping strategies they employ. Chinese families of children with developmental disabilities perceived high levels of stress related to pessimism, child…

  19. Vulnerability of families with children with intestinal stomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ferraz Lazarini Zacarin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal stomas cause transformations in the body and create specific and continuous needs for care that imply in hospitalization and surgeries. In this context, we applied the concept of family vulnerability in order to identify the vulnerability of the family living with a child who has intestinal stoma. It is a qualitative study which interviewed the mothers of children with this chronic condition. We used narrative analysis based on the concept of family vulnerability. The results display that the family has gone through previous noteworthy experiences associated with the child’s condition. The family cares for the child on their own and seeks ways to control the situation and regain autonomy, hoping for stoma reversal. Based on the concept of vulnerability, we observed that these families can be considered vulnerable, for they experience threats to their autonomy, but are moved by the hope of reversal and intestinal tract reconstruction. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.26639.

  20. Family quality of life among families of children with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Ji; Hwang, Seonyeong; Ahn, Youngmee; Lim, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) may cause emotional distress and impairs the quality of life (QoL) in children and their families. Objective We examined family QoL of children with AD and explored associated factors such as disease severity and psychosocial factors among parents of children with AD. Methods Study participants were 78 children (1 month to 16 years old) diagnosed with AD and their parents visiting an outpatient clinic of the Department of Pediatrics in Inha University Hospital. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and medical record review. Parents completed the Dermatitis Family Impact questionnaire (DFI), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Korean Parenting Stress Index. For children aged below 6-year-old, parents were asked to complete the Infants' Dermatologic Quality of Life. SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0 Generic Core Scale were also completed. Results The mean age of parents and children were 37.4 ± 5.3 years and 65.1 ± 45.7 months, respectively. Among them, 87.2% of parents were mothers and 60.3% of children were boys. The mean score of DFI was 11.2 ± 6.0. The mean SCORAD score was 28.3 ± 16.1. Family who experienced strong negative emotionality had a 3.8 times higher probability of experiencing a lower QoL than parents who did not (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; p = 0.041). Family of children with higher severity of AD had a 6.6 times (OR, 6.55; p = 0.018) higher probability of experiencing a low family QoL than their less-severe counterparts. Families of girls with AD had a lower QoL (OR, 8.40; p = 0.003) than families of boys. Conclusion Family QoL among parents of children with AD was low and associated with parent’s psychosocial characteristics as well as disease severity of the children. Considering parental involvement in AD management for children, emotional

  1. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals

  2. 'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

    2015-09-01

    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  3. Una respuesta institucional colombiana a niños/as que viven con VIH/SIDA A Colombian institutional response to Colombian children infected with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Eduardo Barrios Acosta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El VIH/SIDA en la niñez es un problema social y su abordaje trasciende al sector de la salud. Las respuestas normativas, políticas, institucionales y de servicios tienen particularidades para la infancia. Un acercamiento propuesto se basa en los siguientes ejes: salud, nutrición, educación, condiciones socioeconómicas familiares, repercusiones psicosociales, protección, vivienda y estigmatización y discriminación. Desde estos lineamientos se exploró una institución usando la Teoría Bioecológica del Desarrollo Humano. Se describe y analiza la vida de niños/as en la institución. Es un estudio etnográfico y participaron 31 niños/as y 30 adultos/as. La respuesta institucional es satisfactoria en salud, alimentación, educación y cuidados básicos. La no revelación del diagnóstico, la estigmatización y discriminación contra los niños/as, la validación de la institucionalización, el manejo de las repercusiones psicoemocionales y del estigma y los costos del programa fueron las principales falencias. Los niños/as aprecian la respuesta institucional sobre el cubrimiento de sus necesidades básicas y rechazan algunas prácticas que ellos/as identifican como coercitivas y estigmatizantes. El reintegro de los niños/as a sus familias se recomienda como una estrategia de trabajo futuro sustentada en evidencias que demuestran mejores resultados biopsicosociales y bajo costo.Children with HIV/AIDS is a social issue,the approach to which transcends the health sector. The normative, political, institutional and service sector responses have specificities related to children. A proposed approach is based on the following points: health care, nutrition, education, family-socioeconomic status, psychosocial repercussions, protection, housing, stigmatization and discrimination. Based on these guidelines,a survey was conducted of an institutional responseapplying the Bioecological Model of Human Development. Life of children in the

  4. Training Foster Parents to Serve Dependent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenstein, Vivian R.; Krasner, William

    The Foster Parent Training Project builds on the desire of foster parents to promote the physical, mental and emotional growth of children in their care. Parents are taught to assist in reducing the impact on the children of separation. Classes deal with emotional development, sexual development, lying, emotional disturbance, the issues at each…

  5. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  6. Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Dejman; Hossein Malekafzali Ardakani; Bahareh Malekafzali; Ghobad Moradi; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya; Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari1; Seyed Ahmad Seyed Alinaghi; Minoo Mohraz

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities ...

  7. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  8. 受艾滋病影响儿童家庭功能及其影响因素调查%INVESTIGATION ON THE FAMILY FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AFFECTED BY HIV/AIDS AND ITS INFLUENTIAL FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢浩杰; 张淑; 刘旺民; 朱长才

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解受艾滋病影响儿童的家庭功能情况并探讨其影响因素,为开展对受艾滋病影响儿童关怀提供基础资料.[方法]采用家庭功能评定量表和家庭基本情况调查表对56名受艾滋病影响儿童和65名非受艾滋病影响儿童进行测定调查.[结果]受艾滋病影响儿童的家庭功能总体均分和沟通、情感介入、行为控制、总的功能等因子评分显著高于非受艾滋病影响儿童(P<0.05),Logistic回归分析显示,父母婚姻现状、受歧视感觉与家庭成员健康状况3个变量与家庭功能评分有关(P<0.05).[结论]受艾滋病影响儿童家庭功能状况整体不良,其影响因素包括父母婚姻、受歧视感觉和家庭成员健康状况;应积极倡导开展受艾滋病影响儿童的家庭关怀与支持.%[Objective] To learn the family function and it's influential factors of children affected by HIV/AIDS, so as to provide basic data for future care. [Methods] 56 children affected by HIV/AIDS and 65 children not affected by HIV/AIDS were investigated by family assessment device (FAD) and questionnaire of basic family circumstances. [Results] The average and subjects of communication, affective involvement, behavior control, general function in FAD in children affected by HIV/ AIDS had higher scores than in children not affected by HIV/AIDS (P< 0.05). Logistic regression analysis suggested that par-ents' marital status, sense of being discriminated and family members' physical condition were all related with mark of FAD (P <0.05). [Conclusion] The whole status of family functions in children affected by HIV/AIDS was poor. Family care should be actively promoted for these children.

  9. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Müller, Jörg; Marshall, Paul;

    Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in establis......Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families...... in establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD and their families, MOBERO significantly improved children’s independence and reduced parents...... of families of children with ADHD....

  10. Extended family childcare arrangements in a context of AIDS: collapse or adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathambo, Vuyiswa; Gibbs, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Families are subjected to a number of social, economic, political and demographic challenges. In recent years, the AIDS epidemic has constituted a major challenge for already poor families due to its wide reaching social, economic and health consequences. The devastating consequence of HIV and AIDS is being seen through the prolonged illness and death of family members of prime working age which impacts on family livelihoods and the ability to provide for and protect its members. This paper forms part of a review - commissioned by the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS - of qualitative studies of how families in southern Africa have changed, and are changing, as a result of the impact of HIV and AIDS. This paper presents results of how extended family childcare arrangements are changing as a result of the AIDS epidemic. In a southern African context, family denotes a wider array of relations than biological parents and their children - with children growing up amongst a multitude of relations sharing responsibility for their care and upbringing (Chirwa, 2002; Verhoef, 2005). Recently, there has been growing interest in the capacity of the extended family to care for the increasing number of children whose parents have died. However, literature on the role of the extended family in caring for orphaned children remains contradictory. One approach - the social rupture thesis (Chirwa, 2002) - suggests that the extended family network is collapsing under the strain of AIDS. On the other hand, families are portrayed as resilient and dynamic entities which are adapting their systems of childcare in response to the epidemic (Kuo,2007). In line with Abebe and Aase (2007) and Adams, Cekan, and Sauerborn (1998), this paper proposes a continuum of survival rather than a polarisation of extended family childcare arrangements. PMID:22380975

  11. Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiu Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use adversely affects many aspects of well-being and is disliked by non-smokers. However, its association with family happiness is unknown. We investigated the associations of family unhappiness with smoking in family members and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure at home in Hong Kong children. In a school-based survey in 2012–2013, 1238 primary school students (mean age 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.9; 42.6% boys reported family smoking, SHS exposure at home and whether their families had any unpleasant experience caused by smoking or SHS in the past 30 days (tobacco-related unpleasant experience, and rated the overall level of happiness in their families (family unhappiness. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations of tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness with family smoking and SHS exposure at home. Tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness were reported by 27.5% and 16.5% of students. Unpleasant experience was more strongly associated with family smoking than SHS exposure at home. Family unhappiness was associated with both family smoking (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.51–3.71 and SHS exposure at home (1.82; 1.39–2.40. These results suggest a previously neglected possible impact of tobacco use on family happiness.

  12. The Effect of Aided Language Stimulation on Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Little or No Functional Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the nature and frequency of the aided language stimulation program and determine the effects of a 3-week-long aided language stimulation program on the vocabulary acquisition skills of children with little or no functional speech (LNFS). Method: Four children participated in this single-subject,multiple-probe study across…

  13. Evaluation of heterosexual partners, children, and household contacts of adults with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischl, M.A.; Dickinson, G.M.; Scott, G.B.; Klimas, N.; Fletcher, M.A.; Parks, W.

    1987-02-06

    Forty-five adults with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their 45 spouses, 109 children, and 29 household contacts were studied for evidence of heterosexual, perinatal, and household spread of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Of the 45 spouses enrolled, 26 (58%) had antibody to HTLV-III, including 12 (71%) of 17 male spouses and 14 (50%) of 28 female spouses. Of the 12 seropositive male spouses, nine were seropositive at enrollment and three had seroconversion. Of the 14 seropositive female spouses, four were seropositive at enrollment and ten seroconverted. Lack of barrier contraceptive use and oral sex were associated with seroconversion. Of the 109 children enrolled, 15 had AIDS or an AIDS-related illness, two had evidence of passive transfer of maternal antibodies, and two had HTLV-III infection acquired outside the household. None of the 90 seronegative children seroconverted. Of 29 household contacts studied, nondeveloped antibody to HTLV-III.

  14. The influence of hearing aids on the speech and language development of children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Oleson, Jacob J; Ambrose, Sophie E; Walker, Elizabeth; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE Hearing loss (HL) in children can be deleterious to their speech and language development. The standard of practice has been early provision of hearing aids (HAs) to moderate these effects; however, there have been few empirical studies evaluating the effectiveness of this practice on speech and language development among children with mild-to-severe HL. OBJECTIVE To investigate the contributions of aided hearing and duration of HA use to speech and language outcomes in children with mild-to-severe HL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational cross-sectional design was used to examine the association of aided hearing levels and length of HA use with levels of speech and language outcomes. One hundred eighty 3- and 5-year-old children with HL were recruited through records of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and referrals from clinical service providers in the general community in 6 US states. INTERVENTIONS All but 4 children had been fitted with HAs, and measures of aided hearing and the duration of HA use were obtained. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Standardized measures of speech and language ability were obtained. RESULTS Measures of the gain in hearing ability for speech provided by the HA were significantly correlated with levels of speech (ρ179 = 0.20; P = .008) and language: ρ155 = 0.21; P = .01) ability. These correlations were indicative of modest levels of association between aided hearing and speech and language outcomes. These benefits were found for children with mild and moderate-to-severe HL. In addition, the amount of benefit from aided hearing interacted with the duration of HA experience (Speech: F4,161 = 4.98; P hearing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The degree of improved hearing provided by HAs was associated with better speech and language development in children. In addition, the duration of HA experience interacted with the aided hearing to influence outcomes. These results provide support for the

  15. Importance of psychological support for families of children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A family of a child with cancer needs continuous help and support from medical and other professionals, relatives, friends and community at the moment of making diagnosis and during the treatment. The goal of this study was to find out the most frequent sources of individual or community based psychological support, reported by parents of children suffering from malignant diseases. We focused on the help received at the moment of making diagnosis and within the first and second year of treatment. Material and Methods. We analyzed data obtained by a questionnaire specially designed for parents of children suffering from different malignancies. The poll was conducted from April 2007 till October 2009 at the Hematology/ Oncology Department of Children’s Hospital of Novi Sad and it included 72 parents of both sexes, whose children were treated at our Department in the period from 2007 to 2009. The children were of different age. Results. The parents selected the following forms of support as the most important: support given by the emotional partner and other family members (together with sick and healthy child, communication with and accessibility of hospital stuff (physicians at the first place, but also psychologists, nurses, other parents, support groups…. They also expressed their need for contacting friends, relatives and other close people. The selected forms of support are extremely important for the patients (regardless of age and for their family. All forms of organized and professionally conducted psycho-social support of patients and their family result in higher quality of psychological survival during the treatment and further rehabilitation of patients after rejoining their primary social environment. Conclusion. Family is the primary and the most important social surrounding within which disease both happens and is resolved. Adequate support can help family to overcome such crises, thus leading to the positive

  16. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  17. Yeasts from the oral cavity of children with AIDS: exoenzyme production and antifungal resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Vera Lúcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral fungal microbiota of 30 children with AIDS, of both genders, aged from two to six years, receiving outpatient treatment, was evaluated and compared with that of a control group composed of 30 healthy subjects with matching ages and genders. Virulence factors, such as exoenzyme production, and susceptibility to five antifungal agents using an E-Test kit were evaluated. C. albicans predominated over other species in the AIDS group, showing a higher production of proteinase and phospholipase when compared with that observed in the control group. In this study few clinical manifestations of and low selectivity for C. albicans (23.3% were observed in the AIDS group. The enzymatic studies showed that 53.8% of the AIDS strains were strongly positive whereas only 33.3% of the non-AIDS strains were positive. Amphotericin B was the most effective drug among the antifungal agents tested against C. albicans. The frequency, selectivity and level of exoenzyme production by C. albicans suggest a higher pathogenicity in the AIDS children than in the control children.

  18. Marriage and Family Therapists Working with Couples Who Have Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisch, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Current research about families and couples who have children with autism is discussed using the Double ABCX model as a guide. A case study is presented along with recommendations for therapists who work with couples who have children with autism. Marriage and family therapists are encouraged to use the Double ABCX model as both an assessment tool…

  19. 77 FR 40524 - Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Payable to a Surviving Spouse With One or More Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... statutory change was incorporated as 38 CFR 3.10(e)(4). See 71 FR 44915, Aug. 8, 2006. However, because 38 U... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO38 Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Payable to a Surviving Spouse... to a surviving spouse with one or more children below the age of 18. The Veterans' Compensation...

  20. 浅谈听损儿童家庭早期干预策略%On the Families' Early Intervention Strategies to Children with Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海燕

    2012-01-01

    本文从家长对听损儿童的认识、家长及其家庭成员在听损儿童康复中的地位及家庭康复训练方法等方面,阐述听损儿童家庭早期干预的策略,以便为听损儿童家庭早期干预提供依据。%From parents' understanding to children with hearing loss,parents and their family members in the rehabilitation of children with hearing loss and family rehabilitation methods of hearing loss the families of children with early intervention strategies for early intervention for hearing loss in children family basis.

  1. Enhancement of brain event-related potentials to speech sounds is associated with compensated reading skills in dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Tanskanen, Annika; Ervast, Leena; Heikkinen, Elisa; Lyytinen, Heikki; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2014-12-01

    Specific reading disability, dyslexia, is a prevalent and heritable disorder impairing reading acquisition characterized by a phonological deficit. However, the underlying mechanism of how the impaired phonological processing mediates resulting dyslexia or reading disabilities remains still unclear. Using ERPs we studied speech sound processing of 30 dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia, 51 typically reading children with familial risk for dyslexia, and 58 typically reading control children. We found enhanced brain responses to shortening of a phonemic length in pseudo-words (/at:a/ vs. /ata/) in dyslexic children with familial risk as compared to other groups. The enhanced brain responses were associated with better performance in behavioral phonemic length discrimination task, as well as with better reading and writing accuracy. Source analyses revealed that the brain responses of sub-group of dyslexic children with largest responses originated from a more posterior area of the right temporal cortex as compared to the responses of the other participants. This is the first electrophysiological evidence for a possible compensatory speech perception mechanism in dyslexia. The best readers within the dyslexic group have probably developed alternative strategies which employ compensatory mechanisms substituting their possible earlier deficit in phonological processing and might therefore be able to perform better in phonemic length discrimination and reading and writing accuracy tasks. However, we speculate that for reading fluency compensatory mechanisms are not that easily built and dyslexic children remain slow readers during their adult life.

  2. Family care to individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Keity Laís Siepmann Soccol; Marlene Gomes Terra; Nara Marilene Oliveira Girardon-Perlini; Danilo Bertasso Ribeiro; Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva; Lucia Amabile Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, which aimed to describe the family care given to the individual dependent on alcohol and other drugs. For data collection we used the interview, open, free and recorded, which was performed in August and September 2011. The 11 subjects were relatives of the individuals dependent on alcohol and other drugs, involved in family groups conducted at the Psychosocial care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. From the content analysis of these in...

  3. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  4. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  5. Cultural Socialization in Families With Internationally Adopted Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Richard M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2006-01-01

    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultu...

  6. On Technique with Children in Family Therapy: How Calculated Should It Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrinck-Graham, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Benson et al. on use of circular questioning with children to facilitate participation and inclusion of children in family therapy. Discusses involvement of young children in family therapy in general and the use of circular questioning in particular. Posits a simple developmental schema for involving young children…

  7. The social work with family and children with institutional upbringing injunction

    OpenAIRE

    DROZČÁKOVÁ, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with social work with children and families with the institutional upbringing injunction, which is execute by social workers from the department of social law protection of children. The theoretical part generally characterizes the terms family, introduce to risk factors en famille and define the term social law protection of children and institutional upbringing. Attention paid to acts of the social worker in context of institutional upbringing. The practical part are being ...

  8. Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families: Evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2010-01-01

    Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic's impact on affected families. PMID:20161630

  9. Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let?s Talk about the Children, LT) on children?s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with thei...

  10. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  11. Supporting families of children who are deaf or hard of hearing with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Susan; Innis, Heather

    2014-11-01

    Families of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (Deaf/HH) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience many frustrations and challenges in the identification of ASD, accessing supports and services to address all of their child's needs, and identifying networking and support opportunities with other families with children with similar needs. Professionals working with families are in a unique position to help navigate the often disconnected systems of services for children who are Deaf/HH and services for children with ASD. This article poses some possible strategies that professionals can implement in practice when working with children who are Deaf/HH with an ASD. PMID:25321850

  12. An Important Opportunity for Family Planning Education: Mothers with Children Hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospital, Diyarbakir-2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay Çakmak; Melikşah Ertem

    2005-01-01

    Family planning is an important tool to avoid maternal deaths. But unfortunately women have no chance to reach family planning services particularly in developing countries. All contacts with health professionals of women should be evaluate a opportunity for family planning education. In this study we aimed to show the fact that children hospital is also an important opportunity for family planning education. We interviewed 352 women with a child hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospita...

  13. Why people living with HIV/AIDS exclude individuals from their chosen families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant JS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan S Grant,1 David E Vance,1 Worawan White,2 Norman L Keltner,1 James L Raper3 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 2Department of Nursing, Pensacola State College, Pensacola, Florida, 3School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Abstract: Health professionals can gain a better understanding of key elements of social support by examining reasons why people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWH exclude individuals from their chosen families (ie, families of choice. Our study identified reasons why PLWH excluded specific individuals from their chosen families. This mixed-method design was drawn from a larger study of 150 PLWH, in which 94 self-reported why they excluded individuals from their chosen families. Physical and emotional distance (n = 64; 68.1%; nonsupport, nonacceptance, and harm (n = 25; 26.6%; conditional caring and trust (n = 22; 23.4%; and no blood/familial relationship (n = 13; 13.8% were the reasons PLWH excluded individuals from their chosen families. Demographic and personal characteristics were unrelated to these themes, supporting the conclusion that reasons for excluding family members are universal and not dependent on particular participant characteristics. For chosen family relationships to develop and exist, these findings emphasize the value of physical and emotional contact between individuals.Keywords: families, stigma, social networks, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  14. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted. PMID:23688140

  15. Leisure time of families with children suffering from Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumarova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asperger' s syndrome is one of the pervasive developmental disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases (tenth revision. Problems of this type of disability are found in many areas, for example – the system of care, diagnosis, education, the number of organizations that deal with this condition and provide these services. Recent research has shown an increase in autism spectrum disorders (every hundredth child is born with this diagnosis. Children with Asperger syndrome are intrinsically “blind” in public and seem rude, and these situations are not easy for their parents. The most difficult area for parents is free time. Children cannot organize their leisure time, plus the ability to meaningfully spend their time is very limited. Incidence of organizations offering leisure activities for people with autism is usually larger in big cities, because the concentration of these children is greater. The aim of this paper is to characterize the basic theoretical background and find out what leisure time possibilities exist for a family having a child with Asperger's syndrome. How can a family with a child with Asperger's syndrome spend leisure time?

  16. Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

  17. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences…

  18. Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: the potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, M; Bassett, L

    2009-01-01

    Investing in social protection in sub-Saharan Africa has taken on a new urgency as HIV and AIDS interact with other drivers of poverty to simultaneously destabilise livelihoods systems and family and community safety nets. Cash transfer programmes already reach millions of people in South Africa, and in other countries in southern and East Africa plans are underway to reach tens and eventually hundreds of thousands more. Cash transfers worldwide have demonstrated large impacts on the education, health and nutrition of children. While the strongest evidence is from conditional cash transfer evaluations in Latin America and Asia, important results are emerging in the newer African programmes. Cash transfers can be implemented in conjunction with other services involving education, health, nutrition, social welfare and others, including those related to HIV and AIDS. HIV/AIDS-affected families are diverse with respect to household structure, ability to work and access to assets, arguing for a mix of approaches, including food assistance and income-generation programmes. However, cash transfers appear to offer the best strategy for scaling up to a national system of social protection, by reaching families who are the most capacity constrained, in large numbers, relatively quickly. These are important considerations for communities hard-hit by HIV and AIDS, given the extent and nature of deprivation, the long-term risk to human capital and the current political willingness to act. PMID:22380980

  19. Center-Based Early Head Start and Children Exposed to Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; McKelvey, Lorraine; Lopez, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Family conflict is known to be associated with poor development for young children, but many children appear resilient. This study examined the extent to which high-quality center care during early childhood protects children from these negative consequences. Children participating in center-based sites of the Early Head Start…

  20. School age children with HIV/AIDS: possible discrimination and attitudes against

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kurpas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey-based study what purpose was to analyse respondents’ opinions about contacts with HIV/AIDS-affected people. It was performed using a paper-pencil method during visits of respondents at primary care centres and on-line through a link to the questionnaire distributed among patients of primary care physicians. The study involved 302 respondents, 80% of whom were women; the average age was 34.48 years. The majority of respondents did not know anyone with HIV/AIDS (89.6%. About 83.3% claimed that they would not decrease contacts with HIV/AIDS-affected people. According to 64.1% of respondents, children with HIV/AIDS should go to kindergarten/public or non-public school. We selected a group of respondents, who previously were not but now are inclined to limit such contacts. These respondents can be a potential target group for HIV/AIDS educational programmes. Most respondents think that there is insufficient information about the HIV/AIDS in the mass media.

  1. Family based treatment for children with functional somatic symptoms: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte

    on which treatment to offer children and adolescents with FSS. Research in adults shows that different FSS respond to the same kind of treatment, with the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy being well established. In the understanding of mental health issues in children, it is well established...... that family issues play a role. Thus there is an increasing focus on interventions targeting the whole family, and empirical support for family- based treatment for children with mental health problems is growing. However systematic research on the subject is challenged by the fact that family based treatment...... is broadly defined and encompasses a wide range of interventions. Aims: As part of a PhD study on family based treatment for children with FSS a systematic review of the literature will be performed in which the type and characteristics of existing family based psychological interventions for children...

  2. Service Delivery Experiences and Intervention Needs of Military Families with Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer M.; Finke, Erinn; Hickerson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of military families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically as it relates to relocation. Online survey methodology was used to gather information from military spouses with children with ASD. The finalized dataset included 189 cases. Descriptive statistics and…

  3. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  4. Counselling Intervention and Support Programmes for Families of Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareo, Dorcas Oluremi

    2015-01-01

    All couples look forward to having normal healthy babies. The issues of disabilities in their children shake the families and serve as sources of severe psychological disruption to family adjustment. The parents of such children live with many difficult issues and frequently experience trauma, grief and stress. Intervention programmes are…

  5. Families as catalysts for peer adherence support in enhancing hope for people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hope is an essential dimension of successful coping in the context of illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, because positive expectations for the future alleviate emotional distress, enhance quality of life and have been linked to the capacity for behavioural change. The social environment (e.g. family, peers is a regulator of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. In this regard, the dual aim of this article is (1 to analyze the influence of a peer adherence support (PAS intervention and the family environment on the state of hope in PLWHA and (2 to investigate the interrelationship between the two determinants. Methods: The Effective AIDS Treatment and Support in the Free State study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from 12 public antiretroviral treatment (ART clinics across five districts in the Free State Province of South Africa. Each of these patients was assigned to one of the following groups: a control group receiving standard care, a group receiving additional biweekly PAS or a group receiving PAS and nutritional support. Latent cross-lagged modelling (Mplus was used to analyse the impact of PAS and the family environment on the level of hope in PLWHA. Results: The results of the study indicate that neither PAS nor the family environment has a direct effect on the level of hope in PLWHA. Subsequent analysis reveals a positive significant interaction between family functioning and PAS at the second follow-up, indicating that better family functioning increases the positive effect of PAS on the state of hope in PLWHA. Conclusions: The interplay between well-functioning families and external PAS generates higher levels of hope, which is an essential dimension in the success of lifelong treatment. This study provides additional insight into the important role played by family dynamics in HIV/AIDS care, and it underscores the need for PAS interventions that are sensitive to the contexts in

  6. From family planning to HIV/AIDS prevention to poverty alleviation: a conversation with Mechai Viravaidya. Interview by Glenn A. Melnick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, Mechai

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Mechai Viravaidya shares how he harnessed the media and various other distribution channels in Thailand to launch nationwide programs aimed at changing attitudes, beliefs, and health behavior in very controversial and difficult areas, such as sexual behavior in the context of population control and HIV/AIDS. He provides insight into the leadership skills required to change cultural beliefs in order to achieve public health objectives. And finally, he describes how his thinking has evolved and broadened to include poverty alleviation and improved management and sustainability models for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as the most effective way to improve health status in the long run. PMID:17895259

  7. Impacts of Marital Status and Parental Presence on the Material Hardship of Families with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Robert I.

    This study investigated how marriage, cohabitation, single parenthood, and the presence of biological parents affected the incomes and material hardships of children. Data from the 1997 and 1999 National Survey of America's Families were used to examine recent changes in the marital status and household structure of families with children, how…

  8. Impact of employee benefits on families with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Sangeeth; Choueiri, Roula; Neumeyer, Ann; Ajari, Ogheneochuko; Shui, Amy; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the employee benefits parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have, how benefits are used, work change, and job satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey study of 435 families with children with autism spectrum disorders residing in the United States. We received 161 surveys for a response rate of 37%. Families reported using the following benefits: 39% paid family leave, 19% unpaid family leave, 91% flexible work arrangements, and 86% telecommuting. Of respondents, 43% reported stopping work, cutting down on hours worked, or changing jobs because of their child's condition. Having paid family leave was a positive predictor for job satisfaction. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have an interest and need for alternative work arrangements. PMID:26341992

  9. Stepping Stones: Family Responses to Services provided to their Deaf children

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, N; Willoughby, A.; Canavan, M; Cheskin, A.; Palmer, N; Kyle, JG

    2009-01-01

    Changes in policy and attitudes of central government in the last ten years have offered to parents of children with special needs a central role in decision-making in regard to their children in all aspects of service. Following a series of meetings beginning in 2005, a group of parents, professionals and researchers, set out a vision of creating an integrated family-focused and family-led set of services for deaf children and their families in the South West Region of England. The motivatio...

  10. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  11. Storyboarding as an aid to learning about death in children's nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Yvonne

    2016-06-01

    The sudden or anticipated death of a child is one of the most challenging and unique experiences that children's nursing students will encounter in practice. There is evidence to suggest that the effect this can have on a practitioner can affect quality of care. Although education for nurses about dealing with death has been studied, there is limited research into the education of those working with dying children and how effective it is in preparing them to deal with the situation. This deficit presents those involved in children's nurse education with a significant challenge and an opportunity to be innovative. This article examines the use of storyboarding as a creative teaching tool to enable children's nursing students to reflect on their experiences of working with children and families in death situations. The wider implications for the use of this technique in practice and education are considered. PMID:27266749

  12. Managing children with diabetes within the family: Entering into the Diabetes Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjari, Mahnaz; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is the disease of family and parents of children with diabetes face different problems which concerns meeting the developmental needs of children and daily control of children with diabetes. This article aims to explain how to manage diabetes around the child’s life within the family. Methods In this qualitative study, data was collected through semi-structured interview technique and was analyzed using Grounded Theory approach. The process of data collection was carried o...

  13. Facilitating Positive Psychosocial Adaptation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by Increasing Family Communication and Problem-Solving Skills. A Research Report to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Brian; And Others

    This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…

  14. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  15. The family doctor and children with special educational needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Bhrolchain, C M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty three of the 1548 children registered with a group practice were found to have special educational needs. Only half of these children were known by the health visitor attached to the practice to have such needs. Ten of the 17 children attending school had no reference to their special needs in their case notes. Irregular attendance and poor immunization records indicated a lack of anticipatory care within the practice. Children with a physical handicap, in particular, attended their fa...

  16. Parental Coping Strategies and Strengths in Families of Young Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sharon Lesar

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between parental perceptions of coping strategies and family strengths in families of young children with disabilities (N=69). Use of social supports was highly associated with family strengths; in contrast, wishful thinking, self-blame, distancing, and self-control were negatively related to family…

  17. A longitudinal investigation of the affective environment in families with young children: from infancy to early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robin A; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-04-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months of age. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person's emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital satisfaction when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influences of the partner's emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent's interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents' emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child's development, and declined thereafter. Children's anger was highest at 15 months of age, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one's positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one's anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents' neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships.

  18. The Impact on Family among Down syndrome Children with Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmawati Mohammed Nawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child with Down's syndrome is an individual who is suitable and eligible to receive early intervention services. This study aimed to measure the family outcome among parents of Down syndrome children, on the impact of receiving early intervention and identify the factors influencing it.Methods: A cross sectional was conducted from April 2009 until January 2010 with a total of 125 parents of children with Down syndrome. There are five domains of family outcomes that has been studied which are understanding the strengths, abilities and special needs of children, knowing the rights and talk on children behalf, assisting the child to grow and learn, having a support system and be involved in the community. Children with Down syndrome aged four to 15 years was chosen as the respondents when they were accompanying their children in seven rehabilitation centers or during house visits.Results: Family outcomes among parents of Down syndrome children who receive early intervention is better, 67.3 percent, compared to parents of Down syndrome children who receive late intervention, 41.4 percent. There are significant relationship between the acceptance level of intervention, parents education level, family income and the family outcomes. Parents of children who receive early intervention were more positive in understanding the strengths, abilities and special needs of their children compared to other family outcomes.Conclusion: Families whom children received early intervention had indirectly proved the importance and benefit of early intervention, not only for children with special needs, but for their family as well

  19. Potential impact of adjustment policies on vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vogli, Roberto; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2005-06-01

    This paper evaluates the potential impact of adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A conceptual framework, composed of five different pathways of causation, is used for the evaluation. These five pathways connect changes at the macro level (e.g. removal of food subsidies) with effects at the meso (e.g. higher food prices) and micro levels (e.g. exposure of women and children to commercial sex) that influence the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Published literature on adjustment policies and socioeconomic determinants of HIV/AIDS among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to explore the cause-effect relationships included in the theoretical framework. Evidence suggests that adjustment policies may inadvertently produce conditions facilitating the exposure of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Complex research designs are needed to further investigate this relationship. A shift in emphasis from an individual approach to a socioeconomic approach in the study of HIV infection among women and children in the developing world is suggested. Given the potential for adjustment policies to exacerbate the AIDS pandemic among women and children, a careful examination of the effects of these policies on maternal and child welfare is urgently needed. PMID:16117362

  20. Screening Children for Familial Aortopathies: Tread With Caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Julie; Laberge, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge surrounding the genetic etiologies of familial aortopathies and familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections has greatly expanded over the past few years. However, despite these advances, the underlying molecular etiology remains unidentified in most families with nonsyndromic familial aortopathies, and in a subset of families with syndromic aortopathies. In these families we cannot offer a genetic test to establish which family members are at risk. Although the general consensus has been to clinically follow all at-risk family members on the basis of family history, it remains unclear at the age at which to initiate clinical surveillance and the frequency which to screen asymptomatic relatives, whether or not a genetic etiology has been established in the family. These questions are particularly troublesome in a pediatric context where the risks of screening are potentially higher and the likelihood that such screening will provide immediate benefits is often lower than in adults. In this report we aim to: (1) provide clinicians with a framework within which to evaluate risks and benefits of screening asymptomatic pediatric patients for a family history of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections; and (2) provide a potential approach for patients (a) in whose family a disease-causing mutation has been identified, (b) patients in whose family the proband is syndromic, but does not have an identified disease-causing mutation, and (c) patients in whose family the proband is nonsyndromic and does not have an identified disease-causing mutation. PMID:26724511

  1. Cortical Electrophysiological Markers of Language Abilities in Children with Hearing Aids: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bakhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs in pediatric hearing aid (HA users, with and without language impairment. Design. CAEPs were measured in 11 pediatric HA users (age: 8–12 years with moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (HL; participants were classified according to language ability. CAEPs were also measured for a control group of 11 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH children. Results. HL children without language impairment exhibited normal CAEPs. HL children with language impairment exhibited atypical temporal CAEPs, characterized by the absence of N1c; frontocentral responses displayed normal age-related patterns. Conclusion. Results suggest that abnormal temporal brain function may underlie language impairment in pediatric HA users with moderate sensorineural HL.

  2. Diversity and mobility in households with children orphaned by AIDS in Couffo, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.; Lie, R.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterises children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region of Benin. A 2006 census conducted for the research revealed a total of 315 such orphans, aged 0 to 14 years, within 88 households. Seventy-one percent of these children were under the care of their mothers or grandmothers, 68% w

  3. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment.

  4. TEMPERAMENT, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  5. Assessing play-based activities, child talk, and single session outcome in family therapy with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Amber B; Walters, Lynda H; Crane, D Russell

    2014-07-01

    This exploratory, observational study was designed to reveal descriptive information regarding therapists' actual practices with preschool- and school-aged children in a single session of family therapy and to investigate change mechanisms in family play therapy that have been proposed to make this approach effective. A purposive sample of 30 families receiving family therapy was recruited and video-taped during a family session where at least one child between the ages of 4 and 12 was present. Following the session, the therapist and parent(s) completed questionnaires while one of the children (aged 4-12) was interviewed. Session recordings were coded, minute-by-minute, for participant talk time, visual aids or props used, and therapy technique type (e.g., play-based/activity vs. talk-only techniques). Hierarchical regression and canonical correlational analyses revealed evidence supporting the theory that play-based techniques promote young children's participation, enhance the quality of the child-therapist relationship, and build positive emotional experiences in family therapy.

  6. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  7. Family Relationships Effect to Children s Psychology Development.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵科研

    2012-01-01

    Based on studying the social interaction development of children,and analysis on the reasons and the necessity of children's behavior occurrence,I conclude that the importance of family influence on child development.

  8. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  9. Parenting, family functioning and anxiety-disordered children: Comparisons to controls, changes after family versus child CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Jongerden; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    We examined (1) whether families of clinic-referred anxiety-disordered children are characterized by anxiety-enhancing parenting and family functioning, compared to control families; (2) whether family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT) for anxiety-disordered children decreases anxiety-enhancing pa

  10. Time with Children, Children's Well-Being, and Work-Family Balance among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…

  11. Rh-TSH (Thyrogen) aided radioiodine therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: Although recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is widely used to aid radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), almost in all clinical studies it was used in adults and there are very few data concerning paediatric group of patients. The Aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in DTC patients 18 yr old or younger. Material and Methods: Twenty five children/adolescents (median age 15, range 7-18) with the diagnosis of DTC were treated using the approved adult regimen (one 0.9 mg im. injection daily on two consecutive days) and therapeutic activity of 131I (median 3.7 GBq, range 2.2-3.8 GBq). Thyroglobulin concentration was evaluated on the 1. and 6. day of stimulation, and whole body scan (WBC) on the 6. day. Subsequently the patients were followed-up every 6 months, including single diagnostic 131I WBS. The median follow up after the treatment was 28 months. Results: In 16 children radioiodine treatment was given as an adjuvant treatment after total/near total thyroidectomy. In another 9 children distant metastases (mainly to lungs) were recognized. Peak TSH concentration post-rhTSH exceeded 25 mU/liter in all children. In all children the peak stimulated thyroglobulin was achieved on day 6 of stimulation (median 4 ng/ml, range 0.17-1080.0 ng/ml). In children treated with radioiodine as an adjunct to total thyroidectomy, in all but two cases complete remission was achieved. Two patients needed subsequent radioiodine retreatment. All are now free of disease. Among patients with distant metastases in 3 (33%) complete remission and in 6 (67%) partial remission (decrease in thyroglobulin concentration and decrease in radioiodine uptake on WBS) was achieved. In none but one patients there were side effects after rhTSH application. In one patient on the second day after the first rhTSH dose rush was observed, that resolved after anti

  12. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies.

  13. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  14. Resilience among children exposed to traumatic loss : a study of children orphaned by AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Objective: While traumatic parental loss presents an undeniable risk factor for maladaptive outcomes, some groups of children appear to manifest successful adaptation and do not follow a negative developmental pathway. The purpose of the present study was to test to what degree children orphaned by AIDS demonstrate resilience. Method: The self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for children age ranging from 11-16 (SDQ S11-16), and a background information inventor...

  15. Preparing School Counseling Students to Aid Families: Integrating a Family Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paylo, Matthew John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the value of integrating family systems theory into a school counseling curriculum is explored. Some programs have historically placed school counselors in a difficult position by not adequately preparing them for the demands of incorporating family systems and community collaboration into clinical practice. The rationale for…

  16. Parents' psychosocial adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaes, Ignatius Petrus Renatus

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, congenital, neurological disorder. Children with spina bifida live with a range of impairments depending on the severity and the location of the spinal defect. Medical treatment of the disorder is very complex and can involve decision-making processes around sensitiv

  17. [I-THOU Eternal relationship in the life of caregivers of children with AIDS: study based on Martin Buber philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaurich, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study aimed at understanding, in the light of Martin Buber's philosophy, what is to be a caregiver of children with AIDS. The phenomenological interview guided the meeting with seven caregivers of children with AIDS, selected in a teaching hospital of Porto Alegre-RS, southern of Brazil. The data were interpreted in the light of hermeneutics, emerging the unit of meaning Dialogues 'between' the familiar I and the Eternal THOU. The dialogues take place in the search for answers that allow the understanding of the significance of the impact and challenges they face while living with AIDS. As well, they reveal hope in changes, in the cure and in a vaccine development. We believe that knowing the importance of dialogue in the context of HIV/AIDS epidemic provide the development of a nursing care that brings together the technical-scientific and humanistic aspects. PMID:22378509

  18. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  19. Parental Stress in Families of Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Lawson, Katharine; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    The level of parental stress in families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities and its association with child comorbid symptoms was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interview. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In this ethnically diverse sample, parental stress was significantly higher for the autism group and for non-Hispanic and US-born mothers. In both study groups, parental stress was related to child irritability. Parental stress was also related to gastrointestinal problems in the autism group and to sleep difficulties in the developmental disabilities group. Targeting child irritability may be particularly important in reducing parental stress for families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities.

  20. Condições sociodemográficas de crianças de zero a dois anos filhas de mães com HIV/Aids, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil The socio-demographic conditions of children aged 0 to 2 years born to mothers with HIV/AIDS, in the city of Fortaleza, in the Brazilian State of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2010-09-01

    social assistance from the government. The mean age of children was 15.6 months and 13% had not been tested for HIV. Most women came from rural communities (60.3%, and had a mean household income of R$ 446.32. 57.9% of the children lived in a household of five individuals or more and 31% reported having four or more children living in the same residence. CONCLUSIONS: there is a need for health promotion and disease prevention strategies to be implemented that take into account the social context of families living with HIV/AIDS.

  1. Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lynn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The excerpt from "Saving Money and Getting Help: Advice for Families of Children with Spina Bifida" (Lynn Rosenfeld) provides guidelines for parents concerning health insurance, health maintenance organizations, and questions to ask concerning health insurance coverage and filing claims. (DB)

  2. Stress in Families of Children With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1979-01-01

    This study compared parents of children with neuromuscular diseases to parents of children with psychiatric diagnoses, using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress. The groups showed different patterns of stress relating to child care. Within the neuromuscular group, parental stress increased with the severity of the child's illness.…

  3. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  4. Seeking and using families' views to shape children's hospice services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Linda; Rennie, Tracy; Shirtliffe, Julia; Vickers, David

    2005-12-01

    Child and family involvement is key to improving the quality of children's hospice services. This article reports on a quality assurance initiative undertaken as one component of a clinical governance strategy. Service users participated in focus groups followed by lunch to discuss how staff communicated with them about their child's care, their family support needs, and how staff liaised with other professionals and organizations. There was general commendation of hospice services (in-house and community), but parents wished for more quantity and consistency with all elements of the care model. There was tension between respite and end-of-life care needs. Parents considered that the myth of hospices being 'just for death' needed dispelling and wanted other professionals to be more aware of its role, and the choice of earlier referral. Transition, both age and prognosis related, caused concern, with anxiety about long-term future or loss of support when prognosis improved. Parents also wanted better information about practical help and psycho-social support as well as up-to-date information about their child's treatment and management from all care providers.

  5. Family influences on adaptive development in young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Cram, P; Warfield, M E; Shonkoff, J P; Krauss, M W; Upshur, C C; Sayer, A

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the extent to which the family environment predicted differences in trajectories of adaptive development in young children with Down syndrome. The sample was comprised of 54 children with Down syndrome and their families who were studied from infancy through the age of 5 years as part of a longitudinal study of children with disabilities. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to estimate the parameters of hierarchical growth models in domains of adaptive development. Results indicated that growth in communication, daily living skills, and socialization domains were predicted by measures of the family environment (i.e., family cohesion and mother-child interaction) above and beyond that predicted by maternal education. Further, Bayley MDI measures during infancy did not predict changes in adaptive development in any of the domains. The results are discussed in terms of implications for service provision and for expanding theoretical frameworks to include the development of children with disabilities.

  6. Motivational readiness of children to school in nuclear and single parent families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Ostrovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is a comparison of psychological readiness of the child to go to school in nuclear and single parent families. To obtain the objectives of the paper the following methods were used: 1 methods “Two schools” by L.A Venger to identify the level of formation of internal position of the student; 2 the method “Motivational research studies in older preschoolers” by M.R. Ginsburg; 3 method “Pattern” by L.I. Tsehanskaya to determine the degree of development of skills training activities; 4 method “Graphic dictation” by D. El’konin to study the ability to follow adult instructions. The investigated group consisted of 40 students from first grade secondary school - 20 students from nuclear families (12 girls and 8 boys and 20 students from single parent families (9 girls and 11 boys. As a result of qualitative, comparative and correlation analysis it was shown that readiness of children to go to school susbstantially depends on completness of their families. The children from families have a higher level of skill training and internal position than children from single parent families. This occurs because both parents pay more attention to the children in the forming of a willingness to learn in school. The studies have shown that in the group of children from nuclear families dominate the highest level of development of skills training activities, increased formation of internal positions and childrens social motivation. These indicators are the hallmarks of readiness to learn at school. Also, some recommendations to teachers are provided as for increase of motivation to learn in children from single parent families.

  7. “If they Fail that First Year, it’s very Hard for them to Recover”: An Exploration of Factors that Support and Hinder the Transition to Mainstream School for Children with Special Educational Needs and their Families.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassett, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The transition to school is increasingly recognised as a significant life event for children, with a positive or negative transition impacting on their social and emotional wellbeing and academic achievements. Children with special educational needs are at an increased risk of a poor adjustment to school and their families are vulnerable to additional stresses due to the child’s special educational needs. The transition to school is therefore an important period for these families, and the su...

  8. Approach to atopic dermatitis in children by the Family Physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Quitério Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic and inflammatory disease that affects the skin of children in their early stages of life. Its aetiology remains little understood, but it is known that there is a dysfunction of the skin barrier, which facilitates the penetration of allergens/irritants into the epidermis, causing an inflammatory response with a predominance of Th2 response relative to Th1. The diagnosis is clinical and may be associated with previous and family medical history of atopies such as rhinitis and asthma. AD manifests itself through eczematous, pruritic injuries with the presence of erythema, papules, vesicles, and scales. The main differential diagnoses of AD are seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, psoriasis and scabies. The treatment is based on the education of patients and their families, plus the control of pruritus with antihistamines and of inflammation with corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. Given the high prevalence and impact of AD on the quality of life of paediatric patients, early diagnosis and an individualized approach are paramount.

  9. Experiences of women who have lost young children to AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmer Craig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to be the leading cause of death in South Africa. Little is known about the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of women who had lost a young child to HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women who had lost a child to AIDS. The average age of the deceased children was six years. Interviews were also conducted with 12 key informants to obtain their perspectives on working with women who had lost a child to AIDS. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results In addition to the pain of losing a child, the women in this study had to endure multiple stresses within a harsh and sometimes hostile environment. Confronted with pervasive stigma and extreme poverty, they had few people they could rely on during their child's sickness and death. They were forced to keep their emotions to themselves since they were not likely to obtain much support from family members or people in the community. Throughout the period of caring for a sick child and watching the child die, they were essentially alone. The demands of caring for their child and subsequent grief, together with daily subsistence worries, took its toll. Key informants struggled to address the needs of these women due to several factors, including scarce resources, lack of training around bereavement issues, reluctance by people in the community to seek help with emotional issues, and poverty. Conclusions The present study offers one of the first perspectives on the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. Interventions that are tailored to the local context and address bereavement issues, as well as other issues that affect the daily lives of these mothers, are urgently needed. Further studies are needed to identify factors that promote resilience among these

  10. Family life of caregivers: A descriptive study of disruption of family activities, leisures and interaction of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramita Sardana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: The purpose of this research was to study family life of caregivers who provide primary care to children with Cerebral Palsy. Aim: To study the family activities, leisure and interaction of caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy. Settings and Design: Study was conducted in Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods and Material: Study sample consisted of 65 primary caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy. Questionnaires about family activities, leisure and interaction from Family burden interview schedule were used. Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. Results: All three domains i.e. disruption of routine family activities, family leisure and family interaction were found to be disrupted in caregivers of children with Cerebral Palsy. Various factors like education of caregiver, total children, family income, duration of caregiving, speech disturbance in child, seizures and mental retardation were found to effect scores of disruption of family activities, leisure and interaction. Conclusions: Caregivers of children with Cerebral palsy experience disruption of family activities, leisure and interaction. For proper care of children caregiver’s family life should be taken care of. Healthcare providers should enhance support networks to encourage and promote normal family activities, leisure and interactions of caregivers.

  11. Developmental, Familial and Educational Characteristics of a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Papatrecha, Virginia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula; Mavronas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the developmental, familial and educational characteristics of 91 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), from one educational district of Athens, Greece. Records of the 91 children, aged 4-14 years old, were examined with respect to sex, age of diagnosis, type of ASDs, school…

  12. Family responses to a child with schizophrenia: An Indonesian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, Tjhin; Ismail, Raden Irawati; Noorhana, Setyawati R; Kaligis, Fransiska; Aji, Arundhati Nugrahaning; Belfer, Myron L

    2015-12-01

    Indonesian culture puts a high value on family bonding. Therefore, support and encouragement for each family member is high that any problems are the responsibility of the whole family. This paper explores the implications of the phenomena whether is a schizophrenic child in the family affected the parental relationship in Indonesian family and trying to find out the implication of parental relationship on medication adherence. This was a cross-sectional study which involved 180 parents of children with schizophrenia and parents with aged matched non-schizophrenic children as a control group; consisting of 45 parents of children with schizophrenia and 135 parents of non-schizophrenic children. The parental relationship was examined by using the Indonesian version of Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV (Indonesian version of FACES IV). Our study revealed that 75.6% parents of children with schizophrenia experienced a healthy parental relationship compared to 94.80% in the parents of non-schizophrenic children group. The most prevalent of unhealthy relationship among parents of children with schizophrenia was chaotic disengagement. Parental adherence to give medication for their child with schizophrenia was better if they had a healthy parental relationship. In conclusion, a small number of Indonesian parents with schizophrenic children experienced an unhealthy parental relationship. Therefore, psycho-education and supportive psychotherapy still needed to facilitate those families to express their emotion adapt and cope.

  13. Family responses to a child with schizophrenia: An Indonesian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, Tjhin; Ismail, Raden Irawati; Noorhana, Setyawati R; Kaligis, Fransiska; Aji, Arundhati Nugrahaning; Belfer, Myron L

    2015-12-01

    Indonesian culture puts a high value on family bonding. Therefore, support and encouragement for each family member is high that any problems are the responsibility of the whole family. This paper explores the implications of the phenomena whether is a schizophrenic child in the family affected the parental relationship in Indonesian family and trying to find out the implication of parental relationship on medication adherence. This was a cross-sectional study which involved 180 parents of children with schizophrenia and parents with aged matched non-schizophrenic children as a control group; consisting of 45 parents of children with schizophrenia and 135 parents of non-schizophrenic children. The parental relationship was examined by using the Indonesian version of Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale IV (Indonesian version of FACES IV). Our study revealed that 75.6% parents of children with schizophrenia experienced a healthy parental relationship compared to 94.80% in the parents of non-schizophrenic children group. The most prevalent of unhealthy relationship among parents of children with schizophrenia was chaotic disengagement. Parental adherence to give medication for their child with schizophrenia was better if they had a healthy parental relationship. In conclusion, a small number of Indonesian parents with schizophrenic children experienced an unhealthy parental relationship. Therefore, psycho-education and supportive psychotherapy still needed to facilitate those families to express their emotion adapt and cope. PMID:26481170

  14. Virtual environments increase participation of children with cerebral palsy in robot-aided treadmill training

    OpenAIRE

    Brütsch, K; König, A; Zimmerli, L; Guidali, M; Duschau-Wicke, A; Meyer-Heim, A; Lünenburger, Lars; Koeneke, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz; RIENER, R.; M. Wellner

    2008-01-01

    Virtual environments can make repetitive motor rehabilitation exercises more motivating and thereby more effective. We hypothesize that participation-dependent multimodal stimuli increase the patientpsilas activity as expressed through force exertion during robot-aided treadmill training. In a single case study with one patient (12 years old), we were able to show that active participation increased in the presence of visual stimuli and decreased in their absence. For a feasibility study, we ...

  15. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L

    2016-01-01

    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p violence in the home predicted child depression (β = 0.17, p violence predicted trauma symptoms (β = 0.16, p children (β = 0.24, p violence predicted risk behaviour (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.57-3.62). Over time, there was a decrease in depressed mood and problem behaviours, and an increase in self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children.

  16. Parental Stress, Family-Professional Partnerships, and Family Quality of Life: Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the quality of life of families that have at least one child with autism spectrum disorder, parental stress level, and partnerships between the family and professionals. Also, parent perceptions of parental stress, family quality of life, and family-professional partnerships were…

  17. Psychosocial functioning in Dutch foster children: The relationship with child, family, and placement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Foster care is the preferred alternative for out-of-home care, but not necessarily beneficial for foster children's psychosocial functioning. This dilemma leaves researchers with a challenge to find out more about the factors related to foster children's social and emotional functioning. In a sample of 446 Dutch foster children we examined the extent to which three clusters of characteristics, those akin to the foster child, the foster family, or foster placement, were related to foster children's functioning at the time of research. Multivariate three-step hierarchical regression analyses were performed for three outcome variables: externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and prosocial behavior. We found that all three clusters of foster care characteristics were significantly related to foster children's functioning. Foster placement characteristics, in particular interventions aimed at foster children, explained the largest amount of variance in behavior problems. Children receiving interventions had more externalizing and internalizing problems. A possible explanation is that interventions are indicated for those foster children who are in the highest need of additional support. Prosocial behavior was particularly related to foster family characteristics. The results were mostly in line with international research. Careful screening and monitoring of the social and emotional functioning of foster children may help to identify problems at an early stage. In addition (preventive) support should be offered to those foster children and families who are in need of it. PMID:27131271

  18. Parental Stress, Coping Strategies and Social Support in Families of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…

  19. Marijuana Use and Dependence in Chilean Adolescents and Its Association with Family and Peer Marijuana Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, Monica; Sanderman, Robbert; Pizarro, Esteban; Hagedoorn, Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine (1) whether family and peer marijuana use are independently related to adolescent marijuana use in Chile, (2) whether family and peer marijuana use are associated with adolescent marijuana dependence in adolescents using marijuana, and (3) whether the a

  20. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  1. The Role of Family in Abnormality and Crime of Children with a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Ahangaran

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Family is one of the most important grounds of crime and crime victimization development. The experts, welfare workers, lawyers and sociologists argue that the factor or factors should be identified that provide the kind of conditions under which the individuals abuse, tolerate or accept the crime in order to secure the society, reduce the social harms and finally propose the procedures to reform it. The purpose of this study is to investigate the crime victimization of children in the city of Qom. So, a questionnaire was distributed and completed through the interviews with the parents live in this city and who have a child or children. The questionnaires were analyzed by the SPSS software. The sample size was 266 individuals. The findings of research show that there is a meaningful inverse relationship among the children' control by their families, the rate of children belonging to their families, family cohesion and tendency towards criminal behavior. In other words, as the above mentioned variables increase, the children' tendency towards criminal behaviors decrease and vice versa. The analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to compare the family structure with the children' tendency towards criminal behaviors. The result of this test shows a significant difference. In other words, the comparison of means suggests that the children with separated parents are more inclined to criminal behaviors.

  2. Should a hearing aid in the contralateral ear be recommended for children with a unilateral cochlear implant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Leeuw, A.R.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To predict bimodal benefit before cochlear implantation, we compared the performances of participants with bimodal fitting and with a cochlear implant alone on speech perception tests. METHODS: Twenty-two children with a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the other (bimodal

  3. A Report of Two Children with Severe Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal disorder that causes severe elevations in total cholesterol and low- density lipoprotein. FH is one of the primary risk factors for premature coronary artery disease in children and adults which requires early diagnosis and appropriate medical intervention. In this article, we report two cases of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  4. A Report of Two Children with Severe Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Noormohammad Noori; Ghasem Miri-Aliabad; Mehdi Jahantigh

    2013-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder that causes severe elevations in total cholesterol and low- density lipoprotein. FH is one of the primary risk factors for premature coronary artery disease in children and adults which requires early diagnosis and appropriate medical intervention. In this article, we report two cases of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Welfare Dependency: Coordinated Community Efforts Can Better Serve Young At-Risk Teen Girls. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This General Accounting Office study, commissioned by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, reflects concerns about rising caseloads and long-term dependence on welfare programs, such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Attention has been focused the United State's welfare system, particularly on the rising number of teenage mothers. The forces…

  6. Comorbidities in children and adolescents with AIDS acquired by HIV vertical transmission in Vitoria, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying diseases associated with AIDS is essential for establishing intervention strategies because comorbidities can lead to death. The objectives were to describe the frequency of comorbidities and verify their distribution according to demographic, epidemiological and clinical data as well as to classify diseases in children and adolescents with AIDS in Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among children with AIDS, as defined according to the criteria established by the Ministry of Health, who acquired HIV via vertical transmission, were aged 0 to 18 years, and were monitored at a referral hospital from January 2001 to December 2011. RESULTS: A total of 177 patients were included, of whom 97 were female (55%. There were 60 patients (34% <1 year old, 67 patients (38% between the ages of 1 and 5, and 50 patients (28% ≥6 years of age included at the time of admission to the Infectious Diseases Ward. Regarding clinical-immunological classification, 146 patients (82.5% showed moderate/severe forms of the disease at the time of admission into the Ward, and 26 patients (14.7% died during the study. The most common clinical signs were hepatomegaly (81.62%, splenomegaly (63.8%, lymphadenopathy (68.4% and persistent fever (32.8%. The most common comorbidities were anaemia (67.2%, pneumonia/septicaemia/acute bacterial meningitis (ABM (64.2%, acute otitis media (AOM/recurrent sinusitis (55.4%, recurrent severe bacterial infections (47.4% and dermatitis (43.1%. An association between severe clinical-immunological classification and admission to the Ward for children aged less than one year old was found for several comorbidities (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Delayed diagnosis was observed because the majority of patients were admitted to the Infectious Diseases Ward at ≥1 year of age and were already presenting with serious diseases. The general paediatrician should be alert to this possibility to make an early

  7. Quality of Life of Families with Children Who Have Severe Developmental Disabilities: A Comparison Based on Child Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFelea, Joni Taylor; Raver, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of life of two groups of families with children who had severe developmental disabilities-families whose child lived at home and families whose child lived in a residential facility. Participants were 54 primary caregivers of children who had severe intellectual disabilities and who lacked the ability to both…

  8. Children with Social-Emotional Issues and the Family Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Linda Resmini

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a family systems approach, where parents and children alike follow relationship rules that allow no intimidating verbal abuse or physical abuse. Many children who are socially and emotionally disabled, with no presenting biological cause, are often such due to the discomfort they experience in their world of…

  9. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and...

  10. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...

  11. Family Functioning and the Well-Being of Children With Chronic Conditions: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L; Lee, Anna; Bai, Jinbing; Sandelowski, Margarete; Knafl, Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    For children with chronic conditions, well-being is closely related to how well their families function. Most prior research syntheses on family functioning and child well-being have focused on children with a single condition, thereby limiting the potential to aggregate and build on what is known across conditions. To address this challenge, research reports were reviewed and meta-analyses conducted of findings on the relationship between family functioning and child well-being across a range of chronic physical conditions. The sample was derived from a larger systematic review study that included 1,028 reports published between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2014. The current review includes 53 studies in which a relationship between family functioning and child well-being was analyzed using one of four family measures: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Relationship Index, or Family Assessment Device. Most studies were cross-sectional and observational (n = 43, 81%). The most frequently studied conditions were diabetes, cancer, sickle cell disease, and asthma. In 37 studies, findings were sufficiently comparable to conduct meta-analyses. Significant correlations were identified between children's psychological health and seven of nine dimensions of family functioning. Significant correlations also were found between dimensions of family functioning and children's problem behaviors, social competence, quality of life, and, to a lesser extent, adherence and physical health. Of the family dimensions, cohesion and conflict were associated most strongly with child outcomes. Understanding the specific family variables, such as conflict, linked to varied child outcomes is key for intervention development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27128982

  12. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  13. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  14. Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD?

    OpenAIRE

    Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised to be a familial and heritable disorder, little is known about the broader family characteristics of having a parent with ADHD problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parent ADHD problems, child clinical presentation and family functioning in a sample of children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 570 children with ADHD. Child psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured dia...

  15. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not been an explicit focus on the connection between family and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school…

  16. Children with mild intellectual disability and their families – needs for support, service utilisation and experiences of support

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on service utilisation among children with mild ID and their families, their needs for support and their experiences of support. Aims The overall aim of the thesis was to explore and describe service utilisation patterns among families of children with mild ID from a systems perspective. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative quantitative design was used to describe the extent of service utilisation among 84 children with mild ID and their families (paper I...

  17. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  18. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  19. Social Networking Family of Caregivers during Hospitalization of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Menezes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify and analyze the significant networks of family, social and hospital support described by the family caregivers of hospitalized children 5-12 years during the hospital stay. Method Descriptive study, exploratory and qualitative study conducted with 20 caregivers of children hospitalized in a hospital in a city in southern Brazil, through semi-structured interviews and significant social networks maps, tailored to the hospital setting. Results Data analysis showed that the most active social network was comprised of families through emotional support, material aid and services. Relations with hospital health care team and the hospital context were cited as providing support to the caregivers of the hospitalized child. Conclusions The identification of social networks in the child’s hospitalization course enables equip professionals working in the institution aiming at better targeting of actions and care for the family and hospitalized children.

  20. From novice to expert: agroecological competences of children orphaned by AIDS compared to non-orphans in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming knowledge of children made orphans by AIDS. The question we investigate is if there is a difference in agricultural expertise between AIDS affected and non-affected adults and children. Methods The research was carried out in rural Benin with 77 informants randomly selected according to their AIDS status: 13 affected and 13 non-affected adults; 13 paternal, 13 maternal and 13 double orphans; and 12 non-orphan children. Informants descriptions from pile sorting exercises of maize and cowpea pests were categorized and then aggregated into descriptions based form (morphology and function (utility and used to determine whether the moving from novice to expert is impaired by children orphaned by AIDS. Differences and similarities in responses were determined using the Fischer exact test and the Cochran-Mantzel-Haenszel test. Results No significant differences were found between AIDS affected and non-affected adults. Results of the study do reveal differences in the use of form and function descriptors among the children. There is a statistically significant difference in the use of form descriptors between one-parent orphans and non-orphans and in descriptors of specific damages to maize. One-parent paternal orphans were exactly like non-affected adults in their 50/50 balanced expertise in the use of both form and function descriptors. One-parent orphans also had the highest number of descriptors used by children overall and these descriptors are spread across the various aspects of the knowledge domain relative to non-orphans. Conclusions Rather than a knowledge loss for one-parent orphans, particularly paternal orphans, we believe we are witnessing

  1. Processing and Testing the Quality of Life in Families with Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Askari Shahed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mentally retarded children need more care on quality of life, therefore the family plays an important role, but the results indicate low levels of quality of life for these children and their families. The present study aimed to measure the quality of life in mothers of educable mentally retarded daughter motivated provide a model to measure quality of life and understanding of issues affecting the design. An attempt to investigate and describe the factors affecting the quality of family life with a disability and the relationship between these indicators and how to measure them families with children with mental retardation.   Methods: The research method was descriptive-analytic. The sample consisted of 75 mothers with a mentally retarded daughter who were participated in this study through census sampling. By studying literature, the related texts criteria of quality of life were extracted. All study information of participants was obtained by standard questionnaires. Using correlation analysis techniques, univariate regression, logistic regression analysis were analyzed through structural equations.   Results: The results indicated that the performance of family (family interactions, parenting, mental health and physical capabilities mother (resilience and aggression, personal beliefs and quality of life of families with disabled children influenced it. Personal beliefs are an important determinant of quality of life.   Conclusion: The results of structural equation modeling and corresponding indexes indicated that the proposed model based on experimental data fitting was good and desirable product was in compliance with the conceptual model.    

  2. Behavioral and emotional adjustment, family functioning, academic performance, and social relationships in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H; Patel, Sejal

    2004-11-01

    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of 52 community controls, 52 children with SM were more anxious, obsessive, and prone to somatic complaints. In contrast, children with SM were less oppositional and evidenced fewer attentional difficulties at school. We found no group differences in family structure, economic resources, family functioning, maternal mood difficulties, recreational activities, or social networks. While parents reported no differences in parenting strategies, children with SM were described as less cooperative in disciplinary situations. The academic (e.g., reading and math) and classroom cooperative skills of children with SM did not differ from controls. Parents and teachers reported that children with SM had significant deficits in social skills. Though teachers and parents rated children with SM as less socially assertive, neither teachers nor parents reported that children with SM were victimized more frequently by peers. PMID:15482497

  3. On the Front Lines of Change: The Children's Aid Society 2001 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, New York, NY.

    The Children's Aid Society (CAS), one of the country's oldest and largest non-sectarian child and family welfare agencies, has 37 sites in New York with an annual operating budget of over $60 million. This annual report highlights the activities of the organization for the 2001 fiscal year and presents information on the work of CAS to complete…

  4. Children's television viewing and objectively measured physical activity: associations with family circumstance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Jo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of family circumstance to physical activity and television viewing has not been widely investigated in pre-adolescents, and available information is inconsistent. This study examines whether television viewing and objectively measured physical activity vary by different indicators of family circumstance. Methods Data from the 2001 Children's Leisure Activity Study and the 2002/3 Health, Eating and Play Study, involving Australian children in Grades Prep (mean age 6y and 5–6 (mean age 11y, were combined. Children wore accelerometers for six consecutive 24 hour periods. Average min/day in low-intensity activity (1.0–1.9 METs and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (≥3 METs were calculated. Parents reported children's television viewing and family circumstance. Linear regression analyses were conducted separately for young girls, young boys, older girls and older boys. Results Complete data were available for 2458 children. Parental education and, to a lesser extent, employment level were inversely associated with television viewing. Children in single-parent families, those whose fathers were not in paid employment, and those without siblings tended to spend more time in low-intensity activity than their peers. Children with siblings spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity; associations were stronger for girls. Maternal education was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for younger children. Maternal employment was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity for older children. Multivariable models did not demonstrate a cumulative explanatory effect. Conclusion Individual measures of family circumstance were differentially associated with television, low-intensity activity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity and associations were often not consistent across age-by-gender groups. Interventions may need to be tailored

  5. Families of children with Down syndrome and maternal strategies of coping with stress knowing the diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Family has a very important role in children's life, because it influences their development in many ways. Also children themselves influence family members with their developmental and behavioral characteristics and they have an effect on the dynamics of what is happening in the family. The diagnosis of Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder, which causes characteristic facial features, hypotonic muscles, hyperflexibility of conclusions, sensitive skin, sparse hair and big tongue, touches...

  6. Confidentiality or continuity? Family caregivers' experiences with care for HIV/AIDS patients in home-based care in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoae, Mokhantso G; Jubber, Ken

    2008-04-01

    In the context of poor access to antiretroviral therapies in sub-Saharan Africa, the minimum treatment package intended to treat opportunistic infections common with HIV infection is inadequate but appealing, since it presumes universal coverage of medical care for patients living with HIV and AIDS. The overall objective of this study was to analyse the challenges which family caregivers encountered in home-based care when they tried to access medical treatment for home-based AIDS patients in the context of confidentiality and limited medical care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a sample of 21 family caregivers -16 females and 5 males aged between 23 and 85 years was conducted with the assistance of health personnel in two hospitals in Lesotho. Using the concept of continuity of care, this article discusses the experiences of family caregivers about home care, including their experiences of adherence to confidentiality by health care professionals and non-disclosure of AIDS as the context of illness, the circumstances under which the caregivers initiated caregiving and sought medical care, and how these factors could be stressors in caregiving. There was continuity of care where the caregivers obtained hospital support. However, when confidentiality was adhered to the caregivers were frustrated by lack of information, disrupted treatment, exclusion of their perspectives in medical care, failure to secure hospitalisation, ambiguous goals and non-responsiveness, so that continuity of care was jeopardised. Thus it can be concluded that professional-assisted disclosure benefited the patients because it facilitated continuity of care through the caregivers. PMID:18496618

  7. Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Dahlström, Orjan; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Uhlén, Inger

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7 years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

  8. Preparing Special Education Teachers to Collaborate with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Margo; Keefe, Elizabeth B.; Hirrel, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Positive family-school-community relationships are associated with student success. Creating successful relationships with parents is an important but difficult task for teachers to master. Therefore, teacher candidates need opportunities to learn how to develop collaborative relationships with parents of all children, including children with…

  9. Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-06-01

    A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed.

  10. Predictors of needs for community and financial resources for families of pre-school children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertule D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of predictors of family needs for the families of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP is important for provision of efficient and cost-effective services. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of children, families and services that are risk factors to meeting family needs for community and financial resources. 234 parents of pre-school children with CP completed a modified version of the Family Needs Survey (FNS, the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC-20, and a demographic questionnaire. The gross motor function level and communication function level of children were classified on the basis of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS respectively. Two hierarchical multiple regression models were generated to determine the predictors of unmet family needs. The socialisation and communication skills of children, as well as caregiver employment and family income levels were significant predictors of family needs for community resources (adjusted R2=0.44. Significant risk factors in terms of family needs for financial resources included the child's gross motor limitations, caregiver employment, low levels of family income and no ability to receive services on the basis of enabling and partnership principles (adjusted R2=0.51. A child's limitations in terms of communication, gross motor functions and socialisation, as well as the socioeconomic status of the child's family, must be taken into account when planning services for families with preschool children with CP.

  11. The Family Check-Up and Service Use in High-Risk Families of Young Children: A Prevention Strategy with a Bridge to Community-Based Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Patty; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Matthys, Walter; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Integration of empirically supported prevention programs into existing community services is a critical step toward effecting sustainable change for the highest-risk members in a community. We examined if the Family Check-Up—known to reduce disruptive behavior problems in young children—can provide

  12. The family check-up and service use in high-risk families of young children: a prevention strategy with a bridge to community-based treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Leijten; D.S. Shaw; F. Gardner; M.N. Wilson; W. Matthys; T.J. Dishion

    2014-01-01

    Integration of empirically supported prevention programs into existing community services is a critical step toward effecting sustainable change for the highest-risk members in a community. We examined if the Family Check-Up—known to reduce disruptive behavior problems in young children—can provide

  13. State of the art in educational journals on studies of families of children with special educational needs in the period from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Mendes Ferroni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is mapping studies indexed between the years of 2002 and 2011 in the educational field and evaluated like A1 or A2 by the database Qualis Capes, in the three years 2010-2012, in order to research ways that studies with families of children with special educational needs have been made. For this, we analyze elements such as: annual evolution of the studies, subjects analyzed, adopted and thematic instruments used to collect data from database searches “Scielo” and “Capes Journal” and a multitude of descriptors combined. The criterion for considering the family was that the research should contain the following keywords: family, family relationships, parental relationships, parents and siblings crisscrossing: special education, people with special educational needs, inclusive education, inclusion, autism, autistic, gifted, high ability, cerebral palsy, low vision, blindness, deafness, pervasive developmental disorder, Down Syndrome, disability, intellectual disability, physical disability, visual impairment, hearing impairment and multiple disabilities. Thus, the papers were obtained by intercrossing these descriptors, but it was selected those containing one of these words. With this, we found a total of 36 papers in national journals indexed in the area of Education. The data showed that there was a growing body of empirical research in this area.

  14. Mainstream time-capnography: an aid to select an appropriate uncuffed endotracheal tube in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Jayant, Aveek; Sethuraman, Manikandan; Rathod, Ramesh C

    2008-12-01

    Uncuffed endotracheal tubes are commonly used in children in an attempt to decrease the potential for pressure induced tracheal injury. However, uncuffed endotracheal tube may increase the risk of aspiration and lead to erratic delivery of preset tidal volume during mechanical ventilation. Therefore, it is desirable to intubate trachea with an appropriate but not an oversized endotracheal tube. In children, for selecting an endotracheal tube, a variety of formulas and techniques are used to find the endotracheal tube size that minimizes both pressure induced tracheal injury and aspiration potential or variable ventilation. Air-leak following tracheal intubation can be recognized by the presence of audible leak, by auscultation over the trachea, by palpation over the trachea and by observing effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on inspiratory expiratory tidal volume difference during mechanical ventilation. We describe mainstream time-capnograph as an aid to recognize leak around the endotracheal tube and its utility to determine appropriate endotracheal tube size in small children. PMID:19083104

  15. The attitude and the role of siblings of children with strong mental handicaps in a family.

    OpenAIRE

    TŮMOVÁ, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is focused onthe role of siblings of children with severe health disability and the position they take within a family. The main objective was to find out what role and position healthy children and their siblings with disability take with each other. I decided to focus my main research questionon "If & howthe role and position of a healthy sibling towards a sibling with a severe health disabilitytransformed during adolescence". The theoretical part of the dissertation focus...

  16. Using Family Leisure Activities to Support Families Living with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robin H.; Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.; Layton, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Support for families of children with autism spectrum disorders continues to be important, but formal support groups may not ft every need. The authors describe Family Fun Days, a program that paired leisure activities with opportunities for support. There was an increase in the number of participants over traditional support meetings,…

  17. Children Affected by AIDS in Brazil: Estimates of the Number of Children at Risk of Being Orphaned and Displaced by AIDS in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Miguel B.; Hillis, Janette; Wasek, Glenn K.

    1998-01-01

    Estimated the number of Brazilian children under 14 whose mothers are HIV-positive, living with AIDS, or dead due to AIDS. Found that of the 210,150 children, 17,600 were HIV-positive Findings underscore the urgent need for new programs to increase the longevity of persons with AIDS and to decrease the likelihood of child displacement and severe…

  18. Impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being: a systematic review of global literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-09-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being. Fifty one articles reporting quantitative data from a total of 30 studies were retrieved and reviewed. Findings were mixed but tended to show that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had poorer psychological well-being in comparison with children from HIV-free families or children orphaned by other causes. Limited longitudinal studies suggested a negative effect of parental HIV on children's psychological well-being in an early stage of parental HIV-related illness and such effects persisted through the course of parental illness and after parental death. HIV-related stressful life events, stigma, and poverty were risk factors that might aggravate the negative impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children. Individual coping skills, trusting relationship with caregivers and social support were suggested to protect children against the negative effects of parental HIV/AIDS. This review underlines the vulnerability of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Culturally and developmentally appropriate evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to promote the psychological well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:22972606

  19. Families of children with special educational needs resources and needs support

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli Silva Gualda; Laura Borges; Fabiana Cia

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate what are the resources and needs of parents of preschool children with special educational needs. The participants were eleven parents of children with special educational needs included in pre-elementary school. Most parents had purchasing power medium to medium low. To meet the objectives, parents filled in the “Inventory of Home Environment Resources - RAF” and “Questionnaire on the needs of families - QNF. The results enabled the RAF to note th...

  20. Work and Family Balance Among Icelandic Employees with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Audur Arna; Hreinsson, Sturla; Sigurjonsson, Olaf

    increased interest. This research literature is much less developed and scholars have called for more international studies that simultaneously look at the positive and negative sides of the work-family interface. This study answers to that call and assesses work and family conflict and enrichment from......, and mothers experienced significantly more enrichment then men. Work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were positively correlated to job satisfaction, emotional organizational commitment, life and family satisfaction (r=.25 to.45), whereas work-family conflict and family-work conflict were......Work-family balance is one of the major organizational challenges of the 21st century. Extensive research has been conducted that assesses wf-balance from the conflict standpoint, but in recent years, benefits, resulting from simultaneous participation in the work and family role, have gained...

  1. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  2. [Family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Bastos, Olga Maria

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with different categories of disabilities in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional observational study based on application of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale in a sample of 270 parents or guardians. Prevalence was 83.7% for psychological aggression and 84.4% for physical maltreatment, while 96.5% of the children and adolescents with disabilities that suffered physical punishment were also victims of psychological aggression (p maltreatment also suffered psychological aggression (p = 0.01). Children and adolescents with disabilities showed increased risk of suffering family violence compared to those without disabilities. In conclusion, there is a need for greater awareness-raising and training of health teams for detection and notification of child abuse, and efforts should be made to support these families. PMID:27333141

  3. Family intervention for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    and on society. In clinical practice and current research in child mental health, focus on family factors is increasing. The aim of this systematic review was to explore and describe the current family based approaches used for youngsters with FSS, and to evaluate the quality of the existing research...... in this area. Method: The review was conducted with reference to the PRISMA guidelines. A protocol was published in advance on PROSPERO. The individual study quality was assessed by the standardised Psychotherapy outcome study methodology rating form – revised (POMF – R) followed by an overall descriptive...

  4. Family therapy for children with functional somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte

    and current research in child mental health, focus on family factors is increasing. The aim of this systematic review was to explore and describe the current family based approaches used for youngsters with FSS, and to evaluate the quality of the existing research in this area. Method: The review...... was conducted with reference to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The individual study quality was assessed by the standardised Psychotherapy outcome study methodology rating form – revised (POMF – R) followed by an overall descriptive synthesis of the findings. Results...

  5. When Military Parents Come Home: Building "Strong Families Strong Forces," a Home-Based Intervention for Military Families with Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Ruth; Acker, Michelle L.; Ross, Abigail M.; DeVoe, Ellen R.

    2011-01-01

    The long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have presented unique challenges to military-connected families with very young children, yet few evidence-based services are available to support these families through deployment and reintegration. Although many military families have shown remarkable resilience throughout the intense demands of the wars,…

  6. Family-centered care coordination for children with special needs across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeke, Linda L; Leonard, Barbara J; Presler, Betty; Garwick, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Care coordination is a process that involves assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, education, monitoring, support, and advocacy. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are well positioned to coordinate care but may not be well educated about potential conflicts of interest in balancing cost-containment constraints with obtaining maximum quality and quantity of care for children and families with complex needs. The philosophy of family-centered care is embodied in some care coordination models and absent in others. PNPs who aim to support families of children with special health care needs need to understand the complexity of interacting with multiple care coordination models across health and educational settings. PNPs may act as change agents to infuse family-centered care principles into existing and future care coordination models. PMID:12436098

  7. Encouraging Discussion between Teacher Candidates and Families with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Families as Faculty experience assists universities to better prepare candidates for service as classroom teachers. Upon entering their practica and student teaching, many teacher candidates have had no to limited contact with exceptional students. Often candidates are unaware of the realities of having a student with disabilities in their…

  8. Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Dejman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.

  9. Family Resources and Parenting Quality: Links to Children's Cognitive Development across the First 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal associations among measures of family resources, parenting quality, and child cognitive performance were investigated in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 2,089 children and families. Family resources and parenting quality uniquely contributed to children's cognitive performance at 14, 24, and 36 months, and parenting quality…

  10. Divorce in families of children with Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Richard C; Hodapp, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group, however, a higher proportion occurred within the first 2 years after the child's birth. Mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome were much more likely to divorce if they were younger, had not graduated from high school, and if fathers were less educated and lived in a rural area. Few effects on divorce were noted for a variety of family structure variables.

  11. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  12. Family-Centered Management of Sensory Challenges of Children With Autism: Single-Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home. Changes in mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were the primary outcome, measured daily on a visual analog scale. Visual and descriptive analyses were undertaken. The sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach showed promise for changing sensory-related problem behaviors of young children with autism, but the degree and maintenance of the intervention effect varied among participants. PMID:27548868

  13. 42 CFR 457.555 - Maximum allowable cost-sharing charges on targeted low-income children in families with income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... low-income children in families with income from 101 to 150 percent of the FPL. 457.555 Section 457... low-income children in families with income from 101 to 150 percent of the FPL. (a) Non-institutional services. For targeted low-income children whose family income is from 101 to 150 percent of the FPL,...

  14. The role of cultural practices and the family in the care for people living with HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoghalu, Caroline O; Jegede, Samuel A

    2010-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the worst epidemics that have been experienced by humankind. It is indeed a major event of our time. The pandemic has killed so many people around the world and Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst hit. The nature of the pandemic lent it to stigma and discrimination, which have made caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) a big problem. It has also brought so much suffering on PLWHA around the world. This article examines the role of culture and the family in the care for PLWHA in Anambra State. Quantitative and Qualitative data collection methods (questionnaire and in-depth interviews) are used to elicit information from respondents. A total of 1000 copies of a questionnaire were administered on adult males and females and 914 were completed and analyzed. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were conducted on 10 opinion leaders using an interview guide. Data were analyzed in themes based on the objectives and the data from in-depth interviews were used to support data from the questionnaire. The results showed that certain cultural practices such as cultural obligations to sick, blood relations, collective ownership of children, affinity to blood relations, and strong marital bond enhance care and support for PLWHA. Also, the burden of care for PLWHA was found to be on the family in the study area. In conclusion, cultural practices and the family play major roles in the care for PLWHA in the area and should be harnessed in order to make life more comfortable for PLWHA. PMID:21113852

  15. Different plasma levels of interleukins and chemokines:comparison between children and adults with AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Chang-zhong; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Fu-jie; YAO Hang-ping; WU Ling-jiao; ZHAO Hong-xin; WEI Hong-shan; WU Nan-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background The immunological differences between children and adults with AIDS in China are not well documented.Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines are two types of immune factors intimately involved in disease progression of HIV-1 infection. This study aimed to identify changes in plasma levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines inerleukin (IL)-18, IL-16, IL-10 and chemokines regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in HIV-1-infected children and adults in China.Methods Seventy-five children with AIDS and 35 adult AIDS patients were recruited and clinical data were collected.CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometery and plasma HIV RNA levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma levels of IL-18, IL-10, IL-16, RANTES, MCP-1, SDF-1α and SDF-1β were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and soluble Fas (sFas) were measured to validate the level of humoral and cellular immune activation.Results The mean levels of all cytokines in pediatric and adult AIDS patients were significantly higher than in their healthy controls (P <0.01). The mean levels of these cytokines were higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients (P <0.05, except for SDF-1α and β2-MG). Some of the cytokine levels in patients younger than 6 years old was higher than in older children and adults with AIDS (IL-10, IL-18, SDF-1α, MCP, RANTES and sFas, P<0.05). Levels of IL-18, IL-10,RANTES and β2-MG of pediatric patients increased as the levels of viral load increased (P <0.05).Conclusions Abnormal immune activation can be measured in Chinese pediatric and adult patients with AIDS, and is higher in children than in adult patients. The cytokines levels coincide with disease progression of AIDS, but have no direct relationship with total CD4+ T cell count.

  16. Schools' Efforts To Involve Latino Families of Students with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milian, Madeline

    2001-01-01

    A study found Latino families (n=183) thought that schools did well in providing information about their children with visual impairments and inviting families to school programs, but did poorly on encouraging families to volunteer at school, providing assistance to families in helping their children with self-care activities, and making home…

  17. Literacy Skill Development of Children With Familial Risk for Dyslexia Through Grades 2, 3, and 8

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Kenneth; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared two groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia, with or without dyslexia in Grade 2 (Dys_FR, n = 35 and NoDys_FR, n = 66) to a group of children without familial risk and dyslexia (Controls, n = 72). The Dys_FR group showed persisting deficiency especially in reading speed, and, to a minor extent, in reading and ...

  18. Administration for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... more about the 100-day challenge Visit the Administration on Children, Youth and Families Website The Family ...

  19. Behavior and sleep problems in children with a family history of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Amy Jo; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-06-01

    The present study explores behavioral and sleep outcomes in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study focuses on behavior problems that are common in children with ASD, such as emotional reactivity, anxiety, inattention, aggression, and sleep problems. Infant siblings were recruited from families with at least one older child with ASD (high-risk group, n = 104) or families with no history of ASD (low-risk group, n = 76). As part of a longitudinal prospective study, children completed the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, and parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Social Communication Questionnaire at 36 months of age. This study focuses on developmental concerns outside of ASD; therefore, only siblings who did not develop an ASD were included in analyses. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that children in the high-risk group were more likely to have elevated behavior problems on the CBCL Anxious/Depressed and Aggression subscales. To explore sleep problems as a correlate of these behavior problems, a second series of models was specified. For both groups of children, sleep problems were associated with elevated behavior problems in each of the areas assessed (reactivity, anxiety, somatic complaints, withdrawal, attention, and aggression). These findings support close monitoring of children with a family history of ASD for both behavioral and sleep issues. PMID:23436793

  20. QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL WORK WITH FAMILY AND CHILDREN: THEORETICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugarov Alexander Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the differences between categories of quality and efficiency in relation to the practice of social work with families and children. Building on the qualimetry, political economy and theory of social work, the authors propose their research findings with the specific social protection of families and children. There have conceptual problems of qualimetric measurements and assessments of the quality of social work in addition to the definition of efficiency. Goal Identification of key theoretical aspects of the categories of quality and efficiency of social assistance to children and families in difficult situations. Method or the methodology of the work The comparative method, classification, analysis and synthesis, their qualitative methods. Findings The theoretical description of the essential features of categories of quality and efficiency in relation to social work with families and children. The conceptualization of a scientific approach to the measurement of quality and benchmarking. The conclusions of the theoretical foundations of benchmarking of case management and social support for children. Field of application of the results. Pedagogy, social work, social support, social partnership, social mediation, social patronage, protection of human participants in the educational process, case management.

  1. Is it safe? Talking to teens with HIV/AIDS about death and dying: a 3-month evaluation of Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning – anxiety, depression, quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Lyon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Maureen E Lyon1, Patricia A Garvie2, Linda Briggs3, Jianping He4, Robert Malow5, Lawrence J D’Angelo1, Robert McCarter41Children’s National Medical Center and George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia; 2St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; 3Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin; 4Children’s Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia; 5Florida International University, Miami, FloridaPurpose: To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+ adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning intervention.Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76. Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five Wishes©. The Healthy Living Control (HLC received: Developmental History, Healthy Tips, Future Planning (vocational, school or vocational rehabilitation. Three-month post-intervention outcomes were: completion of advance directive (Five Wishes©; psychological adjustment (Beck Depression, Anxiety Inventories; quality of life (PedsQL™; and HIV symptoms (General Health Self-Assessment.Results: Adolescents had a mean age, 16 years; 40% male; 92% African-American; 68% with perinatally acquired HIV, 29% had AIDS diagnosis. FACE participants completed advance directives more than controls, using time matched comparison (P < 0.001. Neither anxiety, nor depression, increased at clinically or statistically significant levels post-intervention. FACE adolescents maintained quality of life. FACE families perceived their adolescents as worsening in their school (P = 0.018 and emotional (P = 0.029 quality of life at 3 months, compared with controls.Conclusions: Participating

  2. The Birthday Cake: Balancing Responsibilities to Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephanie; Freeman, Nancy K.

    2012-01-01

    This month's Focus on Ethics asks readers to consider a situation involving a program director's efforts to provide children with a healthy diet in response to growing concerns about childhood obesity. The situation discussed here arose when a mother who was new to a childhood program, and who had a limited mastery of English, brought in a…

  3. A comparison of children with and without learning disabilities on social problem-solving skill, school behavior, and family background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, P A; Weissberg, R P; Guare, J; Liebenstein, N L

    1990-02-01

    The study compared 86 children with learning disabilities (LD) with 86 matched children without learning disabilities (NLD) on three domains of variables: social problem-solving skill, teacher-rated school behavior and competence, and family background. The children with LD and the NLD group differed on variables in all three domains. More specifically, the children with LD were able to generate fewer alternatives for solving social problem situations, showed less tolerance for frustration and less adaptive assertiveness, and had more overall classroom behavior problems and less personal and social competence in a variety of areas as rated by teachers. Children having LD also showed more family background difficulties (e.g., lack of educational stimulation at home, economic difficulties). The findings suggest the need for greater attention to social and behavioral remediation for children with LD and greater involvement of their families, in addition to the cognitive and academic remediation emphasized in existing curricula for children with LD.

  4. Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programs Declines: Benefit Cuts Increase Poverty among Families with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    The anti-poverty impact of government benefit programs has decreased since 1979 due to budget cuts during the Reagan Administration and the failure of states to keep benefits up with inflation. Since 1979, 30 percent of the increase in poverty has been among families with children, and half of the increase since 1981 is due to the declining…

  5. How Pediatricians Can Deal with Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused by Family Members

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Wolf

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the sy...

  6. Psychiatric and family functioning in children with leukemia and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi A

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports data from a cross-sectional investigation of the psychiatric and psychosocial functioning of 55 children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia and their families at three points in time: diagnosis (newly diagnosed, 1 year postdiagnosis, and 1 year after the completion of chemotherapy (offtherapy. Results reveal minimal psychopathology in these children and their parents based on self-and informantreports and structured diagnostic interviews. These families appear to be functioning adequately and report more family cohesiveness and marital satisfaction after chemotherapy was completed. Coping strategies commonly used by children and their parents include problem solving, a positive outlook, and good communication. Implications for psychiatric consultation are presented.

  7. Additional Evidence Is Needed to Recommend Acquiring a Dog to Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Response to Wright and Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Molly K.; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder are vulnerable to overstated benefits of interventions, and such overstatements are common with interventions involving animals. This response to Wright, Hall, Hames, Hardmin, Mills, the Paws Team, and Mills' (2015) article, "Acquiring a Pet Dog Significantly Reduces Stress of Primary…

  8. Mothers, fathers, sons and daughters: parental sensitivity in families with two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Endendijk, Joyce J; van Berkel, Sheila R; van der Pol, Lotte D; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on early childhood parenting include only mothers. Fathers are rarely observed in interaction with their young children, although they play an important role in the socialization of their children. In this study, we observed parenting of mothers and fathers toward their sons and daughters in families with two children, using a within-family approach in a sample with systematically varying family constellations. Participants included 389 families with two children (1 and 3 years of age). Parenting practices were coded during free play using the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). Findings revealed that mothers showed higher levels of sensitivity and lower levels of intrusiveness toward their children than fathers. Furthermore, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive toward their oldest child than toward their youngest child. Fathers' higher intrusiveness toward the youngest child was only found in the case of a youngest boy. Child gender was not related to parenting in any of the other analyses. Our results suggest that parent gender is more salient than child gender in the prediction of parenting practices in early childhood. PMID:24635666

  9. Families of children with traumatic injuries identify needs for research and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, M; Russo, D C; Navalta, C P; Baryza, M J

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the survey responses of 67 families with children who were hospitalized after traumatic injuries. The survey was conducted during the pre-planning phase of a major research proposal on the rehabilitation of children who had been injured. The purpose of the survey was to involve families in the identification of needs and determination of priorities for research and training in childhood injuries. The first part of the survey focused on direct services that children and their families received through medical, psychosocial, educational and vocational interventions and providers. The second part concerned the immediate and long-term effects of a child's injury upon the family. Families were asked to indicate: (1) the direct care services they considered most important in their child's recovery; (2) areas needing more research and study; (3) training needed by professionals; and (4) information needed by families. Major findings were the importance to families of emergency room treatment and the quality of hospital care; concerns about communication between professionals and parents; the uncertainty of expectations for the future; and lack of information on community resources. Written comments emphasized the emotional impact of physical trauma upon families and the need for longitudinal research, with pediatric rehabilitation viewed as a broad spectrum of care starting with emergency room care and hospitalization and continuing through school and community programs. As a result of this survey several projects were initiated. They include: revision of head sheets distributed by emergency rooms, physician training in communication skills, preparation of families as service coordinators, and development of materials and programs specifically for families. PMID:24525578

  10. Brief Report: The Feasibility and Effectiveness of an Advocacy Program for Latino Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Magaña, Sandra; Garcia, Marlene; Mello, Maria P

    2016-07-01

    Latino, Spanish-speaking families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face unique barriers in special education advocacy. Although advocacy programs are becoming more common in the United States, none of these programs target Latino families. This is a pilot study to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an advocacy program for Latino families of children with ASD. Using a quasi-experimental design, 40 Latino family members of children with ASD participated in this study. Results demonstrated consistent attendance, low attrition, and high participant satisfaction. Intervention (versus control) group participants demonstrated significantly increased empowerment and special education knowledge, and stronger family-school partnerships. Findings provide preliminary support for advocacy programs for Latino families of children with ASD.

  11. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  12. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  13. Spontaneous dense array gamma activity in children and adolescents with volatile solvent dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Sai Krishna Tikka; Nizamuddin Parvez; Arvind Nongpiur; Nishant Goyal; Vinod Kumar Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Children and adolescents with volatile solvent/inhalant dependence have neurocognitive deficits. The study aimed to explore resting state gamma activity, which is a marker of cognitive function, in children and adolescents with inhalant dependence. The study also investigated differences in gamma activity across groups differing in inhaled amounts. Materials and Methods: Clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were collected from nine patients with inhalant dependence. 30-...

  14. Cognitive Factors and Family Structure Associated with Theory of Mind Development in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Astington, Janet Wilde

    1996-01-01

    Examined factors associated with individual variation in false belief understanding in three- to five-year olds. Found that family size was strongly associated with false belief understanding in children who were less competent linguistically, suggesting that the presence of siblings can compensate for slower language development in developing…

  15. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  16. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

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    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  17. Literacy Skill Development of Children with Familial Risk for Dyslexia through Grades 2, 3, and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Kenneth; Torppa, Minna; Aro, Mikko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This study followed the development of reading speed, reading accuracy, and spelling in transparent Finnish orthography in children through Grades 2, 3, and 8. We compared 2 groups of children with familial risk for dyslexia--1 group with dyslexia (Dys _FR, n = 35) and 1 group without (NoDys_FR, n = 66) in Grade 2--with a group of children without…

  18. Visual impairment secondary to congenital glaucoma in children: visual responses, optical correction and use of low vision AIDS

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    Maria Aparecida Onuki Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital glaucoma is frequently associated with visual impairment due to optic nerve damage, corneal opacities, cataracts and amblyopia. Poor vision in childhood is related to global developmental problems, and referral to vision habilitation/rehabilitation services should be without delay to promote efficient management of the impaired vision. OBJECTIVE: To analyze data concerning visual response, the use of optical correction and prescribed low vision aids in a population of children with congenital glaucoma. METHOD: The authors analyzed data from 100 children with congenital glaucoma to assess best corrected visual acuity, prescribed optical correction and low vision aids. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the sample were male, 43% female. The mean age was 6.3 years. Two percent presented normal visual acuity levels, 29% mild visual impairment, 28% moderate visual impairment, 15% severe visual impairment, 11% profound visual impairment, and 15% near blindness. Sixty-eight percent received optical correction for refractive errors. Optical low vision aids were adopted for distance vision in 34% of the patients and for near vision in 6%. A manual monocular telescopic system with 2.8 × magnification was the most frequently prescribed low vision aid for distance, and for near vision a +38 diopter illuminated stand magnifier was most frequently prescribed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Careful low vision assessment and the appropriate prescription of optical corrections and low vision aids are mandatory in children with congenital glaucoma, since this will assist their global development, improving efficiency in daily life activities and promoting social and educational inclusion.

  19. A systematic review of bile acid sequestrant therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia, which arises as a result of a mutation in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), regardless of dietary and lifestyle modifications. Pharmacological therapy is often required to adequately control the elevated LDL-C levels associated with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, children with this genetic condition present many challenges for physicians, who must weigh the benefits of lipid-lowering therapy against the risks associated with the various treatment options. Furthermore, because familial hypercholesterolemia is a chronic condition, children will likely require long-term lipid-lowering therapy. As such, the potential effect of pharmacological treatment on development is of paramount importance in this population. Bile acid sequestrants represent a unique treatment option for children with familial hypercholesterolemia in that these agents are not systemically absorbed but rather exert their lipid-lowering effects via binding to bile acids within the gastrointestinal tract. A literature search was performed to identify clinical data related to the use of bile acid sequestrant therapy in children (sequestrant monotherapy, whereas two studies were identified that evaluated combination therapy with a bile acid sequestrant and low-dose statin. This review summarizes the clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of bile acid sequestrants in this specialized population.

  20. Relation between Children's Well-Being and Family Function in Children with Thalassemia Major in Isfahan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Mahrokh; Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Abedi, Heidarali

    2016-01-01

    The function of every family has a significant impact on the health of its members. Thalassemia is a chronic disease and, as the most common genetic disorder in the world, affects different aspects of life, including emotional well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between well-being in children with a Thalassemia major and the function of their families, in Isfahan, Iran, in 2013. This was a cross sectional study and census sampling was used to collect the data. The study sample consisted of 97 children with thalassemia at the age of 10-16 years who referred to the clinic of Imam Reza, Seyed-al-Shohada Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were evaluated using the Adolescent Psychological Wellbeing Scale and Family Functioning Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was a reverse relationship between the overall score of family functioning and illness score of children with thalassemia (r=-0.377, Pstrengthening of family planning and implementation of projects in this regard is also necessary. PMID:27357888

  1. Family relations in the context of HIV/AIDS in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2016-10-01

    In China, an estimated 780,000 people have been infected with HIV (China AIDS, 2012 ). Even as this stigmatized population rapidly grows, with the majority of reproductive age (20-40 years old), information about their daily experiences in the domestic sphere has been scarce. Because the family remains a central unit of social and ethical organization in China, the current qualitative study examines family relations among people living with HIV (PLWH) with the goal of identifying the effect of HIV on family relations and, conversely, the effect of family relations on those with HIV. We analyzed data from 90 in-depth interviews with PLWH and people around them (i.e., their children, health care providers, other community members) in southwest China (Guangxi province). Through analyzing the families' experiences with illness, three themes emerged: how individuals with HIV interact with their community; how they cope with stigma alongside and against their family; and how families can support those with HIV. Our data ultimately showed the critical role of family in the quality of PLWH's well-being. Because concealment of their serostatus was the primary coping strategy, stigma manifestation was most obvious in the domestic spheres. Yet, when help was received, PLWH regarded family support as the most helpful, as those who received empathy from their families remained more optimistic. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing efficacious intervention programs that could lead to maximize family support, involving the families of PLWH, with a particular attention to family dynamics in daily interactions. Despite our awareness of the significance of family in China, this study reveals a particular kind of role of family that has rarely been considered, namely the role of family in healing and sustaining social bonds within the context of stigmatization, when those bonds might otherwise be broken. PMID:27160680

  2. Physical growth in children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia

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    Harish K Pemde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Harish K Pemde, Jagdish Chandra, Divya Gupta, Varinder Singh, Rajni Sharma, AK DuttaDepartment of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, IndiaObjective: To describe physical growth and related factors in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the records of the patients registered at and being followed up by the Thalassemia Day Care Center (TDCC at Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded on a spreadsheet for analysis. Clinical parameters included weight, height, sexual maturity ratings, and general and systemic physical examination. Laboratory parameters included pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb, periodic serum ferritin, and tests for viral markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B and C. Z-scores for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI were calculated using World Health Organization reference data. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel® and Stata® software.Results: Out of 214 patients registered at the TDCC since 2001, 154 were included in this study. The mean age of patients was 9.19 years (range 0.5–20 years. Pretransfusion Hb was well maintained (mean 9.21 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.06–9.36, but the mean serum ferritin levels were approximately three times (3112 ng/mL the desired value despite the patients being on deferiprone (72% or deferasirox (25%. One-third (33.11% of the patients had short stature, 13% were thin, and 10.82% were very thin (BMI z-score <-3. No patient was overweight or obese. Linear regression coefficient showed that for every 1-year increase in age, the mean ferritin value increased by 186.21 pg/mL (95% CI: 143.31–228.27. Height z-scores had significant correlation with mean ferritin levels, whereas correlation with mean pretransfusion Hb was not significant statistically. Mean ferritin levels

  3. Teaching Social Communication to Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ünlü, Emre

    2012-01-01

    In this book critique, the book titled "Teaching social communication to children with autism" and written by Brooke Ingersoll and Anna Dvortcsakby was examined. The authors of the book state that the book with the materials constitutes a comprehensive program developed for families. It is also mentioned that the comprehensive program consists of an implementation guide, an auxiliary DVD and a family guide. The book consists of three chapters and appendices. The authors indicated th...

  4. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, H.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Hoencamp, E.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as de

  5. Patterns of Psychopathology in the Families of Children with Conduct Problems, Depression, and Both Psychiatric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2007-01-01

    Comorbid conduct problems (CPs) and depression are observed far more often than expected by chance, which is perplexing given minimal symptom overlap. In this study, relations between parental psychopathology and children's diagnostic status were evaluated to test competing theories of comorbidity. Participants included 180 families with an…

  6. Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide for Working with Children and Their Families. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Eleanor W., Ed.; Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the U.S. population grows more and more diverse, how can professionals who work with young children and families deliver the best services while honoring different customs, beliefs, and values? The answers are in the fourth edition of this bestselling textbook, fully revised to reflect nearly a decade of population changes and best practices in…

  7. Psychosocial challenges in family caregiving with children suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Priya Treesa; Rajaram, Prakashi; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2014-08-01

    Families of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) go through significant challenges in dealing with the condition. Few studies have looked into the situation, especially in the sociocultural scenario that is unique to India. The authors' aim was to identify the psychosocial challenges for caregivers of children with DMD. A cross-sectional descriptive study was perfomed among the caregivers of 60 children with DMD who were attending the neuromuscular disorders clinic of a national tertiary referral center for neurological disorders. The knowledge and attitude, psychosocial needs, burden, and coping patterns were assessed in an interview. The findings showed that parents of children with DMD tended to have inadequate understanding of the disease but had a positive attitude, had a moderate family burden, and tended to rely more on religion, focus on and venting of emotions, and instrumental and emotional social support for coping. Caregivers of children with DMD would benefit from psychosocial intervention to address their understanding of and attitude toward the disease, as well as burden of dealing with it, and to help them develop their coping skills and meet their children's and their own needs. PMID:25095627

  8. Dual Language versus English-Only Support for Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael; Dickson, Hanna; Cantu, Amy; Wickesberg, Jennifer; Gifford, René H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a critical need to understand better speech and language development in bilingual children learning two spoken languages who use cochlear implants (CIs) and hearing aids (HAs). The paucity of knowledge in this area poses a significant barrier to providing maximal communicative outcomes to a growing number of children who have…

  9. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  10. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies and Nutritional Interventions for Children With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend that psychotherapy be used in conjunction with pharmacotherapy in children with bipolar disorder. A well-established category of psychotherapy is family skill-building plus psychoeducation; 3 examples of this are family-focused treatment, psychoeducational psychotherapy, and child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. These treatments share several common elements that are important in pediatric populations, including being family-based, providing psychoeducation on symptoms and their management, and training patients and families in emotion regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills. Clinicians may also wish to explore nutritional interventions; multinutrient complexes are experimental, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements are possibly efficacious. Nutritional interventions are particularly attractive in this patient population because of their favorable safety profile. PMID:27570930

  11. Parents' psychological adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida: a meta-analysis

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    Bosman Anna MT

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spina Bifida (SB is the second most common birth defect worldwide. Since the chances of survival in children with severe SB-forms have increased, medical care has shifted its emphasis from life-saving interventions to fostering the quality of life for these children and their families. Little is known, however, about the impact of SB on family adjustment. Reviewers have struggled to synthesize the few contradictory studies available. In this systematic review a new attempt was made to summarize the findings by using meta-analysis and by delimiting the scope of review to one concept of family adjustment: Parents' psychological adjustment. The questions addressed were: (a do parents of children with SB have more psychological distress than controls? (b do mothers and fathers differ? and (c which factors correlate with variations in psychological adjustment? Methods PsycInfo, Medline, and reference lists were scanned. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified of which 15 were eligible for meta-analysis. Results SB had a negative medium-large effect on parents' psychological adjustment. The effect was more heterogeneous for mothers than for fathers. In the reviewed studies child factors (age, conduct problems, emotional problems, and mental retardation, parent factors (SES, hope, appraised stress, coping, and parenting competence, family factors (family income, partner relationship, and family climate, and environmental factors (social support were found to be associated with variations in parents' psychological adjustment. Conclusion Meta-analysis proved to be helpful in organizing studies. Clinical implications indicate a need to be especially alert to psychological suffering in mothers of children with SB. Future research should increase sample sizes through multi-center collaborations.

  12. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  13. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  15. Parental HIV/AIDS status and death, and children's psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku Paul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has an estimated one million orphans, 250,000 are due to AIDS parental deaths. This is the first study that examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS status and death on the mental health of children in Ghana. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, 4 groups of 200 children (children whose parents died of AIDS, children whose parents died of causes other than AIDS, children living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS, and non-orphaned children whose parents are not known to be infected with HIV/AIDS aged between 10 and 19 were interviewed on their hyperactivity, emotional, conduct, and peer problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Children whose parents died of AIDS showed very high levels of peer problems [F (3,196 = 7.34, p Conclusion Orphans and children living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS are at heightened risks for emotional and behavioural disorders and that efforts to address problems in children affected by HIV/AIDS must focus on both groups of children. Parallel to this, researchers should see these findings as generated hypotheses (rather than conclusions calling for further exploration of specific causal linkages between HIV/AIDS and children's mental health, using more rigorous research tools and designs.

  16. Nursing practice supporting the transition of technology-dependent children from hospital to home

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaizumi, Shiomi; 金泉, 志保美

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds & aims:The numberofchildren with chronic conditions who receive care at home, particularly those who are dependent on medical technology are rapidly increasing. Systematic studies about nursing practice during the transition of technology-dependent children from hospital to home are very limited in Japan. This study explored the nursing practice supporting the transition of technology-dependent children from hospital to home. Methods:Qualitative descriptive design was used. Data w...

  17. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  18. A Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Optimal Service Delivery to Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a Relational Goal-Oriented Model of Service Delivery to Children with physical or mental health difficulties and their families. This research-informed and practice-relevant model provides a broad understanding of what effective service provision entails and requires from practitioners and service organizations. The model…

  19. The prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family

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    Tyagi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.

  20. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  1. Experiences to be a family caregiver of dependent elderly in the home environment

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    Alcimar Marcelo do Couto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experience of caring for dependent elderly in the home environment, from the perspective of family caregivers that present burden and emotional distress. Methods: this is a qualitative research with a contribution in the Theory Grounded in Data. There were home visits for observation and semi-structured interviews with nine relatives of dependent elderly in self-care. Results: with the coding and analysis of empirical data, one can understand the daily cares in the care relationship with their elderly dependent relatives. The consolidated experiences underlie on positive experiences, such as solidarity by the established interaction and the maintenance of self-esteem, and negative as changes in daily routine and health, with stress identification related to the caregiver role. Conclusion: in the understanding of the family, their experiences as a caregiver in the home context varied between positive and negative aspects, which respectively minimize and maximize the feeling of burden and emotional distress.

  2. Overcoming Medicaid Reimbursement Barriers to Funding School Nursing Services for Low-Income Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarney, Mary-Beth; Horton, Katherine; Seiler, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: School nurses can provide direct services for children with asthma, educate, and reinforce treatment recommendations to children and their families, and coordinate the school-wide response to students' asthma emergencies. Unfortunately, school-based health services today depend on an unreliable patchwork of funding. Limited state and…

  3. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational ex...

  4. HIV/AIDS Researchers Interaction with Schoolteachers: A Key to Combat AIDS among Brazilian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Simone; de Castro, Fabiola Attie; de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that information on HIV/AIDS is a strategy for disease control, this project was planned to provide comprehensive information about HIV infection and AIDS to schoolteachers and their students. Previous analysis of adolescent students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS showed that they still have doubts about transmission, diagnosis, and…

  5. [Psychosocial situation of families with chronically ill children: a survey of parent initiatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, I; Riedel, C; Baghi, L; Moshammer-Karb, T; Schmid, R; Kries, R V

    2015-02-01

    Children with chronic illness or disabilities and their families require more support than healthy families. The working group "custodial and psychosocial supply" defined 4 theses to figure out deficits and targets of family support: 1) my child is different; 2) my child is not devisable; 3) my child needs strong helpers; and 4) my child needs safety.Based on these theses, a questionnaire for parents was designed of which 20 were sent to 34 parent initiatives in Germany each, for distribution to a random sample of member families.499/680 questionnaires were returned of which 419 could be included in the analysis. Less than 50% of the parents felt adequately and timely informed about their child's condition, and support for coping with the child's diagnosis was rarely given. Less than half of the parents reported to have been informed about the options for support within the German social system, and less than 15% were aware of instructions for clearing houses on care and support. About a third of the parents reported needs for managing family, siblings or household, but only a third of these had been offered organised and structured family support. More than 50% of the families reported restraints in participating in social life: such restraints were associated with problems in partnership and loss of friends. Half of the parents felt restraints of the family income because of their child's condition.There is need for improvement of the psychosocial condition of families with chronically ill or disabled children by better, more and timely information about the child's clinical condition, access to the social support system and availability of support services. PMID:24771100

  6. Experiences from families of children with cerebral paralysis in context of social vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Rany Rigotti Baltor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe and to analyze the experience from families of children with cerebral paralysis living under circumstances of social vulnerability. METHOD: six resident families in area with this characteristic were interviewed. It was opted to use the Symbolic Interactionism as theoretic reference and the Thematic Content Analysis of Bardin as analysis method for the data. RESULT: the experience of such families is represented in the subjects: Reorganizing the Life, with the categories "Discovering the way" and "Accommodating the routine", and Stopping a Constant Fight with the categories: "Primary Carer being overcharged", "Coexisting with the preconception", "Having locomotion difficulty" and "Living with financial difficulties". CONCLUSION: the social vulnerability influences how the family bears the chronic condition. Professionals and strategies of public health are a power to minimize impacts including those related to the family budget, but they have not been effective. They need to be sensitized to become supporting resources, to offer and to guide the access to the support networks and to spur the social service in action when necessary. This study adds knowledge to the already existing by pointing out peculiarities of the family experience in situations regarding two variables of difficult handling: chronicity and social vulnerability, evidencing the role of the professional in search of the solution for the confrontation of demands and sufferings together with the family.

  7. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A; Marshall, Stephen A; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multi-modal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not beeti an explicit focus on the connection between fatnily and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school ititervention, Family-School Success-Early Elementary (FSS-EE), for kindergarten and first-grade studetits with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Key components of FSS-EE were family-school behavioral consultatioti, daily report cards, and strategies to improve parent-child relationships atid family involvement in educatioti. FSS-EE was developed using a multistep iterative process. The piloted version consisted of 12 weekly sessions including 6 group meetings, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their childreti on medication; 25% of children were on medication at the time of random assignmetit. Childreti (n = 61) were randomly assigned to FSS-EE or a comparison group controlling for nonspecific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post interventioti and 2-month follow-up. Study findings indicated that FSS-EE was feasible to implement and acceptable to paretits atid teachers. In addition, the findings provided preliminary evidence that FSS-EE is effective in improving parenting practices, child behavior at school, and the student-teacher relationship.

  8. Quality of life measures in Italian children with atopic dermatitis and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monti Fiorella

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of atopic dermatitis (AD on children's quality of life (QoL in US and European countries is relatively well known, though rarely evaluated in the Italian population. Moreover, the association between child age and QoL has not been enough investigated, even though few studies detected a worse QoL in youngest AD children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the QoL in an Italian sample of atopic children and their families, also exploring a possible association with child age. Methods 60 AD children aged between 1-12 years and their mothers completed specific QoL questionnaires (IDQoL/CDLQI, DFI and a clinician completed a measure of AD severity (SCORAD. Results AD severity (Objective SCORAD significantly correlated with QoL measures. Severe AD children showed higher IDQoL/CDLQI and DFI scores compared to mild and moderate AD groups (P = 0.006 and P P = 0.014. DFI scores negatively correlated with children's age (P = 0.046, but did not differ when considering child age ranges. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association between Objective SCORAD and QoL measures. Conclusions A strong association between severe AD and poor QoL, both in children and mothers, was found in the Italian sample, in line with the international literature. Family's QoL scores were sensitively related to AD severity, more than the child's QoL, emphasising that the disease has a deep impact on the family. A significant association between age and QoL was only partially found and needs further investigation.

  9. Social Work Home Visits to Children and Families in the UK: A Foucauldian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Karen; Cree, Viviene E.

    2016-01-01

    The home visit is at the heart of social work practice with children and families; it is what children and families' social workers do more than any other single activity (except for recording), and it is through the home visit that assessments are made on a daily basis about risk, protection and welfare of children. And yet it is, more than any other activity, an example of what Pithouse has called an ‘invisible trade’: it happens behind closed doors, in the most secret and intimate spaces of family life. Drawing on conceptual tools associated with the work of Foucault, this article sets out to provide a critical, chronological review of research, policy and practice on home visiting. We aim to explain how and in what ways changing discourses have shaped the emergence, legitimacy, research and practice of the social work home visit to children and families at significant time periods and in a UK context. We end by highlighting the importance for the social work profession of engagement and critical reflection on the identified themes as part of their daily practice. PMID:27559221

  10. Mental Health Context of Food Insecurity: a Representative Cohort of Families With Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Caspi, Avshalom; Howard, Louise M.; Ambler, Antony P.; Bolton, Heather; Mountain, Nicky; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Children from food-insecure families (ie, families that lack access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food) are at risk for developmental problems. Food insecurity disproportionately occurs among low–socioeconomic status (SES) and low-income families; however, interventions that supplement families’ income or diet have not eradicated food insecurity. This may be because food insecurity is also related to nonfinancial factors such as the presence of maternal mental health problems. To clarify whether addressing mothers’ mental health problems may be a promising strategy for reducing the burden of food insecurity, we tested the hypothesis that low-SES families are especially vulnerable to food insecurity when the mother experiences depression, alcohol or drug abuse, psychosis spectrum disorder, or domestic violence. METHODS We used data from a nationally representative cohort of 1116 British families (the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Study). Food insecurity, family SES, maternal mental health and exposure to domestic violence, and children’s behavioral outcomes were measured by using validated methods. RESULTS Overall, 9.7% of study families were food-insecure. Among low-SES families, controlling for income variation, food insecurity cooccurred with maternal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 2.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.62–4.93]), psychosis spectrum disorder (OR: 4.01 [95% CI: 2.03–7.94]), and domestic violence (OR: 2.36 [95% CI: 1.18– 4.73]). In addition, food insecurity predicted elevated rates of children’s behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS Among families with young children, food insecurity is frequent, particularly when the mother experiences mental health problems. This suggests that interventions that improve women’s mental health may also contribute to decreasing the burden of food insecurity and its impact on the next generation. PMID:19786424

  11. The position and needs of children in families with more members in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Jovanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper draws attention to the problem of depopulation in the Republic of Srpska, and in that context, to the occurrence of giving birth to children of higher birth order (fourth, fifth, sixth and so on. A research done by the Council for the children of the Republic of Srpska found that only 3% of children have been born in this status, which is not target contingent for the renewal of the population. However, this research has also shown that the position of big families in our society is not favourable nor is the position of children born in such families. The existing measures taken by the society and directed to these families are mainly socio-protective in character (and mostly in the domain of child protection. They are aimed at making balanced and appropriate conditions to fulfill obstructed development needs of children who live in those families. .

  12. Australian indigenous children with low cognitive ability: Family and cultural participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, John; Emerson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap. The study results indicated that in some areas, Indigenous children with low cognitive ability are at a higher risk of social exclusion than their peers. We discuss the policy implications of these findings with regards to addressing Indigenous disadvantage. PMID:27286466

  13. The applicability of Webster-Stratton Parenting Programmes to deaf children with emotional and behavioural problems, and autism, and their families: annotation and case report of a child with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ruth; Turk, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project whose objective was to explore whether the Webster-Stratton Parenting Programme may be effective for hearing parents and their deaf children who present with conduct disorders and other emotional, behavioural and developmental problems. Outcome measures aimed at overall impact in decreasing behavioural problems and improving overall family function were used. Participants were hearing parents of deaf children referred to our specialist service whose assessment had recommended a parenting skills group as treatment of choice. The children had been diagnosed with behavioural problems with or without additional comorbidity. This pilot phase focused deliberately on one participant, in order to explore whether the approach justified further, more comprehensive evaluative research. Outcome was positive, suggesting that modified Webster-Stratton approaches may well be of use in deaf children of hearing parents. PMID:17375814

  14. Facilitators and barriers to implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation for participative assessment of children in need and for coordination of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire

    2014-12-01

    As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers.

  15. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  16. The Social Protection of Children with Families within Temporary Labor Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available of one or both parents is closely related to finding and filling a job on the external labour market, with financial and material rebalance within the family environment, with rising living standards, manifested as a social phenomenon. The effects are felt both within the family, in which changes in structure, dynamics and functionality take place, and by the child, who faces a variety of issues. We see these around us, in our families or at those near us, within the work environment or in the neighborhood and these are presented mostly as a very easy alternative for solving financial problems and the good initial intention to change the economic situation of the family has, in time, an effect on the family and children. What causes family members to take this decision, how does it affect the family environment, how does the child perceive the changes in family structure and how does these changes affect him are just some of the questions that we want to tackle within this paper.

  17. Attachment-based classifications of children's family drawings: psychometric properties and relations with children's adjustment in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianta, R C; Longmaid, K; Ferguson, J E

    1999-06-01

    Investigated an attachment-based theoretical framework and classification system, introduced by Kaplan and Main (1986), for interpreting children's family drawings. This study concentrated on the psychometric properties of the system and the relation between drawings classified using this system and teacher ratings of classroom social-emotional and behavioral functioning, controlling for child age, ethnic status, intelligence, and fine motor skills. This nonclinical sample consisted of 200 kindergarten children of diverse racial and socioeconomic status (SES). Limited support for reliability of this classification system was obtained. Kappas for overall classifications of drawings (e.g., secure) exceeded .80 and mean kappa for discrete drawing features (e.g., figures with smiles) was .82. Coders' endorsement of the presence of certain discrete drawing features predicted their overall classification at 82.5% accuracy. Drawing classification was related to teacher ratings of classroom functioning independent of child age, sex, race, SES, intelligence, and fine motor skills (with p values for the multivariate effects ranging from .043-.001). Results are discussed in terms of the psychometric properties of this system for classifying children's representations of family and the limitations of family drawing techniques for young children. PMID:10353083

  18. Marital violence, co-parenting, and family-level processes in relation to children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Low, Sabina M

    2004-06-01

    A multimethod approach was used to examine relations between marital violence, coparenting, and family-level processes and children's adjustment in a community-based sample of marital violence. Two hypotheses were tested, one in which family-level and co-parenting processes mediate relations between marital violence and child functioning and one in which marital violence and family-level/co-parenting processes function relatively independently in influencing children's adjustment. Observations of family processes were made within a triadic parent-child interaction, and several dimensions of children's socioemotional adjustment (i.e., peer relations, behavior problems) were examined. Results indicated that hostile-withdrawn co-parenting mediated the relations between marital violence and children's anxiety and depression. Marital violence, co-parenting, and family-level processes also functioned independently in predicting child outcome. Findings are discussed in terms of the family dynamics present in maritally violent homes. PMID:15222844

  19. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  20. Religious Coping in Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the role of religion in the coping of 45 parents of children with autism. All parents completed a questionnaire and 21 parents were interviewed. Positive religious coping was associated with better religious outcome and greater stress-related growth, whereas negative religious coping was associated with greater depressive…

  1. A preview of the efficiency of systemic family therapy in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder developed after car accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumatic stress refers to physical and emotional reactions caused by events which represent a life threat or a disturbance of physical and phychological integrity of a child, as well as their parents or gaerdians. Car accidents are the main cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children. The aim of this study was to preview clinical efficiency of systemic family therapy (SFT as therapy intervention in treatment of children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD traumatized in car accident under identical circumstances of exposure. We pointed out the importance of specific family factors (family cohesion and adaptability, emotional reaction of the parents on PTSD clinical outcome. Methods. The sample of this clinical observational study included 7-sixth grade pupiles - 5 boys and 2 girls, aged 13. All of the pupils were involved in car accident with one death. Two groups were formed - one group included three children who were involved in 8 SFT sessions together with their families. The second group included 4 children who received an antidepressant sertraline in the period of three months. Results. Two months after the car accident, before the beginning of the therapy, all of the children were the members of rigidly enmeshed family systems, considering the high average cohesion scores and the low average adaptability scores on the FACES III. Three months after the received therapy, having evaluated the results of the therapeutic approaches, we established that the adaptability scores of the families included in the SFT were higher than the scores of the families of the children who received pharmacotherapy with one boy still meeting the criteria for PTSD. Conclusion. Systemic family therapy was efficient in the treatment of children with PTSD, traumatized in car accident. Therapy efficiency was higher when both parents and children were included in SFT than in the case when they were not included in the family

  2. AIDS Care Ignores Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apoorva; Mandavilli; 张祖明

    2005-01-01

    艾滋病的全称为"获得性免疫缺陷综合症(AIDS)",通过性、血液和母婴三种接触方式传播,是一种严重危害健康的传染性疾病。它通过破坏人的免疫系统和机体抵抗能力给人以致命的打击,被称为"超级绝症"。儿童感染艾滋病通常是由于母体传播的,但是他们却成为艾滋病防治过程中的一个"盲点"。究竟为什么呢?请看下文。

  3. Parental Perspectives of a 4-Week Family-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Children with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Erin S; Jennifer D. Irwin; Burke, Shauna M.; Shapiro, Sheree

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The childhood obesity epidemic is now recognized as one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Community-based behaviour modification treatment programs involving both children and their families are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of parents whose children participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): a 4-week lifestyle program delivered as a day-camp for obese children at risk ...

  4. Behavior and Sleep Problems in Children with a Family History of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Gregory S. Young; Hutman, Ted; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sigman, Marian; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores behavioral and sleep outcomes in preschool age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study focuses on behavior problems that are common in children with ASD, such as emotional reactivity, anxiety, inattention, aggression, and sleep problems. Infant siblings were recruited from families with at least one older child with ASD (high-risk group, n = 104) or families with no history of ASD (low-risk group, n = 76). As part of a longitudinal pros...

  5. Needs of children affected by HIV and AIDS: Mangaung in the Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Chakalane-Mpeli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The terminal illness or death of a parent due to HIV and AIDS has a disastrous effect on the surviving children. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the needs of HIV and AIDS orphans and pre-orphans. A qualitative method using indepth interviews with 10 children affected by their parent’s illness or death was carried out. Results indicate that there was a marked reduction in financial capital paving the way for basic physical needs such as food, clothing, fuel and shelter. Lack of school fees, uniforms and transport money together with biased teachers and rigid school policies were affecting school attendance and performance. On the psychosocial level needs expressed were for family and community support, friendship, acceptance by the group as well as love and belonging. It seems as if stigmatisation and resulting ostracism by important-others is a drawback at all levels of interaction for AIDS orphans and pre-orphans.

  6. 艾滋病或艾滋病毒感染者家庭儿童心理健康状况调查%Surveys of mental health status in children of AIDS/HIV+families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱性霞; 马建东; 王芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病或艾滋病毒感染者家庭儿童的心理健康状况。方法将艾滋病或艾滋病毒感染者家庭的87名儿童设为研究组,同期抽取普通家庭的87名儿童设为对照组,分别采用艾森克个性问卷、焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表及自尊量表进行测评分析。结果研究组艾森克个性问卷的内‐外倾维度分显著低于对照组(P<0.01),神经质、掩饰维度分均显著高于对照组(P<0.01);焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表评分均显著高于对照组(P<0.01),自尊量表评分显著低于对照组(P<0.01)。结论艾滋病或艾滋病毒感染者家庭的儿童存在个性缺陷,自尊水平较低,焦虑抑郁情绪显著,心理健康状况较差,全社会应针对这一特殊群体积极开展健康教育及心理干预,以提高其心理健康水平。%Objective To explore the mental health status in children of AIDS/HIV+ families .Methods Assessments were carried out with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) ,Self‐rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) and Self‐rating Depression Scale(SDS) and the Self‐esteem Scale (SES) in 87 children of AIDS/HIV+ families (research group) and 87 ones of common families (control group) .Results E score of the EPQ was significantly lower (P<0 .01) and N and L were significantly higher (P<0 .01) in research than in control group ;the SAS and SDS score were significantly higher (P<0 .01) and the SES was lower (P< 0 .01) in research than in control group .Conclusion Children from AIDS/HIV+ families have personality defect ,lower self‐esteem level ,notable anxiety‐depression emotion and poor mental health status ,active and health education and mental intervention should purposefully be given to them in order to improve their mental health levels .

  7. Lipid profile in children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bina Dias; Subhashini Maharana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease which may lead to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in Type I diabetes mellitus at a younger age. Methods: Twenty five children with diabetes mellitus type 1 were assessed for the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, LDL and cholesterol to HDL ratio and were compared with age; matched healthy controls. Results: The result of the present study showed that all the above mention...

  8. What do we know about children living with HIV-infected or AIDS-ill adults in Sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Short, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    Millions of children in Sub-Saharan Africa live with adults, often parents, who are HIV-infected or ill due to AIDS. These children experience social, emotional, and health vulnerabilities that overlap with, but are not necessarily the same as, those of orphans or other vulnerable children. Despite their distinctive vulnerabilities, research aimed at understanding the situation of these children has been limited until very recently. This review summarizes the state of knowledge based on a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science that identified 47 empirical research articles that examined either the population prevalence of children living with HIV-infected or AIDS-sick adults, or the consequences of adult HIV infection or AIDS illness for child well-being. This review confirms that this population of children is substantial in size, and that the vulnerabilities they experience are multi-faceted, spanning physical and emotional health and schooling. Mechanisms were examined empirically in only a small number of studies, but encompass poverty, transmission of opportunistic infections, care for unwell adults, adult distress, AIDS stigma, lack of social support, maternal breastfeeding issues, and vertical HIV transmission. Some evidence is provided that infants, adolescents, children with infected or ill mothers, and children living with severely ill adults are particularly vulnerable. Future research would benefit from more attention to causal inference and further characterization of processes and circumstances related to vulnerability and resilience. It would also benefit from further study of variation in observed associations between adult HIV/AIDS and child well-being based on characteristics such as age, sex, kinship, severity of illness, TB co-infection, disclosure, and serostatus awareness. Almost one-quarter of the studies reviewed did not investigate variation based on any of these factors. More nuanced understanding of the short- and long

  9. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taraphdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%, disclosure of sero-status (13.2%, and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband′s illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse′s illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  10. The Development and Use of a Concept Mapping Assessment Tool with Young Children on Family Visits to a Live Butterfly Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jennifer Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Although young children are major audiences of science museums, limited evidence exists documenting changes in children's knowledge in these settings due in part to the limited number of valid and reliable assessment tools available for use with this population. The purposes of this study were to develop and validate a concept mapping assessment…

  11. 不同程度视力残疾儿童应用助视器康复的研究%Use of visual aids to rehabilitate children with different levels of visual impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯涓涓; 李荣需; 廖瑞端; 黄静文; 陈咏冲; 周建华; 罗观怀

    2010-01-01

    目的 对有残余视力的视力残疾儿童在给予光学和电子助视器康复后进行远、近视力的分析和效果评估,探讨不同程度视力残疾患儿有效的康复手段及其对低视力康复对象范围界定的影响.方法 对肓校及低视力门诊共206名4~14周岁(含14岁)视力残疾儿童按视力残疾的程度进行分组,比较应用国产4倍、6倍望远镜前后远视力和应用国产眼镜式助视器、国产简易电子助视器后两种助视器间阅读成功率的差异.远视力康复结果采用秩和检验,近视力康复结果采用卡方检验进行统计学分析.结果 视力0.05以下至眼前指数的盲童组和0.3以下至0.05的低视力组应用远用助视器前后远视力差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);视力0.05以下至光感的盲章和低视力儿童分别使用眼镜式近用助视器与简易电子助视器后,两种助视器间阅读成功率的差异均有统计学意义,使用简易电子助视器的阅读成功率均明显高于使用跟镜式近用助视器.结论 助视器康复的对象可以从低视力范围扩展到0.01甚至以下的盲童.低视力助视器是视力残疾儿童视觉康复有效和必要的手段,早期视觉康复特别是使用简易电子助视器进行近视力阅读的康复,对视力残疾儿童提高学习认知能力、促进身心健康成长和回归社会具有重要意义.%Objective To evaluate the rehabilitation of children with different levels of visual impairment involving both distance vision and near vision and to discuss the range of rehabilitation achieved with vision aids. Methods Two hundred and six children aged 4 -14 years from the Guangzhou school for the blind and low vision clinic were grouped according to levels of visual impairment. Distance vision and reading rate performance were compared using a domestic 4X or 6X telescope for distance vision rehabilitation glasses and simple electronic devices. Results were analyzed with rank sum

  12. Children with Learning Disabilities. Facts for Families. Number 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…

  13. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  14. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Tips Get Involved Giving Donate Safety Tips Age ... this video to learn what you need to know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  15. Shared activities of parents with their preschool children during family pastime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father, family status (two-parent/separated family, style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years: namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.

  16. Familial Autoimmune Thyroid Disease as a Risk Factor for Regression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A CPEA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hyman, Susan L.; McMahon, William M.; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Hepburn, Susan; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R.; Lord, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A multicenter study of 308 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was conducted through the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, to compare the family history of autoimmune disorders in children with ASD with and without a history of regression. A…

  17. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R.; Rose, J.; McDonald, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child…

  18. On the GLR and UMP tests in the family with support dependent on the parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Eftekharian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Some general results about the GLR tests, for testing simple hypothesis versus two-sided hypothesis, in the family with support dependent on the parameter, are obtained. In addition, we show that such GLR tests are equivalent to the UMP tests in the same problems. Moreover, we derive the general form of the UMP tests for testing an interval hypothesis versus two-sided alternative.

  19. A Follow-up Study of a Successful Assistive Technology for Children with ADHD and Their Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Marshall, Paul; Müller, Jörg;

    Little research on assistive technologies for families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has investigated the long-term impact, after the assistive technology is returned to the researchers. In this paper, we report the outcomes of a follow-up study, conducted four......-weeks after a field study of 13 children with ADHD and their families who used an assistive technology designed to help establish and change family practices. We show that some of the positive effects on parent frustration level and conflict level around morning and bedtime routines that we observed...... in the first phase of the study, continued even after the study period, when the technology was no longer available. We furthermore present insights into family practices in families of children with ADHD and how these could lead to unexpected challenges and implications related to the adoption, use...

  20. Factors associated with family reunification for children in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, Mónica; del Valle, Jorge F.; Montserrat, Carme; Bravo, Amaia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse reunification processes from family foster care, both kinship and non-kinship, and the variables associated with them in a Spanish sample. Data collection was carried out after a review of child protection and foster care files, and those responsible for the cases were also

  1. Expanding families: preparing for and introducing dogs and cats to infants, children, and new pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Laurie; Gaskins, Lori

    2008-09-01

    Once clients make a decision to expand their family with children or pets, veterinarians can be instrumental in providing education and support to make the additions successful. Veterinarians should remind clients to make changes in the household well in advance of the new addition's arrival, to be patient, to make all introductions safe and controlled, and to reward good behavior. If problems arise, owners should be advised to separate those involved and get behavioral treatment as soon as possible. Through these simple steps, veterinarians can increase the likelihood that clients will be able to integrate new family members successfully. PMID:18672153

  2. Family Environment and Behavior Problems in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Baker, Jason K.; Smith, Leann E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Hong, Jinkuk

    2012-01-01

    We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n = 48), adolescents (n = 85), and adults (n = 34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth…

  3. Organisational systems and services for children of parents with mental illness and their families: processes of change and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    Adult mental illness in the community including depression and anxiety has achieved greater public awareness and visibility in recent years and this has also resulted in increased recognition about the widespread impact on dependent children. During the past decade in Australia, policies and specific programs for infants, children and youth in terms of prevention, early intervention and promotion in relation to children of parents with a mental illness ('copmi') have been devised. However, these have generally been disconnected projects, essentially supported only by non-recurrent funding. In more recent years, systematic and interconnected responses involving a wider range of government, non-government and consumer and carer organisations to build sustainability have become the focus. However, little research about change processes affecting the organisational systems serving children of parents with mental illness and their families has been undertaken. This aim of the current study is to describe the enablers and barriers that contribute to change in systems and government and non-government organisations in relation to children of parents with a mental illness in Australia over the past decade, within the context of sustainability. The study involved interviews, focus groups and website and literature searches regarding systems change across Australian states and territories and nationally in relation to the enablers, barriers and future directions. Strategic and intentional processes within organisations, more evolutionary ongoing cross-agency processes and links to sustained changes are key systems change findings. Relevance for change in other health services is highlighted. PMID:19908136

  4. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families. PMID:24991899

  5. Psychosocial aspects of children and families of children treated with automated peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Katarzyna; Wasilewska, Anna; Medyńska, Anna; Bałasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Grenda, Ryszard; Kluska-Jóźwiak, Agnieszka; Leszczyńska, Beata; Olszak-Szot, Ilona; Miklaszewska, Monika; Szczepańska, Maria; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Urzykowska, Agnieszka; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Zajączkowska, Maria; Ziółkowska, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze psychosocial aspects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children treated with automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). Methods The study assessed 41 children > 2  (range 2.1–18) years of age and their parents. Data concerning the illness and sociodemographic parameters were collected. Patients completed the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and their parents the PedsQL-proxy version, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Berlin Social S...

  6. 河南省农村艾滋病流行地区HIV/AIDS150例家庭功能状况及影响因素分析%Analysis on Family Function of 150 Cases with HIV/AIDS and Its Influential Factors in AIDS Epidemic Rural Area of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉霞; 章涵

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价河南省农村地区HIV感染者/AIDS患者(HIV/AIDS)对家庭关怀的满意度,并了解其影响因素.方法 选取河南省周口汤庄乡的6个行政村150例HIV/AIDS患者进行问卷调查,采用自编的家庭功能相关因素调查表及家庭关怀度指数问卷(APGAR问卷),对数据进行x2检验和有序多项分类Logistic回归分析.结果 HIV/AIDS的家庭功能平均得分为7.04分.64.67%的HIV/AIDS家庭功能良好,平均8.39分;25.33%家庭功能中度障碍,平均5.37分;10.00%家庭功能严重障碍,平均2.56分.夫妻关系、子女态度、周围人的态度和社会支持是影响家庭功能的重要指标,夫妻关系亲密、子女孝顺、感觉周围人的态度好及对各方面社会支持满意的家庭功能好于夫妻关系不好、子女不孝顺、感觉周围人的态度不好及对各方面社会支持不满意的家庭功能.结论 应积极倡导开展适合农村HIV/AIDS的家庭关怀与支持.%Objective To understand the satisfied degree of family care in the persons infected HIV or AIDS in the rural area of Henan province, as well as analyzes its related influencing factors. Methods The 150 residents infected with HIV/AIDS from 6 administrative villages at Tangzhuang town in Zhoukou city of Henan Province were selected to complete questionnaire survey on family function related factor and Adaptation Partnership Growth Affection Resolve ( the APGAR questionnaire). The chisquare test and multiple-sorting logistic regression analysis were used. Results The total average score of family function was 7.04. 64. 67% was good and the average score was 8.39; 25. 33% had moderate barrier and the average score was 5.37; 10. 00% had serious barrier and the average score was 2. 56. The couple relationship, the children manner, periphery person's manner and the social support were the important factors which affected family function. The family function of the couple inmate relationship, the children

  7. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  8. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  9. Predictors of Care-Giver Stress in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…

  10. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  11. Feeling uncomfortable: children in families with no place of their own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, S L

    1996-01-01

    The number of children living in shelters in the United States dramatically increased during the 1980s. Despite this increase in number, little is known about their experiences. The purpose of this research using Parse's method was to generate a structure of the lived experience of feeling uncomfortable for children in shelters. The investigator sought to expand nursing's knowledge base about feeling uncomfortable and to provide a better understanding of the experiences of children in families with no place of their own. The findings suggest that the lived experience of feeling uncomfortable for the participants is a disturbing uneasiness with the unsureness of aloneness with togetherness amidst longing for personal joyful moments. These findings, considered from Parse's human becoming theory, create a theoretical structure of feeling uncomfortable. Similarities and differences with related literature are discussed. Implications for practice and further research are offered. PMID:9272068

  12. The apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele confers additional risk in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Albert; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Rodenburg, Jessica; Defesche, Joep C; de Jongh, Saskia; Bakker, Henk D; Kastelein, John J P

    2003-06-01

    Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) exhibit substantial variance of LDL cholesterol. In previous studies, family members of children with FH were included, which may have influenced results. To avoid such bias, we studied phenotype in 450 unrelated children with FH and in 154 affected sib-pairs. In known families with classical FH, diagnosis was based on plasma LDL cholesterol above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile. Girls had 0.47 +/- 0.15 mmol/L higher LDL cholesterol, compared with boys (p = 0.002). Also in girls, HDL cholesterol increased by 0.07 +/- 0.03 mmol/L per 5 y (pfor trend = 0.005); this age effect was not observed in boys. The distribution of apolipoprotein (apo) E genotypes was not significantly different between probands, their paired affected siblings, or a Dutch control population. Carriers with or without one epsilon4 allele had similar LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Within the affected sib-pairs, the epsilon4 allele explained 72.4% of the variance of HDL cholesterol levels (-0.15 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.24 to -0.05, p = 0.003). The effect of apoE4 on HDL cholesterol differed with an analysis based on probands or on affected sib-pairs. The affected sib-pair model used adjustment for shared environment, type of LDL receptor gene mutation, and a proportion of additional genetic factors and may, therefore, be more accurate in estimating effects of risk factors on complex traits. We conclude that the epsilon4 allele was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels in an affected sib-pair analysis, which strongly suggests that apoE4 influences HDL cholesterol levels in FH children. Moreover, the strong association suggests that apoE4 carries an additional disadvantage for FH children. PMID:12646733

  13. Work-Family Relations among Mothers of Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2008-01-01

    The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…

  14. The Confluence of Sociology, Statistics, and Public Policy in the Quality Control of the Food Stamps, AFDC, and Medicaid Family Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, S. James; Tanur, Judith M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevance of the intersection of sociology, statistics, and public policy to the study of quality control in three family assistance programs--food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Medicaid--is reviewed using a study by the National Academy of Sciences of methods for improving quality control systems. (SLD)

  15. Family-oriented psychosocial intervention in children with cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadhashemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, evidence has shown the growing trend of published studies on family-oriented interventions in children with cancer. Besides shedding light on the current status of knowledge, a review of the existing evidence can serve an effective step toward designing and implementing appropriate interventions in this domain. Methods: This systematic review was carried out to categorize and report the findings of all types of psychosocial interventions on the family caregivers of children with cancer. The English keywords "family career", "family caregiver", “children with cancer", "psychosocial", "intervention”, “educational", and "childhood cancer" were searched in CINAHL, Web of Science (ISI, PsychINFO, Pubmed and Scopus databanks, and equivalent Persian keywords were searched in the SID of Jihad University, IRANDOC, and IranPsych and Magiran databanks. From among 819 papers found between 1994 and 2014, a total of 17 articles were included in the study after qualitative evaluation. Results: Interventions were often performed on mothers and indicated various interventional approaches. The majority of the interventions were cognitive-behavioral which were reported to be effective in improving the measured criteria such as increasing the quality of life, decreasing emotional distress, anxiety and depression, and increasing adaptive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings were generally reported to be hopeful and most of interventions were reported to have positive effects on the participants, among which behavioral-cognitive interventions were found to show the strongest evidence. Supportive interventions must be considered as an indispensable part of care for children with cancer.

  16. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  17. Oral manifestations in children with AIDS and in controls Manifestações bucais em crianças com AIDS e em controles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia BOSCO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children with AIDS, aging 2 to 6 years, of both genders, treated as outpatients at the hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo, were evaluated for oral manifestations and compared to a control group of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The correlation between oral lesions and the degree of immunosuppression was analyzed. The most prevalent oral manifestations - lymphadenopathy, followed by gingival alterations - were observed in the children with the highest levels of immunosuppression. Other manifestations observed in the AIDS group were: pseudomembranous and erythematous candidosis, enlargement of the parotids and ulcers. The results did not indicate a higher frequency of lesions. However, the observed oral manifestations had an early occurrence, which indicates that the early diagnosis is an important component in the management of those patients.Trinta crianças portadoras de AIDS, entre dois e seis anos, de ambos os sexos, em tratamento ambulatorial na Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo foram avaliadas quanto às manifestações bucais presentes. Estas foram pareadas por sexo e idade, como controle, a um grupo de crianças sadias, correlacionando-as à presença de lesões e ao grau de imunossupressão. As manifestações bucais mais prevalentes foram observadas nas crianças com maior grau de imunossupressão, representadas principalmente pela linfoadenopatia e pelas alterações gengivais. Candidoses pseudomembranosas eritematosas foram manifestações significativas observadas no grupo AIDS, tendo sido observadas em menor número as alterações gengivais, o aumento da glândulas parótidas e as ulcerações. Os resultados não indicaram maior freqüência de lesões presentes; contudo, as manifestações bucais ocorreram precocemente, indicando que o diagnóstico precoce é um componente importante no manejo destas crianças.

  18. RBP1 Recruits Both Histone Deacetylase-Dependent and -Independent Repression Activities to Retinoblastoma Family Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Albert; Lee, Joseph M; Yang, Wen-Ming; DeCaprio, James A.; William G Kaelin; Seto, Edward; Branton, Philip E.

    1999-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor family proteins block cell proliferation in part by repressing certain E2F-specific promoters. Both histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent and -independent repression activities are associated with the RB “pocket.” The mechanism by which these two repression functions occupy the pocket is unknown. A known RB-binding protein, RBP1, was previously found by our group to be an active corepressor which, if overexpressed, represses E2F-mediated transcription via i...

  19. Gender and Sexuality in Young Children's Perspectives of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, D.; Jewnarain, D.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to AIDS have often neglected children. Drawing on a qualitative study of young children aged 7-9 years, this paper draws attention to their understandings of HIV and AIDS. It is argued that young children are able to give meaning to the disease in ways that link to their social contexts, where gender inequalities and sexual violence are…

  20. Parenting Deficits of Mothers Living with HIV/AIDS who have Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of the relationships between parenting deficits and skills, along with child outcomes, in a sample of mothers living with HIV (MLH) and their 6 to 14 year old children. Sixty-two MLH (61% Latina, 26% black, 3% white, & 10% multiracial) and their well children (age 6 – 14) were recruited from the greater Los Angeles, California, region to participate in an intervention (IMAGE: Improving Mothers’ parenting Abilities, Growth, and Effectiveness) de...

  1. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  2. The theory of shared communication: how parents of technology-dependent children communicate with nurses on the inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Barbara K; Sabourin, Teresa; Broome, Marion E; Buelow, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Care may be compromised for hospitalized technology-dependent children if nurses do not communicate with parents to include their knowledge in the child's plan of care. A qualitative study using grounded theory methodology was undertaken to identify parental perceptions and experiences of communication with nurses. The Theory of Shared Communication was the result of this study and includes questioning, listening, explaining, advocating, verifying understanding and negotiating roles to achieve the outcome of mutual understanding of the child's plan of care. Nurses should be aware of parent perceptions about communication when working with families to optimize the care they provide.

  3. Science Aspirations, Capital, and Family Habitus: How Families Shape Children's Engagement and Identification with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Low participation rates in the study of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) post-16 are a matter of international concern. Existing evidence suggests children's science aspirations are largely formed within the critical 10 to 14 age period. This article reports on survey data from over 9,000 elementary school children in…

  4. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips ... Español Get Involved Shout Out Team Safe Kids Day Take Action Partner with Us Donate Join Our ...

  5. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Section Global Road Safety Sponsors Recalls Media Center Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu ... Partner with Us Donate Join Our Mailing List Global Road Safety Sponsors Recalls Media Center Blog Videos ...

  6. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Policy Research Safe Kids Near You Join Our Team Staying Safe Safety by Age Safety by Risk ... CPS Certification Countdown2Drive Español Get Involved Shout Out Team Safe Kids Day Take Action Partner with Us ...

  7. Constructing "best interests": genetic testing of children in families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Els; Van Hoyweghen, Ine; Doevendans, Pieter A; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Horstman, Klasien

    2011-08-01

    Professional guidelines on genetic testing of children have recently shifted their focus from protecting the child's autonomous choice to professionals, together with parents, striving to work in the child's "best interest." This notion of "best interest" allows room for therapeutical as well as psychological and social considerations, and gives rise to the question how parents and professionals weigh up the child's best interest in practice. In this qualitative study, we followed six extended families involved in genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the Netherlands for 3½ years. In total 57 members of these families were interviewed in depth; many of them more than once. Our empirical analysis shows that the best interest of a child is constructed via long-term processes in the broader context of family and kin. In this context, "best interests" are considered and reconsidered. We conclude that a child's best interest should not be framed as the result of an instantaneous agreement between parents and professionals. In dealing with genetic testing of children, parents as well as professionals reflect on and learn from the processes of generating new meanings of "best interest." To enable professionals to deal with the variety in family life, these learning processes should be documented closely. PMID:21739592

  8. An Evaluation of Key Working for Families of Children and Young People with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Silvana; Bardsley, Janet; Oates, John

    2015-01-01

    Key working is a way of supporting children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) and their families, and is highly regarded by families and practitioners. However, there is a lack of up-to-date research exploring key working in the current context of policy reforms in England. This article reports an evaluation…

  9. Integrating Family Capacity-Building and Child Outcomes to Support Social Communication Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Juliann J.; Brown, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the transactional relationship of research and practice for speech-language pathologists serving infants and toddlers with and at risk for autism spectrum disorder in Individuals with Disabilities Education Act supported early intervention. Specifically, information is provided on (a) the relationship between…

  10. "Aid Like a Paycheck: Engaging with Policymakers and Practitioners to Evaluate and Improve Financial Aid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; O'Connell, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    "Aid Like A Paycheck" is a large-scale pilot evaluation of whether an innovative approach to disbursing financial aid can improve academic and financial outcomes for low-income community college students. Lessons from the pilot evaluation were used to create and fine-tune a logic model depicting activities, outputs, mediators, and…

  11. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced. PMID:27595812

  12. Causes of death in children with insulin dependent diabetes 1990-96

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, J.; Ford-Adams, M.; Dunger, D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Mortality rates in children with insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in the UK are unknown and the causes of death not well documented.
AIM—To determine the mortality rate and causes of death in children with IDDM.
METHODS—The Office of National Statistics (England and Wales) and the General Register Office (Scotland) notified all deaths under 20 years of age from 1990 to 1996 with diabetes on the certificate. Further details were provided by coroners, pathologists,...

  13. [Hygienic aspects with regard to nursing of home care patients with AIDS, chronic diseases and mental handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, H G; Flassak, H; Throm, W

    1995-04-01

    A human handicap is defined as a broad, hard and long lasting restriction of the mental development and the social integration. Groups of handicapped persons can be divided into mentally, psychologically, physically, sensory (blind, deaf) handicapped as well as into multiple disabled and chronically sick persons and those in need of care (old). New groups with demands for aid are among others people suffering from AIDS, psychologically sick (old) and people getting old as well as mentally, physically und multiple handicapped persons, people suffering from cancer, severely ill and dying people. For all handicapped people should be demanded the possibility of living almost normal lives. For all persons directly concerned as well as their families such a normal life should include: the right of self-determination and autonomy, the demand for complex styles of living and nearby care/support, the providing of respective infrastructures such as barrier free living and access to public institutions, access to public transport and homes fitting for handicapped persons, the demand for out-patient treatment by a complex range of various possibilities of support and finally, the providing of alternative forms of living in contrast to the traditional way of life of handicapped people like families or homes. Three important living areas can be derived from these ideas, namely: living conditions, education/professional and working field, social life/social environment. These important living areas require preventive measures, mainly advice and information centres, places to go early recognition and early promotion of handicapped people and those in risk of a handicap (especially children) as well as medical, professional and social rehabilitation or integration. Concerning the spectrum of support, aid and care in the homely area up to now already exists a variety of offers by out-patient services (information services, social units, mobile support services

  14. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education fees service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  15. Reminder: extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2013/2014 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2013 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2013/2014, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel.: 72862 / 71421

  16. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2011/2012 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2011 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2011/2012, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  17. REMINDER: Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2012/2013 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education fees service with a   SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.   Unless we receive, by October 31, 2012 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2012/2013, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance at the appropriate date and retroactively if necessary.   Education fees service HR/CB-B Mailbox C20000 schoolfees.service@cern.ch Tel. 72862 / 71421

  18. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of July 1, 2007. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  19. REMINDER - extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance retroactively as of 1 July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  20. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2008/2009 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October, 2008 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2008/2009, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of1st July 2008. School fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  1. Final reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2007/2008 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School Fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by November 30, 2007 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2007/2008, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as affiliation to the health insurance scheme retroactively as of 1 July 2007. School Fees service (33-1-017) HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862

  2. REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2010/2011 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees Service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by 31 October 2010 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (work placement contract, evidence of sandwich courses or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the school year 2010/2011, we will be obliged to stop payment of the allowance for dependent children as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees Service HR/SPS-SER Tel. 72862 / 71421

  3. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symboli...

  4. Predictors of Mental Health Resilience in Children who Have Been Parentally Bereaved by AIDS in Urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Gardner, Frances; Lawrence Aber, J; Cluver, Lucie

    2016-05-01

    Children parentally bereaved by AIDS experience high rates of mental health problems. However, there is considerable variability in outcomes, and some show no mental health problems even when followed over time. Primary aims were to identify predictors of resilient adaptation at child, family and community levels within a group of AIDS-orphaned children, and to consider their cumulative influence. A secondary aim was to test whether predictors were of particular influence among children orphaned by AIDS relative to non-orphaned and other-orphaned children. AIDS-orphaned (n = 290), other-orphaned (n = 163) and non-orphaned (n = 202) adolescents living in informal settlements in Cape Town, South Africa were assessed on two occasions 4 years apart (mean age 13.5 years at Time 1, range = 10-19 years). Self-report mental health screens were used to operationalise resilience in AIDS-orphaned children as the absence of clinical-range symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, conduct problems, and suicidality. A quarter of AIDS-orphaned children (24 %) showed no evidence of mental health problems at either wave. Child physical health, better caregiving quality, food security, better peer relationship quality, and lower exposure to community violence, bullying or stigma at baseline predicted sustained resilience. There were cumulative influences across predictors. Associations with mental health showed little variation by child age or gender, or between orphaned and non-orphaned children. Mental health resilience is associated with multiple processes across child, family and community levels of influence. Caution is needed in making causal inferences. PMID:26329481

  5. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; GALLOP, ROBERT

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...

  6. Children's health care assistance according to their families: a comparison between models of Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bertoglio Comassetto Antunes de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare the health assistance models of Basic Traditional Units (UBS with the Family Health Strategy (ESF units for presence and extent of attributes of Primary Health Care (APS, specifically in the care of children. METHOD A cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with families of children attended by the Public Health Service of Colombo, Paraná. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCA-Tool was applied to parents of 482 children, 235 ESF units and 247 UBS units covering all primary care units of the municipality, between June and July 2012. The results were analyzed according to the PCA-Tool manual. RESULTS ESF units reached a borderline overall score for primary health care standards. However, they fared better in their attributes of Affiliation, Integration of care coordination, Comprehensiveness, Family Centeredness and Accessibility of use, while the attributes of Community Guidance/Orientation, Coordination of Information Systems, Longitudinality and Access attributes were rated as insufficient for APS. UBS units had low scores on all attributes. CONCLUSION The ESF units are closer to the principles of APS (Primary Health Care, but there is need to review actions of child care aimed at the attributes of APS in both care models, corroborating similar studies from other regions of Brazil.

  7. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, pparents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  8. A family based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finni Taija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that decrease in sedentary behaviour is beneficial for health. This family based randomized controlled trial examines whether face-to-face delivered counselling is effective in reducing sedentary time and improving health in adults and increasing moderate-to-vigorous activities in children. Methods The families are randomized after balancing socioeconomic and environmental factors in the Jyväskylä region, Finland. Inclusion criteria are: healthy men and women with children 3-8 years old, and having an occupation where they self-reportedly sit more than 50% of their work time and children in all-day day-care in kindergarten or in the first grade in primary school. Exclusion criteria are: body mass index > 35 kg/m2, self-reported chronic, long-term diseases, families with pregnant mother at baseline and children with disorders delaying motor development. From both adults and children accelerometer data is collected five times a year in one week periods. In addition, fasting blood samples for whole blood count and serum metabonomics, and diurnal heart rate variability for 3 days are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up from adults. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activities providing detailed information on muscle inactivity will be used to realize the maximum potential effect of the intervention. Fundamental motor skills from children and body composition from adults will be measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Questionnaires of family-influence-model, health and physical activity, and dietary records are assessed. After the baseline measurements the intervention group will receive tailored counselling targeted to decrease sitting time by focusing on commute and work time. The counselling regarding leisure time is especially targeted to encourage toward family physical activities such as visiting playgrounds and non-built environments, where children can

  9. Using Evidence-Based Programs to Support Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebel, Nancy L.; Bassuk, Ellen; Medeiros, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This article was originally published (November 2011) as a brief created on behalf of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Coordinating Center, which is a partnership of The National Center on Family Homelessness, National Alliance to End Family Homelessness, and ZERO TO THREE. The article offers a definition of…

  10. Hospitality: transformative service to children, families, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B

    2014-11-01

    Hospitality is an ancient moral practice that was deeply embedded in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Hospitality requires acceptance of, service to, and respect for people who lack a place in the community. The contemporary importance of this practice reflects the social disconnection and economic disadvantage of many young parents and the high frequency of separation of young people, including many young parents, from their communities. Such social deterioration substantially increases the risk of child maltreatment. Building on the proposals of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Strong Communities for Children demonstrated the effectiveness of community building in reducing such risk. It further suggested the importance of both relying on and learning from hospitable people in strengthening support for children and their parents.

  11. Hospitality: transformative service to children, families, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B

    2014-11-01

    Hospitality is an ancient moral practice that was deeply embedded in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Hospitality requires acceptance of, service to, and respect for people who lack a place in the community. The contemporary importance of this practice reflects the social disconnection and economic disadvantage of many young parents and the high frequency of separation of young people, including many young parents, from their communities. Such social deterioration substantially increases the risk of child maltreatment. Building on the proposals of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Strong Communities for Children demonstrated the effectiveness of community building in reducing such risk. It further suggested the importance of both relying on and learning from hospitable people in strengthening support for children and their parents. PMID:25486150

  12. World AIDS Day: a time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP) used World AIDS Day 1993 and its theme "A Time to Act" as an opportunity to focus attention on the urgency of the struggle against AIDS. Some of the events AIDSCAP promoted included the release of hundreds of balloons inscribed with the message "Think: AIDS is Still Here" in Haiti, where a major radio station also devoted all of the day's advertising time to HIV/AIDS prevention messages; the distribution of 500,000 condoms as inserts in a major Brazilian newspaper; and a 15-km walk in Ethiopia undertaken by thousands of people to promote AIDS prevention. While such events are not expected to have a measurable impact on the epidemic, they could instigate the long-term efforts to create a social environment conducive to HIV prevention through individual behavior change. The theme chosen for the 1994 World AIDS Day is "AIDS and the Family." PMID:12345905

  13. Using Systems Theory to Understand and Respond to Family Influences on Children's Bullying Behavior: Friendly Schools Friendly Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Barnes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses Systems Theory as it applies to school-age children's bullying behavior. It focuses on the interrelationships, mutual influences, and dynamics of relationships within the family, and how these may affect children's behavior toward their peers. The theory helps to explain the ways family patterns are reflected in…

  14. Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and the use of mobility devices by children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. R. Cury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional mobility of children with cerebral palsy (CP is influenced by personal and environmental factors, serving as barriers and/or facilitators and impacting on children's strategies and functional outcome. OBJECTIVES: To describe typical mobility methods used by children with CP at home, school and community and to compare them across family's socioeconomic levels (SES. METHODS: The Functional Mobility Scale was used to assess mobility of 113 children with CP of high and low SES at home, school, and community. RESULTS: Differences in mobility methods of participants classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II, III and IV were found between home and community. For levels III and IV, differences were also found between home and school. At home, participants from higher SES used wheelchairs more frequently while those from lower SES used floor mobility (crawling. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and use of mobility devices by children with CP.

  15. Women and AIDS care: coping with "triple jeopardy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K

    1995-11-01

    Women in developing countries are at "triple jeopardy" in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. As women, a combination of biological, social, and economic risk factors increase their vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As mothers, they can infect their children with HIV. And, as society's traditional caregivers, women are burdened with the care of sick family members. The most effective AIDS programs deliver counseling and social support to family caregivers as well as clinical management of AIDS-related illnesses and nursing care. In several African countries, the physical, financial, and emotional demands associated with home care of AIDS patients are addressed by mobile teams of health workers and counselors. Government health services and nongovernmental organizations are training village health workers to help people cope with the fear and stigma associated with AIDS. These community AIDS workers conduct formal and informal educational sessions, visit homes to provide counseling, instruct caregivers on precautions to protect themselves from infection, and refer people for HIV testing and medical treatment. A multisectoral approach to providing the mix of services required is the best strategy for maximizing program coverage while maintaining a high quality of services.

  16. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  17. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodriguez-Orozco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire,  Pediatric  Asthma  Quality  of  Life  Questionnaire   (PAQLQ   test,  and flowmetry were applied  to  children  and  Pediatric  Asthma  Caregiver´s Quatily of  Life Questionnaire  (PAQCLQ  and  the  Family Functioning  Perception  Test  (FF-SIL were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium  to  high strength  of  association was founded  between  the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents’ limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837, parents’ limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722, parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837, parents’ emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743 and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870.No  direct associations were founded  among respiratory function, disease control  and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.

  18. Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Brinkman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary and may contribute to variability in treatment utilization.Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the evidence-based treatments available for ADHD, identify patterns of use for each modality, and examine patient and parent treatment preferences.Method: Literature review.Results: Treatment options differ on benefits and risks/costs. Therefore, treatment decisions are preference sensitive and depend on how an informed patient/parent values the tradeoffs between options. Literature on patient and parent ADHD treatment preferences is based on quantitative research assessing the construct of treatment acceptability and qualitative and quantitative research that assesses preferences from a broader perspective. After a child is diagnosed with ADHD, a variety of factors influence the initial selection of treatment modalities that are utilized. Initial parent and child preferences are shaped by their beliefs about the nature of the child's problems and by information (and misinformation received from a variety of sources, including social networks, the media, and health care providers. Subsequently, preferences become further informed by personal experience with various treatment modalities. Over time, treatment plans are revisited and revised as families work with their health care team to establish a treatment plan that helps their child achieve goals while minimizing harms and costs.Conclusions: Studies have not been able to determine the extent to which

  19. How pediatricians can deal with children who have been sexually abused by family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771

  20. AIDS and Young Children in South Florida. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session (Miami, FL, August 7, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is a record of a hearing on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and young children in South Florida. Opening statements are provided by Congressmen George Miller, William Lehman, and Richard Durbin; a fact sheet on AIDS and young children in South Florida is also presented. Testimony is presented by the following: (1) Ana…

  1. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Moffitt TE; Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  2. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2015-05-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music.

  3. Formulating Rural Development Programmes to Aid Low-Income Farm Families

    OpenAIRE

    Findeis, Jill L; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.

    1989-01-01

    Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...

  4. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lee Jones

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  5. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  6. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. PMID:25751176

  7. Partnership With Parents of Technology-Dependent Children: Clarification of the Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Michele A

    2016-01-01

    A strategy based on the Hybrid Model of Concept Development was used to integrate previous concept analyses and research with data from interviews with parents and nurses caring for children dependent on technology to clarify the concept. Partnership was generally described positively in the literature, but some cautions were noted. Six characteristics of partnering were identified from the fieldwork data: respect, flexibility, caring professionalism, communication, acknowledgment of parental control, and support for parents. The concept of participation is clarified and extended to a unique area of nursing practice, the care of children dependent on technology in the home. PMID:26836996

  8. Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: the potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Adato, M.; Bassett, L.

    2009-01-01

    Investing in social protection in sub-Saharan Africa has taken on a new urgency as HIVand AIDS interact with other drivers of poverty to simultaneously destabilise livelihoods systems and family and community safety nets. Cash transfer programmes already reach millions of people in South Africa, and in other countries in southern and East Africa plans are underway to reach tens and eventually hundreds of thousands more. Cash transfers worldwide have demonstrated large impacts on the education...

  9. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  10. An Examination of Fast Mapping Skills in Preschool Children from Families with Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Researchers consistently report that children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families have, on average, smaller vocabularies as assessed by measures of existing vocabulary knowledge than children from higher SES families. Yet, few studies have examined the word-learning process of children from low SES families. The present study was an…

  11. How to Share Data with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lorette; Patton, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Students whose parents receive regular and personalized messages with actionable information from teachers are more likely to succeed in school. But effective data-sharing programs require more than simply sending data home. They also encourage educators and families to make connections with each other, sharing observations about how a child…

  12. Implementing the Family Support Act: Perspectives of Puerto Rican Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jose E.

    An assessment of welfare-related experiences and perspectives of Puerto Rican Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients in New York City (New York), Newark (New Jersey), and Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) was conducted. Data were developed through 8 self-contained focus groups involving 63 participants. An additional focus group was…

  13. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  14. Impacts to HIV/AIDS of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Taşçı

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. HIV/AIDS is one of the vital problems of our century. HIV/AIDS is not merely a medical disease but also is a problem, which possesses economical, cultural, psychological and social dimensions. Women are more vulnerable to HIV than men because of biological and cultural factors. Besides women who carry HIV virus experience difficulty in taking care of their own health, they also carry the burden of possibility that their children and other members of the family might catch HIV virus. Most often, social support is insufficient and the conditions brought by treatment cannot be utilized appropriately due to external interventions. Most of the problems that women under the risk of HIV run into are largely social rather than medical. Many women infected with HIV were isolated because they didn’t get of sufficient social support or didn’t equal time for their care and it is thought that this inequality still continues. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women's empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic.

  15. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  16. The child's right to a family environment. Why children's rights and family values are compatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, G B

    1996-12-01

    Critics of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (U.N. General Assembly, 1989) have lobbied against its ratification on the grounds that its impact in the United States would be antifamily. Careful reading of the Convention shows, however, that it not only is supportive of strong families but offers a creative and conceptually coherent foundation for government action to promote and protect family life. PMID:8962531

  17. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Renne Gerber Lederman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of diagnosis could be relevant factors for the increased divorce rate related to this syndrome.

  18. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Vivian Renne Gerber; Alves, Bianca dos Santos; Negrão, Juliana; Maria, Juliana Negrão; Schwartzman, José Salomão; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá; Brunoni, Decio

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of diagnosis could be relevant factors for the increased divorce rate related to this syndrome.

  19. Experiences and perceived needs of children and teenagers with cancer and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar González Carrión

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:- To know the experiencies and perceived needs of children and teenagers with cancer and their care givers regarding the received care and their oncological process. - To identify proposals for improving care.Methodology: A qualitative study based on individual semistructured interviews and focus interviews with children and teenagers diagnosed of cancer was designed. Results: Hospitalization, therapeutic and diagnose procedures, side effects and isolation when neutropenia, were identified as the main traumatic experiencies suffered by children and relatives. These issues were related to physic, psycologic, social and educational problems. Mothers showed sad and other depression feelings, although those feelings changed as the process of the illness evolved. Some improvement proposals were made by relatives, including the need of a better correlation between health resources and patient/relatives needs. The proffesional support and the care received were given great value.Conclusions: The illness was associated to physic, psycologic and social consequencies for both patients and relatives. Taking their opinion into account is very useful to improve the quality of the health servicies offered to children with cancer and their family.

  20. Family dynamics and young children's sibling victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work. PMID:25111955

  1. Medical foster care: what happens when children with medical complexity cannot be cared for by their families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Rebecca R; Henderson, Carrie M; Boss, Renee D

    2016-01-01

    Medical interventions for life-threatening pediatric conditions often oblige ongoing and complex medical care for survivors. For some children with medical complexity, their caretaking needs outstrip their parents' resources and abilities. When this occurs, the medical foster care system can provide the necessary health care and supervision to permit these children to live outside of hospitals. However, foster children with medical complexity experience extremes of social and medical risk, confounding their prognosis and quality of life beyond that of similar children living with biologic parents. Medical foster parents report inadequate training and preparation, perpetuating these health risks. Further, critical decisions that weigh the benefits and burdens of medical interventions for these children must accommodate complicated relationships involving foster families, caseworkers, biologic families, legal consultants, and clinicians. These variables can delay and undermine coordinated and comprehensive care. To rectify these issues, medical homes and written care plans can promote collaboration between providers, families, and agencies. Pediatricians should receive specialized training to meet the unique needs of this population. National policy and research agendas could target medical and social interventions to reduce the need for medical foster care for children with medical complexity, and to improve its quality for those children who do. PMID:26460524

  2. The family's role as a support network for people living with HIV/AIDS: a review of Brazilian research into the theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonara Maria Souza da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of HIV transmission and the implementation of AIDS prevention actions recognize the importance of social networks in the transmission of the disease, the adherence to treatment and the quality of life of those infected. For this relevance there was a review of articles on social support networks to people living with HIV /AIDS available in the Virtual Health Library (VHL were published in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. In this study 31 articles were used from journals covering the following áreas: Nursing (n = 15, Psychology (n = 6 and Science Health / Biomedica (n = 6, were included, which some principal authors were affiliated to higher education public institutions (n = 17. In relation to the methodology used, priority wasgiven to conducting: qualitative research (n = 18, cross-sectional studies (n = 19 and studies that involved talking to people living with HIV/AIDS (n = 13. Particular importance was placed on analytic categories related to: adherence to treatment (n = 6, the family (n = 4, vulnerability (n = 3 and support from social networks (n = 5. Within this paper we argue for more investments into studies that focus on the family, carers and their households, as well as deepening the theoretical study of the themes discussed and the use of developed theories for the analysis of Social Networks.

  3. The family's role as a support network for people living with HIV/AIDS: a review of Brazilian research into the theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leonara Maria Souza; Tavares, Jeane Saskya Campos

    2015-04-01

    The study of HIV transmission and the implementation of AIDS prevention actions recognize the importance of social networks in the transmission of the disease, the adherence to treatment and the quality of life of those infected. For this relevance there was a review of articles on social support networks to people living with HIV /AIDS available in the Virtual Health Library (VHL) were published in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. In this study 31 articles were used from journals covering the following áreas: Nursing (n = 15), Psychology (n = 6) and Science Health / Biomedica (n = 6), were included, which some principal authors were affiliated to higher education public institutions (n = 17). In relation to the methodology used, priority wasgiven to conducting: qualitative research (n = 18), cross-sectional studies (n = 19) and studies that involved talking to people living with HIV/AIDS (n = 13). Particular importance was placed on analytic categories related to: adherence to treatment (n = 6), the family (n = 4), vulnerability (n = 3) and support from social networks (n = 5). Within this paper we argue for more investments into studies that focus on the family, carers and their households, as well as deepening the theoretical study of the themes discussed and the use of developed theories for the analysis of Social Networks. PMID:25923622

  4. Divorce in families of children with Down Syndrome or Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Renne Gerber Lederman; Bianca dos Santos Alves; Juliana Negrão; José Salomão Schwartzman; Maria Eloisa Famá D'Antino; Decio Brunoni

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact in the stability and management of the marriage of parents of a child with Down or Rett Syndrome. Morbidity of the syndromes and the marital status of the couples before and after the birth of the affected children were considered variables. The divorce rate in families with Down syndrome was 10%, similar to the Brazilian rate population. In Rett Syndrome, the divorce rate was significantly higher, 23.5%. The higher morbidity of Rett Syndrome, and the moment of...

  5. What Factors Are Associated with Positive Effects of Dog Ownership in Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? The Development of the Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Susannah Hall; Wright, Hannah F.; Daniel Simon Mills

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature exploring the value of assistance dogs to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rapidly emerging. However, there is comparably less literature reporting the effects of pet (as opposed to assistance) dogs to these children. In particular, there are no known validated scales which assess how children may alter their behaviours in the presence of the dog, to evaluate the efficacy of pet dogs to these families. Additionally, given the highly individualised nature o...

  6. Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was performed to assess, beyond socio-economic factors, independent associations between the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years old and (1 family behavioural factors related to women with regard to child care and (2 war-related experience by the household of hardships in Afghanistan. Methods The subjects were all children born during the previous 5 years from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan and were selected by multistage sampling in March 2006. Height and weight measurements of the children and culturally sensitive interviews with their mothers were conducted by household visits. Child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status were evaluated. Four areas were assessed as variables for family behavioural factors related to women: education of mothers, child marriage of the mothers, maternal autonomy in obtaining healthcare for children and preference for a female physician. Hardships experienced by the family were examined by determining their satisfaction of basic material needs and by any experience of being forced to leave a preferred residence. Results A total of 2474 children from 1327 households completed the examinations and interviews; among them, 101 children were deceased by the time of the interview visits. Diarrhoea (32.5% and acute respiratory infection (41.0% were common child health problems and both emaciation (12.4% and linear growth retardation (39.9% were prevalent. Regardless of the influence of economic, demographic, family behavioural or hardships experience factors, a lack of maternal autonomy (79.1% was associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory infection (odds-ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval = 1.23, 2.40, and linear growth retardation of children (odds-ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.90; a lack of education of the mother (71.7% and child marriage of the mothers (18.3% were associated with diarrhoea (odds-ratio = 1

  7. Conversational interaction between children using communication aids and their peers.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis uses the principles and practices of Conversation Analysis in an examination of conversational interaction between non-speaking children with Cerebral Palsy using voice output communication aids (VOCAs) and their speaking peers. In order to capture the unique and subtle ways in which these interactions are organised this thesis presents a detailed examination of three dyads. Many children with Cerebral Palsy experience profound difficulty producing intelligible speech. Such childr...

  8. Same sex families and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .

  9. PARENTAL TYPE OF PERSONALITY, NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY AND FAMILY STRESSFUL EVENTS IN CHILDREN WITH CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Gordana; Čulić, Srđana; Benko, Marta; Kalebić Jakupčević, Katja; Stepan, Jasminka; Šprajc, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Psychological interactions between parents,children and social environment are very important for childhood health. The type of personality and stressful events are probably also cancer risk factors. We investigated personality types A/B and D (negative affectivity and social inhibition) in parents of children with cancer (PCC), as well as social environmental factors, and family / children’s stressful events before the appearance of cancer. Subjects and methods: Bortne...

  10. Vulnerable children in preschool : Teachers experience and knowledge of helping children in abusive families, to a good self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Ann-Charlott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of my study is to examine the experiences and opportunities to support teachers in preschool to help children in vulnerable environments, a good self-esteem. Hindberg (1999) writes that of all children today are growing up in Sweden, so ten percent live in families where there is abuse. According Pousette (2011) as the National Public Health Institute has a new appreciation for families where there is hazardous and this means that drinking or abused so much that it can be...

  11. Falling through the gaps: how should HIV programmes respond to families that persistently deny treatment to children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Busza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children living with HIV rely on adult caregivers for access to HIV testing and care, including clinical monitoring and adherence to treatment. Yet, many caregivers confront barriers to ensuring children's care, including fear of disclosure of the child's or the parents’ HIV status, competing family demands, fluctuating care arrangements and broader structural factors such as entrenched poverty or alternative beliefs about HIV's aetiology and treatment. Thus, many children are “falling through the gaps” because their access to testing and care is mediated by guardians who appear unable or unwilling to facilitate it. These children are likely to suffer treatment failure or death due to their caregivers’ recalcitrance. Discussion: This Commentary presents three cases from paediatric HIV services in Zimbabwe that highlight the complexities facing health care providers in providing HIV testing and care to children, and discusses the implications as a child's rights issue requiring both legal and programmatic responses. The cases provide examples of how disagreements between family members about appropriate care, conflicts between a child and caregiver and religious objections to medical treatment interrupt children's engagement with HIV services. In all three cases, no social or legal mechanisms were in place for health staff to intervene and prevent “loss to follow up.” Conclusions: We suggest that conceptualizing this as a child's rights issue may be a useful way to raise the debate and move towards improved treatment access. Our cases reflect policy failure to facilitate access to children's HIV testing and treatment, and are likely to be similar across international settings. We propose sharing experiences and encouraging dialogue between health practitioners and global advocates for children's right to health to raise awareness that children are the bearers of rights even if they lack legal capacity, and that the

  12. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  13. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with {sup 131}I for hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; O' Doherty, M.J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, P. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kettle, A.G. [Kent and Canterbury Hospital, East Kent Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Gadd, R.; Mountford, P.J. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Directorate of Medical Physics and Clinical Technology, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H.; Harding, L.K. [City Hospital, Department of Physics and Nuclear Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Batchelor, S. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the internal dose received by family members from ingestion of radioactive contamination after outpatient therapy. Advice was given to minimise transfer of radioiodine. Home visits were made approximately 2, 7 and 21 days after treatment to measure radioactivity in the thyroids of family members. A decay correction was applied to radioactivity detected assuming ingestion had occurred at the earlier contact time, either the day of treatment or the previous home visit. An effective half-life of 6 or 7 days was used depending on age. Thyroid activity was summed if activity was found at more than one visit in excess of the amount attributable to radioactive decay. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP72. Fifty-three adults and 92 children, median age 12 (range 4-17) years participated. Median administered activity was 576 (range 329-690) MBq {sup 131}I. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 5.4 kBq in the adults with activity detected in 17. Maximum adult ED was 0.4 mSv. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 11.8 kBq in the children with activity detected in 26. The two highest values of 5.0 and 11.8 kBq occurred in children aged 5 and 14 years from different families. Eighty-five children had no activity or <1 kBq detected. ED was <0.2 mSv in 86 out of 92 children (93%). Previous published data showed 93% of children received an ED {<=}0.8 mSv from external irradiation. With advice, families of outpatients receiving radioiodine should be able to comply with statutory dose limits and constraints. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of the internal dose to families of outpatients treated with 131I for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure the internal dose received by family members from ingestion of radioactive contamination after outpatient therapy. Advice was given to minimise transfer of radioiodine. Home visits were made approximately 2, 7 and 21 days after treatment to measure radioactivity in the thyroids of family members. A decay correction was applied to radioactivity detected assuming ingestion had occurred at the earlier contact time, either the day of treatment or the previous home visit. An effective half-life of 6 or 7 days was used depending on age. Thyroid activity was summed if activity was found at more than one visit in excess of the amount attributable to radioactive decay. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP72. Fifty-three adults and 92 children, median age 12 (range 4-17) years participated. Median administered activity was 576 (range 329-690) MBq 131I. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 5.4 kBq in the adults with activity detected in 17. Maximum adult ED was 0.4 mSv. Thyroid activity ranged from 0 to 11.8 kBq in the children with activity detected in 26. The two highest values of 5.0 and 11.8 kBq occurred in children aged 5 and 14 years from different families. Eighty-five children had no activity or <1 kBq detected. ED was <0.2 mSv in 86 out of 92 children (93%). Previous published data showed 93% of children received an ED ≤0.8 mSv from external irradiation. With advice, families of outpatients receiving radioiodine should be able to comply with statutory dose limits and constraints. (orig.)

  15. Children in Maritally Violent Families: A Look at Family Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullette, Lyn Cobin

    1987-01-01

    Maritally violent families are examined. Two types of violent families are described. Type I families use violence to establish a hierarchy and maintain control over members. In type II families, violence is used to express anger or to react to stress. Both types may cause behavioral problems in the children. (VM)

  16. FINAL REMINDER - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 18 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 18 to 25 (or reaching 18 during the 2006/2007 school year), for whom an allowance for dependent children is paid, must provide the School fees service as soon as possible with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE If we have not received this certificate by November 30, 2006 at the latest, the child allowance will be withdrawn retroactively as from July 1, 2006. School fees service (33-1-017) Organization, Procedures and Services Human Resources Department Tel. 72862

  17. Stability and Change in Sustainability of Daily Routines and Social Networks in Families of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) demand intense family accommodations from birth and onwards. This study used an exploratory and qualitative study design to investigate stability and change in sustainability of daily routines and social networks of Swedish families of children with PIMD. Materials…

  18. The Perceptions and Views on Family Interaction and Relationships of Middle Children from Large Families: An Informal Mini Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elena C. Thomas

    In Adler's Theory of Individual Psychology the significance of birth order position in the family constellation depends on the interpretation given to it by the child, which in turn influences his character. This study surveyed the perceptions of middle children in large families. Subjects (N=13) were middle children in families of more than five…

  19. Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

  20. Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J

    1998-07-01

    Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive

  1. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.

  2. The potential for social media to educate farm families about health and safety for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Social media has the potential to reach farm families to educate them about health and safety for children. It offers advantages over traditional approaches because of the shorter time between creation and distribution and because of the greater reach and engagement possible. Recommendations are provided for how government agencies and the private sector can learn about and use social media to promote health and safety for children as a supplement to traditional approaches. PMID:22490035

  3. Children's participation in family food consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2006-01-01

    -related lifestyle in order to understand children and families through their everyday practices. It suggest a new emphasis on children as active agents in the formation of family food consumption patterns and looks at children's food choices as embedded in everyday family life. We focus especially on the construct......This paper presents a theoretical framework for researching children and food consumption in the family. The proposed framework draws on contemporary social science approaches to the study of family decision making, food consumption patterns and routines, and consumer competence and food...

  4. Immigrant-Chinese and Euro-American parents' physical closeness with young children: themes of family relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, F; Morelli, G; Pott, M; Liu-Constant, Y

    2000-09-01

    This study examined cultural differences in the expression and meaning of physical closeness. Findings indicated that immigrant-Chinese parents, as compared with Euro-American parents, sleep in closer proximity with their children; more often view independence as children growing with the family; are more likely to emphasize the family unit; and place greater importance on inhibition of expression, adherence to correct values, and hierarchy of relations. Euro-Americans, by contrast, are more accepting of nudity; place more emphasis on psychological benefits of physical closeness and on the child's expression of wants and feelings; more often view independence as celebrating the child's distinctiveness; and place greater importance on intimacy, pleasure, and spousal exclusiveness. The authors suggest that closeness is characterized by an overarching theme of harmony in immigrant-Chinese families and by an overarching theme of romance in Euro-American families. PMID:11025928

  5. Is it safe? Talking to teens with HIV/AIDS about death and dying: a 3-month evaluation of Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning – anxiety, depression, quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D’Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+) adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning intervention. Patients and methods We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76). Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five...

  6. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity.

  7. Susceptibility to Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis Is Associated with Hla Alleles Reported to Be Implicated with Rapid Progression to Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia G. Demarco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: The frequency of HLA markers associated with rapid progression to AIDS was evaluated in Brazilian patients with AIDS exhibiting or not toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TRC.

  8. Families' Selection of Children's Literature Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This study examined families' choices of children's literature books for joint story reading. Teachers, parents, and their children from five kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Over a 4 months period, family members joined other parents twice a week to learn and practice story reading techniques. They selected children's literature…

  9. Quality of life measures in Italian children with atopic dermatitis and their families

    OpenAIRE

    Monti Fiorella; Agostini Francesca; Gobbi Francesca; Neri Erica; Schianchi Sandra; Arcangeli Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of atopic dermatitis (AD) on children's quality of life (QoL) in US and European countries is relatively well known, though rarely evaluated in the Italian population. Moreover, the association between child age and QoL has not been enough investigated, even though few studies detected a worse QoL in youngest AD children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the QoL in an Italian sample of atopic children and their families, also exploring a possible association...

  10. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis....... The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children's educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  11. Emotional lability in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): clinical correlates and familial prevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobanski, E.; Banaschewski, T.; Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Chen, W.; Franke, B.; Holtmann, M.; Krumm, B.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Stringaris, A.; Taylor, E.; Anney, R.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. METHODS: One thousan

  12. Time Allocations of Children in Single-Parent Urban Utah Families to Selected Household Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsford, Susan Wilde

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how selected factors are related to the time children in single parent families spend in the household tasks of meal preparation; dishwashing; shopping; housecleaning; maintenance of home, yard, car and pets and nonphysical care of family members. The data for this study were collected from 89 female headed single-parent/ two-child households in the greater metropolitan Salt Lake City 1Utah area. Time use data were collected for mothers and thei...

  13. How to Support Children with Mathematical Learning Disabilities Learning to Play an Instrument?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Desoete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, children with a mathematical learning disability (=14 and age-matched peers without learning disabilities (=14 as well as their parents and teachers were interviewed on how they experienced playing an instrument (guitar, drum, flute, violin, trombone, horn, and piano and on what helped them using a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings. Thematic analyses mentioned intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as important. Some children with MLD were found to have a real musical talent and a very good musical ear and memory for sounds. However, all children with MLD seemed more dependent on the aid of parents, sibling, peers, and teachers. They had to study harder and needed more time to study, more practice, and a more structured approach.

  14. Effect of HIV/AIDS on Children's Attitudes toward Learning: Voices of Teachers and Caregivers in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepkemboi, Grace; Aldridge, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS is often significantly compromised, as they are prone to discrimination, victimization, and exclusion from social and familial structures. The present study examines the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's attitudes toward learning, as perceived by teachers and caregivers. Teachers and caregivers…

  15. Determination of Spatial Distribution of Children Treated in Children Oncology Clinic with the Aid of Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topan, Aysel; Bayram, Dilek; Özendi, Mustafa; Cam, Ali; Öztürk, Özlem; Ayyıldız, Tülay Kuzlu; Kulakçı, Hülya; Veren, Funda

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to examine child cancer cases in Zonguldak/Turkey descriptively in epidemiological aspect with the help of GIS. Universe of the study is composed of 60 children between 1 and 19 years old who were treated in Children Oncology Clinic with a diagnosis of cancer. Whole universe was reached without selecting a sample in the study. Data were collected by using a form prepared by obtaining expert advice and they were applied to children and their parents at study dates. Results were expressed as percentages. Chi-Square test was used in intergroup comparisons, results were assessed within 95 % confidence interval and p types are ALL with 33.3 % (n = 20), Medullablastoma with 13.3 % (n = 8) and Hodgkin-nonHodgkin Lymphoma with 11.7 % (n = 7). Kdz. Eregli with 31.7 % (n = 19), Center with 31.7 % (n = 19), and Caycuma with 18.3 % (n = 11) are the first-three counties where the cases were mostly observed. Statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.016) comparing disease diagnosis with living place, and distribution maps of the number of cancer cases were produced. PMID:27624492

  16. Neural deficits, intelligence, maladjustment and family response in children with the nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, L R; Moodley, T Y; Coovadia, H M; Adhikari, M

    1987-01-10

    An intensive psychomedical study of a small number of children suffering from the nephrotic syndrome is reported. Significant organic and psychological sequelae exist in the nephrotic child. The patient's family also appears to need specialist psychological attention. The urgent need for well-organised liaison psychiatric services in non-psychiatric medical departments is emphasised. PMID:2432669

  17. Family Advocates' Perspectives on the Early Academic Success of Children Born to Low-Income Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom; Bates, Laura; Vandenbelt, Marcia; Nievar, M. Angela

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative analyses were conducted to examine family factors related to individual differences in the early school success of children born to low-income adolescent mothers from the perspective of paraprofessional family advocates. These families were participants in a 5-year family support program. Achievement test scores and teacher ratings…

  18. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Identifying differential effects of family environment on children's trauma and psychopathology symptoms through regression mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Shin, Sunny; Corona, Rosalie; Maternick, Anna; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Ascione, Frank R; Herbert Williams, James

    2016-08-01

    The majority of analytic approaches aimed at understanding the influence of environmental context on children's socioemotional adjustment assume comparable effects of contextual risk and protective factors for all children. Using self-reported data from 289 maternal caregiver-child dyads, we examined the degree to which there are differential effects of severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure, yearly household income, and number of children in the family on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and psychopathology symptoms (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) among school-age children between the ages of 7-12 years. A regression mixture model identified three latent classes that were primarily distinguished by differential effects of IPV exposure severity on PTS and psychopathology symptoms: (1) asymptomatic with low sensitivity to environmental factors (66% of children), (2) maladjusted with moderate sensitivity (24%), and (3) highly maladjusted with high sensitivity (10%). Children with mothers who had higher levels of education were more likely to be in the maladjusted with moderate sensitivity group than the asymptomatic with low sensitivity group. Latino children were less likely to be in both maladjusted groups compared to the asymptomatic group. Overall, the findings suggest differential effects of family environmental factors on PTS and psychopathology symptoms among children exposed to IPV. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27337691

  19. Support and Education of Immigrants with Chronically Ill Children: Identified Needs from a Case Study of Turkish and Kurdish Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Lene; Karlberg, Ingvar; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse how parents of Turkish and Turkish/Kurdish children with diabetes and health care professionals perceived the education and support provided, and to assess what was required to improve the collaboration between the families and the team in order to optimize selfcare and metabolic control. Design: A…

  20. Determination of Spatial Distribution of Children Treated in Children Oncology Clinic with the Aid of Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topan, Aysel; Bayram, Dilek; Özendi, Mustafa; Cam, Ali; Öztürk, Özlem; Ayyıldız, Tülay Kuzlu; Kulakçı, Hülya; Veren, Funda

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to examine child cancer cases in Zonguldak/Turkey descriptively in epidemiological aspect with the help of GIS. Universe of the study is composed of 60 children between 1 and 19 years old who were treated in Children Oncology Clinic with a diagnosis of cancer. Whole universe was reached without selecting a sample in the study. Data were collected by using a form prepared by obtaining expert advice and they were applied to children and their parents at study dates. Results were expressed as percentages. Chi-Square test was used in intergroup comparisons, results were assessed within 95 % confidence interval and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Variables that were used in the study were assessed, recorded in prepared data collection form and distribution maps were produced. When disease diagnosis of the children participated in the study were evaluated, the most observed three types are ALL with 33.3 % (n = 20), Medullablastoma with 13.3 % (n = 8) and Hodgkin-nonHodgkin Lymphoma with 11.7 % (n = 7). Kdz. Eregli with 31.7 % (n = 19), Center with 31.7 % (n = 19), and Caycuma with 18.3 % (n = 11) are the first-three counties where the cases were mostly observed. Statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.016) comparing disease diagnosis with living place, and distribution maps of the number of cancer cases were produced.

  1. Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Modak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for

  2. Responding to the Needs of Children and Families After a Disaster: Linkages Between Unmet Needs and Caregiver Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kilmer, Ryan P.; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Disasters may negatively influence caregivers’ ability to respond to the needs of their families. In this context, service organizations’ response to families’ needs may affect caregivers’ symptoms and parenting. Interviews were conducted with caregivers affected by Hurricane Katrina approximately 12-months (T1; N = 68) and 2 years post-hurricane (T2; N = 52). Caregivers reported high levels of service needs and unmet needs for themselves and their child(ren) and family at both time points. R...

  3. Family Functioning and Illness Perception of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis, Living without Skin Symptoms, but with Psychosomatic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain. R. Rodríguez-Orozco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease.This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents’ perceptions of their child’s disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child’s atopic dermatitis. Pearson’s correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child’s atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child’s daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  4. It's about Listening to Our Families and the Needs of Their Children: The Family Education and Early Childhood Department at the Maryland School for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Cheri; Marquez, Deborah; Moers, Lori; Richmond, Mary Ann; Swann, Maryann

    2011-01-01

    Current trends and issues surrounding birth screening, early intervention services, and deaf children's varying access to language and literacy demonstrate a critical need to improve one's understanding of how to involve families as partners in their children's education. In the past decade, increasing numbers of deaf children have been identified…

  5. Rosuvastatin lowers coenzyme Q10 levels, but not mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis, in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Avis; I.P. Hargreaves; J.P.N. Ruiter; J.M. Land; R.J. Wanders; F.A. Wijburg

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether statin therapy affects coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) status in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Samples were obtained at baseline (treatment naïve) and after dose titration with rosuvastatin, aiming for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 110 mg

  6. Family-environmental factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chinese children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming du Prel Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, affecting an estimated 5 to 12% of school-aged children worldwide. From 15 to 19 million Chinese children suffer from ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD in a sample of Chinese children. METHODS: A pair-matched, case-control study was conducted with 161 ADHD children and 161 non-ADHD children of matching age and sex, all from 5-18 years of age. The ADHD subjects and the normal controls were all evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews. We examined the association between family-environmental factors and ADHD using the conditional multiple logistic regression with backward stepwise selection to predict the associated factors of ADHD. RESULTS: Having experienced emotional abuse and being a single child were both significant factors associated with children diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD subjects were more likely to have suffered from emotional abuse (OR = 11.09, 95% CI = 2.15-57.29, P = 0.004 and have been a single child in the family (OR = 6.32, 95% CI = 2.09-19.14, P = 0.001 when compared to normal controls. The results were not modified by other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence that family-environmental factors are associated with ADHD among children in China. These findings, if confirmed by future research, may help to decrease ADHD by increasing the awareness of the effects of childhood emotional abuse.

  7. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  8. An exceptional Albanian family with seven children presenting with dysmorphic features and mental retardation: maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigel Corina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism which can cause severe damage to the patient or, in the case of maternal phenylketonuria, to the foetus. The maternal phenylketonuria syndrome is caused by high blood phenylalanine concentrations during pregnancy and presents with serious foetal anomalies, especially congenital heart disease, microcephaly and mental retardation. Case presentation We report on an affected Albanian woman and her seven children. The mother is affected by phenylketonuria and is a compound heterozygote for two pathogenetic mutations, L48S and P281L. The diagnosis was only made in the context of her children, all of whom have at least one severe organic malformation. The first child, 17 years old, has a double-chambered right ventricle, vertebral malformations and epilepsy. She is also mentally retarded, microcephalic, exhibits facial dysmorphies and small stature. The second child, a girl 15 years of age, has severe mental retardation with microcephaly, small stature and various dysmorphic features. The next sibling, a boy, died of tetralogy of Fallot at the age of three months. He also had multiple vertebral and rib malformations. The subsequent girl, now eleven years old, has mental retardation, microcephaly and epilepsy along with facial dysmorphy, partial deafness and short stature. The eight-year-old child is slightly mentally retarded and microcephalic. A five-year-old boy was a premature, dystrophic baby and exhibits mental retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly and clinodactyly of the fifth finger on both hands. Following a miscarriage, our index case, the youngest child at two years of age, is microcephalic and mentally retarded and shows minor facial anomalies. All children exhibit features of phenylalanine embryopathy caused by maternal phenylketonuria because the mother had not been diagnosed earlier and, therefore, never received any diet. Conclusion This is

  9. "Someone's Been Sleeping in My Bed!" Parental Satisfaction Associated with Solitary and Parent-Child Co-Sleeping in Israeli Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollberg, Daphna; Shalev, Orly; Chen, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The study examined differences in parental satisfaction associated with solitary and parent-child co-sleeping in a sample (N = 61) of Israeli families with children ranging in age from 12 to 48 months (M = 28.04, SD = 10.71). Questionnaire data regarding the family sleeping arrangement, parental satisfaction with the sleeping arrangement, child…

  10. REUNIFICATION OF CHILDREN FROM INSTITUTIONS TO BIRTH FAMILY WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ACTUAL CHANGES IN CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychrová Adriana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article discusses reunification of children from institutional care to their birth families within the context of actual transformation of child protection system. Reunification is the process of reintegration of vulnerable child placed „out of home“to his or her family, if it is the best interest of the child. Reunification of children placed in institutions should be a primary goal of the system because of a preference for the role of parents in the law, especially in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The article is based on the analysis of documents of international organizations dealing with the protection of children's rights, international studies and program policy documents. The topic of reunification can be viewed from different perspectives, such as law and its influence on social policy and the practices of social work, the part of deinstitutionalization process or the decision making process. The main question is about interest of parents to care for their child. Social workers have to know characteristic of the family and the child. Then the reunification can start effectively. The family, child, specialists from institutions and social workers should participate on the process in more detail. In the conclusion of the paper the author tries to show principles and central values on which the successful process of reunification should be focused. She highlightes holistic view and complex assessment of family and safe family environment, the principle of partnership with family, the working with individual plan for child, the support of new family services, the performing sufficient preparation of the child, the family and the social environment before reuenification, intensive social services for family after returning home and finally the need for research on the process of reunification from the perspective of the child, parents and the professionals

  11. The Family Guide to Children's Television; What to Watch, What to Miss, What to Change and How to Do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Evelyn

    Action for Children's Television (ACT) has compiled a comprehensive guide to children's television for parents. Information about broadcasting business, techniques, and advertising is given, along with professional opinions on the value and harm of television, effects of TV violence on children, and the effects and influence of commercials.…

  12. Effectiveness of Parent Training on Shared Reading Practices in Families with Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jessica Page

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parent training on shared reading practices in families of children with hearing loss. This intervention augmented a multifaceted school program in emergent literacy. In a community based format, parents were explicitly taught three shared reading strategies that have evidence to support the…

  13. Using Internet Resources To Strengthen Community Programs and Collaborations for Children, Youth, and Families At Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Josephine A.; Mead, June P.; Haugan, Heidi L.

    A New York State Cornell Cooperative Extension project for children, youth, and families is implementing electronic connectivity or Internet access to support the development of computer literacy among staff and program participants and to promote positive program outcomes in communities at risk. Reducing Risks and Increasing Capacity (RRIC) is a…

  14. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  15. Precursors and Consequences of Phonemic Length Discrimination Ability Problems in Children with Reading Disabilities and Familial Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Martin, Maisa; Richardson, Ulla; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the importance of phonemic length discrimination ability on reading and spelling skills among children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and among children with typical reading skills, as well as the role of prereading skills in reading and spelling development in children with reading…

  16. The lonely voyage :support or isolation for gay men with AIDS?

    OpenAIRE

    Shands, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-five gay men, 20 with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and 5 with either AIDS Related Complex (ARC) or who tested positive for the AIDS virus, were asked in semi-structured interviews whether they felt supported or isolated. Areas covered included society in general, employment, housing, health care, insurance, religion, families of origin, ex-wives, children, friends and lovers. Subjects indicated that fear of AIDS, homophobia, and death anxiety were ...

  17. Snoezelen: Children with Intellectual Disability and Working with the Whole Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Nasser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snoezelen, or controlled multisensory stimulation, was first introduced in Israel in 1993. This paper presents a new concept of working with the whole family in the Snoezelen room with the participation of a social worker. The purpose was to facilitate family encounters with the child, to enable parents and siblings to become better acquainted with the resident through his/her strengths and special abilities, to encourage parental involvement in the care, to encourage increased visits, to improve quality of life (QOL for the resident, and to reinforce a better relationship between resident, family, and home. Sessions were divided into two major parts. The first segment (duration 20—40 min was free activity and the second was more structured (duration 15—30 min. Case stories are presented to illustrate the positive effects of this approach. Snoezelen can be used with the entire family with the participation of a social worker and can add new dimensions to communication.

  18. Three-year follow-up of a family support service cohort of children with behavioural problems and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L; Vostanis, P; O'Reilly, M

    2005-07-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to establish the medium-term (three-year) psychosocial outcome of children with behavioural problems and their parents, who had received an intervention from a family support service. Methods Forty families were traced at the three-year follow-up and agreed to participate. Pre- and post-intervention and follow-up measures were the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results The primary HoNOSCA outcome items (i.e. those initially targeted by the parenting intervention) of aggression/antisocial behaviour and family relationships were not found to have changed significantly from the baseline (but had not sustained the sort-term improvement following the intervention). Deterioration was found in other HoNOSCA items such as overactivity, self-harm, scholastic/language skills, emotional, and poor school attendance. When we compared pre-intervention with follow-up SDQ scores, there was no significant change on any scales, i.e. these had returned to the level reported at the time of the original referral to the family support service. Conclusions Following the intervention from a family support service, children and families reported a significant improvement in most outcome measures, predominantly child behaviour and family relationships. However, these improvements were either not sustained or there were additional difficulties at three-year follow-up. These could be related to various external and developmental factors. This lack of sustainable treatment effects for children with behavioural problems is consistent with previous research findings on parenting programmes. PMID:15948884

  19. Grants-in-Aid Help Students from Impoverished Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO YONGQIN; HUANG JIAN

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beginning September when the new semester began for schools all over China,grantsin-aid will be given to 20% of the 5.6 million students from poverty-stricken families who were recruited through the 2007 national college entrance examinations in June.This compared with 3% for students recruited through last year's examinations.In concrete terms,each recipient will be entitled,on an average,to some 2,000 yuan each year from now to 2010 when they finish their study at universities and colleges.The authors work with China Central Television (CCTV).

  20. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography findings in children who have family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The chest radiography and TCT findings in children who had contacted with adult family members with active pulmonary tuberculosis were compared. The contributions of thoracic computed tomography to the diagnosis of tuberculosis were investigated. Methods and material: The children who were 0-16 years old (n=173) and children of families with an adult member which was diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. The children were considered in two groups based on the absence (n=125) or presence (n=48) of complaints and/or ambiguous symptoms such as lack of appetite, mild cough, sweating, history of lung infection, low body weight and those with suspicious chest radiography findings (12 cases) were included in this study. Asymptomatic patients (n=125) did not undergo TCT. Patients who had positive PPD skin tests only received isoniazid. If the TCT demonstrated enlarged lymph nodes or parenchymal lesions, minimally active pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed and antituberculous treatment was given. Results and discussions: TCT revealed lymph node enlargement or parenchymal lesions in 39 children (81.2%). Of the 12 children whose CXRs revealed suspicious lymph node enlargement and/or infiltration, five had normal findings in TCT whereas the initial findings were confirmed in the remaining seven. These data suggest that there is a correlation between the presence of ambiguous symptoms in exposed children and TCT findings; chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield parallel findings. All the patients who received anti-TB treatment were resolved in the control examinations. Conclusion: In this study there is a correlation between presence of ambiguous symptoms and TCT findings, but the chest radiography and TCT findings do not yield harmony in exposed children with ambiguous symptoms (suspicious tuberculosis cases). These observations should be considered in children with symptoms similar to those of exposed children, but with no definite history of

  1. Imaging features of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in children with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursner, M. [State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Haller, J.O. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Babies Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper was to review the imaging features of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in 16 pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Materials and methods. We reviewed the pertinent clinical records of 16 children diagnosed with MAC between January 1990 and June 1998. These 16 cases were blood- or biopsy-proven to have MAC infection. Their plain films, abdominal, and chest CT scans were then reviewed and the findings were analyzed with reference to the few reported cases of children with MAC. Results. Abdominal findings: all but one had retroperitoneal adenopathy, mesenteric adenopathy or both. Ten patients had hepatomegaly, while nine patients were found to have splenomegaly. Four patients had nonspecific thickened gallbladder wall, while intestinal wall thickening and thickened stomach folds were identified in six of ten patients. Necrotic, fluid-filled nodes were also found. Chest findings included mediastinal adenopathy, cystic/cavitary lesions and bronchiectasis. One patient developed a fistula between the mediastinal lymph nodes, esophagus, and bronchial tree. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with HIV who develop MAC infection may present with massive lymph-node enlargement. This can occur not only in mesenteric and retroperitoneal nodes but also in hilar and posterior mediastinal nodes as well. As in MTB infection, these nodes can break down with development of fistulous tracts to both esophagus and adjacent lung. The major differential diagnostic consideration besides MTB is lymphoma. (orig.)

  2. Reminder - Extension/suppression of allowance for dependent children aged 20 to 25

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Members of the personnel with dependent children aged 20 to 25 (or reaching 20 during the 2009/2010 school year), for whom a dependent child’s allowance is currently paid, are invited to provide the Education Fees service with a: SCHOOL CERTIFICATE Unless we receive, by October 31, 2009 at the latest, a school certificate or similar written proof (contract of work placement, sandwich course or apprenticeship) covering your child / children for the 2009/2010 school year, we will be obliged to stop payment of the dependent child’s allowance as well as membership of the health insurance scheme at the appropriate date, retroactively if necessary. Education Fees service (33-1-017) HR Department - Tel. 72862

  3. 受艾滋病影响儿童家庭功能与心理健康的相关性研究%Research on the Correlation between the Family Functions of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS and Their Psychological Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱倩; 童玲; 盖梅; 邢浩杰; 朱长才

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解受艾滋病影响儿童的家庭功能与心理健康的关系.方法:采用家庭功能评定量表及心理自评量表对56例受艾滋病影响儿童和65例正常儿童进行测评分析.结果:受艾滋病影响儿童的家庭功能沟通、情感介入、行为控制等因子分及总体功能评分显著高于正常儿童(P<0.05);受艾滋病影响儿童的SCL-90心理量表因子分及总均分均显著高于正常儿童(P<0.05);受艾滋病影响儿童的家庭功能各因子与SCL-90心理量表的强迫症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、精神病性等因子分及总均分呈显著正相关(P<0.05).结论:受艾滋病影响儿童家庭功能状与心理健康关系密切,在开展对受艾滋病影响儿童心理关怀的同时应注重其家庭功能的完善.%Objechve: To know the correlation of the family Functions of children affected by HIV/AIDS and their psychological health.Methods: Apply Family Assessment Device and Self-reporting Inventory to 56 children affected by HIV/AIDS and 65 children who are not identified as being HIV infected to assess and analyse. Results : Results indicate that children who are infected with HIV had significantly higher scores compared to those who are not HIV carriers on factors of communication. emotion. behaviour control and so on (P<0.05). The SCL-90 psychological scale of children who are infected with HIV is considerably higher than that of thecontrol group (P<0.05). In addition,there was strong positive correlation between family function factors and SCL-90 psychological scale in obsessive-compulsion symptom. sensitive interpersonal relationship, depression, anxiety, hostility, terror, intolerance. mental disorder and so on (P<0.05). Conclusion: There is close relationship between the family functions of children affected by HIV/AIDS and their psychological health. It is necessary to consider the family functions when we attempt to help children

  4. The clinical implication of drug dependency in children and adults with inflammatory bowel disease: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duricova, Dana; Pedersen, Natalia; Lenicek, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    Drug dependency in adult and paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is described and the significance of this response pattern in clinical practice discussed in this review. Dependent patients maintain remission while on the treatment, but they relapse shortly after drug....../4-1/3 of treated patients undergo surgery ≤1 year after treatment start, although newer paediatric studies reported lower risk of surgery (5-11%), including dependent patients. The frequent use of immunosuppressants (68-80% of children) might explain this favourable outcome and thus reduce importance of the term...... corticosteroid dependency. Infliximab dependency was described in 42-66% of children and 29% of adults with Crohn's disease. The risk of surgery 50 and 40 months after treatment start was 10% and 23% in infliximab dependent children and adults, respectively. Maintenance of infliximab in dependent patients...

  5. Cognitive Representations of Self, Family, and Peers in School-Age Children: Links with Social Competence and Sociometric Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the role that internalized cognitive representations may play as mediators of the link between family and peer relationships among 161 children age 7 through 12 years. Negative representations of self and others were found to be associated with increased social impairment, including dysfunctional social behavior and less positive status…

  6. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support. PMID:21416438

  7. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support.

  8. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F;

    1998-01-01

    concentrations in serum from 13 newly diagnosed IDDM patients before the beginning of insulin treatment (8 girls, 5 boys, aged 4.7-17.5 years) and in 134 patients with IDDM during treatment (64 girls, 70 boys, aged 2.6-20.1 years) using a specific radioimmunoassay. The data from patients with diabetes were...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0.26-14....... It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...

  9. A Collaboratively Designed Child Mental Health Service Model: Multiple Family Groups for Urban Children with Conduct Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Assael, Kara Dean; Chacko, Anil; Jackson, Jerrold; Fuss, Ashley

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary outcomes associated with an experimental, longitudinal study of a Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery approach set within thirteen urban outpatient clinics serving children and their families living in inner-city, primarily African American and Latino communities. Specifically, this paper focuses on parent reports of child oppositional behavior and parenting stress over time. MFG is a flexible, protocol-driven approach designed to address the most common reason for referral to outpatient child mental health clinics, childhood behavioral difficulties. The MFG also aims to enhance family-level engagement and retention in ongoing care. Further, the service delivery model was collaboratively developed with intensive input from parents rearing children with conduct difficulties, parent advocates, community-based child mental health providers and services research staff in order to ultimately expand the number of effective service models that can be situated within "real world," urban child mental health settings.

  10. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  11. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations: parents and children. This study argues that the extended family contributes significantly to the total effect of family background on educational success. Analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by…

  12. Current State of Dual-Career Couples with Children in Japan: Regulating Factors of Working Mothers "Doing the Challenging work," Effects and Relation to Family Life

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Keiko; KURAMOTO, Ayako; Kusano, Atsuko; 高橋, 桂子; 倉元, 綾子; 草野(角尾), 篤子

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, after 1945 the ratio of dual-career couples has been increasing year by year. Yet the age-specific labor force participation ratio of women has still shaped M-curve. Most of working mothers work as temporary employees much more than regular full-time ones. These days, the labor forces of women have been paid attention much more than ever, because of the decline of the total labor forces. We want to see the general overview of the dual-career couples with children, to analyze the reg...

  13. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  14. Examining parents' assessments of objective and subjective social status in families of children with cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gage-Bouchard

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the social determinants of child health is a prominent area of research. This paper examines the measurement of socioeconomic position in a sample of families of children with cancer. Socioeconomic position is difficult to measure in pediatric health research due to sensitivity of asking about finances when research is conducted in health care delivery settings, financial volatility associated with periods of pediatric illness, and difficulty recruiting fathers to research. METHODS: Caregivers of children with cancer (n=76 completed a questionnaire that included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (SSS. SSS was measured using two 10-rung ladders with differing referent groups: the US and respondents' communities. Respondents placed themselves on each ladder by placing an X on the rung that represented their social position in relation to the two referent groups. Individuals' SSS ratings and discrepancies in SSS ratings within couples were examined, and associations with objective social status measures were evaluated using Pearson correlations or t-tests. RESULTS: Parents' placement on the US and community ladders was positively associated with their income, education, wealth, household savings, and household savings minus debt. On average, respondents placed themselves higher on the US ladder compared to the community ladder. There was an average intra-couple discrepancy of 1.25 rungs in partner's placements on the US ladder and a 1.56 rung difference for the community ladder. This intra-couple discrepancy was not associated with gender. DISCUSSION: Results offer insight into the use of subjective social status measures to capture a more holistic assessment of socioeconomic position and the measurement of socioeconomic position in two-parent families.

  15. Supporting and treating families with children on the autistic spectrum: The unique role of the generalist psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Research findings indicate that intensive behavior therapy (e.g., applied behavioral analysis, or ABA) represents an effective treatment for autistic spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, children with autism represent an underserved patient population. Parents often make treatment decisions with insufficient information and report problems in establishing and maintaining treatment programs. This practice review asserts that psychologists, including those without professional certification or coursework in ABA, are in a unique position to assist affected children and their families. Psychologists can provide critical information about evidence-based treatment; offer assistance in overcoming barriers to intensive treatment, including personnel selection; and provide ongoing support to family members. Case examples also illustrate how psychologists can help families address specific barriers to intensive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122105

  16. Real Number of Children and Conjugal Interaction in French Urban Families: A Comparison with American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Andree; Feyrabend, Francoise Lautman

    1969-01-01

    Paper presented at the 33rd annual session of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family, Puerto Rico, April, 1967 and at the annual meeting of the Canadian sociological and anthropological association, Ottawa, June, 1967.

  17. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...

  18. The role of culture in families' treatment decisions for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S; Novak, Maytali

    2005-01-01

    There is little information available about how and why parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) make decisions regarding which of the many available treatments to implement with their children. Given the lack of available information regarding treatment efficacy, it is likely that parents' beliefs about child development, interpretation of the symptoms of ASD, its etiology and course, and their experiences with the health system influence treatment decisions. This article addresses these issues within the context of cultural influences. We review the small body of existing literature regarding cultural influences on decisions regarding ASD and draw implications for the study and treatment of ASD from the larger body of literature on culture and other health conditions of childhood. In addition to examining the potential for differences in clinical presentation by culture and different experiences with the healthcare system, we use Kleinman's framework of questions for understanding the role of culture in the interpretation and treatment of ASD. These questions address interpretation of symptoms and beliefs about their cause, course, and treatment. Finally, we present specific language for clinicians to use in discussion with families with different cultural beliefs about the use of less traditional treatment strategies.

  19. The Contribution of Family Communication Patterns to Children's Interpretations of Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmar, Marina

    1998-01-01

    A study of 191 K-6 children who viewed three violent TV clips showing identical acts of aggression but with different motivations and punishments found that children rated higher in communications were more likely to see motivated violence as more justified, while children higher in control were likely to see punished violence as less justified.…

  20. Testing Effectiveness of a Community-Based Aggression Management Program for Children 7 to 11 Years Old and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L.; Boyle, Michael H.; Cunningham, Charles; Kenny, Meghan; Sniderman, Carrie; Duku, Eric; Mills, Brenda; Evans, Peter; Waymouth, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There are few well-evaluated uncomplicated community-based interventions for childhood aggression. The authors assess the impact of a community-based anger management group on child aggressive behaviors, using a randomized, controlled trial (RCT). Method: Families with children 7 to 11 years old were recruited through advertisements and…

  1. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    in days without symptoms after fluticasone propionate treatment (0% to 45%) compared with after placebo treatment (0% to 25%, P =.005). Children with a family history of asthma (n = 213) also had a significantly greater increase in days without symptoms after fluticasone propionate (11% to 54%) compared...... with after placebo (7% to 35%, P =.002) and a significantly higher proportion of exacerbation-free patients (61% to 76%, P =.02). Children with less frequent symptoms, no family history of asthma, or both showed no significant treatment effect. There seemed to be no association between response...... to fluticasone propionate and history of rhinitis or eczema or the number of previous exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Children with frequent symptoms, a family history of asthma, or both showed the greatest response to fluticasone propionate treatment. These findings may help to predict treatment outcome and guide...

  2. Applying the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to the analysis of cognitive and family influences on children's dental fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Negative experiences, cognitions, and family variables are involved in the etiology of child dental fear, but previous research has frequently considered them separately. This study uses the Cognitive Vulnerability Model to explore the influence of negative dental experiences and family members on children's dental anxiety. The participants were 185 children who completed a questionnaire comprising measures of dental fear and cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions. Measures were obtained for 88 of the participants' fathers and for 97 of the participants' mothers. Cognitive vulnerability perceptions had the strongest association with children's dental fear (β = 0.40), explaining 14-21% of the variance in dental fear scores beyond that explained by other variables. Furthermore, vulnerability perceptions mediated the relationship between negative dental experiences and dental fear. Children's dental fear and cognitive vulnerability perceptions were significantly associated with those of their fathers (r = 0.23 and r = 0.40, respectively) and mothers (r = 0.28 and r = 0.35, respectively). Moreover, fathers' (β = 0.24) and mothers' (β = 0.31) levels of cognitive vulnerability significantly predicted the children's levels of dental fear. The Cognitive Vulnerability Model offers a framework to understand child dental fear. Furthermore, this cognitive approach may help explain why some children develop dental fear problems after suffering a negative dental experience and how dental anxiety is passed on from parents to children.

  3. Behavioural social work with encopretic children, their families and the school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluckin, A

    1981-01-01

    Social work intervention and the use of behaviour modification techniques is described in five cases of childhood encopresis, all boys. In two cases an operant model was adopted and the parents were asked to reinforce with praise and stars approximation to the goal (trying) as well as success (defaecation into the lavatory). The P.S.W. rewarded the children intermittently with praise and small gifts and supported and praised the mother for the efforts they were making. In the third case contingencies surrounding elimination were altered in order to bring about desensitization following an injury the child had suffered while sitting on the seat of the school lavatory. This had resulted in fearfulness over going to the toilet at school culminating in alternate soiling and constipation. In the remaining two cases self-monitoring was central to the treatment and training. The work was done within the context of a conventional casework relationship with the whole family which was warm and supportive in nature and directed towards problem solving in more than one area. Other members of the Child Guidance Team were involved with some of the children for the purpose of assessment, but the programmes were devised and carried out by the P.S.W. The author expresses the view that 'treatment through training' has shown better and quicker results than 'treating the underlying causes--not the symptom'. Several behavioural programmes currently in use are described and reasons given for the author's preference for the procedure adopted here. PMID:7261255

  4. Advocacy is Only a Phone Call Away: Strategies to Make a Difference on Behalf of Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Diana; Bruns, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Because of the pressing needs of young children, families, and communities, public policy advocacy efforts and civic engagement have never been more important. Practitioners in early childhood special education (ECSE) are in a unique position to encourage change on behalf of young children and their families. There are a number of ways in which…

  5. 浅谈孤独症患儿家庭环境及父母生存质量%To Explore the Children With Autism Family Environment and Quality of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨家庭环境及父母生存质量现状与对孤独症患儿的影响。方法随机抽取40例孤独症患儿父母(观察组)和45例正常儿童父母(对照组)作为对比研究对象,评价2组家庭环境和父母生存质量差异。结果观察组父母生存质量因子、家庭环境因子得分表现均差于对照组(P <0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论孤独症患儿家庭环境、父母生存质量与患儿发病有有关,建议强化孤独症康复治疗体系,为孤独症患儿家庭环境及其父母生存质量改善提供支持。%Objective Discussion on present situation quality of life and the family environment and the parents of children with autism. Methods Randomly selected 40 cases of parents of children with autism (observation group) and 45 normal children parents (control group) as a comparative study, evaluate the quality of life differences between the two groups of family environment and parents. Results Observation group Parents quality of life factors, family environment performance scores were worse than the control group (P<0.05), the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Autism family environment, and quality of life of children with parents about the onset, it is recommended to strengthen the autism treatment system rehabilitation services for children with autism and their parents home environment to improve the quality of life support.

  6. Exploring the experiences and perspectives of families using a children's hospice and professionals providing hospice care to identify future research priorities for children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, C; Forbat, L; Knighting, K; Kearney, N

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to generate a list of priority topics for children's hospice care research in Scotland from the perspective of its key stakeholders. The method consists of qualitative semi-structured interviews with families using hospice services (n = 5), four focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) and telephone interviews with professionals associated with the hospice (n = 18). Fourteen broad themes emerged following thematic content and interpretive analysis of the interview data. Some of the research themes were specific to certain stakeholder groups, whereas other themes were identified unanimously across all the stakeholder groups as being priority areas for future research. Increasing awareness of and improving access to children's hospice care, hospice and respite care needs of young people, community/home care and issues related to supporting the wider family arose, independently, in all three stakeholder groups as being priority topics for future research. In conclusion, a greater evidence base is required in the field of children's palliative care and the topics researched should be identified and led by those most closely involved in the hospices. Engaging families and care providers in the process of identifying research priorities resulted in the development of an extensive research agenda, which will contribute to quality hospice care for children and families.

  7. The integration of psychology in pediatric oncology research and practice: collaboration to improve care and outcomes for children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancers are life-threatening diseases that are universally distressing and potentially traumatic for children and their families at diagnosis, during treatment, and beyond. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as a result of increasingly aggressive multimodal therapies delivered in the context of clinical research trials. Nonetheless, cancers remain a leading cause of death in children, and their treatments have short- and long-term impacts on health and well-being. For over 35 years, pediatric psychologists have partnered with pediatric oncology teams to make many contributions to our understanding of the impact of cancer and its treatment on children and families and have played prominent roles in providing an understanding of treatment-related late effects and in improving quality of life. After discussing the incidence of cancer in children, its causes, and the treatment approaches to it in pediatric oncology, we present seven key contributions of psychologists to collaborative and integrated care in pediatric cancer: managing procedural pain, nausea, and other symptoms; understanding and reducing neuropsychological effects; treating children in the context of their families and other systems (social ecology); applying a developmental perspective; identifying competence and vulnerability; integrating psychological knowledge into decision making and other clinical care issues; and facilitating the transition to palliative care and bereavement. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of integrating knowledge from psychological research into practice in pediatric cancer. PMID:25730721

  8. Virtual reality aided training of combined arm and leg movements of children with CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Robert; Dislaki, Evangelia; Keller, Urs; Koenig, Alexander; Van Hedel, Hubertus; Nagle, Aniket

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) occurs in over 2 out of 1000 live births and can impair motor control and cognition. Our goal was to create a robotic rehabilitation environment that mimics real-life situations by allowing simultaneous exercise of upper and lower limbs. We chose to use the Lokomat as a gait robot and added a novel removable arm robot, called PASCAL (pediatric arm support robot for combined arm and leg training), that was integrated into the Lokomat environment. We also added a virtual reality (VR) environment that enables the subject to perform motivating game-like scenarios incorporating combined arm and leg movements. In this paper we summarize the design of PASCAL and present the novel virtual environment including first experimental results. The next step will be to test whether a combined application of the virtual environment and the two simultaneously working robots is feasible in healthy participants, and finally to clinically evaluate the entire system on children with CP. PMID:23400183

  9. Children and Power in Mexican Transnational Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreby, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Today, many families find that they are unable to fulfill the goal of maintaining a household by living together under the same roof. Some members migrate internationally. This article addresses the consequences of a transnational lifestyle for children who are left behind by migrant parents. Using ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with a…

  10. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. PMID:25150370

  11. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral and health outcomes and investigate both the selection and causation explanations. For the estimations I use a Danish administrative register dataset with the full population of children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985. I find a clear negative...

  12. Same sex families and children

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...

  13. The Relationship between Socio-demographic Characteristics, Family Environment, and Caregiver Coping in Families of Children with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A.; Devine, Katie A.; Heckler, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child’s diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers’ socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by inc...

  14. {sup 31}P-MR spectroscopy in children and adolescents with a familial risk of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzanny, R.; Reichenbach, J.R.; Pfleiderer, S.O.R.; Kaiser, W.A. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Abteilung MT, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Philosophenweg 3, 07741 Jena (Germany); Klemm, S.; Blanz, B. [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07741 Jena (Germany); Schmidt, B.; Volz, H.-P. [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07741 Jena (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Based on a previous report [9] on alterations of membrane phosphorus metabolism in asymptomatic family members of schizophrenic patients, the aim of the present study was to extend and improve the evaluation and data processing of {sup 31}P spectroscopic data obtained from a larger study population by including an analysis of the broad spectral component (BC) of membrane phospholipids (PL). Eighteen children and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and a gender- and age-matched control group of 18 healthy subjects without familial schizophrenia were investigated with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS) by using image selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) in the dorsolateral prefrontal regions (DLPFR) of the brain. Spectral analysis was performed by using both the full and truncated FID to estimate metabolic peak ratios of different {sup 31}P metabolites and the intensity and linewidth of the broad component. A significantly higher PDE level (p<0.01) and increased linewidth of the PDE components were observed for the high-risk group compared with the control group (p=0.02). No significant differences were observed for PME as well as for other {sup 31}P-metabolites. No differences were observed between the left and right hemispheres for different normalised {sup 31}P-metabolic levels. Decreased intensities (p=0.03) and smaller linewidths (p=0.01) were obtained for the broad component in the high-risk group. Impairments of membrane metabolism that are typical for schizophrenic patients are partially observed in adolescent asymptomatic family members of schizophrenics, including increased levels of low molecular PDE compounds indicating increased membrane degradation processes, no changes for PME, and decreased intensities and linewidths of the BC indicating changes in the composition and fluidity of membrane phospholipids. Despite limitations to completely suppress fast-relaxing components by dismissing initial FID data points, the

  15. A family based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Finni Taija; Sääkslahti Arja; Laukkanen Arto; Pesola Arto; Sipilä Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that decrease in sedentary behaviour is beneficial for health. This family based randomized controlled trial examines whether face-to-face delivered counselling is effective in reducing sedentary time and improving health in adults and increasing moderate-to-vigorous activities in children. Methods The families are randomized after balancing socioeconomic and environmental factors in the Jyväskylä region, Finland. Inclusion criteria are: h...

  16. What Factors Are Associated with Positive Effects of Dog Ownership in Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? The Development of the Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Wright, Hannah F; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature exploring the value of assistance dogs to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rapidly emerging. However, there is comparably less literature reporting the effects of pet (as opposed to assistance) dogs to these children. In particular, there are no known validated scales which assess how children may alter their behaviours in the presence of the dog, to evaluate the efficacy of pet dogs to these families. Additionally, given the highly individualised nature of ASD it is likely that some children and families gain more benefits from dog ownership than others, yet no research has reported the effect of individual differences. This pilot study reports the development of a 28-item scale based on the perceived impact of a pet dog on a child with autism by parents (Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale--LAPDIS). The scale is comprised of three mathematically derived factors: Adaptability, Social Skills and Conflict Management. We assessed how individual differences (aspects) may be associated with scores on these three factors. Family Aspects and Dog Aspects were not significantly associated with ratings on the three factors, but Child Aspects (including: contact with horses, child age, disability level and language abilities) were related to impact of the dog on all factors. Training Aspects were related to scores on Social Skills (formal training with children with ASD and dogs and attendance at PAWS workshops run by Dogs for Good). These results suggest that individual differences associated with the child and the training approach may be important considerations for a positive impact from dog ownership on families with children with ASD. Differences in family features and the dog may not be so important, but may be worthy of further investigations given the early stage of development in this field.

  17. What Factors Are Associated with Positive Effects of Dog Ownership in Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? The Development of the Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Susannah Hall

    Full Text Available Scientific literature exploring the value of assistance dogs to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is rapidly emerging. However, there is comparably less literature reporting the effects of pet (as opposed to assistance dogs to these children. In particular, there are no known validated scales which assess how children may alter their behaviours in the presence of the dog, to evaluate the efficacy of pet dogs to these families. Additionally, given the highly individualised nature of ASD it is likely that some children and families gain more benefits from dog ownership than others, yet no research has reported the effect of individual differences. This pilot study reports the development of a 28-item scale based on the perceived impact of a pet dog on a child with autism by parents (Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale--LAPDIS. The scale is comprised of three mathematically derived factors: Adaptability, Social Skills and Conflict Management. We assessed how individual differences (aspects may be associated with scores on these three factors. Family Aspects and Dog Aspects were not significantly associated with ratings on the three factors, but Child Aspects (including: contact with horses, child age, disability level and language abilities were related to impact of the dog on all factors. Training Aspects were related to scores on Social Skills (formal training with children with ASD and dogs and attendance at PAWS workshops run by Dogs for Good. These results suggest that individual differences associated with the child and the training approach may be important considerations for a positive impact from dog ownership on families with children with ASD. Differences in family features and the dog may not be so important, but may be worthy of further investigations given the early stage of development in this field.

  18. On Language Acquisition Amongst Children and on Maternal Sensitivity in Families Subject to Risk Factors and those Free of Risk Factors. A Study in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Abarca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors can lead to disturbance of all areas of a child's development, and thus also of language acquisition and to problems in early relationships between parent and child. In the event of multiple risk factors, as it is often the case amongst people living in poverty, the burden of risks and therefore the probability of developmental disturbance rises (Laucht, Esser & Schmidt, 1998; Wustmann, 2004.In the present study a sample amongst families living in poverty (San Pedro, Ecuador was compared with a sample taken from middle-class families (Quito, Ecuador. An examination was carried out whether there was a varying number of risk factors and whether there were differences in the language competence of the child as well as in the mother's sensitivity. There was a further examination of whether there was a correlation between maternal sensitivity and communicative competences. The results indicate a negative influence of risk conditions on the language acquisition of the children and on the intuitive and sensitive maternal competences. In the risk group, the results showed a preponderance of delays and disturbances in language development of the children. The mothers from the risk sample group displayed less sensitivity than the control group. There was also a correlation between maternal sensitivity and individual areas of competence. This study shows that it is necessary to ascertain the delays in children's language acquisition and mother-child interaction, particularly amongst families with serious burdens and multiple risk factors. Ascertaining these developmental risks can be used for prevention or intervention which can reduce the risk of negative consequences and aid positive adaptation.

  19. Rethinking Sound : Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing children using cochlear implants or hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    In the present thesis, computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach was examined in deaf and hard of hearing children (DHH) aged 5, 6 or 7 years old using cochlear implants, hearing aids or a combination of both. Children with normal hearing (NH), matched for non-verbal intelligence and age, served as a reference group. Deaf and hard of hearing children constitute a heterogenetic population regarding cognitive and academic achievement. Many of them do not reach age appropria...

  20. 31P-MR spectroscopy in children and adolescents with a familial risk of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a previous report [9] on alterations of membrane phosphorus metabolism in asymptomatic family members of schizophrenic patients, the aim of the present study was to extend and improve the evaluation and data processing of 31P spectroscopic data obtained from a larger study population by including an analysis of the broad spectral component (BC) of membrane phospholipids (PL). Eighteen children and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and a gender- and age-matched control group of 18 healthy subjects without familial schizophrenia were investigated with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) by using image selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) in the dorsolateral prefrontal regions (DLPFR) of the brain. Spectral analysis was performed by using both the full and truncated FID to estimate metabolic peak ratios of different 31P metabolites and the intensity and linewidth of the broad component. A significantly higher PDE level (p31P-metabolites. No differences were observed between the left and right hemispheres for different normalised 31P-metabolic levels. Decreased intensities (p=0.03) and smaller linewidths (p=0.01) were obtained for the broad component in the high-risk group. Impairments of membrane metabolism that are typical for schizophrenic patients are partially observed in adolescent asymptomatic family members of schizophrenics, including increased levels of low molecular PDE compounds indicating increased membrane degradation processes, no changes for PME, and decreased intensities and linewidths of the BC indicating changes in the composition and fluidity of membrane phospholipids. Despite limitations to completely suppress fast-relaxing components by dismissing initial FID data points, the spectroscopic results indicate additional changes in the membrane metabolism of high-risk subjects beyond changes of synthesis and degradation. (orig.)