Locality and topology in the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
Sjöqvist, Erik
2001-01-01
It is shown that the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect is neither nonlocal nor topological in the sense of the standard magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. It is further argued that there is a close relationship between the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect for an electrically neutral spin$-{1/2}$ particle encircling a line of charge.
Locality and topology in the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
Sjöqvist, E
2002-01-01
It is shown that the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect is neither nonlocal nor topological in the sense of the standard magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. It is further argued that there is a close relationship between the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect for an electrically neutral spin$-{1/2}$ particle encircling a line of charge.
Locality and topology in the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Sjöqvist, Erik
2002-11-18
It is shown that the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect is neither nonlocal nor topological in the sense of the standard magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. It is further argued that there is a close relationship between the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect for an electrically neutral spin -1 / 2 particle encircling a line of charge.
Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Synchrotron Radiation
Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B
2001-01-01
Synchrotron radiation of a charged particle in a constant uniform magnetic field and in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid field is studied in the frame of the relativistic quantum theory. First, to this end exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found. Using such solutions, all characteristics of one photon spontaneous irradiation, such as its intensity and angular distribution and polarization were calculated and analyzed. It is shown that usual spectrum of the synchrotron radiation is essentially affected by the presence of the solenoid (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). We believe that this deformation may be observed by spectroscopic methods of measurement. It is shown that
Tests of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Caprez, Adam Preston
The Aharonov-Bohm effect was first proposed in 1959, and has stimulated discussion and controversy since the start. Seen by many as a purely quantum mechanical effect, it nevertheless involves such issues as gauge invariance and relativistic dynamics. This multi-faceted nature has led it to be considered a keystone of modern quantum theory. Over the past half-century, interest has remained strong in what many believe is still an open debate as to the purely quantum nature. Additionally, discovery of similar effects for particles other than electrons has further driven curiosity. To better understand the issues such as electromagnetic mass and relativistic effects involved in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a theoretical study of a simpler two particle system was done. The goal was to understand the manner in which mass of the system behaved strictly classically as compared to a relativistically. As a result of this, a Gedanken experiment is presented which serves as a test for covariance. The two particle system was extended to a spherical shell interacting with a single particle, and a second thought experiment put forth to explore a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. In the course of searching for simpler systems which involved the same issues as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, a system presented in the Feynman Lectures of Physics was found to be appropriate. We conduct a complete relativistic analysis of this system as a step towards a full relativistic analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Given the history and significance of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it is perhaps surprising that relevant experimental tests had not been completed. For the first time, we searched for time delays as an electron passes a macroscopic solenoid. Such time delays are characteristic of classical forces acting on the electron. No such delays were found, seemingly confirming the standard viewpoint. It is still possible a classical explanation may exist for microscopic solenoids
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in neutral liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonin, E B, E-mail: sonin@cc.huji.ac.i [Racah Institute of Physics Hebrew University of Jerusalem Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2010-09-03
The Aharonov-Bohm effect was discovered as a quantum-mechanical effect for charged particles, but it has its counterpart in classical wave mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm interference arises at the scattering of a sound wave by a vortex in classical and quantum hydrodynamics. This interference leads to a transverse force between quasiparticles and vortices in superfluids and superconductors. The Aharonov-Bohm effect was also generalized to neutral particles with magnetic or electric dipole momenta. The Aharonov-Bohm effect for charge particles and its modification for magnetic momenta (the Aharonov-Casher effect) have already been experimentally observed, and the efforts to detect the Aharonov-Bohm effect for electrically polarized neutral particles are on the way. A possible system for this detection is a Bose-condensate of excitons in a double quantum well. Observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this system would provide direct evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in neutral liquids
Sonin, E. B.
2010-09-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect was discovered as a quantum-mechanical effect for charged particles, but it has its counterpart in classical wave mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm interference arises at the scattering of a sound wave by a vortex in classical and quantum hydrodynamics. This interference leads to a transverse force between quasiparticles and vortices in superfluids and superconductors. The Aharonov-Bohm effect was also generalized to neutral particles with magnetic or electric dipole momenta. The Aharonov-Bohm effect for charge particles and its modification for magnetic momenta (the Aharonov-Casher effect) have already been experimentally observed, and the efforts to detect the Aharonov-Bohm effect for electrically polarized neutral particles are on the way. A possible system for this detection is a Bose-condensate of excitons in a double quantum well. Observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this system would provide direct evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation.
Locality of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher effect
Kang, Kicheon
2014-01-01
We address the question of the locality versus nonlocality in the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects. For this purpose, we investigate all possible configurations of ideal shielding of the overlap between the electromagnetic fields generated by a charge and by a magnetic flux, and analyze their consequences on the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interference. In a classical treatment of shielding, the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher effect vanishes regardless of the geometry of shielding, when the local...
Aharonov-Bohm effect in spherical billiard
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dehua Wang
2007-01-01
Using Gutzwiller's periodic orbit theory, we study the quantum level density of a spherical billiard in the presence of a magnetic flux line added at its center, especially discuss the influence of the magnetic flux strength on the quantum level density. The Fourier transformed quantum level density of this system has allowed direct comparison between peaks in the level density and the length of the periodic orbits. For particular magnetic flux strength, the amplitude of the peaks in the level density decreased and some of the peaks disappeared. This result suggests that Aharonov-Bohm effect manifests itself through the cancellation of periodic orbits. This phenomenon will provide a new experimental testing ground for exploring Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Kaluza-Klein theory and Aharonov-Bohm effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, J.A.; Griego, J.
1986-11-11
Recently Bocchieri et al. have shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect appears to be in contradiction with the laws of quantum mechanics. The present paper provided an alternative (non-quantum-mechanical) explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect by using only De Broglie's undulatory hypothesis and the five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory.
The Electric Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Weder, Ricardo
2010-01-01
In their seminal paper Aharonov and Bohm (1959) claimed that electromagnetic fields can act at a distance on charged particles even if they are identically zero in the region of space where the particles propagate. They proposed two experiments to verify their theoretical conclusions. The magnetic effect, that has been extensively studied, and the electric effect where an electron is affected by a time-dependent electric potential that is constant in the region where the electron is propagating, i.e., such that the electric field vanishes along its trajectory. The Aharonov-Bohm effects imply such a strong departure from the physical intuition coming from classical physics that it is no wonder that they remain a highly controversial issue, after more than fifty years. The existence of electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, that has not been confirmed experimentally, is a very controversial issue. In their 1959 paper Aharonov and Bohm proposed an Ansatz for the solution to the Schroedinger equation in regions where the...
Locality of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher effect
Kang, Kicheon
2015-05-01
We address the question of locality versus nonlocality in the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects. For this purpose, we investigate all possible configurations of ideal shielding of the overlap between the electromagnetic fields generated by a charge and by a magnetic flux and analyze their consequences on the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interference. In a classical treatment of shielding, the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher effect vanishes regardless of the geometry of shielding when the local overlap of electromagnetic fields is completely eliminated. On the other hand, the result depends on the configuration of shielding if the charge quantization in the superconducting shield is taken into account. It is shown that our results are fully understood in terms of the fluctuating local-field interaction. Our analysis strongly supports the alternative view on the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interference that the effects originate from the local action of electromagnetic fields.
Aharonov-Casher and Scalar Aharonov-Bohm Topological Effects
Dulat, Sayipjamal; Ma, Kai
2012-02-01
We reexamine the topological and nonlocal natures of the Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase effects. The underlying U(1) gauge structure is exhibited explicitly. And the conditions for developing topological Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phases are clarified. We analyze the arguments of M. Peshkin and H. J. Lipkin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2847 (1995)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.74.2847] in detail and show that they are based on the wrong Hamiltonian which yields their conclusion incorrect.
Magnus Force and Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Superfluids
Sonin, E. B.
2001-01-01
The paper addresses the problem of the transverse force (Magnus force) on a vortex in a Galilean invariant quantum Bose liquid. Interaction of quasiparticles (phonons) with a vortex produces an additional transverse force (Iordanskii force). The Iordanskii force is related to the acoustic Aharonov--Bohm effect.Connection of the effective Magnus force with the Berry phase is also discussed.
Local description of the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
Larson, Jonas; Larson, Asa
2013-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect is one of the most comprehensible examples of quantum non-locality. The so called molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect displays great similarities with the latter, but still, we show how this effect can be explained using arguments relying solely on locality, whereby we mean that the effect can be traced down to a force acting locally on the phase space distribution. Our method hinges on studying the system in its momentum representation, and introducing a "conjugate gauge potential" which render an everywhere non-zero synthetic magnetic field. The resulting Lorenz force induces a transverse current which can be attributed the equivalence of an intrinsic spin Hall effect. The idea is demonstrated for the linear Exe Jahn-Teller model and applied to the Li3 molecule, for which its corresponding Hamiltonian is obtained by diabatization of ab intio determined adiabatic potential energy surfaces.
Observation of Aharonov-Bohm effects by neutron interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werner, Samuel A [Physics Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Klein, Anthony G, E-mail: sam.werner@verizon.ne [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2010-09-03
The special and unique techniques of neutron interferometry have been used to observe a number of topological effects. These include the quantum mechanical phase shift of a neutron due to the Earth's rotation (the quantum analog of the Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment with light), the phase shift of a particle carrying a magnetic moment (a neutron) encircling a line charge (the Aharonov-Casher effect) and the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, observed with a pulsed magnetic field solenoid and time-of-flight neutron detection. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Aharonov-Bohm paper, we provide an overview of the neutron interferometry technique and a description of these three historic experiments.
Observation of Aharonov-Bohm effects by neutron interferometry
Werner, Samuel A.; Klein, Anthony G.
2010-09-01
The special and unique techniques of neutron interferometry have been used to observe a number of topological effects. These include the quantum mechanical phase shift of a neutron due to the Earth's rotation (the quantum analog of the Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment with light), the phase shift of a particle carrying a magnetic moment (a neutron) encircling a line charge (the Aharonov-Casher effect) and the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, observed with a pulsed magnetic field solenoid and time-of-flight neutron detection. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Aharonov-Bohm paper, we provide an overview of the neutron interferometry technique and a description of these three historic experiments.
The Aharonov--Bohm effect in scattering theory
Sitenko, Yu A
2013-01-01
The Aharonov--Bohm effect is considered as a scattering event with nonrelativistic charged particles of the wavelength which is less than the transverse size of an impenetrable magnetic vortex. The quasiclassical WKB method is shown to be efficient in solving this scattering problem. We find that the scattering cross section consists of two terms, one describing the classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and another one describing the quantum phenomenon of diffraction; the Aharonov--Bohm effect is manifested as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern. Both the classical and the quantum phenomena are independent of the choice of a boundary condition at the vortex edge, providing that probability is conserved. We show that a propagation of charged particles can be controlled by altering the flux of a magnetic vortex placed on their way.
Topological Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Pseudo-Particle Bundles
Payandeh, Farrin
2016-10-01
Exploiting a topological approach, we discuss the outstanding Aharonov-Bohm effect and try to explain it in the context of the principal P(M, U(1)) bundle. We show that this could be done by excluding a specific region from the main manifold which acts as the solenoid around which the effect is observed. Moreover, we discuss the impacts of pseudo-particles in this topological approach.
On the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Why Heisenberg Captures Nonlocality Better Than Schr\\"odinger
Aharonov, Yakir
2013-01-01
I discuss in detail the history of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in Bristol and my encounters with Akira Tonomura later on. I then propose an idea that developed following the publication of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, namely the importance of modulo momentum and Heisenberg representation in dealing with non-local quantum phenomena.
Topology, locality, and Aharonov-Bohm effect with neutrons
Peshkin, M; Peshkin, Murray; Lipkin, H J
1995-01-01
Recent neutron interferometry experiments have been interpreted as demonstrating a new topological phenomenon similar in principle to the usual Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, but with the neutron's magnetic moment replacing the electron's charge. We show that the new phenomenon, called Scalar AB (SAB) effect, follows from an ordinary local interaction, contrary to the usual AB effect, and we argue that the SAB effect is not a topological effect by any useful definition. We find that SAB actually measures an apparently novel spin autocorrelation whose operator equations of motion contain the local torque in the magnetic field. We note that the same remarks apply to the Aharonov-Casher effect.
Conservation of momentum and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Caprez, Adam; Batelaan, Herman
2008-05-01
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect serves as an example of a purely quantum mechanical phenomenon in which classical forces on the electron are thought to vanish. The presence of forces is still an ongoing debate [1,2]. Surprisingly, a complete special relativistic treatment of the forces in the electron-solenoid system has never been done [3]. We present our ongoing theoretical work on the issue, and explore a connection between Feynman's well-known example [3] of two moving point charges and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect. The relation between this theoretical work and our earlier experimental results [4] is also discussed. [1] T.H. Boyer, J. Phys. A. 39, 3455 (2006). [2] G.C. Hegerfeldt and J.T. Neumann, [quant-ph] arXiv:0801.0799v1 (2008). [3] Y. Aharonov and D. Rohrlich, Quantum Paradoxes: Quantum Theory for the Perplexed (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005). [4] The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. II, pp. 26-2-26-5 (1964). [5] A. Caprez, B. Barwick, and H. Batelaan. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210401 (2007).
Paradoxes of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects
Vaidman, Lev
2013-01-01
For a believer in locality of Nature, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect are paradoxes. I discuss these and other Aharonov's paradoxes and propose a local explanation of these effects. If the solenoid in the Aharonov-Bohm effect is treated quantum mechanically, the effect can be explained via local interaction between the field of the electron and the solenoid. I argue that the core of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects is that of quantum entanglement: the ...
Gravito-electromagnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect: some rotation effects revised
Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2010-01-01
By means of the description of the standard relative dynamics in terms of gravito-electromagnetic fields, in the context of natural splitting, we formally introduce the gravito-magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. Then, we interpret the Sagnac effect as a gravito-magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect and we exploit this formalism for studying the General Relativistic corrections to the Sagnac effect in stationary and axially symmetric geometries.
Aharonov-Bohm effect in a draining bathtub vortex
Dolan, Sam R.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Crispino, Luís C. B.
2011-07-01
We study planar waves in a circulating, draining fluid flow, which: (i) exhibit an analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in Quantum Mechanics; (ii) obey a Klein-Gordon equation on an 'effective spacetime' which resembles the Kerr spacetime of General Relativity; and (iii) may be observed in the laboratory using gravity waves in a shallow basin. We describe a modified AB effect which depends on two dimensionless parameters, associated with the circulation α and draining β rates; we call this the 'αβ effect'. We show that the αβ effect is inherently asymmetric even in the low-frequency limit, and that it leads to novel interference patterns which carry the signature of both rotation and absorption.
Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance
Anacleto, M A; Passos, E
2012-01-01
We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.
Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2013-06-01
We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.
Non-Abelian Vortices with an Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Evslin, Jarah; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter
2014-01-01
The interplay of gauge dynamics and flavor symmetries often leads to remarkably subtle phenomena in the presence of soliton configurations. Non-Abelian vortices -- vortex solutions with continuous internal orientational moduli -- provide an example. Here we study the effect of weakly gauging a U(1)_R subgroup of the flavor symmetry on such BPS vortex solutions. Our prototypical setting consists of an SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with N_f=2 sets of fundamental scalars that break the gauge symmetry to an "electromagnetic" U(1). The weak U(1)_R gauging converts the well-known CP1 orientation modulus |B| of the non-Abelian vortex into a parameter characterizing the strength of the magnetic field that is responsible for the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As the phase of B remains a genuine zero mode while the electromagnetic gauge symmetry is Higgsed in the interior of the vortex, these solutions are superconducting strings.
Whirling Waves and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect for Relativistic Spinning Particles
Girotti, H O
1996-01-01
The formulation of Berry for the Aharonov-Bohm effect is generalized to the relativistic regime. Then, the problem of finding the self-adjoint extensions of the (2+1)-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian, in an Aharonov-Bohm background potential, is solved in a novel way. The same treatment also solves the problem of finding the self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian in a background Aharonov-Casher.
The Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm topological effects
Dulat, Sayipjamal; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.070405
2012-01-01
We reexamine the topological and nonlocal natures of the Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase effects. The underlying U(1) gauge structure is exhibited explicitly. And the conditions for developing topological Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phases are clarified. We analyse the arguments of M. Peshkin and H. J. Lipkin (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2847(1995)) in detail and show that they are based on the wrong Hamiltonian which yields their conclusion incorrect.
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Ma, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-08-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore, a tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg-Witten map we obtain the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in general case on noncommutative space. We find there are two kinds of contribution: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists in the time-independent Aharonov-Bohm effect on both commutative and noncommutative space. Therefore, the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm can be sensitive to the spatial noncommutativity. The net correction is proportional to the product of the magnetic fluxes through the fundamental area represented by the noncommutative parameter θ, and through the surface enclosed by the trajectory of charged particle. More interestingly, there is an anti-collinear relation between the logarithms of the magnetic field B and the averaged flux Φ / N (N is the number of fringes shifted). This nontrivial relation can also provide a way to test the spatial noncommutativity. For BΦ / N ∼ 1, our estimation on the experimental sensitivity shows that it can reach the 10 GeV scale. This sensitivity can be enhanced by using stronger magnetic field strength, larger magnetic flux, as well as higher experimental precision on the phase shift.
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Ma, Kai; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-01-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg-Witten map we obtained the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov-Bohm phase shift on noncommutative space in general case. We find there are two kinds of contributions: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists on both commutative and noncommutative space for the time-independent Ah...
Non-Abelian vortices with an Aharonov-Bohm effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evslin, Jarah [TPCSF, IHEP, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing (China); Theoretical physics division, IHEP, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing (China); Konishi, Kenichi [Department of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, University of Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Ohashi, Keisuke [Department of Physics, Osaka City University,Osaka (Japan); Vinci, Walter [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Computer Science, University College London,17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)
2014-01-16
The interplay of gauge dynamics and flavor symmetries often leads to remarkably subtle phenomena in the presence of soliton configurations. Non-Abelian vortices — vortex solutions with continuous internal orientational moduli — provide an example. Here we study the effect of weakly gauging a U(1){sub R} subgroup of the flavor symmetry on such BPS vortex solutions. Our prototypical setting consists of an SU(2)×U(1) gauge theory with N{sub f}=2 sets of fundamental scalars that break the gauge symmetry to an “electromagnetic' U(1). The weak U(1){sub R} gauging converts the well-known CP{sup 1} orientation modulus |B| of the non-Abelian vortex into a parameter characterizing the strength of the magnetic field that is responsible for the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As the phase of B remains a genuine zero mode while the electromagnetic gauge symmetry is Higgsed in the interior of the vortex, these solutions are superconducting strings.
Feynman's Relativistic Electrodynamics Paradox and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Caprez, Adam; Batelaan, Herman
2009-03-01
An analysis is done of a relativistic paradox posed in the Feynman Lectures of Physics involving two interacting charges. The physical system presented is compared with similar systems that also lead to relativistic paradoxes. The momentum conservation problem for these systems is presented. The relation between the presented analysis and the ongoing debates on momentum conservation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem is discussed.
Paradoxes of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher Effects
Vaidman, Lev
For a believer in locality of Nature, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect are paradoxes. I discuss these and other Aharonov's paradoxes and propose a local explanation of these effects. If the solenoid in the Aharonov-Bohm effect is treated quantum mechanically, the effect can be explained via local interaction between the field of the electron and the solenoid. I argue that the core of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects is that of quantum entanglement: the quantum wave function describes all systems together. [Editor's note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Vaidman at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-21.
Duality in the Aharonov-Casher and Aharonov-Bohm effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rohrlich, Daniel, E-mail: rohrlich@bgu.ac.i [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University, Beersheba (Israel)
2010-09-03
A neutral particle with a magnetic moment interacts with a charged particle. Such an interaction is invariant under the interchange of the particles. This interchangeability or duality of the particles elucidates subtleties of the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, including whether and how these two effects are themselves dual.
Duality in the Aharonov-Casher and Aharonov-Bohm effects
Rohrlich, Daniel
2010-09-01
A neutral particle with a magnetic moment interacts with a charged particle. Such an interaction is invariant under the interchange of the particles. This interchangeability or duality of the particles elucidates subtleties of the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, including whether and how these two effects are themselves dual.
Line of magnetic monopoles and an extension of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Chee, J.; Lu, W.
2016-10-01
In the Landau problem on the two-dimensional plane, physical displacement of a charged particle (i.e., magnetic translation) can be induced by an in-plane electric field. The geometric phase accompanying such magnetic translation around a closed path differs from the topological phase of Aharonov and Bohm in two essential aspects: The particle is in direct contact with the magnetic field and the geometric phase has an opposite sign from the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We show that magnetic translation on the two-dimensional cylinder implemented by the Schrödinger time evolution truly leads to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The magnetic field normal to the cylinder's surface corresponds to a line of magnetic monopoles of uniform density whose simulation is currently under investigation in cold atom physics. In order to characterize the quantum problem, one needs to specify the value of the magnetic flux (modulo the flux unit) that threads but not in touch with the cylinder. A general closed path on the cylinder may enclose both the Aharonov-Bohm flux and the local magnetic field that is in direct contact with the charged particle. This suggests an extension of the Aharonov-Bohm experiment that naturally takes into account both the geometric phase due to local interaction with the magnetic field and the topological phase of Aharonov and Bohm.
Eckle, H. -P.; Johannesson, H.; Stafford, C. A.
2000-01-01
We study the persistent currents induced by both the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects in a one-dimensional mesoscopic ring coupled to a side-branch quantum dot at Kondo resonance. For privileged values of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher fluxes, the problem can be mapped onto an integrable model, exactly solvable by a Bethe ansatz. In the case of a pure magnetic Aharonov-Bohm flux, we find that the presence of the quantum dot has no effect on the persistent current. In contrast, the Kondo re...
Tunable Kondo Effect of a Three-Terminal Transport Quantum Dot Embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm Ring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xiong-Wen; SHI Zhen-Gang; WU Shao-Quan; SONG Ke-Hui
2006-01-01
@@ We theoretically investigate the Kondo effect of a three-terminal transport quantum dot (QD) embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm ring in the Kondo regime by means of the one-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian.
Correspondences and Quantum Description of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher Effects
Lee, M; Lee, Minchul
2004-01-01
We establish systematic consolidation of the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects including their scalar counterparts. Their formal correspondences in acquiring topological phases are revealed on the basis of the gauge symmetry in non-simply connected spaces and the adiabatic condition for the state of magnetic dipoles. In addition, investigation of basic two-body interactions between an electric charge and a magnetic dipole clarifies their appropriate relative motions and discloses physical interrelations between the effects. Based on the two-body interaction, we also construct an exact microscopic description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, where all the elements are treated on equal footing, i.e., magnetic dipoles are described quantum-mechanically and electromagnetic fields are quantized. This microscopic analysis not only confirms the conventional (semiclassical) results and the topological nature but also allows one to explore the fluctuation effects due to the precession of the magnetic dipoles with ...
On the alleged nonlocal and topological nature of the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
Sjöqvist, E
2003-01-01
The nonlocal and topological nature of the molecular Aharonov-Bohm (MAB) effect is examined for real electronic Hamiltonians. A notion of preferred gauge for MAB is suggested. The MAB effect in the linear + quadratic $E\\otimes \\epsilon$ Jahn-Teller system is shown to be essentially analogues to an anisotropic Aharonov-Casher effect for an electrically neutral spin$-{1/2}$ particle encircling a certain configuration of lines of charge.
Aharonov-Bohm effect for a fermion field in the acoustic black hole background
Anacleto, M A; Mohammadi, A; Passos, E
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider the dynamics of a massive spinor field in the background of the acoustic black hole spacetime and then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach. We show that an effect similar to the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect occurs for massive fermion fields moving in this effective metric. We discuss the limiting cases and compare the results with the bosonic case.
Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in a Lorentz-violating background
Anacleto, M A; Passos, E
2012-01-01
In this paper we consider the acoustic black hole metrics obtained from a relativistic fluid under the influence of constant background that violates the Lorentz symmetry to study the analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. We show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish.
Remark on the Connectedness of Space in the Experimental Devices of Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIANShang-Wu; GUZhi-Yu
2003-01-01
This article shows that in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect arrangements, the electron wave propagation space is doubly connected for two real coherent sources, and simply connected under certain condition for two virtual coherent sources, and all known AB experiments belong to the latter case. By the Feynman path integral method, we show that in the former case there is no AB effect, whereas in the latter case there is.
Remark on the Connectedness of Space in the Experimental Devices of Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Shang-Wu; GU Zhi-Yu
2003-01-01
This article shows that in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect arrangements, the electron wave propagation spaceis doubly connected for two real coherent sources, and simply connected under certain condition for two virtual coherentsources, and all known AB experiments belong to the latter case. By the Feynman path integral method, we show thatin the former case there is no AB effect, whereas in the latter case there is.
Partial Wave Analysis of Scattering with Nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Lin, H
2003-01-01
Partial wave analysis of two dimensional scattering for an arbitray short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The nonlocal influence of magnetic flux in the cross section of scattering for hard disk with a magnetic flux is examined. Due to the ergodic property of the nonlocal effect such influence would occur in quite general potential system and may be useful in understanding phenomenon of mesoscopic phyiscs.
High-temperature Aharonov-Bohm effect in transport through a single-channel quantum ring
Dmitriev, A. P.; Gornyi, I. V.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.; Polyakov, D. G.; Shmakov, P. M.
2015-02-01
We overview transport properties of an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer made of a single-channel quantum ring. Remarkably, in this setup, essentially quantum effects survive thermal averaging: the high-temperature tunneling conductance G of a ring shows sharp dips (antiresonances) as a function of magnetic flux. We discuss effects of the electron-electron interaction, disorder, and spin-orbit coupling on the Aharonov-Bohm transport through the ring. The interaction splits the dip into series of dips broadened by dephasing. The physics behind this behavior is the persistent-current-blockade: the current through the ring is blocked by the circular current inside the ring. Dephasing is then dominated by tunneling-induced fluctuations of the circular current. The short-range disorder broadens antiresonances, while the long-range one induces additional dips. In the presence of a spin-orbit coupling, G exhibits two types of sharp antiresonances: Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher ones. In the vicinity of the antiresonances, the tunneling electrons acquire spin polarization, so that the ring serves as a spin polarizer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckle, H.-P.; Johannesson, H.; Stafford, C. A.
2001-07-02
We study the persistent currents induced by both the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects in a one-dimensional mesoscopic ring coupled to a sidebranch quantum dot at Kondo resonance. For privileged values of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher fluxes, the problem can be mapped onto an integrable model, exactly solvable by a Bethe ansatz. In the case of a pure magnetic Aharonov-Bohm flux, we find that the presence of the quantum dot has no effect on the persistent current. In contrast, the Kondo resonance interferes with the spin-dependent Aharonov-Casher effect to induce a current which, in the strong-coupling limit, is independent of the number of electrons in the ring.
Eckle, H P; Johannesson, H; Stafford, C A
2001-07-02
We study the persistent currents induced by both the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects in a one-dimensional mesoscopic ring coupled to a sidebranch quantum dot at Kondo resonance. For privileged values of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher fluxes, the problem can be mapped onto an integrable model, exactly solvable by a Bethe ansatz. In the case of a pure magnetic Aharonov-Bohm flux, we find that the presence of the quantum dot has no effect on the persistent current. In contrast, the Kondo resonance interferes with the spin-dependent Aharonov-Casher effect to induce a current which, in the strong-coupling limit, is independent of the number of electrons in the ring.
Experimental test for approximately dispersionless forces in the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Becker, Maria; Batelaan, Herman
2016-07-01
A new class of forces, approximately dispersionless forces, were recently predicted as part of a semiclassical description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Electron time-of-flight measurements have been performed that test for such forces. Magnetized iron cores used in the previous time-of-flight experiment may affect potential back-action forces and have, therefore, been eliminated. We report that no forces were detected. This finding supports the local and nonlocal, quantum descriptions of the AB effect and rules out local, semiclassical descriptions.
Kondo effect in transport through Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher interferometers
Lobos, A. M.; Aligia, A. A.
2009-10-01
We derive the extension of the Hubbard model to include Rashba spin-orbit coupling that correctly describes Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phases in a ring under applied magnetic and electric fields. When the ring is connected to conducting leads, we develop a formalism that is able to describe both, Kondo and interference effects. We find that in the Kondo regime, the spin-orbit coupling reduces strongly the conductance from the unitary limit. This effect in combination with the magnetic flux, can be used to produce spin polarized carriers.
Kondo effect in transport through Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher interferometers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobos, A.M. [DPMC-MaNEP, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Aligia, A.A., E-mail: aligia@cab.cnea.gov.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)
2009-10-15
We derive the extension of the Hubbard model to include Rashba spin-orbit coupling that correctly describes Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phases in a ring under applied magnetic and electric fields. When the ring is connected to conducting leads, we develop a formalism that is able to describe both, Kondo and interference effects. We find that in the Kondo regime, the spin-orbit coupling reduces strongly the conductance from the unitary limit. This effect in combination with the magnetic flux, can be used to produce spin polarized carriers.
Interrelations Between the Neutron's Magnetic Interactions and the Magnetic Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Comay, E
1999-01-01
It is proved that the phase shift of a polarized neutron interacting with a spatially uniform time-dependent magnetic field, demonstrates the same physical principles as the magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The crucial role of inert objects is explained, thereby proving the quantum mechanical nature of the effect. It is also proved that the nonsimply connectedness of the field-free region is not a profound property of the system and that it cannot be regarded as a sufficient condition for a nonzero phase shift.
Yuan, Luqi; Xu, Shanshan; Fan, Shanhui
2015-11-15
We show that nonreciprocal unidirectional single-photon quantum transport can be achieved with the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The system consists of a 1D waveguide coupling to two three-level atoms of the V-type. The two atoms, in addition, are each driven by an external coherent field. We show that the phase of the external coherent field provides a gauge potential for the photon states. With a proper choice of the phase difference between the two coherent fields, the transport of a single photon can exhibit unity contrast in its transmissions for the two propagation directions.
The Analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect for Bound States for Neutral Particles
Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.
We study the analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect for bound states for a neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with an external field. We consider a neutral particle confined to moving between two coaxial cylinders and show the dependence of the energy levels on the Aharonov-Casher quantum flux. Moreover, we show that the same flux dependence of the bound states can be found when the neutral particle is confined to a one-dimensional quantum ring and a quantum dot, and we also calculate the persistent currents in each case.
Electromagnetism, local covariance, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and Gauss' law
Sanders, Ko; Hack, Thomas-Paul
2012-01-01
We quantise the massless vector potential A of electromagnetism in the presence of a classical electromagnetic (background) current, j, in a generally covariant way on arbitrary globally hyperbolic spacetimes M. By carefully following general principles and procedures we clarify a number of topological issues. First we combine the interpretation of A as a connection on a principal U(1)-bundle with the perspective of general covariance to deduce a physical gauge equivalence relation, which is intimately related to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. By Peierls' method we subsequently find a Poisson bracket on the space of local, affine observables of the theory. This Poisson bracket is in general degenerate, leading to a quantum theory with non-local behaviour. We show that this non-local behaviour can be fully explained in terms of Gauss' law. Thus our analysis establishes a relationship, via the Poisson bracket, between the Aharonov-Bohm effect and Gauss' law (a relationship which seems to have gone unnoticed so far)....
Probing the noncommutative effects of phase space in the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect
Ma, Kai; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-01-01
We study the noncommutative corrections on the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect when both the coordinate-coordinate and momentum-momentum noncommutativities are considered. This study is motivated by the recent observation that there is no net phase shift in the time-dependent AB effect on the ordinary space, and therefore tiny derivation from zero can indicate new physics. The vanishing of the time-dependent AB phase shift on the ordinary space is preserved by the gauge and Lorentz symmetries. However, on the noncomutative phase space, while the ordinary gauge symmetry can be kept by the Seiberg-Witten map, but the Lorentz symmetry is broken. Therefore nontrivial noncommutative corrections are expected. We find there are three kinds of noncommutative corrections in general: 1) $\\xi$-dependent correction which comes from the noncommutativity among momentum operators; 2) momentum-dependent correction which is rooted in the nonlocal interactions in the noncommutative extended model; 3) momentum-independent c...
Electron matter optics of the Aharonov-Bohm and Stern-Gerlach effects
McGregor, Scot Cameron
Since the advent of quantum mechanics and the idea that massive particles exhibit wave properties, physicists have made efforts to make use of the short deBroglie wave length of matter waves for fundamental as well as practical studies. Among these are the precise measurements allowed by interference, diffraction, and microscopy as well as the study of more fundamental aspects of quantum theory such as the Aharonov-Bohm effects or the Stern-Gerlach effect, which are described below. However, in order to use matter waves to observe any of these effects it is necessary to produce and maintain coherence in the waves which are used for measurement. With a grasp of what coherence is and how it may be achieved and maintained one can move forward to study the interesting phenomena associated with coherent matter waves. More specifically in this work the interference and diffraction of electron matter waves are considered. The phenomena under consideration are those associated with the interaction of the electric charge and magnetic dipole moment of the electron with external fields and potentials while in the process of interfering or diffracting. Namely the focus of this dissertation is the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Aharonov-Casher effect, and the Stern-Gerlach effect. Additionally, a wide-angle electron beam-splitter capable of producing two centimeter beam separation at the detection plane is discussed. The beam-splitter utilizes a nanofabricated periodic grating in combination with a bi-prism element. Contrary to devices utilizing only bi-prism elements, the use of the periodic grating causes amplitude, and not wave front, splitting. Even at maximum separation, beam profiles remain undistorted, providing evidence that coherence is intact. This is a step towards the realization of a large area electron interferometer using such a grating bi-prism combination. Such an interferometer could, in principle, be used to test the dispersionless nature of the Aharonov-Bohm
Further Considerations Regarding the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and the Wavefunction of the Entire System
Walstad, Allan
2017-03-01
In an earlier paper it was demonstrated that the hypothesized electrostatic version of the Aharonov-Bohm ("AB") effect does not exist. The conclusion follows straightforwardly once one recognizes that interference takes place in the configuration space of the entire system, including the experimental apparatus, and the wavefunction of the apparatus cannot be ignored. Two additional results are presented here. 1. Observations of interference that had been attributed to an analogue of the electrostatic AB effect (or "scalar effect") are actually due to a magnetic AB effect. 2. In the original magnetic AB effect itself, there is no phase shift if it is possible effectively to shield the solenoid from the influence of the passing electron. This result is not in conflict with the landmark experiments of Tonomura and colleagues if Wang's recent claim is correct, that superconductive shielding could not have isolated the toroidal magnet from the magnetic pulse of the passing electron.
Physical reality of electromagnetic potentials and the classical limit of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Tiwari, S C
2016-01-01
Recent literature on the Aharonov-Bohm effect has raised fundamental questions on the classical correspondence of this effect and the physical reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics. Reappraisal on Feynman's approach to the classical limit of AB effect is presented. The critique throws light on the significance of quantum interference and quantum phase shifts in any such classical correspondence. Detailed analysis shows that Feynman arguments are untenable on physical grounds and the claim made in the original AB paper that this effect had no classical analog seems valid. The importance of nonintegrable phase factor distinct from the AB phase factor, here termed as Fock-London-Weyl phase factor for the historical reasons, is underlined in connection with the classical aspects/limits. A topological approach incorporating the physical significance of the interaction field momentum is proposed. A new idea emerges from this approach that attributes the origin of the AB effect to the exchan...
Correspondences and quantum description of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Minchul [Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, M Y [Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2004-01-23
We establish systematic consolidation of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher effects including their scalar counterparts. Their formal correspondences in acquiring topological phases are revealed on the basis of the gauge symmetry in non-simply-connected spaces and the adiabatic condition for the state of magnetic dipoles. In addition, investigation of basic two-body interactions between an electric charge and a magnetic dipole clarifies their appropriate relative motions and discloses physical interrelations between the effects. Based on the two-body interaction, we also construct an exact microscopic description of the AB effect, where all the elements are treated on equal footing, i.e., magnetic dipoles are described quantum-mechanically and electromagnetic fields are quantized. This microscopic analysis not only confirms the conventional (semiclassical) results and the topological nature but also allows one to explore the fluctuation effects due to the precession of the magnetic dipoles with the adiabatic condition relaxed.
Precession and interference in the Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect
Hyllus, P; Hyllus, Philipp
2003-01-01
The ideal scalar Aharonov-Bohm (SAB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect involve a magnetic dipole pointing in a certain fixed direction: along a purely time dependent magnetic field in the SAB case and perpendicular to a planar static electric field in the AC case. We extend these effects to arbitrary direction of the magnetic dipole. The precise conditions for having nondispersive precession and interference effects in these generalized set ups are delineated both classically and quantally. Under these conditions the dipole is affected by a nonvanishing torque that causes pure precession around the directions defined by the ideal set ups. It is shown that the precession angles are in the quantal case linearly related to the ideal phase differences, and that the nonideal phase differences are nonlinearly related to the ideal phase differences. It is argued that the latter nonlinearity is due the appearance of a geometric phase associated with the nontrivial spin path. It is further demonstrated that the spatial ...
Magneto-optical properties in inhomogeneous quantum dot: The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations effect
Nasri, Djillali; Bettahar, N.
2016-11-01
In this study, we investigated theoretically the effect of a magnetic field B on the linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients (ACs) and the refractive index changes (RICs) associated with intersubband transitions in the HgS quantum shell. In the calculations, a diagonalization method was employed within the effective-mass approximation. We find that a three kinds of optical transitions (S-P, P-D and D-F) between the ground state and the first excited state appear, resulting from the oscillation of the ground state with B (Aharonov-Bohm effect). In the other hand, the magnetic field enhances and diminishes their related RICs and ACs intensities respectively for the three kinds of optical transitions, and shifts their peaks towards low energy (blue shift).
Irregular Aharonov-Bohm effect for interacting electrons in a ZnO quantum ring
Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk
2017-02-01
The electronic states and optical transitions of a ZnO quantum ring containing few interacting electrons in an applied magnetic field are found to be very different from those in a conventional semiconductor system, such as a GaAs ring. The strong Zeeman interaction and the Coulomb interaction of the ZnO system, two important characteristics of the electron system in ZnO, exert a profound influence on the electron states and on the optical properties of the ring. In particular, our results indicate that the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in a ZnO quantum ring strongly depends on the electron number. In fact, for two electrons in the ZnO ring, the AB oscillations become aperiodic, while for three electrons (interacting) the AB oscillations completely disappear. Therefore, unlike in conventional quantum ring topology, here the AB effect (and the resulting persistent current) can be controlled by varying the electron number.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect and fractional statistics of distinguishable particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mashkevich, Stefan, E-mail: mash@mashke.or [Schroedinger, 120 W 45th St., New York, NY 10036 (United States); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03143 (Ukraine)
2010-09-03
In two-dimensional space, the topological coupling arising between charged particles with attached magnetic fluxes, via the Aharonov-Bohm effect, causes distinguishable particles to effectively acquire quantum statistics: a nontrivial quantum phase is generated when a particle of one species encircles one of a different species. We discuss a number of exact and numerical results concerning distinguishable particles with fractional statistics. Just like for anyons, the spectrum of such particles confined to the lowest Landau level of a strong magnetic field can be found exactly. Then a system of particles in the presence of static magnetic fluxes (equivalent to particles with infinite mass) is considered, and the low-lying states of one particle in the presence of two fluxes and two particles in the presence of one flux are analyzed.
Coste, C; Coste, Christophe; Lund, Fernando
1999-01-01
Previous results on the scattering of surface waves by vertical vorticity on shallow water are generalized to the case of dispersive water waves. Dispersion effects are treated perturbatively around the shallow water limit, to first order in the ratio of depth to wavelength. The dislocation of the incident wavefront, analogous to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, is still observed. At short wavelengths the scattering is qualitatively similar to the nondispersive case. At moderate wavelengths, however, there are two markedly different scattering regimes according to wether the capillary length is smaller or larger than depends both on phase and group velocity. The validity range of the calculation is the same as in the shallow water case: wavelengths small compared to vortex radius, and low Mach number. The implications of these limitations are carefully considered.
Coste, C; Lund, F; Coste, Christophe; Umeki, Makoto; Lund, Fernando
1999-01-01
When a surface wave interacts with a vertical vortex in shallow water the latter induces a dislocation in the incident wavefronts that is analogous to what happens in the Aharonov-Bohm effect for the scattering of electrons by a confined magnetic field. In addition to this global similarity between these two physical systems there is scattering. This paper reports a detailed calculation of this scattering, which is quantitatively different from the electronic case in that a surface wave penetrates the inside of a vortex while electrons do not penetrate a solenoid. This difference, together with an additional difference in the equations that govern both physical systems lead to a quite different scattering in the case of surface waves, whose main characteristic is a strong asymmetry in the scattering cross section. The assumptions and approximations under which these effects happen are carefully considered, and their applicability to the case of scattering of acoustic waves by vorticity is noted.
Multiple-path Quantum Interference Effects in a Double-Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer
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Yang XF
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We investigate quantum interference effects in a double-Aharonov-Bohm (AB interferometer consisting of five quantum dots sandwiched between two metallic electrodes in the case of symmetric dot-electrode couplings by the use of the Green’s function equation of motion method. The analytical expression for the linear conductance at zero temperature is derived to interpret numerical results. A three-peak structure in the linear conductance spectrum may evolve into a double-peak structure, and two Fano dips (zero conductance points may appear in the quantum system when the energy levels of quantum dots in arms are not aligned with one another. The AB oscillation for the magnetic flux threading the double-AB interferometer is also investigated in this paper. Our results show the period of AB oscillation can be converted from 2π to π by controlling the difference of the magnetic fluxes threading the two quantum rings.
Vivanco, F
2002-01-01
We present a simple experiment to study the interaction of surface waves with a vertical vortex in the deep water regime. Similarly to what occurs in the Quantum Mechanics Aharonov-Bohm problem for electron interacting with a magnetic potential, the effect of the vortex circulation is to introduce dislocations in the wavefront. These defects are explained taken into account the effects of advection on the propagating wavefront, due to the fluid motion. (Author)
2D Pauli Equation with Hulthén Potential in the Presence of Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N.Ferkous; A.Bounames
2013-01-01
The 2D Pauli equation with Hulthén potential for spin-1/2 particle in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) field is solved analytically,on the assumption that an effective approximation is used for the centrifugai term.Singular and regular solutions of the problem are obtained.It is shown that the AB field lifts the degeneracy of the energy levels.The range of the flux parameter for which singular solutions are allowed is modified compared to the pure AB case.When the screening parameter vanishes,it is shown that the obtained energy spectrum becomes the same as that of the Aharonov-Bohm Coulomb problem.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in a side-gated graphene ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huefner, Magdalena; Molitor, Francoise; Jacobsen, Arnhild; Pioda, Alessandro; Stampfer, Christoph; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas, E-mail: huefner@phys.ethz.c [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
2010-04-15
We investigate the magnetoresistance of a side-gated ring structure etched out of single-layer graphene. We observe Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with about 5% visibility. We are able to change the relative phases of the wave functions in the interfering paths and induce phase jumps of {pi} in the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations by changing the voltage applied to the side gate or the back gate. The observed data can be interpreted within existing models for 'dirty metals'.
Wang, Dehua
2014-09-01
The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in the photodetachment microscopy of the H- ions in an electric field has been studied on the basis of the semiclassical theory. After the H- ion is irradiated by a laser light, they provide a coherent electron source. When the detached electron is accelerated by a uniform electric field, two trajectories of a detached electron which run from the source to the same point on the detector, will interfere with each other and lead to an interference pattern in the photodetachment microscopy. After the solenoid is electrified beside the H- ion, even though no Lorentz force acts on the electron outside the solenoid, the photodetachment microscopy interference pattern on the detector is changed with the variation in the magnetic flux enclosed by the solenoid. This is caused by the AB effect. Under certain conditions, the interference pattern reaches the macroscopic dimensions and could be observed in a direct AB effect experiment. Our study can provide some predictions for the future experimental study of the AB effect in the photodetachment microscopy of negative ions.
On the relation between the Feynman paradox and the Aharonov-Bohm effects
McGregor, Scot; Hotovy, Ryan; Caprez, Adam; Batelaan, Herman
2012-09-01
The magnetic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect occurs when a point charge interacts with a line of magnetic flux, while its reciprocal, the Aharonov-Casher (A-C) effect, occurs when a magnetic moment interacts with a line of charge. For the two interacting parts of these physical systems, the equations of motion are discussed in this paper. The generally accepted claim is that both parts of these systems do not accelerate, while Boyer has claimed that both parts of these systems do accelerate. Using the Euler-Lagrange equations we predict that in the case of unconstrained motion, only one part of each system accelerates, while momentum remains conserved. This prediction requires a time-dependent electromagnetic momentum. For our analysis of unconstrained motion, the A-B effects are then examples of the Feynman paradox. In the case of constrained motion, the Euler-Lagrange equations give no forces, in agreement with the generally accepted analysis. The quantum mechanical A-B and A-C phase shifts are independent of the treatment of constraint. Nevertheless, experimental testing of the above ideas and further understanding of the A-B effects that are central to both quantum mechanics and electromagnetism could be possible.
On the relation between the Feynman paradox and Aharonov-Bohm effects
McGregor, Scot; Caprez, Adam; Batelaan, Herman
2012-01-01
The magnetic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) effect occurs when a point charge interacts with a line of magnetic flux, while its dual, the Aharonov-Casher (A-C) effect, occurs when a magnetic moment interacts with a line of charge. For the two interacting parts of these physical systems, the equations of motion are discussed in this paper. The generally accepted claim is that both parts of these systems do not accelerate, while Boyer has claimed that both parts of these systems do accelerate. Using the Euler-Lagrange equations we predict that in the case of unconstrained motion only one part of each system accelerates, while momentum remains conserved. This prediction requires a time dependent electromagnetic momentum. For our analysis of unconstrained motion the A-B effects are then examples of the Feynman paradox. In the case of constrained motion, the Euler-Lagrange equations give no forces in agreement with the generally accepted analysis. The quantum mechanical A-B and A-C phase shifts are independent of the treatme...
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
Spin Filter Based on an Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer with Rashba Spin-Orbit Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Ming; SUN Lian-Liang
2008-01-01
We propose a spin filter based on both the quantum interference and the Rashba spin-orbit (RSO) effects. This spin filter consists of a Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer with two quantum dots (QDs) inserted in its arms.The influences of a magnetic flux ψ threading through the AB ring and the RSO interaction inside the two QDs are taken into account by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. Due to the existence of the RSO interaction, the electrons flowing through different arms of the ring will acquire a spin-dependent phase factor in the linewidth matrix elements. This phase factor, combined with the influence of the magnetic flux, will induce a spin-dependent electron transport through the device. Moreover, we show that by tuning the magnetic flux,the RSO strength and the inter-dot tunnelling coupling strength, a pure spin-up or spin-down conductance can be obtained when a spin-unpolarized current is injected from the external leads, which can be used to filter the electron spin.
NonAbelian Vortices, Large Winding Limits and Aharonov-Bohm Effects
Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi
2015-01-01
Remarkable simplification arises from considering vortex equations in the large winding limit. This was recently used in [1] to display all sorts of vortex zeromodes, the orientational, translational, fermionic as well as semi-local, and to relate them to the apparently distinct phenomena of the Nielsen-Olesen-Ambjorn magnetic instabilities. Here we extend these analyses to more general types of BPS nonAbelian vortices, taking as a prototype a system with gauged U(1) x SU(N) x SU(N) symmetry where the VEV of charged scalar fields in the bifundamental representation breaks the symmetry to SU(N)_{l+r} . The presence of the massless SU(N)_{l+r} gauge fields in 4D bulk introduces all sorts of non-local, topological phenomena such as the nonAbelian Aharonov-Bohm effects, which in the theory with global SU(N)_r group (g_r=0) are washed away by the strongly fluctuating orientational zeromodes in the worldsheet. Physics changes qualitatively at the moment the right gauge coupling constant g_r is turned on.
Aharonov-Bohm-type quantum interference effects in narrow gap semiconductor heterostructures
Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Chen, Hong; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.
2009-03-01
We present experiments on quantum interference phenomena in semiconductors with strong spin-orbit interaction, using mesoscopic parallel ring arrays fabricated on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. Both external electric field effects and temperature dependence of the ring magnetoresistance are examined. Top-gate voltage-dependent oscillations in ring resistance in the absence of an external magnetic field are suggestive of Aharonov-Casher interference. At low magnetic fields the ring magnetoresistance is dominated by oscillations with h/2e periodicity characteristic of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations, whereas the h/e periodicity characteristic of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations persists to high magnetic fields. Fourier spectra (FS) reveal AB amplitudes on the same order as AAS amplitudes at low fields, and in some samples reveal a splitting of the AB peaks, which has been interpreted as a signature of Berry's phase. The FS are also used to quantify the temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitudes (NSF DMR-0618235, DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532, NSF DMR-0520550).
Lin, D H
2003-01-01
Partial wave theory of a three dmensional scattering problem for an arbitray short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The scattering process of a ``hard shere'' like potential and the magnetic flux is examined. An anomalous total cross section is revealed at the specific quantized magnetic flux at low energy which helps explain the composite fermion and boson model in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Since the nonlocal quantum interference of magnetic flux on the charged particles is universal, the nonlocal effect is expected to appear in quite general potential system and will be useful in understanding some other phenomena in mesoscopic phyiscs.
Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bright, Max [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Singleton, Douglas [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yoshida, Atsushi [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hue University College of Education, Hue (Viet Nam)
2015-09-15
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in time-dependent potentials. In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time-varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential (i.e. circular integral A{sub μ} dx{sup μ}) and the field (i.e. (1)/(2) ∫ F{sub μν}dσ{sup μν}) forms of the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We give conditions in terms of the parameters of the system (frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the size of the space-time loop, amplitude of the electromagnetic wave) under which the time-varying Aharonov-Bohm effect could be observed. (orig.)
Kubo, T.; Tokura, Y.; Tarucha, S.
2010-01-01
We theoretically investigate spin-dependent electron transport through an Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interferometer containing a laterally coupled double quantum dot. In particular, we numerically calculate the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher oscillations of the linear conductance in the Kondo regime. We show that the AC oscillation in the Kondo regime deviates from the sinusoidal form.
Magnetically tunable Kondo-Aharonov-Bohm effect in a triangular quantum dot.
Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y
2006-02-03
The role of discrete orbital symmetry in mesoscopic physics is manifested in a system consisting of three identical quantum dots forming an equilateral triangle. Under a perpendicular magnetic field, this system demonstrates a unique combination of Kondo and Aharonov-Bohm features due to an interplay between continuous [spin-rotation SU(2)] and discrete (permutation C3v) symmetries, as well as U(1) gauge invariance. The conductance as a function of magnetic flux displays sharp enhancement or complete suppression depending on contact setups.
Liu, Bin; Li, Yunyun; Zhou, Jun; Nakayama, Tsuneyoshi; Li, Baowen
2016-06-01
We theoretically investigate the spin-dependent Seebeck effect in an Aharonov-Bohm mesoscopic ring in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions under magnetic flux perpendicular to the ring. We apply the Green's function method to calculate the spin Seebeck coefficient employing the tight-binding Hamiltonian. It is found that the spin Seebeck coefficient is proportional to the slope of the energy-dependent transmission coefficients. We study the strong dependence of spin Seebeck coefficient on the Fermi energy, magnetic flux, strength of spin-orbit coupling, and temperature. Maximum spin Seebeck coefficients can be obtained when the strengths of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are slightly different. The spin Seebeck coefficient can be reduced by increasing temperature and disorder.
Characterisation of ferromagnetic rings for Zernike phase plates using the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Edgcombe, C J; Ionescu, A; Loudon, J C; Blackburn, A M; Kurebayashi, H; Barnes, C H W
2012-09-01
Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov-Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. V. B. Leite
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the Kaluza-Klein theory, we study the Aharonov-Bohm effect for bound states for a relativistic scalar particle subject to a Coulomb-type potential. We introduce this scalar potential as a modification of the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, and a magnetic flux through the line element of the Minkowski spacetime in five dimensions. Then, we obtain the relativistic bound states solutions and calculate the persistent currents.
Gravitational Dressing of Aharonov-Bohm Amplitudes
Amelino-Camelia, G; Szabó, R J
1996-01-01
We investigate Aharonov-Bohm scattering in a theory in which charged bosonic matter fields are coupled to topologically massive electrodynamics and topologically massive gravity. We demonstrate that, at one-loop order, the transmuted spins in this theory are related to the ones of ordinary Chern-Simons gauge theory in the same way that the Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov formula relates the Liouville-dressed conformal weights of primary operators to the bare weights in two-dimensional conformal field theories. We remark on the implications of this connection between two-dimensional conformal field theories and three-dimensional gauge and gravity theories for a topological membrane reformulation of strings. We also discuss some features of the gravitational analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Maamache; C. Lahoulou; Y. Saadi
2009-01-01
Invariant operator method for discrete or continuous spectrum eigenvalue and unitary transformation approach are employed to study the two-dimensional time-dependent Pauli equation in presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect (AB) and external scalar potential. For the spin particles the problem with the magnetic field is that it introduces a singularity into wave equation at the origin. A physical motivation is to replace the zero radius flux tube by one of radius R, with the additional condition that the magnetic field be confined to the surface of the tube, and then taking the limit R → 0 at the end of the computations. We point that the invariant operator must contain the step function θ(r - R). Consequently, the problem becomes more complicated. In order to avoid this difficulty, we replace the radius R by p(t)R, where p(t) is a positive time-dependent function. Then at the end of calculations we take the limit R →0.The qualitative properties for the invariant operator spectrum are described separately for the different values of the parameter C appearing in the nonlinear auxiliary equation satisfied by p(t), i.e., C > 0, C = 0, and C 0) or continuous (C≤0).
Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations and Fano Resonance of a Coupled Dot-Ring System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Yong-Jian
2006-01-01
@@ We derive an exact expression for the transmission coefficient through an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a side-coupled quantum dot using the scattering-matrix approach. We show a sudden AB phase change by π as the quantum dot is tuned across the resonance. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillation amplitude can be modulated effectively by tuning the quantum dot level. The transmission coefficient has an expression of the generalized Fano form with a complex Fano parameter q in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm flux.
Effects of interactions in transport through Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interferometers.
Lobos, A M; Aligia, A A
2008-01-11
We study the conductance through a ring described by the Hubbard model (such as an array of quantum dots), threaded by a magnetic flux and subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We develop a formalism that is able to describe the interference effects as well as the Kondo effect when the number of electrons in the ring is odd. In the Kondo regime, the SOC reduces the conductance from the unitary limit, and, in combination with the magnetic flux, the device acts as a spin polarizer.
Comment on "Aharonov-Casher and Scalar Aharonov-Bohm Topological Effects"
Choi, Taeseung; Cho, Sam Young
2014-04-01
In this Comment we point out (i) that the Hamiltonian, Eq. (17) in the Letter(Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070405 (2012)), is not a relativistic Hamiltonian, (ii) then that the conditions in the Letter are irrelevant for a topological AC and SAB effects, and (iii) conclusively that the non-relativistic Hamiltonian employed by Peshkin and Lipkin (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2847 (1995)) has the same $U(1)_{mm}$ gauge structure for a fixed spin and then is not wrong, but their incorrect interpretation of the spin autocorrelations led to the incorrect conclusion.
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2014-01-01
The formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics as a quantum system represented in the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators is used to systematically derive, using the standard time slicing procedure, the path integral action for a particle moving in the noncommutative plane and in the presence of a magnetic field and an arbitrary potential. Using this action, the equation of motion and the energy spectrum for the partcle are obtained explicitly. The Aharonov-Bohm phase is derived using a variety of methods and several dualities between this system and other commutative and noncommutative systems are demonstrated. Finally, the equivalence of the path integral formulation with the noncommutative Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is also established.
Hidden Photons in Aharonov-Bohm-Type Experiments
Arias, Paola; Diaz, Christian; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Jaeckel, Joerg; Koch, Benjamin; Redondo, Javier
2016-01-01
We discuss the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of hidden photons kinetically mixed with the ordinary electromagnetic photons. The hidden photon field causes a slight phase shift in the observable interference pattern. It is then shown how the limited sensitivity of this experiment can be largely improved. The key observation is that the hidden photon field causes a leakage of the ordinary magnetic field into the supposedly field-free region. The direct measurement of this magnetic field ...
Amaresh Kumar, M. V.; Sahoo, Debendranath
A characterization of the two-terminal open-ring Aharonov-Bohm interferometer is made by analyzing the phase space plots in the complex transmission amplitude plane. Two types of plots are considered: type 1 plot uses the magnetic flux as the variable parameter and type 2 plot which uses the electron momentum as the variable parameter. In type 1 plot, the trajectory closes upon itself only when the ratio R of the arm lengths (of the interferometer) is a rational fraction, and the shape and the type of the generated flower-like pattern is sensitive to the electron momentum. For momenta corresponding to discrete eigenstates of the perfect ring (i.e., the ring without the leads), the trajectory passes through the origin a certain fixed number of times before closing upon itself, whereas for arbitrary momenta it never passes through the origin. Although the transmission coefficient is periodic in the flux with the elementary flux quantum as the basic period, the phenomenon of electron transmission is shown not to be so when analyzed via the present technique. The periodicity is seen to spread over several flux units whenever R is a rational fraction whereas there is absolutely no periodicity present when R is an irrational number. In type 2 plot, closed trajectories passing through the origin a number of times are seen for R being a rational fraction. The case R = 1 (i.e., a symmetric ring) with zero flux is rather pathological — it presents a closed loop surrounding the origin. For irrational R values, the trajectories never close.
Kondo, Kenji
2016-01-01
Many researchers have reported on spin filters using linear Rashba spin-orbit interactions (SOI). However, spin filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs have not yet been reported. We consider that this is because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this study, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs from the viewpoint of non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory. These AC phases can be derived successfully from the non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theory without the completing square methods. Using the results, we investigate the spin filtering in a double quantum dot (QD) Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring under linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. This AB ring consists of elongated QDs and quasi-one-dimensional quantum nanowires under an external magnetic field. The spin transport is investigated from the left nanowire to the right nanowire in the above structure within the tight-binding approximation. In particular, we focus on the difference of spin filtering among linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. The calculation is performed for the spin polarization by changing the penetrating magnetic flux for the AB ring subject to linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs. It is found that perfect spin filtering is achieved for all of the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation. Moreover, the AB rings under general Rashba SOIs behave in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to linear, square, and cubic behaviors in the in-plane momentum. This result enables us to make a clear distinction between linear, square, and cubic Rashba SOIs according to the peak position of the perfect spin filtering.
Sano, Kazuhiro; Ōno, Yoshiaki
2016-12-01
We investigate anomalous oscillations due to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) effects of the one-dimensional Hubbard ring with flux in the strong coupling limit. By using the exact diagonalization method and the Shiba transformation, we examine the energies of the ground-state and a few excited states in the presence of the flux producing the AB or AC effect, where the transformation not only reverses the sign of the interaction U but also exchanges the role between the AB and AC effects in the model Hamiltonian. We systematically classify the AB and AC oscillations by using the number of minima Nmin of the ground-state energy as a function of a normalized phase shift ϕ for 0 ≤ ϕ effects. For example, it is shown that Nmin is given by NL - Ne (NL - N↑ + N↓) for the AB (AC) effect in the very strong attraction, where NL, Ne, N↑, and N↓ are the system size, the total number of electrons, the number of electrons with up-spin, and the number of electrons with down-spin, respectively, under the condition of NL > Ne > N↓ > N↑. In more special cases, such as for a half-filled band and the spin-balanced case (NL = Ne and N↓ = N↑), we find Nmin to be 0 (2) for the AB (AC) effect in the case of very strong repulsion. These results show us the nature of interesting phenomena originating from the interplay between the strong correlation and the quantum interference effect in a mesoscopic ring.
Chiao, Raymond
2012-01-01
A novel kind of nonlocal, macroscopic Aharonov-Bohm effect involving two topologically linked superconducting rings made out of two different materials, namely, lead and tin, is suggested for experimental observation, in which the lead ring is a torus containing a core composed of permanently magnetized ferromagnetic material. It is predicted that the remnant fields in a hysteresis loop induced by the application of a magnetic field imposed by a large external pair of Helmholtz coils upon the tin ring, will be asymmetric with respect to the origin of the loop. An appendix based on Feynman's path-integral principle is the basis for these predictions.
Quantum Aharonov-Bohm Billiard System
Chuu, D S; Chuu, Der-San; Lin, De-Hone
1999-01-01
The Green's functions of the two and three-dimensional relativistic Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) systems are given by the path integral approach. In addition the exact radial Green's functions of the spherical A-B quantum billiard system in two and three-dimensional are obtained via the perturbation techanique of $\\delta $-function.
Ji, Haojie
In this thesis I develop understanding of the fundamental physical and material properties of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe submonolayer quantum dots (QDs), grown via combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). I use magneto-photoluminescence, including excitonic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect and polarized optical spectroscopy as the primary tools in this work. I present previous studies as well as the background of optical and magneto-optical processes in semiconductor nanostructures and introduce the experimental methods in Chapters 1 - 3. In Chapter 4 I focus on the excitonic AB effect in the type-II QDs. I develop a lateral tightly-bound exciton model for ZnTe/ZnSe type-II QDs, using analytical methods and numerical calculations. This explained the magneto-PL observation and allowed for establishing the size and density of the QDs in each sample based on the results of PL and magneto-PL measurements. For samples with larger QDs, I observe behaviors that fall between properties of quantum-dot and quantum-well-like systems due to increased QD densities and their type-II nature. Finally, the decoherence mechanisms of the AB excitons are investigated via the temperature dependent studies of the magneto-PL. It is determined that the AB exciton decoherence is due to transport-like (acoustic phonon) scattering of the electrons moving in the ZnSe barriers, but with substantially smaller magnitude of electron-phonon coupling constant due to relatively strong electron-hole coupling within these type-II QDs. In Chapter 5 I discuss the results of circularly polarized magneto-PL measurements. A model with ultra-long spin-flip time of holes confined to submonolayer QDs is proposed. The g-factor of type-II excitons was extracted from the Zeeman splitting and the g-factor of electrons was obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of the degree of circular polarization (DCP), from which g-factor of holes confined within ZnTe QDs was found. It is shown
High-temperature Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interferometer
Shmakov, P. M.; Dmitriev, A. P.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.
2012-02-01
We study theoretically the combined effect of the spin-orbit and Zeeman interactions on the tunneling electron transport through a single-channel quantum ring threaded by magnetic flux. We focus on the high-temperature case (temperature is much higher than the level spacing in the ring) and demonstrate that spin-interference effects are not suppressed by thermal averaging. In the absence of the Zeeman coupling, the high-temperature tunneling conductance of the ring exhibits two types of oscillations: Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with magnetic flux and Aharonov-Casher oscillations with the strength of the spin-orbit interaction. For weak tunneling coupling, both oscillations have the form of sharp periodic antiresonances. In the vicinity of the antiresonances, the tunneling electrons acquire spin polarization, so that the ring serves as a spin polarizer. We also demonstrate that the Zeeman coupling leads to appearance of two additional peaks, both in the tunneling conductance and in the spin polarization.
Fingerprints of Majorana Bound States in Aharonov-Bohm Geometry
Tripathi, Krashna Mohan; Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi
2016-04-01
We study a ring geometry, coupled to two normal metallic leads, which has a Majorana bound state (MBS) embedded in one of its arms and is threaded by Aharonov-Bohm (A B ) flux ϕ . We show that by varying the A B flux, the two leads go through resonance in an anticorrelated fashion while the resonance conductance is quantized to 2 e2/h . We further show that such anticorrelation is completely absent when the MBS is replaced by an Andreev bound state (ABS). Hence this anti-correlation in conductance when studied as a function of ϕ provides a unique signature of the MBS which cannot be faked by an ABS. We contrast the phase sensitivity of the MBS and ABS in terms of tunneling conductances. We argue that the relative phase between the tunneling amplitude of the electrons and holes from either lead to the level (MBS or ABS), which is constrained to 0 ,π for the MBS and unconstrained for the ABS, is responsible for this interesting contrast in the A B effect between the MBS and ABS.
Perturbative analysis of nonabelian Aharonov-Bohm scattering
Bak, D; Dongsu Bak; Oren Bergman
1995-01-01
We perform a perturbative analysis of the nonabelian Aharonov-Bohm problem to one loop in a field theoretic framework, and show the necessity of contact interactions for renormalizability of perturbation theory. Moreover at critical values of the contact interaction strength the theory is finite and preserves classical conformal invariance.
Boyer, Timothy H
2014-01-01
A new classical electromagnetic analysis is presented suggesting that the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift is overwhelmingly likely to arise from a classical lag effect based upon classical electromagnetic forces. The analysis makes use of several aspects of classical electromagnetic theory which are unfamiliar to most physicists, including the Darwin Lagrangian, acceleration-based electric fields, internal electromagnetic momentum in a magnet, and a magnet model involving at least three mutually-interacting particles. Only when the acceleration-based electric forces acting on the passing charge are included do we find consistency with all the relativistic conservation laws: energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and constant center-of-mass velocity. The electric forces on the passing charge lead to a lag effect which accounts quantitatively for the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift. Thus the classical analysis strongly suggests that the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift (observed when electrons pass a long solenoid which corre...
Force-free gravitational redshift: a gravitostatic Aharonov-Bohm experiment
Hohensee, Michael A; Hamilton, Paul; Zeilinger, Anton; Mueller, Holger
2011-01-01
We propose a feasible laboratory interferometry experiment with matter waves in a gravitational potential caused by a pair of artificial field-generating masses. It will demonstrate that the presence of these masses (and, for moving atoms, time dilation) induces a phase shift, even if it does not cause any classical force. The phase shift is identical to that produced by the gravitational redshift (or time dilation) of clocks ticking at the atom's Compton frequency. In analogy to the Aharonov-Bohm effect in electromagnetism, the quantum mechanical phase is a function of the gravitational potential and not the classical forces.
Quantum transport through two series Aharonov-Bohm interferometers with zero total magnetic flux
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jian-Ming; Wang Rui; Zhang Yong-Ping; Liang Jiu-Qing
2007-01-01
With the help of nonequilibrium Green's function technique, the electronic transport through series AharonovBohm (AB) interferometers is investigated. We obtain the AB interference pattern of the transition probability characterized by the algebraic sum φ and the difference θ of two magnetic fluxes, and particularly a general rule of AB oscillation period depending on the ratio of integer quantum numbers of the fluxes. A parity effect is observed, showing the asymmetric AB oscillations with respect to the even and odd quantum numbers of the total flux in antiparallel AB interferometers. It is also shown that the AB flux can shift the Fano resonance peaks of the transmission spectrum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Shao-Quan; SUN Wei-Li
2007-01-01
Using the Keldysh Nonequilibrium Green function and equation-of-motion technique,we investigate Fano versus Kondo resonances in closed Aharonov-Bohm interferometer coupled to ferromagnetic leads and study their effects on the conductance of this system.The conductance with both parallel and antiparallel lead-polarization alignments is analysed for various values of the magnetic flux.Our results show that this system can provide an excellent spin filtering property,and a large tunnelling magnetoresistance can arise by adjusting the system parameters,which indicates that this system is a possible candidate for spin valve transistors and has important applications in spintronics.
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos
2010-01-01
We show that the standard Dirac phase factor is not the only solution of the gauge transformation equations. The full form of a general gauge function (that connects systems that move in different sets of scalar and vector potentials), apart from Dirac phases also contains terms of classical fields that act nonlocally (in spacetime) on the local solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation: the phases of wavefunctions in the Schr\\"odinger picture are affected nonlocally by spatially and temporally remote magnetic and electric fields, in ways that are fully explored. These contributions go beyond the usual Aharonov-Bohm effects (magnetic or electric). (i) Application to cases of particles passing through static magnetic or electric fields leads to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point; these are linked to behaviors at the semiclassical level (to the old Werner & Brill experimental observations, or their "electric analogs" - or to recent reports of Batelaan & Tonomura)...
Scalar Pair Production in the Aharonov-Bohm Potential
Shahin, G Y
2005-01-01
In the framework of QED, scalar pair production by a single linearly polarized high-energy photon in the presence of an external Aharonov-Bohm potential is investigated. The exact scattering solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation in cylindrically symmetric field are constructed and used to write the first order transition amplitude. The matrix elements and the corresponding differential scattering cross-section are calculated. The pair production at both the nonrelativistic and the ultrarelativistic limits is discussed.
Electric dipole moment oscillations in Aharonov-Bohm quantum rings
Alexeev, A. M.; Portnoi, M. E.
2012-01-01
Magneto-oscillations of the electric dipole moment are predicted and analyzed for a single-electron nanoscale ring pierced by a magnetic flux (an Aharonov-Bohm ring) and subjected to an electric field in the ring's plane. These oscillations are accompanied by periodic changes in the selection rules for inter-level optical transitions in the ring allowing control of polarization properties of the associated terahertz radiation.
Spin filtering in a Rashba-Dresselhaus-Aharonov-Bohm double-dot interferometer
Matityahu, Shlomi; Aharony, Amnon; Entin-Wohlman, Ora; Tarucha, Seigo
2013-12-01
We study the spin-dependent transport of spin-1/2 electrons through an interferometer made of two elongated quantum dots or quantum nanowires, which are subject to both an Aharonov-Bohm flux and (Rashba and Dresselhaus) spin-orbit interactions. Similar to the diamond interferometer proposed in our previous papers (Aharony et al 2011 Phys. Rev. B 84 035323; Matityahu et al 2013 Phys. Rev. B 87 205438), we show that the double-dot interferometer can serve as a perfect spin filter due to a spin interference effect. By appropriately tuning the external electric and magnetic fields which determine the Aharonov-Casher and Aharonov-Bohm phases, and with some relations between the various hopping amplitudes and site energies, the interferometer blocks electrons with a specific spin polarization, independent of their energy. The blocked polarization and the polarization of the outgoing electrons is controlled solely by the external electric and magnetic fields and do not depend on the energy of the electrons. Furthermore, the spin filtering conditions become simpler in the linear-response regime, in which the electrons have a fixed energy. Unlike the diamond interferometer, spin filtering in the double-dot interferometer does not require high symmetry between the hopping amplitudes and site energies of the two branches of the interferometer and thus may be more appealing from an experimental point of view.
A unified approach to Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher and which-path experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vourdas, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
1999-07-23
A unified approach to Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher and which-path experiments is presented, using an enlarged Hilbert space. This Hilbert space contains quasi-periodic Aharonov-Bohm wavefunctions R(x+2{pi})=R(x)exp(i{theta}) with various values of {theta}. Thus it can describe which-path Aharonov-Bohm experiments where the phase {theta} is uncertain due to decoherence that occurs as a result of the observation of the paths of the electric charges. The same Hilbert space contains quasi-periodic Aharonov-Casher wavefunctions which describe magnetic flux tubes winding around an electric charge and which are related through a Fourier transform to the Aharonov-Bohm wavefunctions. The duality between these two phenomena is discussed. The decoherence occurring in which-path experiments is studied quantitatively. Magnetic and electric superselection rules, appropriate for the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher experiments correspondingly, are also discussed. (author)
Aharonov-Bohm quantum rings in high-Q microcavities
Alexeev, A. M.; Shelykh, I. A.; Portnoi, M. E.
2013-01-01
A single-mode microcavity with an embedded Aharonov-Bohm quantum ring, which is pierced by a magnetic flux and subjected to a lateral electric field, is studied theoretically. It is shown that external electric and magnetic fields provide additional means of control of the emission spectrum of the system. In particular, when the magnetic flux through the quantum ring is equal to a half-integer number of the magnetic flux quantum, a small change in the lateral electric field allows tuning of t...
Three Quantum Dots Embedded in Aharonov-Bohm Rings
Toonen, Ryan; Hãttel, Andreas; Goswami, Srijit; Eberl, Karl; Eriksson, Mark; van der Weide, Daniel; Blick, Robert
2004-03-01
Coherent coupling of two quantum dots embedded in a ring-geometry has been demonstrated by Holleitner et al.(A.W. Holleitner, H. Qin, C.R. Decker, K. Eberl, and R.H. Blick, phCoherent Coupling of Two Quantum Dots Embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm Ring), Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 256802 (2001) Recording of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in such a circuit has proven that the phases of electron wave functions can be manipulated directly. We have since enhanced the complexity of this system by embedding three quantum dots in such a ring-geometry. As before, our quantum dots are formed by laterally constricting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an Al_xGa_1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure. The new, essential ingredient of this experiment is an additional third port--added to the ring for individually addressing the third quantum dot. This circuit allows us to investigate phenomena associated with phase-switching between separate ports. We will discuss first results and give a simple model of circuit operation.
Persistent Currents in the Double Aharonov-Bohm Ring Connected to Electron Reservoirs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ying; XIAO Jing-Lin
2007-01-01
We study persistent currents in the double Aharonov-Bohm ring connected to two electron reservoirs by quantum waveguide theory. It is found that the persistent currents in the double Aharonov-Bohm ring depend on the direction of the current flow from one reservoir to another. When the direction of the current flow reverses, the persistent current in each ring of the double Aharonov-Bohm ring changes. If the two rings are of the same size, the persistent currents in the left and the right rings exchange at the reversal of the current flow direction.
Resonant Transmission of Electron Spin States through Multiple Aharonov-Bohm Rings
Cutright, Jim; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong
2011-10-01
An Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with embedded quantum dots (QD) in each arm and one -dimensional nanowires attached as leads acts as a primitive cell in this analysis. When a tunable, external magnetic field is parallel to the surface area of the ring it causes Zeeman splitting in the energy levels of the QDs. An electron that traverses these energy levels has the potential to interfere with other electrons and to produce spin polarized output. It is already known that upon output the transmission of the electrons through this system will have a resonant peak at each Zeeman split energy level. A system where multiple AB rings are connected in series is studied, to see how having the electrons pass through multiple, identical rings effects the resonant peaks in the transmission and the degree of spin polarization.
Wave-packet rectification in nonlinear electronic systems: A tunable Aharonov-Bohm diode
Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen
2014-01-01
Rectification of electron wave-packets propagating along a quasi-one dimensional chain is commonly achieved via the simultaneous action of nonlinearity and longitudinal asymmetry, both confined to a limited portion of the chain termed wave diode. However, it is conceivable that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatial asymmetry perpendicular to the direction of propagation suffices to ensure rectification. This is the case of a nonlinear ring-shaped lattice with different upper and lower halves (diode), which is attached to two elastic chains (leads). The resulting device is mirror symmetric with respect to the ring vertical axis, but mirror asymmetric with respect to the chain direction. Wave propagation along the two diode paths can be modeled for simplicity by a discrete Schr\\"odinger equation with cubic nonlinearities. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, thanks to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, such a diode can be operated by tuning the magnetic flux across the ring.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.c [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)
2010-09-03
We show that the standard Dirac phase factor is not the only solution of the usual gauge transformation equations. The full form of a general gauge function (that connects systems that move in different sets of scalar and vector potentials), apart from Dirac phases (spatial or temporal integrals over potentials), also contains terms of classical fields that act nonlocally (in spacetime) on the local solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. As a result, the phases of wavefunctions in the Schroedinger picture are affected nonlocally by spatially and temporally remote magnetic and electric fields, in specific ways that are fully explored. These contributions go beyond the usual Aharonov-Bohm effects (magnetic or electric). (i) Application to cases of particles passing through full static magnetic or electric fields leads to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point; these cancellations are linked to behaviors at the semiclassical level (i.e. the old Werner and Brill experimental observations, or their 'electric analogs'-or to more recent reports of Batelaan and Tonomura) but are shown to be far more general (true not only for narrow wavepackets but also for completely delocalized (spread-out) quantum states). By using these cancellations, certain previously unnoticed sign-errors in the literature are corrected. (ii) Application to time-dependent situations provides a remedy for erroneous results in the literature (concerning an uncritical use of Dirac phase factors) and leads to phases that contain an Aharonov-Bohm part and a field-nonlocal part: their competition is shown to recover relativistic causality in earlier 'paradoxes' (such as the van Kampen thought-experiment), while a more general consideration indicates that the temporal nonlocalities found here demonstrate in part a causal propagation of phases of quantum mechanical wavefunctions in the Schroedinger picture. This may open a new and direct way to
The K-Theoretic Formulation of D-Brane Aharonov-Bohm Phases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron R. Warren
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The topological calculation of Aharonov-Bohm phases associated with D-branes in the absence of a Neveu-Schwarz B-field is explored. The K-theoretic classification of Ramond-Ramond fields in Type II and Type I theories is used to produce formulae for the Aharonov-Bohm phase associated with a torsion flux. A topological construction shows that K-theoretic pairings to calculate such phases exist and are well defined. An analytic perspective is then taken, obtaining a means for determining Aharonov-Bohm phases by way of the reduced eta-invariant. This perspective is used to calculate the phase for an experiment involving the (−1 −8 system in Type I theory and compared with previous calculations performed using different methods.
Aharonov-Bohm conductance of a disordered single-channel quantum ring
Shmakov, P. M.; Dmitriev, A. P.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.
2013-06-01
We study the effect of weak disorder on tunneling conductance of a single-channel quantum ring threaded by magnetic flux. We assume that the temperature is higher than the level spacing in the ring and smaller than the Fermi energy. In the absence of disorder, the conductance shows sharp dips (antiresonances) as a function of magnetic flux. We discuss different types of disorder and find that the short-range disorder broadens antiresonances, while the long-range one leads to the appearance of additional resonant dips. We demonstrate that the resonant dips have essentially non-Lorentzian shape. The results are generalized to account for the spin-orbit interaction, which leads to splitting of the disorder-broadened resonant dips, and consequently, to coexisting of two types of oscillations (both having the form of sharp dips): Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with magnetic flux and Aharonov-Casher oscillations with the strength of the spin-orbit coupling. We also discuss the effect of the Zeeman coupling.
Aharonov-Bohm-like scattering, localization, and novel electronic states in hydrogenated graphene
Shytov, Andrey; Abanin, Dmitry; Levitov, Leonid
2009-03-01
Metallic nature of transport in graphene, which is fairly robust with respect to varying amounts of disorder, changes in an unexpected way when vacancies are introduced in this material. At low energies, near the Dirac point, electron scattering on vacancies mimics scattering on Aharonov-Bohm solenoids carrying unit flux. This type of scattering results in a very narrow band of states at the Dirac point with properties resembling those of zeroth Landau level, which is positioned in the middle of a (pseudo)gap created by vacancies and resembling the cyclotron gap around zeroth Landau level. The fictitious magnetic field describing vacancies has opposite signs for the valleys K and K'. As a result of this, an externally applied magnetic field has opposite effects in the two valleys, suppressing (reinforcing) the gap in the K (K') valley. We show that this picture is in agreement with the behavior observed in a recent study [1] of electronic properties of graphene, which can be transformed from metallic state to insulating state by hydrogenation. [1] D. C. Elias, R. R. Nair, T. M. G. Mohiuddin, S. V. Morozov, P. Blake, M. P. Halsall, A. C. Ferrari, D. W. Boukhvalov, M. I. Katsnelson, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, arXiv:0810.4706
Aharony, Amnon; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Guy Z.; Entin-Wohlman, Ora; Katsumoto, Shingo
2011-07-01
Spin-1/2 electrons are scattered through one or two diamond-like loops, made of quantum dots connected by one-dimensional wires, and subject to both an Aharonov-Bohm flux and (Rashba and Dresselhaus) spin-orbit interactions. With some symmetry between the two branches of each diamond, and with appropriate tuning of the electric and magnetic fields (or of the diamond shapes), this device completely blocks electrons with one polarization and allows only electrons with the opposite polarization to be transmitted. The directions of these polarizations are tunable by these fields, and do not depend on the energy of the scattered electrons. For each range of fields one can tune the site and bond energies of the device so that the transmission of the fully polarized electrons is close to unity. Thus, these devices perform as ideal spin filters, and these electrons can be viewed as mobile qubits; the device writes definite quantum information on the spinors of the outgoing electrons. The device can also read the information written on incoming polarized electrons: The charge transmission through the device contains full information on this polarization. The double-diamond device can also act as a realization of the Datta-Das spin field-effect transistor.
Observation of Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations in a graphene ring
Russo, S.; Oostinga, J.B.; Wehenkel, D.; Heersche, H.B.; Sobhani, S.S.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Morpugo, A.F.
2008-01-01
We investigate experimentally transport through ring-shaped devices etched in graphene and observe clear Aharonov-Bohm conductance oscillations. The temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitude indicates that below 1 K, the phase coherence length is comparable to or larger than the size of th
Quantum spin transport through Aharonov-Bohm ring with a tangent magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Zhi-Jian
2005-01-01
Quantum spin transport in a mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm ring with two leads subject to a magnetic field with circular configuration is investigated by means of one-dimensional quantum waveguide theory. Within the framework magnetic flux or by the tangent magnetic field. In particular, the spin flips can be induced by hopping the AB magnetic flux or the tangent field.
Bound states for fermions in the gauge Aharonov-Bohm field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voropaev, S.A.; Galtsov, D.V.; Spasov, D.A. (Dept. of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State Univ. (USSR))
1991-09-05
In this paper we discuss some interesting properties of the Aharonov-Bohm interaction for relativistic spin-one-half particles. We will show that the AB potential is powerful enough to create bound states. We will then discuss the wave function, spin-coefficients and the energy level for the bound states of the fermions in the gauge AB field. (orig.).
Falaye, Babatunde James; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-01-01
This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm-flux (AB-flux), electric and magnetic fields directed along $z$-axis and encircled by quantum plasmas, on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result to a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that, the combined effect of the fields is stronger than solitary effect and consequently, there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, where AB-flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics, it can also be applied in molecular physics.
Spin-dependent quantum transport through an Aharonov-Bohm structure spin splitter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yu-Xian
2008-01-01
Using the tight-binding model approximation, this paper investigates theoretically spin-dependent quantum trans-port through an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer. An external magnetic field is applied to produce the spin-polarization and spin current. The AB interferometer, acting as a spin splitter, separates the opposite spin polarization current. By adjusting the energy and the direction of the magnetic field, large spin-polarized current can be obtained.
Aharonov-Bohm effect on Aharonov-Casher scattering
Lin, Qiong-Gui
2010-01-01
The scattering of relativistic spin-1/2 neutral particles with a magnetic dipole moment by a long straight charged line and a magnetic flux line at the same position is studied. The scattering cross sections for unpolarized and polarized particles are obtained by solving the Dirac-Pauli equation. The results are in general the same as those for pure Aharonov-Casher scattering (by the charged line alone) as expected. However, in special cases when the incident energy, the line charge density, and the magnetic flux satisfy some relations, the cross section for polarized particles is dramatically changed. Relations between the polarization of incident particles and that of scattered ones are presented, both in the full relativistic case and the nonrelativistic limit. The characteristic difference between the general and special cases lies in the backward direction: in the general cases the incident particles are simply bounced while in the special cases their polarization is turned over simultaneously. For pure Aharonov-Casher scattering there exist cases where the helicities of all scattered particles are reversed. This seems to be remarkable but appears unnoticed previously. Two mathematical approaches are employed to deal with the singularity of the electric and magnetic field and it turns out that the physical results are essentially the same.
Scars in Dirac fermion systems: the influence of an Aharonov-Bohm flux
Wang, Cheng-Zhen; Huang, Liang; Chang, Kai
2017-01-01
Time-reversal ({ T }-) symmetry is fundamental to many physical processes. Typically, { T }-breaking for microscopic processes requires the presence of magnetic field. However, for 2D massless Dirac billiards, { T }-symmetry is broken automatically by the mass confinement, leading to chiral quantum scars. In this paper, we investigate the mechanism of { T }-breaking by analyzing the local current of the scarring eigenstates and their magnetic response to an Aharonov-Bohm flux. Our results unveil the complete understanding of the subtle { T }-breaking phenomena from both the semiclassical formula of chiral scars and the microscopic current and spin reflection at the boundaries, leading to a controlling scheme to change the chirality of the relativistic quantum scars. Our findings not only have significant implications on the transport behavior and spin textures of the relativistic pseudoparticles, but also add basic knowledge to relativistic quantum chaos.
Conductance Oscillations through an Aharonov-Bohm Ring with a Quantum Gate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
Based on a one-dimensional quantum wave guide theory, we investigate the ballistic conductance through an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a quantum gate. The analytical expression of the conductance is exactly obtained as the function of magnetic flux penetrating the ring and Fermi energy of indcident electrons. When Fermi energy equals that of bound states in the isolated stub, the conductance is fixed at a constant value which is only determined by the geometric structure of the ring system. We have found that there are a new kind of conductance oscillations for some special mesoscopic ring systems. As Fermi energy of incident electrons crosses that of bound state in the isolated stub, the conductance oscillations have no abrupt change of phase by πr and are in phase. This striking feature is not in ageement with that of previous experiments and theories. The mechanism causing this new feature is discussed.
Spin-polarized quantum transport through an Aharonov-Bohm quantum-dot-ring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jian-Ming; Wang Rui; Liang Jiu-Qing
2007-01-01
In this paper the quantum transport through an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) quantum-dot-ring with two dot-array arms described by a single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian is investigated in the presence of additional magnetic fields applied to the dot-array arms to produce spin flip of electrons. A far richer interference pattern than that in the charge transport alone is found. Besides the usual AB oscillation the tunable spin polarization of the current by the magnetic flux is a new observation and is seen to be particularly useful in technical applications. The spectrum of transmission probability is modulated by the quantum dot numbers on the up-arc and down-arc of the ring, which, however, does not affect the period of the AB oscillation.
Topological phases reviewed: The Aharonov Bohm, Aharonov Casher, and He McKellar Wilkens phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKellar, B. H. J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terrascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne (Australia); He, X-G. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Klein, A. G. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne (Australia)
2014-03-05
There are three topological phases related to electromagnetic interactions in quantum mechanics: 1. The Aharonov Bohm phase acquired when a charged particle encircles a magnetic field but travels through a field free region. 2. The Aharonov Casher phase acquired when a magnetic dipole encircles electric charges but travels through a charge free region. 3. The He McKellar Wilkens phase acquired when an electric dipole encircles magnetic charges but travels through a charge free region. We review the conditions under which these phases are indeed topological and their experimental realisation. Because the He McKellar Wilkens phase has been recently observed we pay particular attention to how the basic concept of 'an electric dipole encircles magnetic charges' was realised experimentally, and discuss possible future experimental realisations.
Transmission through a quantum dot molecule embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lovey, Daniel A; Gomez, Sergio S; Romero, Rodolfo H, E-mail: rhromero@exa.unne.edu.ar [Instituto de Modelado e Innovacion Tecnologica, CONICET, and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400) Corrientes (Argentina)
2011-10-26
We study theoretically the transmission through a quantum dot molecule embedded in the arms of an Aharonov-Bohm four quantum dot ring threaded by a magnetic flux. The tunable molecular coupling provides a transmission pathway between the interferometer arms in addition to those along the arms. From a decomposition of the transmission in terms of contributions from paths, we show that antiresonances in the transmission arise from the interference of the self-energy along different paths and that application of a magnetic flux can produce the suppression of such antiresonances. The occurrence of a period of twice the quantum of flux arises at the opening of the transmission pathway through the dot molecule. Two different connections of the device to the leads are considered and their spectra of conductance are compared as a function of the tunable parameters of the model. (paper)
Aharonov-Bohm protection of black hole's baryon/skyrmion hair
Dvali, Gia
2016-01-01
The baryon/skyrmion correspondence implies that the baryon number is encoded into a topological surface integral. Under certain conditions that we clarify, this surface integral can be measured by an asymptotic observer in form of an Aharonov-Bohm phase-shift in an experiment in which the skyrmion passes through a loop of a probe string. In such a setup the baryon/skyrmion number must be respected by black holes, despite the fact that it produces no long-range classical field. If initially swallowed by a black hole, the baryon number must resurface in form of a classical skyrmion hair, after the black hole evaporates below a certain critical size. Needless to say, the respect of the baryon number by black holes is expected to have potentially-interesting astrophysical consequences.
Spin Accumulation in a Double Quantum Dot Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Hai-Tao; L(U) Tian-Quan; LIU Xiao-Jie; XUE Hui-Jie
2009-01-01
@@ We investigate the spin accumulation in a double quantum dot Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer in which both the Rashba spin-orbit (RSO) interaction and intradot Coulomb interaction are taken into account. Due to the existence of the RSO interaction, the electron, flowing through different arms of the AB ring, will acquire a spin-dependent phase factor in the tunnel-coupling strengths. This phase factor will induce various interesting interference phenomena. It is found that the electrons of the different spin directions can accumulate in the two dots by properly adjusting the bias and the intradot level with a fixed RSO interaction strength. Moreover, both the magnitude and direction of the spin accumulation in each dot can be conveniently controlled and tuned by the gate voltage acting on the dot or the bias on the lead.
Observation of ballistic conductance and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in Si/SiGe heterostructures
Gao, W. X.; Ismail, K.; Lee, K. Y.; Chu, J. O.; Washburn, S.
1994-12-01
We have fabricated quantum devices from remotely doped Si/SiGe heterostructures. The devices are interferometers (loops) similar in plan to those used in experiments on ballistic GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs devices. The loops are approximately 2r=0.8 μm in diameter with linewidths of w=0.4 μm. We have observed clear Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations that vanish systematically as the carrier temperature increases. Response of up to the second harmonic of the fundamental AB frequency e/h implies a phase coherence length of around Lφ=1.2 μm. In some samples, we see steps in conductance G(Vg) as a function of gate voltage similar to the ballistic mode steps seen in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs point contacts.
Creation of planar charged fermions in Coulomb and Aharonov-Bohm potentials
Khalilov, V R
2013-01-01
The creation of charged fermions from the vacuum by a Coulomb field in the presence of an Aharonov--Bohm (AB) potential are studied in 2+1 dimensions. The process is governed by a (singular) Dirac Hamiltonian that requires the supplementary definition in order for it to be treated as a self-adjoint quantum-mechanical operator. By constructing a one-parameter self-adjoint extension of the Dirac Hamiltonian, specified by boundary conditions, we describe the (virtual bound) quasistationary states with "complex energy" emerging in an attractive Coulomb potential, derive for the first time, complex equations (depending upon the electron spin and the extension parameter) for the quasistationary state "complex energy". The constructed self-adjoint Dirac Hamiltonians in Coulomb and AB potentials are applied to provide a correct description to the low-energy electron excitations, as well as the creation of charged quasiparticles from the vacuum in graphene by the Coulomb impurity in the presence of AB potential. It is...
Aharonov-Bohm interference in gate-defined ring of high-mobility graphene
Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hu-Jong
2015-03-01
Recent progress in preparing a high-quality graphene layer enables one to investigate the intrinsic carrier transport nature in the material. Here, we report the signature of conservation of the Berry's phase with preserved valley symmetry in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometers fabricated on monolayer graphene with high carrier mobility, where the graphene was sandwiched between two thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers. In measurements, charge carriers were confined in an AB ring-shaped potential well formed by the dual-gate operation of the bottom and top gates and the four-terminal magneto-conductance (MC) was measured with varying charge carrier density and temperature. Graphene in the device was in the ballistic regime as confirmed by the conductance quantization in steps of ΔG = 4e2/ h in a constricted conducting channel of separate measurements. We observed h/e periodic modulation of MC and the zero-field conductance minimum with a negative MC background. The phase information of AB interference strongly suggests that carriers in the graphene in our devices preserve the intrinsic Dirac transport nature, which would be conveniently utilized for valleytronics in graphene.
Bound states of massive fermions in Aharonov-Bohm-like fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalilov, V.R. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-01-15
Bound states of massive fermions in Aharonov-Bohm (AB)-like fields have analytically been studied. The Hamiltonians with the (AB)-like potentials are essentially singular and therefore require specification of a one-parameter self-adjoint extension. We construct self-adjoint Dirac Hamiltonians with the AB potential in 2+1 dimensions that are specified by boundary conditions at the origin. It is of interest that for some range of the extension parameter the AB potential can bind relativistic charged massive fermions. The bound-state energy is determined by the AB magnetic flux and depends upon the fermion spin and extension parameter; it is a periodical function of the magnetic flux. We also construct self-adjoint Hamiltonians for the so-called Aharonov-Casher (AC) problem, show that nonrelativistic neutral massive fermions can be bound by the (AC) background, determine the range of the extension parameter in which fermion bound states exist, and find their energies as well as wave functions. (orig.)
Spin-polarized transport through a double Aharonov-Bohm ring in the presence of magnetic impurity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高迎芳; 张永平; 梁九卿
2005-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interference oscillations manifested through transmission of an electron in a mesoscopic device with a double-ring in the presence of a magnetic impurity serving as the spin-flipper are studied. The spin-flipper is demonstrated to indeed cause the partial decoherence of the AB interference. Moreover, it is found that the spinup/down transmission coefficients are asymmetric in the flux reversal while the reflection coefficients as well as that the total transmission coefficient are symmetric.
Coherent Transport Through a Quantum Dot Embedded in a Double-Slit-Like Aharonov-Bohm Ring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄丽; 游建强; 颜晓红; 韦世豪
2002-01-01
Coherent transport through a quantum dot embedded in one arm ora double-slit-like Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ringis studied using the Green's function approach. We obtain experimental observations such as continuous phaseshift along a single resonance peak and sharp inter-resonance phase drop. The AB oscillations of the differentialconductance of the whole device are calculated by using the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. It is shown thatthe oscillating conductance has a continuous bias-voltage-dependent phase shift and is asymmetric in both linearand nonlinear response regimes.
Bai, Long; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chen-Long
2012-12-10
: Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we theoretically study the Andreev reflection(AR) in a four-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer containing a coupled double quantum dot with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the coherent indirect coupling via two ferromagnetic leads. When two ferromagnetic electrodes are in the parallel configuration, the spin-up conductance is equal to the spin-down conductance due to the absence of the RSOI. However, for the antiparallel alignment, the spin-polarized AR occurs resulting from the crossed AR (CAR) and the RSOI. The effects of the coherent indirect coupling, RSOI, and magnetic flux on the Andreev-reflected tunneling magnetoresistance are analyzed at length. The spin-related current is calculated, and a distinct swap effect emerges. Furthermore, the pure spin current can be generated due to the CAR when two ferromagnets become two half metals. It is found that the strong RSOI and the large indirect coupling are in favor of the CAR and the production of the strong spin current. The properties of the spin-related current are tunable in terms of the external parameters. Our results offer new ways to manipulate the spin-dependent transport.
Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.
2016-07-01
We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, A. G., E-mail: smirnov@lpi.ru [I. E. Tamm Theory Department, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
We develop a general technique for finding self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric operator that respects a given set of its symmetries. Problems of this type naturally arise when considering two- and three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. The approach is based on constructing a unitary transformation diagonalizing the symmetries and reducing the initial operator to the direct integral of a suitable family of partial operators. We prove that symmetry preserving self-adjoint extensions of the initial operator are in a one-to-one correspondence with measurable families of self-adjoint extensions of partial operators obtained by reduction. The general scheme is applied to the three-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian describing the electron in the magnetic field of an infinitely thin solenoid. We construct all self-adjoint extensions of this Hamiltonian, invariant under translations along the solenoid and rotations around it, and explicitly find their eigenfunction expansions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Ying-Fang; ZHANG Yong-Ping; LIANG Jiu-Qing
2004-01-01
@@ We study the transport of spin-polarized current induced by the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phases in a mesoscopic ring with two leads in the presence of a cylindrically symmetric electric field and the magnetic flux at the centre of the same ring. An exact solution for the quantum transport is obtained. It is shown that the transport spin-polarized current and its polarizability can be controlled by the electric field and the magnetic flux as well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús Quintero
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Las ecuaciones de Proca prevén la posibilidad de una masa no nula del fotón. En este contexto de la electrodinámica de rango finito, los enfoques utilizados para determinar la masa del fotón, o sus límites superiores, están basados tradicionalmente en métodos clásicos. En este trabajo, se presenta una breve reseña de métodos experimentales más recientes que se basan en un enfoque cuántico. Se muestra que los enfoques cuánticos pueden competir y hasta superar los métodos clásicos.ABSTRACT: Proca equations foresee the possibility of a nonzero photon mass. In this context of electrodynamics of finite range, the approaches used to determine the mass of the photon, or its upper limits, are traditionally based on classical methods. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the latest experimental methods that are based on a quantum approach. It is shown that quantum approaches can compete and even surpass traditional methods.
Single electron bipolar conductance switch driven by the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Lee, Joonhee; Tallarida, Nicholas; Rios, Laura; Perdue, Shawn M; Apkarian, Vartkess Ara
2014-06-24
We demonstrate a conductance switch controlled by the spin-vibronic density of an odd electron on a single molecule. The junction current is modulated by the spin-flip bistability of the electron. Functional images are provided as wiring diagrams for control of the switch's frequency, amplitude, polarity, and duty-cycle. The principle of operation relies on the quantum mechanical phase associated with the adiabatic circulation of a spin-aligned electron around a conical intersection. The functional images quantify the governing vibronic Hamiltonian.
Spin selective transport through Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher triple quantum dot systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tosi, Leandro; Aligia, A.A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energa Atomica, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)
2011-03-15
We calculate the conductance through a system of three quantum dots (QDs) under two different sets of conditions that lead to spin filtering effects under an applied magnetic field. In one of them, a spin is localized in one QD, as proposed by Delgado et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226810 (2008)]. In the other one, all dots are equivalent by symmetry and the system is subject to a Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We solve the problem using a simple effective Hamiltonian for the low-energy subspace, improving the accuracy of previous results. We obtain that correlation effects related to the Kondo physics play a minor role for parameters estimated previously and high enough magnetic field. Both systems lead to a magnetic field tunable ''spin valve''. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Massive 3+1 Aharonov-Bohm fermions in an MIT cylinder
De Francia, M; Francia, Marcelo De; Kirsten, Klaus
2001-01-01
We study the effect of a background flux string on the vacuum energy of massive Dirac fermions in 3+1 dimensions confined to a finite spatial region through MIT boundary conditions. We treat two admissible self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian. The external sector is also studied and unambiguous results for the Casimir energy of massive fermions in the whole space are obtained.
Half-period Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in disordered rotating optical ring cavities
Li, Huanan; Shapiro, Boris
2016-01-01
There exists an analogy between Maxwell equations in a rotating frame and Schr\\"odinger equation for a charged particle in the presence of a magnetic field. We exploit this analogy to point out that electromagnetic phenomena in the rotating frame, under appropriate conditions, can exhibit periodicity with respect to the angular velocity of rotation. In particular, in disordered ring cavities one finds the optical analog of the Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect well known in mesoscopic physics of disordered metals.
Half-period Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in disordered rotating optical ring cavities
Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos; Shapiro, Boris
2016-09-01
There exists an analogy between Maxwell equations in a rotating frame and the Schrödinger equation for a charged particle in the presence of a magnetic field. We exploit this analogy to point out that electromagnetic phenomena in the rotating frame, under appropriate conditions, can exhibit periodicity with respect to the angular velocity of rotation. In particular, in disordered ring cavities one finds the optical analog of the Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect well known in mesoscopic physics of disordered metals.
Coherent and semiclassical states in magnetic field in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid
Bagrov, V G; Gitman, D M; Filho, D P Meira
2010-01-01
A new approach to constructing coherent states (CS) and semiclassical states (SS) in magnetic-solenoid field is proposed. The main idea is based on the fact that the AB solenoid breaks the translational symmetry in the xy-plane, this has a topological effect such that there appear two types of trajectories which embrace and do not embrace the solenoid. Due to this fact, one has to construct two different kinds of CS/SS, which correspond to such trajectories in the semiclassical limit. Following this idea, we construct CS in two steps, first the instantaneous CS (ICS) and the time dependent CS/SS as an evolution of the ICS. The construction is realized for nonrelativistic and relativistic, spinning and spinless particles both in (2+1)- and (3+1)- dimensions and gives a non-trivial example of SS/CS for systems with a nonquadratic Hamiltonian. It is stressed that CS depending on their parameters (quantum numbers) describe both pure quantum and semiclassical states. An analysis is represented that classifies para...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Li-Jun; Han Yu
2013-01-01
The spin-polarized linear conductance spectrum and current-voltage characteristics in a four-quantum-dot ring embodied into Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer are investigated theoretically by considering a local Rashba spin-orbit interaction.It shows that the spin-polarized linear conductance and the corresponding spin polarization are each a function of magnetic flux phase at zero bias voltage with a period of 2π,and that Hubbard U cannot influence the electron transport properties in this case.When adjusting appropriately the structural parameter of inter-dot coupling and dot-lead coupling strength,the electronic spin polarization can reach a maximum value.Furthermore,by adjusting the bias voltages applied to the leads,the spin-up and spin-down currents move in opposite directions and pure spin current exists in the configuration space in appropriate situations.Based on the numerical results,such a model can be applied to the design of a spin filter device.
Mtsuko, Davie; Aslan, Tahir; Ncube, Siphephile; Coleman, Christopher; Wamwangi, Daniel; Bhattacharyya, Somnath
2016-02-01
Magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations of multiple periodicities are recorded in singly connected silicon nanowires of diameter ≈50 \\text{nm} . At 100 K we observe oscillations of periodicity ≈1.78 \\text{T} and 0.444 T corresponding to h/e and h/4e Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations, whereas at 10 K we record periodicities of 0.98 T, 0.49 T and 0.25 T corresponding to h/e, h/2e (Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS)) and h/4e oscillations. At 2.5 K we find magnetoresistance oscillations with multiple periodicities of 1.3 T, 0.52 T, and 0.325 T corresponding to AB and AAS oscillations. The h/2e and h/4e peaks can be attributed to the interference of time-reversed paths originating from the core orbits that scatter coherently on the surface of the nanowires multiple times. We also observed 20 mT and 60 mT oscillations of small amplitude superimposed on a quasi-periodic background which we attribute to the quantum interference of special surface states associated with skipping orbits that propagate quasi-ballistically. The aperiodic fluctuations in the MR at all temperatures are universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) originating from randomly spaced impurity scattering in the core of the nanowire.
Englman, R.
2016-08-01
The recent phase shift data of Takada et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 126601) for a two level system are reconstructed from their current intensity curves by the method of Hilbert transform, for which the underlying Physics is the principle of causality. An introductory algebraic model illustrates pedagogically the working of the method and leads to newly derived relationships involving phenomenological parameters, in particular for the sign of the phase slope between the resonance peaks. While the parametrization of the experimental current intensity data in terms of a few model parameters shows only a qualitative agreement for the phase shift, due to the strong impact of small, detailed variations in the experimental intensity curve on the phase behavior, the numerical Hilbert transform yields a satisfactory reproduction of the phase.
Gravitational Aharonov–Bohm effect due to noncommutative BTZ black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anacleto, M.A., E-mail: anacleto@df.ufcg.edu.br; Brito, F.A., E-mail: fabrito@df.ufcg.edu.br; Passos, E., E-mail: passos@df.ufcg.edu.br
2015-04-09
In this paper we consider the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by a noncommutative BTZ black hole. We compute the differential cross section via the partial wave approach, and we mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect due to spacetime noncommutativity.
Matteucci, G.
2007-01-01
In the so-called electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an electric field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent electric potential. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic…
Quantum interference effects in topological nanowires in a longitudinal magnetic field
Sacksteder, Vincent E.; Wu, Quansheng
2016-11-01
We study the magnetoconductance of topological insulator nanowires in a longitudinal magnetic field, including Aharonov-Bohm, Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak, perfectly conducting channel, and universal conductance fluctuation effects. Our focus is on predicting experimental behavior in single wires in the quantum limit where temperature is reduced to zero. We show that changing the Fermi energy EF can tune a wire from from ballistic to diffusive conduction and to localization. In both ballistic and diffusive single wires we find both Aharonov-Bohm and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations with similar strengths, accompanied by quite strong universal conductance fluctuations, all with amplitudes between 0.3 G0 and 1 G0 . This contrasts strongly with the average behavior of many wires, which shows Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the ballistic regime and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations in the diffusive regime, with both oscillations substantially larger than the conductance fluctuations. In single wires the ballistic and diffusive regimes can be distinguished by varying EF and studying the sign of the Aharonov-Bohm signal, which depends periodically on EF in ballistic wires and randomly on EF in diffusive wires. We also show that in long wires the perfectly conducting channel is visible at a wide range of energies within the bulk gap. We present typical conductance profiles at several wire lengths, showing that conductance fluctuations can dominate the average signal. Similar behavior will be found in carbon nanotubes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boyer, Timothy H [Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)
2006-03-31
The classical electromagnetic interaction of a point charge and a magnet is discussed by first calculating the interaction of a point charge with a simple model magnetic moment and then suggesting a multiparticle limit. The Darwin-Lagrangian is used to analyse the electromagnetic behaviour of the model magnetic moment (composed of two oppositely charged particles of different masses in an initially circular Coulomb orbit) interacting with a passing point charge. Considerations of force, energy, momentum and centre of energy are treated through second order in 1/c. The changing magnetic moment is found to put a force back on a passing charge; this force is of order 1/c{sup 2} and depends upon the magnitude of the magnetic moment. The limit of a many-particle magnet arranged as a toroid is discussed. It is suggested that in the multiparticle limit, the electric fields of the passing charge are screened out of the body of the magnet while the magnetic fields of the passing charge penetrate into the body of the magnet. This is consistent with our understanding of the penetration of electromagnetic velocity fields into ohmic conductors. The proposed multiparticle limit is consistent with the conservation laws for energy and momentum, as well as constant motion of the centre of energy, and Newton's third law for the net Lorentz forces on the magnet and on the point charge. The work corresponds to a classical electromagnetic analysis of the interaction which is basic to understanding the controversy over the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phase shifts and represents a refutation of the suggestions of Aharonov, Pearle and Vaidman.
Impurity effect on spectrum of nanoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez, W; Garcia, L F; Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: willigun@gmail.co [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia A.A. 678 (Colombia)
2009-05-01
The effect of the donor position on the energy levels and far-infrared spectrum of a finite-barrier toroidal-shaped quantum ring in the presence of the external magnetic field applied along the axis is studied. It is shown that the displacement of the donor from the centre toward the ring produces a localization of the low lying states, quenching of the Aharonov- Bohm oscillations of the corresponding levels and a drastic modification of the far-infrared spectrum.
Kondo effect in triple quantum dots: interplay between continuous and discrete symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kikoin, K. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: kikoin@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Kuzmenko, T. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel); Avishai, Y. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel); Ilse Kats Center for Nano-Technology, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel)
2006-05-01
The physics of Kondo effect and related phenomena in a triangular triple quantum dot (TTQD) is studied. A fascinating property of TTQD is the interplay between continuous SU(2) symmetry in spin space and discrete C{sub 3v} symmetry in real space. We show that this interplay is manifested in strong oscillations of conductance as a function of magnetic flux through TTQD due to interplay between Kondo and Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Phase effects in HgTe quantum structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenig, M.; Buhmann, H.; Becker, C.R.; Molenkamp, L.W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.
2007-07-01
HgTe quantum well structures with high electron mobilities have been used to fabricate quantum interference devices. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations have been studied in the low and high magnetic field regime. In the latter case a decrease of the effective ring radius is observed. Additionally, as a consequence of the strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling within this material, it was possible to observe conductance oscillations which are due to the so-called Aharonov-Casher effect. These quantum interference effects are effectively controlled by the applied magnetic and electric field. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Quark confinement and the fractional quantum Hall effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hai-Jun; GENG Wen-Tong
2008-01-01
Working in the physics of Wilson factor and Aharonov-Bohm effect,we find in the fluxtubequark system the topology of a baryon consisting of three heavy flavor quarks resembles that of the fractional quantum Hall effect(FQHE)in condensed matter.This similarity yields the result that the constituent quarks of baryon have the"filling factor"1/3.thus the previous conjecture that quark confinement is a correlation effect is confirmed.Moreover,by deriving a Hamiltonian of the system analogous to that of FQHE,we predict an energy gap for the ground state of a heavy three-quark system.
Testing Leggett's Inequality Using Aharonov-Casher Effect
Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Oh, C H
2011-01-01
The Aharonov-Casher effect possesses dynamical quantum nonlocal property similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We propose an experiment to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality. The experimental scheme is fault tolerant to local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase, and bridges a potential connection between dynamical quantum nonlocality and correlational quantum nonlocality.
A Note on the Sagnac Effect for Matter Beams
Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2014-01-01
We study the Sagnac effect for matter beams, in order to estimate the kinematic corrections to the basic formula, deriving from the position and the extension of the interferometer, and discuss the analogy with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the formula for the Sagnac time delay is the same for matter and light beams in arbitrary stationary space-times, provided that a suitable condition on the speed of the beams is fulfilled. Hence, the same results obtained for light beams apply to matter beams.
Oscillatory quantum interference effects in narrow-gap semiconductor heterostructures
Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Chen, Hong; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; Van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.
2010-01-01
We investigate quantum interference phenomena in narrow bandgap semiconductors under strong spin-orbit interaction, by measuring the magnetoresistance across mesoscopic closed-path structures fabricated in two-dimensional electron systems. We discuss our results in terms of four quantum interference effects brought about by geometric phases acquired by the electron wave functions: the Aharonov-Bohm phase, the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect, the Berry's phase due to the evolution of the spin degree of freedom, and the Aharonov-Casher phase.
Electron Interference in Hall Effect Measurements on GaAs/InAs Core/Shell Nanowires.
Haas, Fabian; Zellekens, Patrick; Lepsa, Mihail; Rieger, Torsten; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Schäpers, Thomas
2017-01-11
We present low-temperature magnetotransport measurements on GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires contacted by regular source-drain leads as well as laterally attached Hall contacts, which only touch parts of the nanowire sidewalls. Low-temperature measurements between source and drain contacts show typical phase coherent effects, such as universal conductance fluctuations in a magnetic field aligned perpendicularly to the nanowire axis as well as Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations in a parallel aligned magnetic field. However, the signal between the Hall contacts shows a Hall voltage buildup, when the magnetic field is turned perpendicular to the nanowire axis while current is driven through the wire using the source-drain contacts. At low temperatures, the phase coherent effects measured between source and drain leads are superimposed on the Hall voltage, which can be explained by nonlocal probing of large segments of the nanowire. In addition, the Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations are also observed in the magnetoconductance at magnetic fields aligned parallel to the nanowire axis, using the laterally contacted leads. This measurement geometry hereby directly corresponds to classical Aharonov-Bohm experiments using planar quantum rings. In addition, the Hall voltage is used to characterize the nanowires in terms of charge carrier concentration and mobility, using temperature- and gate-dependent measurements as well as measurements in tilted magnetic fields. The GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowire used in combination with laterally attached contacts is therefore the ideal system to three-dimensionally combine quantum ring experiments using the cross-sectional plane and Hall experiments using the axial nanowire plane.
Measurement of Aharonov-Casher effect in a Josephson junction chain
Pop, Ioan Mihai; Lecocq, Florent; Pannetier, Bernard; Buisson, Olivier; Guichard, Wiebke
2011-03-01
We have recently measured the effect of superconducting phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain and a rhombi chain. Here we report clear evidence of Aharonov-Casher effect in a chain of Josephson junctions. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. Using a capacitively coupled gate to the islands of the chain, we induce oscillations of the supercurrent by tuning the polarization charges on the islands. We observe complex interference patterns for different quantum phase slip amplitudes, that we understand quantitatively as Aharonov-Casher vortex interferences. European STREP MIDAS.
Ikhdair, Sameer M
2012-01-01
We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjects to equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO). We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The non-relativistic limit, PHO and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.
Effect of Connected Multi-Ring Impurity Scattering on Quantum Transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Ying-Fang; ZHANG Yong-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ We investigate the quantum transmission properties of connected multi-rings with impurities and analyse the effect of the impurities on the band formation in these geometric structures. It is shown that energy bands and band gaps are formed clearly while there is not any fixed band structure for the case of the single ring. The number of resonant peaks in conductance bands increases with the number of rings. Some essential differences are pointed out and magnetic properties of loop configurations in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm flux are explored as well.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sameer M.Ikhdair; Majid Hamzavi
2012-01-01
We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjected to an equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO).We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter,magnetic field strength,AB flux field,and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method.The non-relativistic limit,PHO,and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.
Band nonparabolicity effect on spectral properties of quantum ring
García, L. F.; Revinova, S. Yu.; Mikhailov, I. D.
2017-03-01
We study the effect of the non-parabolicity of the conduction band and of the interband mixing, on the Aharonov Bohm oscillations of the energy levels of a volcano-shaped thin layer, made of InAs material and deposited on the GaAs substrate, by using the Kane model. We derive a simple interpolative relationship between geometrical parameters of the layer and the confinement potential governing the in-plane electron's movement, which allows us to separate the non-linear energy confinement problem in a volcano-shaped structure with a special geometry. Our results show that the nonparabolicity of dispersion of the conduction band, given by the Kane formula, conduces to a significant lowering of the charge carriers' energies and their stronger localization inside the ring. On the contrary, the nonparabolicity almost does not change neither the amplitude nor the period of the Aharonov Bohm oscillations. Additionally, we analyze the interplay between the localization and tunneling of the charge carriers, generated by the external magnetic field in structures with radially directed single, double and quadruple valleys.
Loop Quantum Gravity a la Aharonov-Bohm
Bianchi, Eugenio
2009-01-01
The state space of Loop Quantum Gravity admits a decomposition into orthogonal subspaces associated to diffeomorphism equivalence classes of graphs. In this paper I discuss the possibility of obtaining this state space from the quantization of a topological field theory with many degrees of freedom. The starting point is a theory of locally-flat connections on a manifold which is non simply-connected because of the presence of a network of defects. The quantization procedure relies on standard field theoretical methods. The functional integral defining the scalar product is shown to reduce to a finite dimensional integral over moduli space. A non-trivial measure given by the Faddeev-Popov determinant is derived. The resulting state space is surprisingly close to the one of ordinary Loop Quantum Gravity. Spin networks arise again and provide the tool for describing gauge- and diffeomorphism-invariant functionals of the connection. The role played by defects and loops in this approach is analogous to the one pl...
Semifluxon degeneracy choreography in Aharonov-Bohm billiards
Berry, M. V.; Popescu, S.
2010-09-01
Every energy level of a charged quantum particle confined in a region threaded by a magnetic flux line with quantum flux one-half must be degenerate for some position of the semifluxon within the boundary B. This is illustrated by computations for which B is a circle and a conformal transformation of a circle without symmetry. As the shape of B is varied, two degeneracies between the same pair of levels can collide and annihilate. Degeneracy of three levels requires three shape parameters, or the positions of three semifluxons; degeneracy of N levels can be generated by int{N(N + 1)/4} semifluxons. The force on the semifluxon is derived.
Semifluxon degeneracy choreography in Aharonov-Bohm billiards
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berry, M V; Popescu, S [H H Wills Physics Labroatory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TK (United Kingdom)
2010-09-03
Every energy level of a charged quantum particle confined in a region threaded by a magnetic flux line with quantum flux one-half must be degenerate for some position of the semifluxon within the boundary B. This is illustrated by computations for which B is a circle and a conformal transformation of a circle without symmetry. As the shape of B is varied, two degeneracies between the same pair of levels can collide and annihilate. Degeneracy of three levels requires three shape parameters, or the positions of three semifluxons; degeneracy of N levels can be generated by int{l_brace}N(N + 1)/4{r_brace} semifluxons. The force on the semifluxon is derived.
Semifluxon degeneracy choreography in Aharonov-Bohm billiards
Berry, M V
2010-01-01
Every energy level of a charged quantum particle confined in a region threaded by a magnetic flux line with quantum flux one-half must be degenerate for some position of the semifluxon within the boundary B. This is illustrated by computations for which B is a circle and a conformal transformation of a circle without symmetry. As the shape of B is varied, two degeneracies between the same pair of levels can collide and annihilate. Degeneracy of three levels requires three shape parameters, or the positions of three semifluxons; degeneracy of N levels can be generated by int{N(N+1)/4} semifluxons. The force on the semifluxon is derived.
On a generalized Aharonov-Bohm plus oscillator system
Kibler, M.; Campigotto, C.
1993-09-01
Dynamical algebras, of the so(3,2) and so(3) types, are obtained for a generalized Aharanov-Bohm plus oscillator (ABO) system. Two types of coherent states are introduced for this generalized ABO system. A ( q,p)-analogue of this system is proposed that reduces to the generalized ABO system in the limiting case p= q-1=1. Finally, the classical motions for the generalized ABO system are briefly described.
The Aharonov-Casher Effect for Particles of Arbitrary Spin
Azimov, Ya I
1998-01-01
The Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect for quantum motion of a neutral magnetized particle in the electric field is believed to be a topological effect closely related to the known Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. We study how it depends on the spin of the particle involved. Duality of the AB and AC effects is demonstrated to exist only for two extreme spin (and magnetic moment) projections. Classical consideration confirms the conclusion. Motion of a classical magnetized particle with generally oriented magnetic moment in the AC field appears to be subjected to both forces and torques. Only for two special orientations of the magnetic moment (same as in the quantum case) the motion is effectively free and similar to the AB motion of a charged particle. Thus, the AC effect is not really topological. Presence of higher multipoles totally destroys the possible AB-AC duality.
Rotation Effects and The Gravito-Magnetic Approach
Ruggiero, M L
2004-01-01
Gravito-electromagnetism is somewhat ubiquitous in relativity. In fact, there are many situations where the effects of gravitation can be described by formally introducing "gravito-electric" and "gravito-magnetic" fields, starting from the corresponding potentials, in analogy with the electromagnetic theory (see also A. Tartaglia's contribution to these proceedings). The "many faces of gravito-electromagnetism" are related to rotation effects in both approximated and full theory approaches. Here we show that, by using a 1+3 splitting, relativistic dynamics can be described in terms of gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) fields in full theory. On the basis of this formalism, we introduce a "gravito-magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect", which allows to interpret some rotation effects as gravito-magnetic effects. Finally, we suggest a way for measuring the angular momentum of celestial bodies by studying the gravito-magnetic effects on the propagation of electromagnetic signals.
Anomalous Hall Effect in Geometrically Frustrated Magnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Boldrin
2012-01-01
space mechanism based on spin chirality that was originally applied to the pyrochlore Nd2Mo2O7 appears unsatisfactory. Recently, an orbital description based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect has been proposed and applied to both the ferromagnetic pyrochlores Nd2Mo2O7 and Pr2Ir2O7; the first of which features long-ranged magnetic order while the latter is a chiral spin liquid. Two further examples of geometrically frustrated conducting magnets are presented in this paper—the kagome-like Fe3Sn2 and the triangular PdCrO2. These possess very different electronic structures to the 3-dimensional heavy-metal pyrochlores and provide new opportunities to explore the different origins of the AHE. This paper summarises the experimental findings in these materials in an attempt to unite the conflicting theoretical arguments.
Torsion effects on a relativistic position-dependent mass system
Vitória, R L L
2016-01-01
We analyse a relativistic scalar particle with a position-dependent mass in a spacetime with a space-like dislocation by showing that relativistic bound states solutions can be achieved. Further, we consider the presence of the Coulomb potential and analyse the relativistic position-dependent mass system subject to the Coulomb potential in the spacetime with a space-like dislocation. We also show that a new set of relativistic bound states solutions can be obtained, where there also exists the influence of torsion of the relativistic energy levels. Finally, we investigate an analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect for bound states in this position-dependent mass in a spacetime with a space-like dislocation.
Casimir effect for scalar current densities in topologically nontrivial spaces
Bellucci, S; Saharyan, N A
2015-01-01
We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the current density for a charged scalar field, induced by flat boundaries in spacetimes with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified spatial dimensions. The field operator obeys the Robin conditions on the boundaries and quasiperiodicity conditions with general phases along compact dimensions. In addition, the presence of a constant gauge field is assumed. The latter induces Aharonov-Bohm-type effect on the VEVs. There is a region in the space of the parameters in Robin boundary conditions where the vacuum state becomes unstable. The stability condition depends on the lengths of compact dimensions and is less restrictive than that for background with trivial topology. The vacuum current density is a periodic function of the magnetic flux, enclosed by compact dimensions, with the period equal to the flux quantum. It is explicitly decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced contributions. In sharp contrast to the VEVs...
Finite-size effects in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with a charge-density wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaitsev-Zotov, Sergei V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2004-06-30
Recent studies of finite-size effects in charge-density wave conductors are reviewed. Various manifestations of finite-size effects, including the transverse-size dependence of the nonlinear-conduction threshold field, the Peierls transition temperature, high-frequency conduction, and the relaxation rates of metastable states, are discussed. Resistivity jumps in thin samples, the smeared threshold field for nonlinear conduction, and threshold conduction above the Peierls transition temperature are considered, as are mesoscopic oscillations of the threshold field, one-dimensional conduction in thin crystals, absolute negative conductivity of quasi-one-dimensional conductors, the length dependence of the phase-slip voltage, and the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in sliding CDWs. Problems yet to be solved are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Nitta, Junsaku; Bergsten, Tobias
2008-03-01
Time reversal symmetric Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations are measured in an array of InGaAs mesoscopic loops. We confirm that gate voltage dependence of h/2 e period oscillations is due to spin interference from the effect of ensemble average on the AAS and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) amplitudes. This spin interference is based on the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect. The AC interference oscillations are controlled over several periods. This result shows evidence for electrical manipulation of the spin precession angle in an InGaAs two-dimensional electron gas channel. We control the precession rate in a precise and predictable way with an electrostatic gate.
An Alternative Formulation of Hall Effect and Quantum Phases in Noncommutative Space
Dayi, O F
2010-01-01
A recent method of constructing quantum mechanics in noncommutative coordinates alternative to imply noncommutativity by means of star product or the equivalent coordinate shift is discussed. The formulation is based on introducing some generalized theta-deformed commutation relations among quantum phase space variables and providing their realizations. Each realization furnishes us with a diverse theta-deformation. This procedure is suitable to consider theta-deformation of matrix observables which may be even coordinate independent. Within this alternative approach we give a formulation of Hall effect in noncommutative coordinates and calculate the deformed Hall conductivities for the realizations adopted. Before presenting our formulation of the theta-deformed quantum phases we discussed in a unified manner the existing formulations of quantum phases in noncommutative coordinates. The theta-deformed Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher, He-McKellar-Wilkens and Anandan phases which we obtain are not velocity depe...
Time-reversal Aharonov-Casher effect in mesoscopic rings with spin-orbit interaction
Zhu, Zhenyue; Wang, Yong; Xia, Ke; Xie, X. C.; Ma, Zhongshui
2007-09-01
The time-reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984)] interference effect in the mesoscopic ring structures, based on the experiment in Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 196803 (2006), is studied theoretically. The transmission curves are calculated from the scattering matrix formalism, and the time-reversal AC interference frequency is singled out from the Fourier spectra in numerical simulations. This frequency is in good agreement with analytical result. It is also shown that in the absence of magnetic field, the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak type [JETP Lett. 33, 94 (1981)] (time reversal) AC interference is retained under the influence of strong disorder, while the Aharonov-Bohm type [Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)] AC interference is suppressed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue Hui-Jie; Lü Tian-Quan; Zhang Hong-Chen; Yin Hai-Tao; Cui Lian; He Ze-Long
2012-01-01
The thermoelectric and the thermospin transport properties,including electrical conductivity,Seebeck coefficient,thermal conductivity,and thermoelectric figure of merit,of a parallel coupled double-quantum-dot Aharonov-Bohm interferometer are investigated by means of the Green function technique.The periodic Anderson model is used to describe the quantum dot system,the Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman splitting under a magnetic field are considered.The theoretical results show the constructive contribution of the Rashba effect and the influence of the magnetic field on the thermospin effects.We also show theoretically that material with a high figure of merit can be obtained by tuning the Zeeman splitting energy only.
On the bound states for the Aharonov-Casher systems
Silva, E O; Belich, H; Filgueiras, C
2012-01-01
The bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem is considered. According to the Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the $\\boldsymbol{\
Conductance phases in the quantum dots of an Aharonov-Bohm ring
Yahalom, A.; Englman, R.
2006-09-01
The regimes of growing phases (for electron numbers N≈0 8 ) that pass into regions of self-returning phases (for N>8 ), found recently in quantum dot conductances by Heiblum and co-workers are accounted for by an elementary Green’s function formalism, appropriate to an equi-spaced ladder structure (with at least three rungs) of electronic levels in the quantum dot. The key features of the theory are physically a dissipation rate that increases linearly with the level number (and is tentatively linked to coupling to longitudinal optical phonons) and a set of Fano-like metastable levels, which disturb the unitarity, and mathematically the changeover of the position of the complex transmission amplitude zeros from the upper half in the complex gap-voltage plane to the lower half of that plane. The two regimes are identified with (respectively) the Blaschke term and the Kramers-Kronig integral term in the theory of complex variables.
On the dynamics created by a time--dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux
Asch, J
2007-01-01
We study the dynamics of classical and quantum particles moving in a punctured plane under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field and driven by a time-dependent singular flux tube through the hole.
The persistent current in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a side-coupled quantum dot
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Bo; Wu Shao-Quan; Sun Wei-Li; Zhou Xiao-Lin
2004-01-01
We have investigated the persistent current in a mesoscopic ring with a side-coupled quantum dot. The problems are probed by using the one-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian and are treated with the slave boson mean field theory. It is shown that the persistent current in this system has the spin fluctuations, and the charge transfers between the two subsystems are suppressed in the limit of △/TKo < 1. The minimum value of the persistent current for ζK/L = 5 of the odd parity system provides an opportunity to detect the Kondo screening cloud.
Saharian, A. A.
2016-09-01
We investigate the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a charged scalar field on a slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with toroidally compact dimensions. Along the compact dimensions periodicity conditions are imposed on the field operator with general phases and the presence of a constant gauge field is assumed. The latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effects on the vacuum currents. The current density along compact dimensions is a periodic function of the gauge field flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. It vanishes on the AdS boundary and, near the horizon, to the leading order, it is conformally related to the corresponding quantity in Minkowski bulk for a massless field. For large values of the length of the compact dimension compared with the AdS curvature radius, the vacuum current decays as power-law for both massless and massive fields. This behavior is essentially different from the corresponding one in Minkowski background, where the currents for a massive field are suppressed exponentially.
Magnetic Doping and Kondo Effect in Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons
Cha, Judy J.
2010-03-10
A simple surface band structure and a large bulk band gap have allowed Bi2Se3 to become a reference material for the newly discovered three-dimensional topological insulators, which exhibit topologically protected conducting surface states that reside inside the bulk band gap. Studying topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 in nanostructures is advantageous because of the high surfaceto-volume ratio, which enhances effects from the surface states; recently reported Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in topological insulator nanoribbons by some of us is a good example. Theoretically, introducing magnetic impurities in topological insulators is predicted to open a small gap in the surface states by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Here, we present synthesis of magnetically doped Bi 2Se3 nanoribbons by vapor-liquid-solid growth using magnetic metal thin films as catalysts. Although the doping concentration is less than ∼2 %. low-temperature transport measurements of the Fe-doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbon devices show a clear Kondo effect at temperatures below 30 K, confirming the presence of magnetic impurities in the Bi2Se3 nanoribbons. The capability to dope topological insulator nanostructures magnetically opens up exciting opportunities for spintronics. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Magnetic Response in the Holographic Insulator/Superconductor Transition
Montull, Marc; Salvio, Alberto; Silva, Pedro J
2012-01-01
We study the magnetic response of holographic superconductors exhibiting an insulating "normal" phase. These materials can be realized as a CFT compactified on a circle, which is dual to the AdS Soliton geometry. We study the response under i) magnetic fields and ii) a Wilson line on the circle. Magnetic fields lead to formation of vortices and allows one to infer that the superconductor is of type II. The response to a Wilson line is in the form of Aharonov-Bohm-like effects. These are suppressed in the holographic conductor/superconductor transition but, instead, they are unsuppressed for the insulator case. Holography, thus, predicts that generically insulators display stronger Aharonov-Bohm effects than conductors. In the fluid-mechanical limit the AdS Soliton is interpreted as a supersolid. Our results imply that supersolids display unsuppressed Aharonov-Bohm (or "Sagnac") effects - stronger than in superfluids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zvyagin, A.A. [B. I. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 47, Lenin Avenue, 310164, Kharkov (Ukraine); Schlottmann, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)
1996-12-01
We consider a spin-1/2 impurity interacting with conduction electrons in two different orbital channels via an isotropic spin exchange. The exchange is the same for both channels, but a crystalline field breaks the symmetry between the orbital channels. This corresponds to a splitting of the conduction electron {Gamma}{sub 8} into two doublets in the quadrupolar Kondo effect, or to the electron-assisted tunneling of an atom in a double-well potential in an external magnetic field. Another possible realization could be a quantum dot coupled to two equal rings of the same length subject to an electrostatic potential difference. We consider the Bethe ansatz equations for this model and derive the tower structure of the finite-size corrections to the ground-state energy. These results are used to discuss the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interference pattern in the persistent charge and spin currents, and the magnetoresistivity due to the scattering of electrons off the impurity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Jauregui, Luis A.; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li; Rokhinson, Leonid P.; Chen, Yong P.
2014-03-01
Topological superconductivity can be proximity induced by coupling s-wave superconductors with spin-helical electron systems, such as the surface of 3D topological insulators (TIs), where the energy bands follow Dirac dispersion and the electronic states possess helical spin-momentum locking. We have grown Bi2Te3 nanoribbons (NRs) by vapor liquid solid method and characterized their crystalline structure by TEM and Raman spectroscopy. We fabricate backgated field effect devices where the chemical potential (μ) can be tuned from bulk bands to surface states and ambipolar field effect has been observed. The temperature dependence of the resistance and Shubnikov de Haas oscillations show suppressed bulk conduction with surface conduction dominating and a pi-Berry's phase. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO), measured with a magnetic field parallel to the NR axis, have a period equal to one flux quanta with conductance maxima at half flux quanta (pi-ABO), for μ close to the charge neutrality point. Such pi-ABO is a direct evidence of the existence of 1D helical modes at half flux quanta. We have also fabricated Josephson junctions on our TI NR devices with inter-electrode separations up to 200 nm, and measured supercurrent with a proximity induced gap of 0.5meV at 0.25K.
The electronic properties of concentric double quantum ring and possibility designing XOR gate
AL-Badry, Lafy. F.
2017-03-01
In this paper I have investigated the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in concentric double quantum ring. The outer ring attached to leads while the inner ring only tunnel-coupled to the outer ring. The effect of inner ring on electron transport properties through outer ring studied and found that the conductance spectrum consists of two types of oscillations. One is the normal Aharonov-Bohm oscillation, and other is a small oscillations superposed above AB oscillation. The AB oscillation utilized to designing nanoscale XOR gate by choosing the magnetic flux and tuning the gate voltages which realization XOR gate action.
Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures
Agundez, R. R.
2015-01-01
In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.
Observing Altshuler--Aronov--Spivak Oscillation in a Hexagonal Antidot Array of Monolayer Graphene
Yagi, Ryuta; Shimomura, Midori; Tahara, Fumiya; Kobara, Hiroaki; Fukada, Seiya
2012-06-01
We show that hexagonal antidot lattices of monolayer graphene exhibited the Altshuler--Aronov--Spivak (AAS) effect in low field magnetoresistance. In higher magnetic fields, Aharonov--Bohm-type oscillations were visible. The phase of AAS oscillation indicated that the chirality effect of graphene is suppressed because of inter-valley scattering due to boundary scatterings.
Quantum Corrections to Scattering Amplitude in Conical Space-time
Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2015-01-01
It is known that the vacuum polarization of zero-point field arises around a conical singularity generated by an infinite, straight cosmic string. In this paper we study quantum electromagnetic corrections to the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect around a cosmic string. We find the scattering amplitude from a conical defect for charged Klein-Gordon field.
Theory of phase-sensitive measurement of photon-assisted tunneling through a quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wingreen, Ned S.
1998-01-01
imposed on the side gate with the concomitant photonic sidebands leads to additional structure both in the amplitude and in the phase of the Aharonov-Bohm signal. Observation of these effects would be a definitive proof of coherent absorption and reemission of photons from the ac source. [S0163-1829(98)08736-0]....
Interband magneto-optical transitions in a layer of semiconductor nano-rings
Voskoboynikov, O.; Wijers, C.M.J.; Liu, J.L.; Lee, C.P.
2005-01-01
We have developed a quantitative theory of the collective electromagnetic response of layers of semiconductor nano-rings. The response can be controlled by means of an applied magnetic field through the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect and is ultimately required for the design of composite materials. We
Casimir effect for scalar current densities in topologically nontrivial spaces
Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.; Saharyan, N. A.
2015-08-01
We evaluate the Hadamard function and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the current density for a charged scalar field, induced by flat boundaries in spacetimes with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified spatial dimensions. The field operator obeys the Robin conditions on the boundaries and quasiperiodicity conditions with general phases along compact dimensions. In addition, the presence of a constant gauge field is assumed. The latter induces Aharonov-Bohm-type effect on the VEVs. There is a region in the space of the parameters in Robin boundary conditions where the vacuum state becomes unstable. The stability condition depends on the lengths of compact dimensions and is less restrictive than that for background with trivial topology. The vacuum current density is a periodic function of the magnetic flux, enclosed by compact dimensions, with the period equal to the flux quantum. It is explicitly decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced contributions. In sharp contrast to the VEVs of the field squared and the energy-momentum tensor, the current density does not contain surface divergences. Moreover, for Dirichlet condition it vanishes on the boundaries. The normal derivative of the current density on the boundaries vanish for both Dirichlet and Neumann conditions and is nonzero for general Robin conditions. When the separation between the plates is smaller than other length scales, the behavior of the current density is essentially different for non-Neumann and Neumann boundary conditions. In the former case, the total current density in the region between the plates tends to zero. For Neumann boundary condition on both plates, the current density is dominated by the interference part and is inversely proportional to the separation.
Numerical studies of relativistic corrections to Fermion dynamics and the Aharonov-Casher effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira Filho, L.G. [Universidade do Estado, Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia]. E-mail: gonzaga@fat.uerj.br; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Murga, J.L.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: helayel@cbpf.br
2004-05-01
Dirac equation with minimal electromagnetic coupling yields, in the weakly relativistic regime, the Pauli equation for two-component minimally-interacting electron endowed with magnetic moment coupling and the right value of the Lande g-factor, g=2. On the other hand, another remarkable feature associated with spinning particles is the coupling of the magnetic dipole moment to an electric field, which gives rise to the so-called Aharonov-Casher phase for the wave function of the test particle. This phase shift shows up even though there is no force acting on the particle, just as in the familiar case of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The most accurate experimental measurements of the spin-electric field interaction are carried out with atomic systems. This work sets out to investigate how the Aharonov-Casher effect may be related to the relativistic regime: in practical terms, how it may appear by means of relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger equation, once an external electromagnetic field is switched on. One should understand at which order of velocities the Aharonov-Casher shift arises, either by adding up higher-order gradient terms to the Schroedinger equation or by carrying out the non-relativistic limit of Dirac equation with higher-derivative terms. The latter has very interesting consequences whenever adjoined to the Dirac equation, leading to a rich excitation spectrum and inducing interesting couplings in the low-energy regime. In view of the calculational complexity inherent to the task of finding solutions to these higher-derivatives partial differential equations, wave-function solutions and phase shifts have to be searched for with the help of numerical methods and computer-algebra software. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王德华; 李红艳; 马晓光; 王美山; 杨传路
2007-01-01
Using the periodic orbit theory, we computed the quantum level density of a particle in the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential with and without the magnetic flux line for different cases. Especially discuss the influence of the magnetic flux line on the quantum level density. The results show when the frequency ratio of the two-dimensional harmonic potential is a rational number, the quantum level density is discrete. Each peak in the level density corresponds to one energy. However, when the frequency ratio is an irrational number, the level density is oscillating, when the magnetic flux is added, the amplitude of the oscillation decreased. This can be considered as a consequence of Aharonov-Bohm effect.%利用周期轨道理论,我们计算了在不同情况下,一个粒子在二维谐振子势中存在和不存在磁通量时的量子能级密度.重点讨论了磁通量对量子能级密度的影响.计算结果表明:当二维谐振子势的频率比值是有理数时,量子能级是分立的,能级密度中的每一条峰正好对应一个量子能级.然而,当频率比是无理数时,能级密度发生振荡,当加上磁通量后,振荡减小.这可以看作是Aharonov-Bohm效应的结果.
Quantum gates with topological phases
Ionicioiu, R
2003-01-01
We investigate two models for performing topological quantum gates with the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) effects. Topological one- and two-qubit Abelian phases can be enacted with the AB effect using charge qubits, whereas the AC effect can be used to perform all single-qubit gates (Abelian and non-Abelian) for spin qubits. Possible experimental setups suitable for a solid state implementation are briefly discussed.
Measurements on Two-Dimensional Arrays of Mesoscopic Josephson Junctions
1993-02-01
are reasonably well- understood, with the possible exceptions of ballistic motion of vortices [van der Zant, et al. (1992b)] and the Aharonov - Casher (AC... effect , the magnetic analog of the Aharonov - Bohm effect (with the AC effect , it is theoretically predicted that one can measure the interference... Aharonov and Bohm (1959), and Aharonov and Casher (1984). 148 REFERENCES Aharonov , Y., and D. Bohm, Phys. Rev. B 3, 485 (1959). Aharonoy, Y., and A
Healey, Richard
Those looking for holism in contemporary physics have focused their attention primarily on quantum entanglement. But some gauge theories arguably also manifest the related phenomenon of nonseparability. While the argument is strong for the classical gauge theory describing electromagnetic interactions with quantum "particles", it fails in the case of general relativity even though that theory may also be formulated in terms of a connection on a principal fiber bundle. Anandan has highlighted the key difference in his analysis of a supposed gravitational analog to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. By contrast with electromagnetism in the original Aharonov-Bohm effect, gravitation is separable and exhibits no novel holism in this case. Whether the nonseparability of classical gauge theories of nongravitational interactions is associated with holism depends on what counts as the relevant part-whole relation. Loop representations of quantized gauge theories of nongravitational interactions suggest that these conclusions about holism and nonseparability may extend also to quantum theories of the associated fields.
Thank You and Farewell to Tonomura-kun
Fukuyama, Hidetoshi
2014-01-01
"Science triggers technology; technology inspires science" is true, so is your case, when you proved partially1 in 1982 and completely2,3 in 1986 the Aharonov-Bohm(AB) effect, the principal manifestation of gauge field, based on the state-of-the-art electron microscope that you developed. You put "period," i.e., an end, on the controversy associated with the AB effect...
Neutral Spinning Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Neutron Interference
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁秀香; 梁九卿
1994-01-01
The dynamics of neutral spinning particles in electromagnetic fields is investigated. The phase interference of unpolarized neutron beams is reasonably interpreted as the observed spin precession in external fields instead of potential effects in the quantum physics; namely, the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects. It is also pointed out that the recent experiment claimed to be the verification of Aharonov-Casher phase with neutron interferometry, however, can be considered as a test of new anyon model.
Geometric phases in graphitic cones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furtado, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Cidade Universitaria, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)], E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br; Moraes, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Cidade Universitaria, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Carvalho, A.M. de M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BR116-Norte, Km 3, 44031-460 Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil)
2008-08-04
In this Letter we use a geometric approach to study geometric phases in graphitic cones. The spinor that describes the low energy states near the Fermi energy acquires a phase when transported around the apex of the cone, as found by a holonomy transformation. This topological result can be viewed as an analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The topological analysis is extended to a system with n cones, whose resulting configuration is described by an effective defect00.
Quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulator nanostructures (Review Article)
Fang, Lei; Kwok, Wai-Kwong
2014-04-01
We review the recent experimental advances on quantum phenomena in transport measurements of topological insulators with emphasis on quantum oscillation, weak antilocalization and Aharonov-Bohm effect and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak effect. Following a brief introduction on the topic, we discuss the identification of the topological surface state based on quantum phenomena. Research prospect of topological insulators is described at the end of this article.
Magnetization of two coupled rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avishai, Y [Department of Physics and Ilse Katz Center for Nanotechnology, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Luck, J M [Institut de Physique Theorique, IPhT, CEA Saclay, and URA 2306, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)], E-mail: yshai@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: jean-marc.luck@cea.fr
2009-05-01
We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum.
Transmission Phase Through Two Quantum Dots Embedded in a Four-Terminal Quantum Ring
Sigrist, M.; Fuhrer, A; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Wegscheider, W.; Bichler, M.
2003-01-01
We use the Aharonov-Bohm effect in a four-terminal ring based on a Ga[Al]As heterostructure for the measurement of the relative transmission phase. In each of the two interfering paths we induce a quantum dot. The number of electrons in the two dots can be controlled independently. The transmission phase is measured as electrons are added to or taken away from the individual quantum dots.
Comments on cold neutron confinement by an electromagnetic classical field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruce, S [University of Concepcion, P O Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)
2007-02-15
Regarding a recent paper (Bruce S 2006 Phys. Scr. 74 371), we comment on cold neutron confining in a system consisting of an Aharonov-Casher together with a properly set Aharonov-Bohm configuration. We find that, for the supersymmetric ground state, an extra spin-orbit (spin-electromagnetic angular momentum density) term should be present. This effect turns out to modify the phenomenology associated with the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron.
Direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher phase.
König, M; Tschetschetkin, A; Hankiewicz, E M; Sinova, Jairo; Hock, V; Daumer, V; Schäfer, M; Becker, C R; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W
2006-02-24
Ring structures fabricated from HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells have been used to study Aharonov-Bohm type conductance oscillations as a function of Rashba spin-orbit splitting strength. We observe nonmonotonic phase changes indicating that an additional phase factor modifies the electron wave function. We associate these observations with the Aharonov-Casher effect. This is confirmed by comparison with numerical calculations of the magnetoconductance for a multichannel ring structure within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism.
Maxwell Duality, Lorentz Invariance, and Topological Phase
Dowling, J P; Franson, J D; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Williams, Colin P.
1999-01-01
We discuss the Maxwell electromagnetic duality relations between the Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher, and He-McKellar-Wilkens topological phases, which allows a unified description of all three phenomena. We also elucidate Lorentz transformations that allow these effects to be understood in an intuitive fashion in the rest frame of the moving quantum particle. Finally, we propose a realistic set up for measuring and interpreting the He-McKellar-Wilkens phase directly in an experiment.
Time dependent electromagnetic fields and 4-dimensional Stokes' theorem
Andosca, Ryan
2016-01-01
Stokes' theorem is central to many aspects of physics -- electromagnetism, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and Wilson loops to name a few. However, the pedagogical examples and research work almost exclusively focus on situations where the fields are time-independent so that one need only deal with purely spatial line integrals ({\\it e.g.} $\\oint {\\bf A} \\cdot d{\\bf x}$) and purely spatial area integrals ({\\it e.g.} $\\int (\
Robust surface states in epitaxial Bi(111) thin films
Zhu, Kai; Jin, Xiaofeng
Bulk Bi a prototype semimetal with trivial electronic band topology. Unanticipatedly, we show the Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak and Aharonov-Bohm effects in epitaxial Bi(111) thin films. Meanwhile, we clearly identify the interaction of the top and bottom surface states via quantum tunneling by the electrical conductance and weak anti-localization measurements. These results have significantly enriched our understanding about the electronic structure of Bi, which might be helpful for clearing up some of its longstanding subtle issues.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, Konrad
2007-09-15
In the framework of the thesis presented here for the first time quantum interference effects in ferromagnetic semiconductors could be uniquely detected. For this wire and ring structures with line widths of few nanometers were fabricated and universal conductivity fluctuations and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations at very low temperatures (<20 mK) were studied. From the analysis of the temperature and length dependence of the fluctuations knowledge about the coherence length and the scattering processes connected with this could be obtained.
The Aharonov-Casher Scattering:. the Effect of the ∇ · E Term
Al-Qaq, E.; Shikakhwa, M. S.
In the Aharonov-Casher (AC) scattering, a neutral particle interacts with an infinitesimally thin, long charge filament resulting in a phase shift. In the original AC treatment, a ∇ · E term proportional to the charge density at the filament's position is dropped from the Hamiltonian on the basis that the particle is banned from the filament, thus, the resulting Hamiltonian compares with the Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian of a scalar particle. Here, we consider AC scattering with this term included. Starting from the three-dimensional nonrelativistic Aharonov-Casher (AC) Schrödinger equation with the ∇ · E term included, we find the wave functions — in particular their singular component — the phase shifts and thus compute the scattering amplitudes and cross-sections. We show that singular solutions in the AC case appear only when the delta function interaction introduced is attractive regardless of the spin orientation of the particle. We find that the inclusion of this term does not introduce a structural difference in the general form of the cross-section even for polarized particles. Its mere effect, is in shifting the parameter N (the greatest integer in α) that appears in the cross-section, in the attractive case, by one. Interesting situation appears when N = 0, thus α=δ, in the case α≻0, and N = -1, so α = 1-δ in the case α≺0: At these values of the parameter N, where αis just any fraction, the cross-section for a particle polarized in the scattering plane to scatter in a state with the same polarization, is isotropic. It also vanishes, at these values of N, for transitions between same-helicity eigenstates. For these values of the parameter N and at the special values α = ±1/2, the cross-sections for both signs of α coincide. The main differences between this model and the "mathematically equivalent" spin-1/2 AB theory are outlined.
Kondo, Kenji
2016-09-01
Spin filters using spin-orbit interaction (SOI) are very important in the field of spintronics. Therefore, a theory of devices using SOI is necessary for designing the spin filters. The spin-filtering devices can be used to generate and detect spin polarized currents. Many researchers have reported on the spin-filters using linear Rashba SOI. However, the spin-filters using square and cubic Rashba SOIs are not yet reported. This is surely because the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phases acquired under square and cubic Rashba SOIs are ambiguous. In this paper, we try to derive the AC phases acquired under nth order Rashba SOIs, which we call general Rashba SOIs, using non-Abelian SU (2) gauge theory. As a result, we have successfully derived these AC phases without completing the square methods which is useless except for linear Rashba SOI. In the process of derivation of AC phases, we have also found another expression of adiabatic approximation for a pure gauge. This finding will lead to the starting point for deeply understanding the adiabatic approximation. Using the above AC phases under general Rashba SOIs, we investigate the spin filter effect in Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with double quantum dots (QDs) under general Rashba SOIs. The spin transport is investigated from left nanowire to right nanowire in this structure within tight binding approximation. Especially, we focus on the difference of spin filter effects among general Rashba SOIs. We have obtained the penetrating magnetic flux dependence of spin polarization for the AB ring subject to general Rashba SOIs. It is found that the perfect spin filtering is achieved for all the Rashba SOIs. This result indicates that this AB ring under general Rashba SOIs can be a promising device for spin current generation without ferromagnetic metals. Moreover, this device under different order Rashba SOI behaves in totally different ways in response to penetrating magnetic flux, which is attributed to n times rotation of
Aharonov-Casher Effect in Bi2Se3 Square-Ring Interferometers
Qu, Fanming; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jun; Shen, Jie; Ding, Yue; Lu, Jiangbo; Song, Yuanjun; Yang, Huaixin; Liu, Guangtong; Fan, Jie; Li, Yongqing; Ji, Zhongqing; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li
2011-07-01
Electrical control of spin dynamics in Bi2Se3 was investigated in ring-type interferometers. Aharonov-Bohm and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak resistance oscillations against a magnetic field, and Aharonov-Casher resistance oscillations against the gate voltage were observed in the presence of a Berry phase of π. A very large tunability of spin precession angle by the gate voltage has been obtained, indicating that Bi2Se3-related materials with strong spin-orbit coupling are promising candidates for constructing novel spintronic devices.
Aharonov-Casher effect in Bi$_{\\rm 2}$Se$_{\\rm 3}$ square-ring interferometers
Qu, Fanming; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jun; Shen, Jie; Ding, Yue; Lu, Jiangbo; Song, Yuanjun; Yang, Huaixin; Liu, Guangtong; Fan, Jie; Li, Yongqing; Ji, Zhongqing; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li
2011-01-01
Electrical control of spin dynamics in Bi$_{\\rm 2}$Se$_{\\rm 3}$ was investigated in ring-type interferometers. Aharonov-Bohm and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak resistance oscillations against magnetic field, and Aharorov-Casher resistance oscillations against gate voltage were observed in the presence of a Berry phase of $\\pi$. A very large tunability of spin precession angle by gate voltage has been obtained, indicating that Bi$_{\\rm 2}$Se$_{\\rm 3}$-related materials with strong spin-orbit coupling...
The Electromagnetic Duality Formulation of Geometric Phases
Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Kang
2015-06-01
This paper focuses on the electromagnetic(EM) duality formulation of geometric phases of Aharonov-Bohm(A-B) effect and Aharonov-Casher(A-C) effect. Through the two four-vector potential formulation of electromagnetic theory, we construct a EM duality formulation for both A-B effect and A-C effect. The He-McKellar-Wilkens(HMW) effect is included as a EM duality counterpart of the A-C effect, and also the EM duality counterpart of the A-B effect is also predicted.
Semiconductor Nanostructures Quantum States and Electronic Transport
Ihn, Thomas
2009-01-01
This textbook describes the physics of semiconductor nanostructures with emphasis on their electronic transport properties. At its heart are five fundamental transport phenomena: quantized conductance, tunnelling transport, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the quantum Hall effect, and the Coulomb blockade effect. The book starts out with the basics of solid state and semiconductor physics, such as crystal structure, band structure, and effective mass approximation, including spin-orbit interaction effects important for research in semiconductor spintronics. It contains material aspects such as band e
On the quantum beats in mesoscopic loop structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tralle, I.; Pasko, W
2003-11-17
A simple theory of quantum interference phenomenon, quantum beats which are due to Larmor precession of spins in mesoscopic structure, is presented. The similarities between this effect and Josephson, scalar Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, as well as their differences are considered. Possible application of the effect to the construction of the device, complementary to SQUID's is discussed. Such device could be useful for measuring the slightest magnetic field deviations from the spatial uniformity in extremely small scale.
Spin-polarized transport in Rashba controlled rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romeo, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and Unita C.N.I.S.M., Universita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); Citro, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and Unita C.N.I.S.M., Universita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy)]. E-mail: citro@sa.infn.it
2007-09-15
We study spin-polarized transport in a Rashba one-dimensional ring interrupted by a tunnel barrier placed in one arm and symmetrically coupled to two external leads. By means of the scattering matrix approach, we investigate the effects on the transport properties of both an applied magnetic flux (Aharonov-Bohm flux) and an effective Aharonov-Casher flux induced by the spin-orbit (SO) Rashba interaction. By varying the model parameters we show a spin-filtering effect relevant for the experimental detection of SO interaction in mesoscopic structures.
Transport properties of topological insulators films and nanowires
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Yi; Ma Zheng; Zhao Yan-Fei; Meenakshi Singh; Wang Jian
2013-01-01
The last several years have witnessed the rapid developments in the study and understanding of topological insulators.In this review,after a brief summary of the history of topological insulators,we focus on the recent progress made in transport experiments on topological insulator films and nanowires.Some quantum phenomena,including the weak antilocalization,the Aharonov-Bohm effect,and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations,observed in these nanostructures are described.In addition,the electronic transport evidence of the superconducting proximity effect as well as an anomalous resistance enhancement in topological insulator/superconductor hybrid structures is included.
Quantum paradoxes quantum theory for the perplexed
Aharonov, Yakir
2005-01-01
A Guide through the Mysteries of Quantum Physics!Yakir Aharonov is one of the pioneers in measuring theory, the nature of quantum correlations, superselection rules, and geometric phases and has been awarded numerous scientific honors. The author has contributed monumental concepts to theoretical physics, especially the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect. Together with Daniel Rohrlich of the Weizmann Institute, Israel, he has written a pioneering work on the remaining mysteries of quantum mechanics. From the perspective of a preeminent researcher in the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics, the text combines mathematical rigor with penetrating and concise language
Workshop on Waves and Particles in Light and Matter
Van der Merwe, Alwyn; Waves and Particles in Light and Matter
1994-01-01
The Great Veil, Reality, and Louis de Broglie (O. Costa de Beauregard). The Fallacy of the Arguments Against Local Realism in Quantum Phenomena (A.O. Barut). Restoring Locality with FasterThanLight Velocities (P.H. Eberhard). The WaveParticle Duality and the AharonovBohm Effect (M. Ferrero, E. Santos). De Broglie's Waves in Space and Time (A. Garuccio). Interferometry with De Broglie Waves (F. Hasselbach). Quantum Mechanics of Ultracold Neutrons (V.K. Ignatovich). The Physical Interpretation of Special Relativity (S.J. Prokhovnik). Quantum Neutron Optics (H. Rauch). Some Comments on th
On a relation of the angular frequency to the Aharonov-Casher geometric phase in a quantum dot
Barboza, P. M. T.; Bakke, K.
2016-09-01
By analysing the behaviour of a neutral particle with permanent magnetic dipole moment confined to a quantum dot in the presence of a radial electric field, Coulomb-type and linear confining potentials, then, an Aharonov-Bohm-type effect for bound states and a dependence of the angular frequency of the system on the Aharonov-Casher geometric phase and the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes, the angular momentum and the spin are obtained. In particular, the possible values of the angular frequency and the persistent spin currents associated with the ground state are investigated in two different cases.
Tunable strength saddle-point contacts impact on quantum rings transmission
González, J. J.; Diago-Cisneros, L.
2016-09-01
A particular subject of investigation is the role of several sadle-point contact (QPC) parameters on the scattering properties of an Aharonov-Bohm-Aharonov-Casher quantum ring (QR) under Rashba-type spin orbit interaction. We discuss the interplay of the conductance with the confinement strengths and height of the QPC, which yields new and tunable harmonic and non-harmonics patterns, while one manipulates these constriction parameters. This phenomenology may be of utility to implement a novel way to modulate spin interference effects in semiconducting QRs, providing an appealing test-platform for spintronics applications.
The quaternionic commutator bracket and its implications
Arbab, Arbab I
2014-01-01
A quaternionic commutator bracket for position and momentum shows that the quaternionic wave function, \\emph{viz.} $\\widetilde{\\psi}=(\\frac{i}{c}\\,\\psi_0\\,,\\vec{\\psi})$, represents a state of a particle with orbital angular momentum, $L=3\\,\\hbar$, resulting from the internal structure of the particle. This angular momentum can be attributed to spin of the particle. The vector $\\vec{\\psi}$, points along the direction of $\\vec{L}$. When a charged particle is placed in an electromagnetic fields the interaction energy reveals that the magnetic moments interact with the electric and magnetic fields giving rise to terms similar to Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects.
Dirac oscillator interacting with a topological defect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, J.; Furtado, C.; Moraes, F. [Unidade Academica de Tecnologia de Alimentos, CCTA, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Pereiros, 58840-000, Pombal, Paraiba (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Cidade Universitaria, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2011-09-15
In this work we study the interaction problem of a Dirac oscillator with gravitational fields produced by topological defects. The energy levels of the relativistic oscillator in the cosmic string and in the cosmic dislocation space-times are sensible to curvature and torsion associated to these defects and are important evidence of the influence of the topology on this system. In the presence of a localized magnetic field the energy levels acquire a term associated with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues and see that in the nonrelativistic limit some results known in standard quantum mechanics are reached.
Tonomura, Akira
1993-01-01
Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text
Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taira, Hisao [Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Shima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: taira@eng.hokudai.ac.j [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)
2010-09-03
The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.
Alternative expression for the electromagnetic Lagrangian
Saldanha, Pablo L
2015-01-01
We propose an alternative expression for the Lagrangian density that governs the interaction of a charged particle with external electromagnetic fields. The proposed Lagrangian is written in terms of the local superposition of the particle fields with the applied electromagnetic fields, not in terms of the particle charge and of the electromagnetic potentials as is usual. The total Lagrangian for a set of charged particles assumes a simple elegant form with the alternative formulation, giving an aesthetic support for it. The proposed Lagrangian is equivalent to the traditional one in their domain of validity and provides an interesting description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Phase Interference in a Multi-level Quantum-Dot System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xu-Ming; CHEN Xiao-Shuang; LU Wei
2009-01-01
@@ Considering phase interference, we investigate coherent transport in a quantum dot by using a thermopower. In the single process of the electronic transport through the quantum dot, it is shown that the phase interference between the levels of a quantum dot is like the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The result indicates that the thermopower is very sensitive to phase interference. It is also found that the phase-difference change of the different levels of the quantum dot can determine the shape of the thermopower.
Observation of localized flat-band modes in a quasi-one-dimensional photonic rhombic lattice.
Mukherjee, Sebabrata; Thomson, Robert R
2015-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate the photonic realization of a dispersionless flat band in a quasi-one-dimensional photonic lattice fabricated by ultrafast laser inscription. In the nearest neighbor tight binding approximation, the lattice supports two dispersive and one nondispersive (flat) band. We experimentally excite superpositions of flat-band eigenmodes at the input of the photonic lattice and show the diffractionless propagation of the input states due to their infinite effective mass. In the future, the use of photonic rhombic lattices, together with the successful implementation of a synthetic gauge field, will enable the observation of Aharonov-Bohm photonic caging.
Aharonov—Bohm Oscillations in Small Diameter Bi Nanowires
Konopko, L.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect (AB) exists in cylindrical wires as the magnetoresistance (MR) oscillations with a period ΔB that is proportional to Φ0 / S, where Φ0 = h / e is the flux quantum and S is the wire cross section. The AB-type longitudinal MR oscillations with period ΔB = Φ0 / S caused by electrons undergoing continuous grazing incidence at the wire wall have been observed previously at 4.2 K in single bismuth nanowires with a diameter 0. 2 Spivak theory.
Effect of a cosmic string on spin dynamics
Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, B.
2014-12-01
In the present paper, we have investigated the role of the cosmic string on spin current and Hall electric field. Due to the background cosmic string, the modified electric field of the system generates renormalized spin-orbit coupling, which induces a modified non-Abelian gauge field. The defect causes a change in the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phases appearing due to the modified electromagnetic field. In addition, for a time varying electric field we perform explicit analytic calculations to derive the exact form of spin electric field and spin current, which is defect parameter dependent and of oscillating type. Furthermore, in an asymmetric crystal within the Drude model approach we investigate the dependence of the cosmic string parameters on cosmic string induced Hall electric field.
Canonical force and electromagnetic geometrical phase in particle interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, S A R; Babiker, M [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)
2007-06-14
We provide arguments which demonstrate that the Berry phase effects involving particle interference in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields-namely the Aharonov-Bohm (AB), Aharonov-Casher (AC) and the Roentgen (R) effects-cannot be unambiguously explained (as has been controversially argued) through the use of any classical mechanical force. In fact, in the three scenarios which we consider, the only means to reclaim the standard quantum mechanical results is to use the expressions for the force that fail to satisfy the necessary conditions of gauge invariance. Our arguments explain the foundation of the controversy and confirm the standard idea that the Berry phase effects in question are non-local phenomena which only arise in the application of quantum theory. We lay special emphasis on the use of the concept of a canonical force, this being the quantity which ensures the agreement between the classical and quantum formulations. It is shown that if the Aharonov-Bohm effect is interpreted as being due to a force, through the use of the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics, then this force is equal in magnitude to the canonical force.
Arango, Yulieth C.; Huang, Liubing; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C.; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Lu, Jia Grace; Schäpers, Thomas
2016-09-01
We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires.
Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D
2013-06-01
We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.
Omidi, Mahboubeh; Faizabadi, Edris
2015-09-01
We use a simple model to study the electron-phonon interaction influences on persistent current in a one-dimensional quantum ring enclosed by a magnetic flux. With increasing the temperature, persistent current amplitude is reduced, especially in a quantum ring with two ions per primitive cell (diatomic ring) because of the participation of optical phonons. Furthermore, the periodicity of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations changes to Φ0 / 2 (Φ0 is magnetic flux quantum). In a diatomic ring, by increasing the difference between left and right nearest-neighbor hopping integrals at zero temperature, persistent current variations show a transition from metallic to insulator against distinctive behavior at nonzero temperature.
Controlling local currents in molecular junctions
Yadalam, Hari Kumar
2016-01-01
The effect of non-equilibrium constraints and dephasing on the circulating currents in molecular junctions are analyzed. Circulating currents are manifestations of quantum effects and can be induced either by externally applied bias or an external magnetic field through the molecular system. In symmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring, bond currents have two contributions, bias driven and magnetic field driven. We analyze the competition between these two contributions and show that, as a consequence, current through one of the branches can be completely suppressed. We then study the effect of asymmetry (as a result of chemical substitution) on the current pathways inside the molecule and study asymmetry induced circulating currents (without magnetic field) by tuning the coupling strength of the substituent (at finite bias).
Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons
Béché, A; Van Tendeloo, G; Verbeeck, J
2013-01-01
Magnetic monopoles have provided a rich field of study, leading to a wide area of research in particle physics, solid state physics, ultra-cold gases, superconductors, cosmology, and gauge theory. So far, no true magnetic monopoles were found experimentally. Using the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the central results of quantum physics, shows however, that an effective monopole field can be produced. Understanding the effects of such a monopole field on its surroundings is crucial to its observation and provides a better grasp of fundamental physical theory. We realize the diffraction of fast electrons at a magnetic monopole field generated by a nanoscopic magnetized ferromagnetic needle. Previous studies have been limited to theoretical semiclassical optical calculations of the motion of electrons in such a monopole field. Solid state systems like the recently studied 'spin ice' provide a constrained system to study similar fields, but make it impossible to separate the monopole from the material. Free space ...
Forgács, Péter; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz
2013-01-01
It is shown that in a large class of systems plane waves can act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode having a larger wave number, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. Such a tractor beam or negative radiation pressure effect arises naturally in systems where the coupling between the scattering channels is due to Aharonov-Bohm (AB) gauge potentials. It is demonstrated that this effect is also present if the AB potential is an induced, ("artificial") gauge potential such as the one found in J. March-Russell, J. Preskill, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 2567 (1992).
Momentum of electromagnetic fields, speed of light in moving media, and the photon mass
Spavieri, Gianfranco
2010-01-01
In both the equations for matter and light wave propagation, the momentum of the electromagnetic fields Pe reflects the relevant em interaction. As a review of some applications of wave propagation properties, an optical experiment which tests the speed of light in moving rarefied gases is described. Moreover, Pe is also the link to the unitary vision of the quantum effects of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) type, which provide a useful quantum approach for the limit of the photon mass mph. A bench-top experiment based on effects of the AB type that exploit new interferometric techniques, is foreseen to yield the limit mph = 10^-54 g, a value that improves upon the results achieved with other approaches.
Scattering by a draining bathtub vortex
Dolan, Sam R.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.
2013-06-01
We present an analysis of scattering by a fluid-mechanical “black hole analogue,” known as the draining bathtub vortex: a two-dimensional flow that possesses both a sonic horizon and an ergoregion. We consider the scattering of a plane wave of fixed frequency impinging upon the vortex. At low frequency, we encounter a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect. At high frequencies, we observe regular “orbiting” oscillations in the scattering length, due to interference between contra-orbiting rays. We present approximate formulas for both effects and a selection of numerical results obtained by summing partial-wave series. Finally, we examine interference patterns in the vicinity of the vortex and highlight the prospects for experimental investigation.
Scattering by a draining bathtub vortex
Dolan, Sam R
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of scattering by a fluid-mechanical `black hole analogue', known as the draining bathtub (DBT) vortex: a two-dimensional flow which possesses both a sonic horizon and an ergoregion. We consider the scattering of a plane wave of fixed frequency impinging upon the vortex. At low frequency, we encounter a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect. At high frequencies, we observe regular `orbiting' oscillations in the scattering length, due to interference between contra-orbiting rays. We present approximate formulae for both effects, and a selection of numerical results obtained by summing partial-wave series. Finally, we examine interference patterns in the vicinity of the vortex, and highlight the prospects for experimental investigation.
Schrodinger operators in spaces of multifunctions defined in multiply-connected domains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakbaev, V. Z.; Zhidkov, P. E. [Moscow Inst. of Phys. and Technol. (Russian Federation)
1995-11-07
Certain problems of quantum physics (for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect) lead to the eigenvalue problem for a Schrodinger operator with wave multifunctions. For a multiply-connected configuration space with a simplest topology (for example, for a n-dimensional torus) this problem was considered by several authors. In the present paper, by using rigorous mathematical methods we investigate this problem on an arbitrary multi-dimensional smooth manifold (possibly, with a boundary). We carefully define the concept of multifunctions, then we introduce spaces of these objects similar to L{sub 2} and H{sub 0}{sup 1}. Finally, we present a spectral theorem on the existence of a self-adjoint extension of a Schrodinger operator in the introduced spaces which implies the completeness of the system of eigenfunctions of this operator in the considered functional spaces. (author)
Problems in quantum mechanics with solutions
d'Emilio, Emilio
2017-01-01
This second edition of an extremely well-received book presents more than 250 nonrelativistic quantum mechanics problems of varying difficulty with the aim of providing students didactic material of proven value, allowing them to test their comprehension and mastery of each subject. The coverage is extremely broad, from themes related to the crisis of classical physics through achievements within the framework of modern atomic physics to lively debated, intriguing aspects relating to, for example, the EPR paradox, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and quantum teleportation. Compared with the first edition, a variety of improvements have been made and additional topics of interest included, especially focusing on elementary potential scattering. The problems themselves range from standard and straightforward ones to those that are complex but can be considered essential because they address questions of outstanding importance or aspects typically overlooked in primers. The book offers students both an excellent tool f...
Experimental Demonstration of a Synthetic Lorentz Force by Using Radiation Pressure
Šantić, N.; Dubček, T.; Aumiler, D.; Buljan, H.; Ban, T.
2015-09-01
Synthetic magnetism in cold atomic gases opened the doors to many exciting novel physical systems and phenomena. Ubiquitous are the methods used for the creation of synthetic magnetic fields. They include rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates employing the analogy between the Coriolis and the Lorentz force, and laser-atom interactions employing the analogy between the Berry phase and the Aharonov-Bohm phase. Interestingly, radiation pressure - being one of the most common forces induced by light - has not yet been used for synthetic magnetism. We experimentally demonstrate a synthetic Lorentz force, based on the radiation pressure and the Doppler effect, by observing the centre-of-mass motion of a cold atomic cloud. The force is perpendicular to the velocity of the cold atomic cloud, and zero for the cloud at rest. Our novel concept is straightforward to implement in a large volume, for a broad range of velocities, and can be extended to different geometries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sameer M. Ikhdair
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Klein-Gordon (KG equation for the two-dimensional scalar-vector harmonic oscillator plus Cornell potentials in the presence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB flux fields is solved using the wave function ansatz method. The exact energy eigenvalues and the wave functions are obtained in terms of potential parameters, magnetic field strength, AB flux field, and magnetic quantum number. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies are compared with the results in the absence of both magnetic field (ωL = 0 and AB flux field (ξ=0 cases. Effect of external fields on the nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and wave function solutions is also precisely presented. Some special cases like harmonic oscillator and Coulombic fields are also studied.
A realistic quantum capacitance model for quantum Hall edge state based Fabry-Pérot interferometers
Kilicoglu, O.; Eksi, D.; Siddiki, A.
2017-01-01
In this work, the classical and the quantum capacitances are calculated for a Fabry-Pérot interferometer operating in the integer quantized Hall regime. We first consider a rotationally symmetric electrostatic confinement potential and obtain the widths and the spatial distribution of the insulating (incompressible) circular strips using a charge density profile stemming from self-consistent calculations. Modelling the electrical circuit of capacitors composed of metallic gates and incompressible/compressible strips, we investigate the conditions to observe Aharonov-Bohm (quantum mechanical phase dependent) and Coulomb blockade (capacitive coupling dependent) effects reflected in conductance oscillations. In a last step, we solve the Schrödinger and the Poisson equations self-consistently in a numerical manner taking into account realistic experimental geometries. We find that, describing the conductance oscillations either by Aharanov-Bohm or Coulomb blockade strongly depends on sample properties also other than size, therefore, determining the origin of these oscillations requires further experimental and theoretical investigation.
Shot Noise in a Mesoscopic Interferometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Guang-Biao; WANG Shun-Jin; LI Lei
2006-01-01
The charge conductance and the shot noise in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with double quantum dots embedded and coupled to each other by a capacity are studied in the framework of the equation of motion of Green's flunction.From the impurity Anderson model Hamiltonian,the equations of motion of nonequilibrium Green functions are derived and solved including the effects of two body correlations under Lacrolx's approximation.Our results show that the conductance,the shot noise,and the Fano factor (the ratio of the shot noise to the Poisson noise)as functions of the magnetic flux oscillate with the period of h/e,and their oscillation behaviour is similar to the resuIts of the experiment replacing the capacitive coupling by tunnelling between the two dots.The experiment is suggested to test the results.
Fault-tolerant quantum computation
Preskill, J
1997-01-01
The discovery of quantum error correction has greatly improved the long-term prospects for quantum computing technology. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment, or due to imperfect implementations of quantum logical operations. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. In principle, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. It may be possible to incorporate intrinsic fault tolerance into the design of quantum computing hardware, perhaps by invoking topological Aharonov-Bohm interactions to process quantum information.
Asymmetric coherent transmission for single particle diode and gyroscope
Yang, S; Sun, C P
2009-01-01
We study the single particle scattering process in a coherent multi-site system consisting of a tight-binding ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux and several attaching leads. The asymmetric behavior of scattering matrix is discovered analytically in the framework of both Bethe Ansatz and Green's function formalism. It is found that, under certain conditions, a three-site electronic system can behave analogous to a perfect semiconductor diode where current flows only in one direction. The general result is also valid for a neutral particle system since the effective magnetic flux may be implemented by a globe rotation. This observation means that the three-site system can serve as an orientation measuring gyroscope due to the approximate linear dependence of the current difference of two output leads on the rotational angular velocity.
An Extended Dynamical Equation of Motion, Phase Dependency and Inertial Backreaction
Pinheiro, Mario J
2012-01-01
Newton's second law has limited scope of application when transient phenomena are present. We consider a modification of Newton's second law in order to take into account a sudden change (surge) of angular momentum or linear momentum. We hypothesize that space itself resists such surges according to a kind of induction law (related to inertia); additionally, we provide further evidence of the "fluidic" nature of space itself. This "back-reaction" is quantified by the tendency of angular momentum flux threading across a surface. This quantity is mass-dependent, and bears similarity to the quantum mechanics phase shift, present in the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects. Furthermore, this provides evidence of vacuum polarization, a phenomena which is relative to local space indicating that local geometry and topology should be taken into account in any fundamental physical theory.
The Fourth Law of Motion in Classical Mechanics and Electrodynamics
Pinheiro, Mario J.
2010-01-01
Newton's second law has limited scope of application when transient phenomena are at stake. We endeavor here to consider a modification of Newton's second law in order to take into account sudden change (surge) of angular momentum or linear momentum. It is shown that space react back according to a kind of induction law that is related to inertia, but also appears to give evidence of a "fluidic" nature of space itself. The back-reaction is quantified by the time rate of the angular momentum flux threading a surface, mass dependent, and bearing similarity to the quantum mechanics phase shift, present in the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, thus giving evidence of the property of vacuum polarization, a phenomena which is relative to local space. It is formulated a kind of (qualitative) Lenz law that gives an explanation to precession.
Spin Interference In Silicon One-Dimensional Rings
Bagraev, N. T.; Galkin, N. G.; Gehlhoff, W.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Malyarenko, A. M.; Shelykh, I. A.
2010-01-01
We present the first findings of the spin transistor effect in the Rashba gate-controlled ring embedded in the p-type self-assembled silicon quantum well that is prepared on the n-type Si (100) surface. Firstly, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the "0.7ṡ(2 e2/h)" feature of the hole quantum conductance staircase revealed by the quantum point contact inserted in the one of the arms of the double-slit ring are found to result from the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations by varying respectively the value of the external magnetic field and the top-gate bias voltage. Secondly, the "0.7ṡ(2 e2/h)" feature appears to exhibit the fractional form revealed by both the plateuas and steps as a function of the top-gate bias voltage, with the variations of their positions in the external magnetic field.
Spin interference in Rashba metal ring in a time-dependent magnetic field
Chen, Ji; Abdul Jalil, Mansoor Bin; Ghee Tan, Seng
2013-05-01
We investigate spin transport in a metal square ring with a strong Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) effect, in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic field. We show that RSOC can be regarded as a spin-dependent gauge field which imparts a spin-dependent geometric phase (Aharonov-Casher phase) to conduction electrons in the ring. Combining the Aharonov-Bohm phase due to the time-dependent magnetic field with the able Aharonov-Casher phase due to RSOC, we are able to construct a spin interference condition, which modulates spin transport in the ring. The spin transport in the system is calculated via the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. Based on our transport calculations, we proposed a potential application of the Rashba square ring system as an alternating spin current generator.
Afriat, Alexander
2013-01-01
In discussions of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, Healey and Lyre have attributed reality to loops $\\sigma_0$ (or hoops $[\\sigma_0]$), since the electromagnetic potential $A$ is unmeasurable and can therefore be transformed. I argue that $[A]=[A+d\\lambda]_{\\lambda}$ and the hoop $[\\sigma_0]$ are related by a meaningful duality, so that however one feels about $[A]$ (or any potential $A\\in[A]$), it is no worse than $[\\sigma_0]$ (or any loop $\\sigma_0\\in[\\sigma_0]$): no ontological firmness is gained by retreating to the loops, which are just as flimsy as the potentials. And one wonders how the unmeasurability of one entity can invest another with physical reality; would an eventual observation of $A$ dissolve $\\sigma_0$, consigning it to a realm of incorporeal mathematical abstractions?
Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Matsuda, Kazunari; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2009-03-01
We have performed micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for single carbon nanotubes under magnetic fields at various temperatures. Sharp PL spectra of single carbon nanotubes allow us to directly observe the dark exciton PL peak a few meV below the bright exciton PL peak due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect [1]. From the PL intensity ratio of the dark to the bright excitons under magnetic fields, we found that the non-equilibrium (non-Boltzmann) distribution occurs between the bright and dark states, because phonons cannot scatter excitons between the two states with different parities [2]. Furthermore, we discuss the diameter dependence of the exciton population of the bright and dark states in single carbon nanotubes. [1] R. Matsunaga, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 147404 (2008). [2] V. Perebeinos, J. Tersoff, and Ph. Avouris, Nano Lett. 5, 2495 (2005).
Geometrical methods in mathematical physics. 2013 Oct.30
Katanaev, M O
2013-01-01
We give detailed exposition of modern differential geometry from global coordinate independent point of view as well as local coordinate description suited for actual computations. In introduction, we consider Euclidean spaces and different structures on it; rotational, Lorentz, and Poincare groups; special relativity. The main body of the manuscript includes manifolds, tensor fields, differential forms, integration, Riemannian and Lorentzian metrics, connection on vector and frame fiber bundles, affine geometry, Lie groups, transformation groups, homotopy and fundamental group, coverings, principal and associated fiber bundles, connections on fiber bundles, Killing vector fields, geodesics and extremals, symplectic and Poisson manifolds, principle of least action, canonical formalism for constrained systems. Applications of differential geometry in quantum theory (adiabatic theorem, Berry phase, Aharonov-Bohm effect) and general relativity are described. We give introduction to general relativity and its Ham...
2009-12-01
What have the DESY laboratory in Germany, Richard Feynman's visionary lecture on nanotechnology, the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the "two cultures" debate got in common? The answer is that they are all half a century old this year. The DESY lab was officially launched on 18 December 1959 and is marking its 50th anniversary with a series of events that included the official opening of the PETRA III synchrotron last month. Initially a particle-physics lab pure and simple, DESY is now changing its focus to accelerator science and is set to open its massive new 1bn European X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2014 (p12).
Topology and Gauge Theory in Physics
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
I am deeply touched by the short message that Tonomura recorded for all of us today. It reminded me of my first visit to his laboratory in the early 1980s and the many conferences that I attended that he had organized in Japan. It also recalled for me the many discussions that he and I had, not only about the Aharonov-Bohm effect, but also about flux movement in superconductors, especially after the 1987 discovery of high-temperature superconductors. He and I had in these years many warm and fruitful meetings in Japan, in China, and in the United States. Last winter I was very happy to have received a photograph of him standing in a garden a few months after his operation. I thought he was on his way to full recovery. But that was not to be...
Reprint of : Thermodynamic properties of a quantum Hall anti-dot interferometer
Levy Schreier, Sarah; Stern, Ady; Rosenow, Bernd; Halperin, Bertrand I.
2016-08-01
We study quantum Hall interferometers in which the interference loop encircles a quantum anti-dot. We base our study on thermodynamic considerations, which we believe reflect the essential aspects of interference transport phenomena. We find that similar to the more conventional Fabry-Perot quantum Hall interferometers, in which the interference loop forms a quantum dot, the anti-dot interferometer is affected by the electro-static Coulomb interaction between the edge modes defining the loop. We show that in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, in which effects of fractional statistics should be visible, is easier to access in interferometers based on anti-dots than in those based on dots. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent measurements on anti-dots interferometers.
Quantum dynamics of tight-binding networks coherently controlled by external fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Shuo; SONG Zhi; SUN Chang-pu
2007-01-01
With some reviews on the investigations on the schemes for quantum state transfer based on spin systems,we discuss the quantum dynamics of magnetically-controlled networks for Bloch electrons. The networks are constructed by connecting several tight-binding chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. The external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals can be used to control the intrinsic properties of the networks. For several typical networks, rigorous results are shown for some specific values of external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals: a complicated network can be reduced into a virtual network, which is a direct sum of some independent chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. These reductions are due to the fermionic statistics and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. In application, we study the quantum dynamics of wave packet motion of Bloch electrons in such networks. For various geometrical configurations, these networks can function as some optical devices,such as beam splitters, switches and interferometers. When the Bloch electrons as Gaussian wave packets input these devices, various quantum coherence phenomena can be observed, e.g., the perfect quantum state transfer without reflection in a Y-shaped beam, the multi-mode entanglers of electron wave by star-shaped network, magnetically controlled switches, and Bloch electron interferometer with the lattice Aharonov-Bohm effects. With these quantum coherent features, the networks are expected to be used as quantum information processors for the fermion system based on the possible engineered solid state systems, such as the array of quantum dots that can be implemented experimentally.
Electronic States of Elliptical Quantum Rings Subjected to a Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hai-Tao; LIU Li-Zhe; LIU Jian-Jun
2008-01-01
We calculate the energy states and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of an electron in elliptical quantum rings in the presence of a uniform magnetic field by using an exact numerical diagonalization. The calculated results show that the elliptical quantum rings are flatter, larger amplitudes and periods of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are observed. In addition, in the limits of a circular quantum ring, the results of our approach are in good agreement with those of earlier theories.
Xu, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Qiang; Nie, Yi-Hang
2016-11-01
We have studied spin-dependent thermoelectric transport through parallel triple quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbital interaction (RSOI) embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer connected symmetrically to leads using nonequilibrium Green’s function method in the linear response regime. Under the appropriate configuration of magnetic flux phase and RSOI phase, the spin figure of merit can be enhanced and is even larger than the charge figure of merit. In particular, the charge and spin thermopowers as functions of both the magnetic flux phase and the RSOI phase present quadruple-peak structures in the contour graphs. For some specific configuration of the two phases, the device can provide a mechanism that converts heat into a spin voltage when the charge thermopower vanishes while the spin thermopower is not zero, which is useful in realizing the thermal spin battery and inducing a pure spin current in the device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274208 and 11447170).
Discusses on the Tesla Scalar Waves%试论Tesla标量波
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄志洵
2014-01-01
Nikola Tesla was the pioneer of science-technology civilization in the past,his scalar waves are very interesting in terms of their practical use for energy and information transfer. As is well known, the radio waves and light waves are transverse waves,but the Tesla scalar wave more like a vibration of e-lectromagnetic potential expanding and contracting in the direction of propagation. In the research of elec-tromagnetic theory,the physical reality of vector potential and scalar potential were verified by the experi-ments,it is support of the Tesla scalar waves. We see such situation in the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the quantum entangled states,they are the non-force interactions,Tesla scalar wave also has this effect. In this paper,we find out the reasons of Tesla wave’ s superluminality. Firstly,the quantum dynamics non-locality emerged from the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Secondary,the near field effect on the evanescent-state alike. Then the possibility of Tesla longitudinal waves superluminal propagation are possible. But the situation here requires much experiments.%Nikola Tesla是现代科技文明的创始人之一；他的标量波不但可用于能量和信息传输,而且非常有趣。如所周知无线电波和光波都是横波,但Tesla标量波更像电磁势在传播方向上的扩张和收缩。在电磁理论研究中,实验均证明了矢势和标势的物理实在性,这是对Tesla标量波理念的支持。我们已知像Aharonov-Bohm效应和量子纠缠态这类非力效应的情况,Tesla标量波也是这种效应。 本文提出了Tesla波可能有超光速性的原因：首先是Aharonov-Bohm效应具有量子力学非局域性；其次是类消失态的近场效应；因此Tesla纵波以超光速传播是可能的。但还应做更多的实验。
Schweidenback, Lars
In this thesis we describe two spectroscopic projects project on semiconductor heterostructures, as well as putting together and testing a micro-photoluminescence/7 tesla magnet system for the study of micron size two-dimensional crystals. Below we discuss the three parts in more detail. i) MnAs-based spin light emitting diodes. We have studied the injection of spin-polarized electrons from a ferromagnetic MnAs contact into an AlGaAs(n)/GaAs(i)/AlGaAs(p) n-i-p light emitting diode. We have recorder the emitted electroluminescence as function of magnetic field applied at right angles to the device plane in the 7-300 K temperature range. It was found that at 7 Kelvin the emitted light is circularly polarized with a polarization that is proportional to the MnAs contact magnetization with a saturation value of 26% for B > 1.25 tesla. The polarization persists up to room temperature with a saturation value of 6%. ii) Optical Aharonov-Bohm effect in InGaAs quantum wells. The excitonic photoluminescence intensity from InGaAs quantum wells as function of magnetic field exhibits two local maxima superimposed on a decreasing background. The maxima are attributed to the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect of electrons orbiting around a hole localized at the center of an Indium rich InGaAs islands detected by cross sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. Analysis of the position of the maxima yields a value of the electron orbit radius. iii) Micro-Photoluminescence. We have put together a micro-photoluminescence /7 tesla system for the study of two dimensional crystals. The samples are placed inside a continuous flow cryostat whose tail is positioned in the bore of the 7 tesla magnet. A microscope objective is used to focus the exciting laser light and collect the emitted photoluminescence. The system was tested by recording the photoluminescence spectra of WS2 and WSe 2 monolayers at T = 77 K.
Quantum oscillations in superconductors in magnetic field
Gvozdikov, Vladimir M.; Gvozdikova, Mariya V.
2000-07-01
The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO) of the free energy, the critical temperature, and the magnetic susceptibility in a stack of hollow mesoscopic cylinders are calculated. It is shown that sinusoidal (in flux) ABO crosses over to the parabolic Little-Parks oscillations (LPO) when the diameter of cylinders exceeds the coherence length. The exponential temperature behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility is like that found in Ag cylinders with thin Nb coating [Czech. J. Physics 46 (1996) 2317]. The formal analogy between oscillations of the free energy in the Aharonov-Bohm system in question and the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations (dHvAO) in layered superconductors is discussed.
Spin-orbit edge states in semiconductor two-dimensional systems
Xu, L. L.; Ren, Shaola; Heremans, J. J.; Minic, Djordje; Gaspe, C. K.; Vijeyaragunathan, S.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.
2013-03-01
The electromagnetic duality between the Aharonov-Casher and the Aharonov-Bohm topological phases can lead to magnetoelectronic edge effects in two-dimensional systems. Based on this duality, we propose and experimentally explore a quantized Hall effect in which magnetization transport may be quantized analogously to charge transport. When the magnetic moment is fully projected, the edge effect is a magnetization dual to the integer quantum Hall effect. An analogy also exists between this dual and the bosonic quantum Hall effect currently under investigation. In experiments we search for edge states induced by the equivalent vector potential from Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. We use mesoscopic side-gated channel structures on InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures where backscattering between edge states can experimentally form evidence for edge states. The side-gate voltage varies the effective gauge field and resistance as function of side-gate voltage is measured across the mesoscopic structures at either low applied magnetic field or at fixed magnetic filling factors to obtain states of defined spin (DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532, NSF DMR-0520550).
El Naschie's structures in the electrodynamics of polarizable media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agop, M. [Department of Physics, Technical ' Gh. Asachi' University, Iasi 700029 (Romania); Stradela Florilor, no. 2, Iasi 700514 (Romania)]. E-mail: magop@phys.tuiasi.ro; Merches, I. [Faculty of Physics, ' Al. I. Cuza' University, Blvd. Carol no. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Enache, V. [Department of Physics, Technical ' Gh. Asachi' University, Iasi 700029 (Romania)
2005-06-01
Using the concept of 'combined field', an electrodynamics of polarizable media on a fractal space-time is constructed. In this context, using the scale relativity theory, the permanent electric moment, the induced electric moment, the vacuum fluctuations, the paraelectrics, the diaelectrics, the electric Zeeman-type effect, the electric Einstein-de Haas-type effect, the electric Aharonov-Bohm-type effect, the superconductors in the 'combined field', the double layers as coherent structures, the magnetic Aharonov-Casher-type effect, are analyzed. Correspondence with the {epsilon}{sup ({infinity})} space-time is accomplished either by admitting an anomal electric Zeeman-type effect, or through a fractal string as in the case of a superconductor in 'combined field', or, by phase coherence of the electron-ion pairs from the electric double layers (El Naschie's coherence). Moreover, the electric double layer or multiple layer may be considered as two-dimensional projections of the same El Naschie's fractal strings (higher-dimensional strings in {epsilon}{sup ({infinity})} space-time)
Electromagnetic momentum in frontiers of modern physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gianfranco SPAVIERI; Jesús ERAZO; Arturo SANCHEZ; Felix AGUIRRE; George T.GILLIES; Miguel RODRIGUEZ
2008-01-01
We review the role of the momentum of the electromagnetic (EM) fields Pe in several areas of modern physics.Pe represents the EM interaction in equations for matter and light waves propagation. As an application of wave propagation properties,a first order optical experiment which tests the speed of light in moving rarefied gases is presented.Within a classical context,the momentum Pe appears also in proposed tests of EM interactions involving open currents and angular momentum conservation laws.Moreover,Pe is the link to the unitary vision of the quantum effects of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) type and,for several of these effects,the strength of Pe is evaluated.These effects provide a quantum approach to evaluate the limit of the photon mass mph.A new effect of the AB type,together with the scalar AB effect,provides the basis f0r table-top experiments which yield the limit mph=9.4×10-52g,a value that improves the results achieved with recent classical and quantum approaches.
Theory of Atom Optics: Feynman's Path Integral Approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Lü-bi
2006-01-01
The present theory of atom optics is established mainly on the Schr(o)dinger equations or the matrix mechanics equation.The authors present a new theoretical formulation of atom optics: Feynman's path integral theory.Its advantage is that one can describe the diffraction and interference of atoms passing through slits (or grating),apertures,and standing wave laser field in Earth's gravitational field by using a type of wave function and calculation is simple.For this reason,we derive the wave functions of particles in the following configurations: single slit (and slit with the van der Waals interaction),double slit,N slit,rectangular aperture,circular aperture,the Mach-Zehndertype interferometer,the interferometer with the Raman beams,the Sagnac effect,the Aharonov-Casher effect,the Kapitza-Dirac diffraction effect,and the Aharonov-Bohm effect.The authors give a wave function of the state of particles on the screen in abovementioned configurations.Our formulas show good agreement with present experimental measurements.
Controllable multiple-quantum transitions in a T-shaped small quantum dot-ring system
Chen, Xiongwen; Chen, Baoju; Song, Kehui; Zhou, Guanghui
2016-05-01
Based on the tight-binding model and the slave boson mean field approximation, we investigate the electron transport properties in a small quantum dot (QD)-ring system. Namely, a strongly correlated QD not only attaches directly to two normal metallic electrodes, but also forms a magnetic control Aharonov-Bohm quantum ring with a few noninteracting QDs. We show that the parity effect, the Kondo effect, and the multiple Fano effects coexist in our system. Moreover, the parities, defined by the odd- and even-numbered energy levels in this system, can be switched by adjusting magnetic flux phase ϕ located at the center of the quantum ring, which induces multiple controllable Fano-interference energy pathways. Therefore, the constructive and destructive multi-Fano interference transition, the Kondo and Fano resonance transition at the Fermi level, the Fano resonance and ani-resonance transition are realized in the even parity system. They can also be observed in the odd parity system when one adjusts the phase ϕ and the gate voltage Vg applied to the noninteracting QDs. The multi-quantum transitions determine some interesting transport properties such as the current switch and its multi-flatsteps, the differential conductance switch at zero bias voltage and its oscillation or quantization at the low bias voltage. These results may be useful for the observation of multiple quantum effect interplays experimentally and the design of controllable QD-based device.
Quantum interferometric visibility as a witness of general relativistic proper time.
Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Pikovski, Igor; Brukner, Časlav
2011-10-18
Current attempts to probe general relativistic effects in quantum mechanics focus on precision measurements of phase shifts in matter-wave interferometry. Yet, phase shifts can always be explained as arising because of an Aharonov-Bohm effect, where a particle in a flat space-time is subject to an effective potential. Here we propose a quantum effect that cannot be explained without the general relativistic notion of proper time. We consider interference of a 'clock'-a particle with evolving internal degrees of freedom-that will not only display a phase shift, but also reduce the visibility of the interference pattern. According to general relativity, proper time flows at different rates in different regions of space-time. Therefore, because of quantum complementarity, the visibility will drop to the extent to which the path information becomes available from reading out the proper time from the 'clock'. Such a gravitationally induced decoherence would provide the first test of the genuine general relativistic notion of proper time in quantum mechanics.
First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jing-Zhe; Zhang Jin; Han Ru-Shan
2008-01-01
The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov-Bohm effect (A-B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A-B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed.
Magnus force in superfluids and superconductors
Sonin, E. B.
1997-01-01
The forces on the vortex, transverse to its velocity, are considered. In addition to the superfluid Magnus force from the condensate (superfluid component), there are transverse forces from thermal quasiparticles and external fields violating the Galilean invariance. The forces between quasiparticles and the vortex originate from interference of quasiparticles with trajectories on the left and on the right from the vortex like similar forces for electrons interacting with the thin magnetic-flux tube (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). These forces are derived for phonons from the equations of superfluid hydrodynamics, and for BCS quasiparticles from the Bogolyubov-de Gennes equations. The effect of external fields breaking Galilean invariance is analyzed for vortices in the two-dimensional Josephson junction array. The symmetry analysis of the classical equations for the array shows that the total transverse force on the vortex vanishes. Therefore the Hall effect which is linear in the transverse force is absent also. This means that the Magnus force from the superfluid component exactly cancels with the transverse force from the external fields. The results of other approaches are also brought together for discussion.
Gauge concepts in theoretical applied physics
Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2016-01-01
Gauge concept evolves in the course of nearly one century from Faraday’s rather obscure electrotonic state of matter to the physically significant Yang-Mills that underpin today’s standard model. As gauge theories improve, links are established with modern observations, e.g. in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Pancharatnam-Berry’s phase, superconductivity, and quantum Hall effects. In this century, emergent gauge theory is formulated in numerous fields of applied physics like topological insulators, spintronics, and graphene. We will show in this paper the application of gauge theory in two particularly useful spin-based phenomena, namely the spin orbit spin torque and the spin Hall effect. These are important fields of study in the engineering community due to great commercial interest in the technology of magnetic memory (MRAM), and magnetic field sensors. Both spin orbit torque and spin Hall perform magnetic switching at low power and high speed. Furthermore, spin Hall is also a promising source of pure spin current, as well as a reliable form of detection mechanism for the magnetic state of a material.
Experimental evidences of topological surface states of β-Ag2Te
Sulaev, Azat; Ren, Peng; Xia, Bin; Lin, Qing Hua; Yu, Ting; Qiu, Caiyu; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Han, Ming-Yong; Li, Zhi Peng; Zhu, Wei Guang; Wu, Qingyu; Feng, Yuan Ping; Shen, Lei; Shen, Shun-Qing; Wang, Lan
2013-03-01
We present evidence of topological surface states in β-Ag2Te through first-principles calculations, periodic quantum interference effect and ambipolar electric field effect in single crystalline nanoribbon. Our first-principles calculations show that β-Ag2Te is a topological insulator with a gapless Dirac cone with strong anisotropy. To experimentally probe the topological surface state, we synthesized high quality β-Ag2Te nanoribbons and performed electron transport measurements. The coexistence of pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and weak Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations clearly demonstrates coherent electron transport around the perimeter of β-Ag2Te nanoribbon and therefore the existence of topological surface states, which is further supported by the ambipolar electric field effect for devices fabricated by β-Ag2Te nanoribbons. The experimental evidences of topological surface states and the theoretically predicted anisotropic Dirac cone of β-Ag2Te suggest that the material may be a promising candidate of topological insulator for fundamental study and future spintronic devices.
Experimental evidences of topological surface states of β-Ag2Te
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azat Sulaev
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We present evidence of topological surface states in β-Ag2Te through first-principles calculations, periodic quantum interference effect and ambipolar electric field effect in single crystalline nanoribbon. Our first-principles calculations show that β-Ag2Te is a topological insulator with a gapless Dirac cone with strong anisotropy. To experimentally probe the topological surface state, we synthesized high quality β-Ag2Te nanoribbons and performed electron transport measurements. The coexistence of pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and weak Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations clearly demonstrates coherent electron transport around the perimeter of β-Ag2Te nanoribbon and therefore the existence of topological surface states, which is further supported by the ambipolar electric field effect for devices fabricated by β-Ag2Te nanoribbons. The experimental evidences of topological surface states and the theoretically predicted anisotropic Dirac cone of β-Ag2Te suggest that the material may be a promising candidate of topological insulator for fundamental study and future spintronic devices.
β - Ag2Te: A topological insulator with strong anisotropy
Wang, Lan; Sulaev, Azat; Ren, Peng; Xia, Bin; Lin, Qinghua; Yu, Ting; Qiu, Caiyu; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Han, Ming-Yong; Li, Zhipeng; Zhu, Wei Guang; Wu, Qingyu; Feng, Yuan Ping; Shen, Lei; Shen, Shun-Qing
2013-03-01
We present evidence of topological surface states in β-Ag2Te through first-principles calculations, periodic quantum interference effect and ambipolar electric field effect in single crystalline nanoribbon. Our first-principles calculations show that β-Ag2Te is a topological insulator with a gapless Dirac cone with strong anisotropy. To experimentally probe the topological surface state, we synthesized high quality β-Ag2Te nanoribbons and performed electron transport measurements. The coexistence of pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and weak Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations clearly demonstrates coherent electron transport around the perimeter of β-Ag2Te nanoribbon and therefore the existence of topological surface states, which is further supported by the ambipolar electric field effect for devices fabricated by β-Ag2Te nanoribbons. The experimentally confirmed topological surface states and the theoretically predicted isotropic Dirac cone of β-Ag2Te suggest that the material may be a promising material for fundamental study and future spintronic devices. RCA-08/018 (Singapore), MOE2010-T2-2-059 (Singapore), HKU705150P (Hong Kong), NTU-SUG M4080513
Magnetic forces and stationary electron flow in a three-terminal semiconductor quantum ring.
Poniedziałek, M R; Szafran, B
2010-06-01
We study stationary electron flow through a three-terminal quantum ring and describe effects due to deflection of electron trajectories by classical magnetic forces. We demonstrate that generally at high magnetic field (B) the current is guided by magnetic forces to follow a classical path, which for B > 0 leads via the left arm of the ring to the left output terminal. The transport to the left output terminal is blocked for narrow windows of magnetic field for which the interference within the ring leads to formation of wavefunctions that are only weakly coupled to the output channel wavefunctions. These interference conditions are accompanied by injection of the current to the right arm of the ring and by appearance of sharp peaks of the transfer probability to the right output terminal. We find that these peaks at high magnetic field are attenuated by thermal widening of the transport window. We also demonstrate that the interference conditions that lead to their appearance vanish when elastic scattering within the ring is present. The clear effect of magnetic forces on the transfer probabilities disappears along with Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a chaotic transport regime that is found for rings whose width is larger than the width of the channels.
Holism and structuralism in U(1) gauge theory
Lyre, Holger
After decades of neglect philosophers of physics have discovered gauge theories-arguably the paradigm of modern field physics-as a genuine topic for foundational and philosophical research. Incidentally, in the last couple of years interest from the philosophy of physics in structural realism-in the eyes of its proponents the best suited realist position towards modern physics-has also raised. This paper tries to connect both topics and aims to show that structural realism gains further credence from an ontological analysis of gauge theories-in particular U (1) gauge theory. In the first part of the paper the framework of fiber bundle gauge theories is briefly presented and the interpretation of local gauge symmetry will be examined. In the second part, an ontological underdetermination of gauge theories is carved out by considering the various kinds of non-locality involved in such typical effects as the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The analysis shows that the peculiar form of non-separability figuring in gauge theories is a variant of spatiotemporal holism and can be distinguished from quantum theoretic holism. In the last part of the paper the arguments for a gauge theoretic support of structural realism are laid out and discussed.
Beggi, Andrea; Bordone, Paolo; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bertoni, Andrea
2015-12-01
We compute the exact single-particle time-resolved dynamics of electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers based on Landau edge-states transport, and assess the effect of the spatial localization of carriers on the interference pattern. The exact carrier dynamics is obtained by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a suitable 2D potential profile reproducing the interferometer design. An external magnetic field, driving the system to the quantum Hall regime with filling factor one, is included. The injected carriers are represented by a superposition of edge states, and their interference pattern—controlled via magnetic field and/or area variation—reproduces the one of (Ji et al 2003 Nature 422 415). By tuning the system towards different regimes, we find two additional features in the transmission spectra, both related to carrier localization, namely a damping of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with increasing difference in the arms length, and an increased mean transmission that we trace to the energy-dependent transmittance of quantum point contacts. Finally, we present an analytical model, also accounting for the finite spatial dispersion of the carriers, able to reproduce the above effects.
Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons
Peng, Hailin
2009-12-13
Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi2 Se3 and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi2 Se3 nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Plancks constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.
Measurement of Quantum Phase-Slips in Josephson Junction Chains
Guichard, Wiebke
2011-03-01
Quantum phase-slip dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-slips. These phase-slips are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-slip interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.
Spin-orbit or Aharonov-Casher edge states in semiconductor two-dimensional systems
Xu, L. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Gaspe, C. K.; Vijeyaragunathan, S.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.
2012-02-01
In semiconductors with spin-orbit interaction we experimentally search for edge states induced by the Aharonov-Casher vector potential or Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. The Aharonov-Casher effect is electromagnetically dual to the Aharonov-Bohm effect and is predicted to lead to a possibly helical edge state structure at two-dimensional sample edges. We use InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures patterned into mesoscopic side-gated channel structures, where the edge states can be induced, and where backscattering between edge states can be experimentally measured in the resistance. Sweeping side-gate voltage, low temperature resistances are measured across such mesoscopic closed-path structures at either low applied magnetic field, in-plane or normal to the plane, or at fixed magnetic filling factors of 5, 6, 7, and 8 to obtain states of defined spin. Resistance oscillations are observed at low magnetic fields and around filling factor 6 as function of side-gate voltage, and we analyze the oscillations in the light of the search for the edge states (DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532, NSF DMR-0520550).
Tensor-tensor theory of gravitation
Gogberashvili, Merab
1996-01-01
We consider the standard gauge theory of Poincar\\'{e} group, realizing as a subgroup of GL(5. R). The main problem of this theory was appearing of the fields connected with non-Lorentz symmetries, whose physical sense was unclear. In this paper we treat the gravitation as a Higgs-Goldstone field, and the translation gauge field as a new tensor field. The effective metric tensor in this case is hybrid of two tensor fields. In the linear approximation the massive translation gauge field can give the Yukava type correction to the Newtons potential. Also outer potentials of a sphere and ball of the same mass are different in this case. Corrections to the standard Einshtein post Newtonian formulas of the light deflection and radar echo delay is obtained. The string like solution of the nonlinear equations of the translation gauge fields is found. This objects can results a Aharonov-Bohm type effect even for the spinless particles. They can provide density fluctuations in the early universe, necessary for galaxy fo...
Durst, Adam C.
2016-02-01
We consider an isolated vortex in the two-dimensional proximity-induced superconducting state formed at the interface of a three-dimensional strong topological insulator (TI) and an s -wave superconductor. Prior calculations of the bound states of this system famously revealed a zero-energy state that is its own conjugate, a Majorana fermion bound to the vortex core. We calculate, not the bound states, but the scattering states of this system, and ask how the spin-momentum-locked massless Dirac form of the single-particle Hamiltonian, inherited from the TI surface, affects the cross section for scattering Bogoliubov quasiparticles from the vortex. As in the case of an ordinary superconductor, this is a two-channel problem with the vortex mixing particlelike and holelike excitations. As in the ordinary case, the same-channel differential cross section diverges in the forward direction due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, resulting in an infinite total cross section but finite transport and skew cross sections. We calculate the transport and skew cross sections numerically, via a partial wave analysis, as a function of both quasiparticle excitation energy and chemical potential. Novel effects emerge as particlelike or holelike excitations are tuned through the Dirac point.
Transport through hybrid superconducting/ferromagnetic double-path junction
Facio, T. J. S.; Orellana, P. A.; Jurelo, A. R.; Figueira, M. S.; Cabrera, G. G.; Siqueira, E. C.
2017-02-01
In this paper we study a double-path junction formed by a ferromagnetic and a superconductor lead. The first path connects the superconductor and ferromagnet directly while the second path connects these metals through a quantum dot. The whole system works as an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer allowing the study of the interference between these two paths under the presence of spin imbalance and Andreev bound states. We considered the effect of Fano interference on the electronic transmittance through the quantum dot and observed two regimes of conduction depending on the strength of the direct coupling. For the weak coupling regime, the transmittance presented the usual four resonances due to the Andreev bound states whereas for the strong coupling regime the profile was inverted and resonances became anti-resonances. However, even in the strong coupling regime it was possible to observe a central resonance due to the interference between the Andreev bound states. We have also studied the signatures of Fano interference on the average occupation within the quantum dot. The spin accumulation was analyzed and how it depends on the direct coupling and an external magnetic field applied to the system. The results obtained may be used in a possible experimental implementation of this system in order to probe spin related effects in ferromagnetic superconductor nanostructures.
Radiation and matter: Electrodynamics postulates and Lorenz gauge
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.; van Heijst, G. J.; Schram, P. P.
2016-11-01
In general terms, we have considered matter as the system of charged particles and quantized electromagnetic field. For consistent description of the thermodynamic properties of matter, especially in an extreme state, the problem of quantization of the longitudinal and scalar potentials should be solved. In this connection, we pay attention that the traditional postulates of electrodynamics, which claim that only electric and magnetic fields are observable, is resolved by denial of the statement about validity of the Maxwell equations for microscopic fields. The Maxwell equations, as the generalization of experimental data, are valid only for averaged values. We show that microscopic electrodynamics may be based on postulation of the d'Alembert equations for four-vector of the electromagnetic field potential. The Lorenz gauge is valid for the averages potentials (and provides the implementation of the Maxwell equations for averages). The suggested concept overcomes difficulties under the electromagnetic field quantization procedure being in accordance with the results of quantum electrodynamics. As a result, longitudinal and scalar photons become real rather than virtual and may be observed in principle. The longitudinal and scalar photons provide not only the Coulomb interaction of charged particles, but also allow the electrical Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Quantum point contacts in quantum wire systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sternemann, E.; Buchholz, S.S.; Fischer, S.F.; Kunze, U. [Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Reuter, D.; Wieck, A.D. [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)
2010-07-01
Quantum point contacts (QPCs) attract high interest for applications as magnetic focussing, beam splitting (quantum Hall edge states), spin filtering and electron thermometry. Here, we investigate QPCs in complex quantum wire (QWR) systems such as quantum rings. The QPCs were realized by lithographical definition of a short (150 nm) constriction (170 nm width) in (a) a 540 nm wide QWR and (b) 520 nm wide QWR leads of a QWR ring as in. Nanogates on top of the constrictions allow for the control of occupied modes in the QPCs. The devices are based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a 2DEG 55 nm below the surface, patterned by electron beam lithography and wet-chemical etching. Two- and four-terminal conductance measurements at temperatures between 23 mK and 4.2 K were performed using lock-in technique. Our measurements reveal that QPCs in 1D nanostructures can be prepared to show subband separations of 6 meV, clear conductance quantization as well as the 0.7 anomaly. We further show that electron injection across a QPC into a QWR ring allows for electron interference (Aharonov-Bohm effect).
Formation of spin droplet at ν =5/2 in an asymmetric quantum dot under quantum Hall conditions
Atci, H.; Siddiki, A.
2017-01-01
In this work, a quantum dot that is defined asymmetrically by electrostatic means induced on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure is investigated to unravel the effect of geometric constraints on the formation of spin droplets under quantized Hall conditions. The incompressibility of the excited ν =5/2 state is explored by solving the Schrödinger equation within spin density functional theory, where the confinement potential is obtained self-consistently utilizing the Thomas-Fermi approximation. Our numerical investigations show that the spatial distribution of the ν =2 incompressible strips and electron occupation in the second lowest Landau level considerably differ from the results of the laterally symmetric quantum dots. Our findings yield two important consequences: first, the incompressibility of the intriguing ν =5/2 state is strongly affected by the asymmetry, and second, since the Aharonov-Bohm interference patterns depend on the velocity of the particles, asymmetry yields an additional parameter to adjust the oscillation period, which imposes a boundary condition dependency in observing quasiparticle phases.
Scattering Matrices and Conductances of Leaky Tori
Pnueli, A.
1994-04-01
Leaky tori are two-dimensional surfaces that extend to infinity but which have finite area. It is a tempting idea to regard them as models of mesoscopic systems connected to very long leads. Because of this analogy-scattering matrices on leaky tori are potentially interesting, and indeed-the scattering matrix on one such object-"the" leaky torus-was studied by M. Gutzwiller, who showed that it has chaotic behavior. M. Antoine, A. Comtet and S. Ouvry generalized Gutzwiller‧s result by calculating the scattering matrix in the presence of a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the surface. Motivated by these results-we generalize them further. We define scattering matrices for spinless electrons on a general leaky torus in the presence of a constant magnetic field "perpendicular" to the surface. From the properties of these matrices we show the following: (a) For integer values of B, Tij (the transition probability from cusp i to cusp j), and hence also the Büttiker conductances of the surfaces, are B-independent (this cannot be interpreted as a kind of Aharonov-Bohm effect since a magnetic force is acting on the electrons). (b) The Wigner time-delay is a monotonically increasing function of B.
Toward Realistic Gauge-Higgs Grand Unification
Furui, Atsushi; Yamatsu, Naoki
2016-01-01
The $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase $\\theta_H$ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of $SO(11)$. $SO(11)$ is broken to $SO(4) \\times SO(6)$ by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to $SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y \\times SU(3)_C$ by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential $V_{\\rm eff} (\\theta_H)$, we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to $U(1)_{\\rm EM}$. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. The proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses ...
Deconfinement in N=1 super Yang-Mills theory on R^3 x S^1 via dual-Coulomb gas and "affine" XY-model
Anber, Mohamed M; Poppitz, Erich; Strimas-Mackey, Seth; Teeple, Brett
2013-01-01
We study finite-temperature N=1 SU(2) super Yang-Mills theory, compactified on a spatial circle of size L with supersymmetric boundary conditions. In the semiclassical small-L regime, a deconfinement transition occurs at T_c <<1/L. The transition is due to a competition between non-perturbative topological "molecules"---magnetic and neutral bion-instantons---and electrically charged W-bosons and superpartners. Compared to deconfinement in non-supersymmetric QCD(adj) arXiv:1112.6389, the novelty is the relevance of the light modulus scalar field. It mediates interactions between neutral bions (and W-bosons), serves as an order parameter for the Z_2^{L} center symmetry associated with the non-thermal circle, and explicitly breaks the electric-magnetic (Kramers-Wannier) duality enjoyed by non-supersymmetric QCD(adj) near T_c. We show that deconfinement can be studied using an effective two-dimensional gas of electric and magnetic charges with (dual) Coulomb and Aharonov-Bohm interactions, or, equivalently,...
Efficient creation of electron vortex beams for high resolution STEM imaging.
Béché, A; Juchtmans, R; Verbeeck, J
2016-05-10
The recent discovery of electron vortex beams carrying quantised angular momentum in the TEM has led to an active field of research, exploring a variety of potential applications including the possibility of mapping magnetic states at the atomic scale. A prerequisite for this is the availability of atomic sized electron vortex beams at high beam current and mode purity. In this paper we present recent progress showing that by making use of the Aharonov-Bohm effect near the tip of a long single domain ferromagnetic Nickel needle, a very efficient aperture for the production of electron vortex beams can be realised. The aperture transmits more than 99% of all electrons and provides a vortex mode purity of up to 92%. Placing this aperture in the condenser plane of a state of the art Cs corrected microscope allows us to demonstrate atomic resolution HAADF STEM images with spatial resolution better than 1 Angström, in agreement with theoretical expectations and only slightly inferior to the performance of a non-vortex probe on the same instrument.
Measuring the momentum of a nanomechanical oscillator using tunnel junctions
Doiron, Charles; Trauzettel, Bjoern; Bruder, Christoph
2008-03-01
We present a way to measure the momentum p of a nanomechanical oscillatorootnotetextC. B. Doiron, B. Trauzettel, C. Bruder. arXiv:0707.2709.. The momentum detector is based on two tunnel junctions in an Aharonov-Bohm-type setup, where one of the tunneling amplitudes depends on the motion of the oscillator and the other one does not. The coupling between the first tunnel junction and the oscillator is assumed to be linear in the position x of the oscillator t(x) = t0+ t1x. However, the presence of two junctions can, under certain conditions, lead to an effective imaginary coupling t(x) = t0+ i t1x. By calculating the equation-of-motion for the density matrix of the coupled (oscillator+tunnel junction) systemootnotetextA.A Clerk, S. Girvin. Phys. Rev. B 70, 121303 (2004)., we show that in this case the finite-frequency current noise of the detector is proportional to the momentum spectrum of the oscillator.
On Aharonov-Casher bound states
Silva, E. O.; Andrade, F. M.; Filgueiras, C.; Belich, H.
2013-04-01
In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the ∇ṡ E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem.
A survey of existing and proposed classical and quantum approaches to the photon mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spavieri, G.; Quintero, J. [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gillies, G.T. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904-4714 (United States); Rodriguez, M. [Departamento de Fisica, FACYT, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2011-02-15
Over the past twenty years, there have been several careful experimental, observational and phenomenological investigations aimed at searching for and establishing ever tighter bounds on the possible mass of the photon. There are many fascinating and paradoxical physical implications that would arise from the presence of even a very small value for it, and thus such searches have always been well motivated in terms of the new physics that would result. We provide a brief overview of the theoretical background and classical motivations for this work and the early tests of the exactness of Coulomb's law that underlie it. We then go on to address the modern situation, in which quantum physics approaches come to attention. Among them we focus especially on the implications that the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher class of effects have on searches for a photon mass. These arise in several different ways and can lead to experiments that might involve the interaction of magnetic dipoles, electric dipoles, or charged particles with suitable potentials. Still other quantum-based approaches employ measurements of the g-factor of the electron. Plausible target sensitivities for limits on the photon mass as sought by the various quantum approaches are in the range of 10{sup -53} to 10{sup -54} g. Possible experimental arrangements for the associated experiments are discussed. We close with an assessment of the state of the art and a prognosis for future work. (authors)
On Aharonov-Casher bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, E.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Andrade, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Filgueiras, C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2013-04-15
In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the {nabla}.E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem. (orig.)
Spin interference in silicon one-dimensional rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagraev, N T [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galkin, N G [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gehlhoff, W [Technische Universitaet Berlin, D-10623, Berlin (Germany); Klyachkin, L E [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A M [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shelykh, I A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)
2007-03-15
We present the first findings of the spin transistor effect in the Rashba gate-controlled ring embedded in the p-type self-assembled silicon quantum well that is prepared on the n-type Si (100) surface. The coherence and phase sensitivity of the spin-dependent transport of holes are studied by varying the value of the external magnetic field and the top gate voltage that are applied perpendicularly to the plane of the double-slit ring and revealed by the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations, respectively. Firstly, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the 0.7.(2e{sup 2}/h) feature of the hole quantum conductance staircase revealed by the quantum point contact inserted in the one of the arms of the double-slit ring are found to result from the interplay of the spontaneous spin polarization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Secondly, the values of the AC conductance oscillations caused by the Rashba SOI are found to take the fractional form with both the plateaus and steps as a function of the top gate voltage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
March, N.H. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium) and Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: grilli@ictp.it
2007-03-12
Motivated by the theoretical work of Boyer [T.H. Boyer, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 3455] plus the quite recent interferometric experiment of Shinohara, Aoki and Morinaga [K. Shinohara, T. Aoki, A. Morinaga, Phys. Rev. A 66 (2002) 042106] in which the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect was studied, we re-open the extension to neutral particles carrying a magnetic moment and passing through a region of intense electric field, treated theoretically by Aharonov and Casher (AC) and independently by Anandan. An alternative interpretation of results on (a) neutrons and (b) TlF molecules to that afforded by AC is shown to involve only (i) the de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and (ii) the prediction from Maxwell's equations for the change in velocity of a neutral moving magnet as it enters or leaves an electric field. The exquisite sensitivity of experiment (b) allows a fractional change in velocity of order 10{sup -15} to be quantitatively determined.
A survey of existing and proposed classical and quantum approaches to the photon mass
Spavieri, G.; Quintero, J.; Gillies, G. T.; Rodríguez, M.
2011-02-01
Over the past twenty years, there have been several careful experimental, observational and phenomenological investigations aimed at searching for and establishing ever tighter bounds on the possible mass of the photon. There are many fascinating and paradoxical physical implications that would arise from the presence of even a very small value for it, and thus such searches have always been well motivated in terms of the new physics that would result. We provide a brief overview of the theoretical background and classical motivations for this work and the early tests of the exactness of Coulomb's law that underlie it. We then go on to address the modern situation, in which quantum physics approaches come to attention. Among them we focus especially on the implications that the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher class of effects have on searches for a photon mass. These arise in several different ways and can lead to experiments that might involve the interaction of magnetic dipoles, electric dipoles, or charged particles with suitable potentials. Still other quantum-based approaches employ measurements of the g-factor of the electron. Plausible target sensitivities for limits on the photon mass as sought by the various quantum approaches are in the range of 10-53 to 10-54 g. Possible experimental arrangements for the associated experiments are discussed. We close with an assessment of the state of the art and a prognosis for future work.
Moment map and gauge geometric aspects of the Schrödinger and Pauli equations
Spera, Mauro
2016-03-01
In this paper we discuss various geometric aspects related to the Schrödinger and the Pauli equations. First we resume the Madelung-Bohm hydrodynamical approach to quantum mechanics and recall the Hamiltonian structure of the Schrödinger equation. The probability current provides an equivariant moment map for the group G = sDiff(R3) of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of R3 (rapidly approaching the identity at infinity) and leads to a current algebra of Rasetti-Regge type. The moment map picture is then extended, mutatis mutandis, to the Pauli equation and to generalized Schrödinger equations of the Pauli-Thomas type. A gauge theoretical reinterpretation of all equations is obtained via the introduction of suitable Maurer-Cartan gauge fields and it is then related to Weyl geometric and pilot wave ideas. A general framework accommodating Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects is presented within the gauge approach. Furthermore, a kind of holomorphic geometric quantization can be performed and yields natural “coherent state” representations of G. The relationship with the covariant phase space and density manifold approaches is then outlined. Comments on possible extensions to nonlinear Schrödinger equations, on Fisher-information theoretic aspects and on stochastic mechanics are finally made.
Schrödinger revisited the role of Dirac's "standard" ket in the algebraic approach
Brown, M R
2000-01-01
We follow Dirac and write the Schrodinger equation in an algebraic form which is representation-free. The imaginary and real parts of this equation are respectively the Liouville equation, which involves the commutator of the Hamiltonian with the density operator and an equation for the time development of the phase operator that involves the anti-commutator of the Hamiltonian with the density operator. We show this latter equation plays two important roles: (i) it expresses the conservation of energy in a system where energy is well defined and (ii) it provides a simple way to evaluate the gauge changes that occur in the Aharonov-Bohm, the Aharonov-Casher, and Berry phase effects. Both these operator (i.e. purely algebraic) equations also allow us to re-examine the Bohm interpretation, showing that it is in fact possible to construct Bohm interpretations in representations other than the $x$-representation. We discuss the meaning of the Bohm interpretation in the light of these new results in terms of non-co...
Spin interference in silicon one-dimensional rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagraev, N T [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galkin, N G [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gehlhoff, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Klyachkin, L E [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A M [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shelykh, I A [Physics and Astronomy School, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2006-11-15
We present the first findings of the spin transistor effect in a Rashba gate-controlled ring embedded in a p-type self-assembled silicon quantum well that is prepared on an n-type Si(100) surface. The coherence and phase sensitivity of the spin-dependent transport of holes are studied by varying the values of the external magnetic field and the bias voltage that are applied perpendicularly to the plane of the double-slit ring. First, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the 0.7 x (2e{sup 2}/h) feature of the hole quantum conductance staircase revealed by the quantum point contact inserted in one of the arms of the double-slit ring are found to result from the interplay of the spontaneous spin polarization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Second, the quantum scatterers connected to two one-dimensional leads and the quantum point contact inserted are shown to define the amplitude and the phase of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher conductance oscillations. (letter to the editor)
Some Aspects of Mathematical and Physical Approaches for Topological Quantum Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Kantser
2011-10-01
Full Text Available A paradigm to build a quantum computer, based on topological invariants is highlighted. The identities in the ensemble of knots, links and braids originally discovered in relation to topological quantum field theory are shown: how they define Artin braid group -- the mathematical basis of topological quantum computation (TQC. Vector spaces of TQC correspond to associated strings of particle interactions, and TQC operates its calculations on braided strings of special physical quasiparticles -- anyons -- with non-Abelian statistics. The physical platform of TQC is to use the topological quantum numbers of such small groups of anyons as qubits and to perform operations on these qubits by exchanging the anyons, both within the groups that form the qubits and, for multi-qubit gates, between groups. By braiding two or more anyons, they acquire up a topological phase or Berry phase similar to that found in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Topological matter such as fractional quantum Hall systems and novel discovered topological insulators open the way to form system of anyons -- Majorana fermions -- with the unique property of encoding and processing quantum information in a naturally fault-tolerant way. In the topological insulators, due to its fundamental attribute of topological surface state occurrence of the bound, Majorana fermions are generated at its heterocontact with superconductors. One of the key operations of TQC -- braiding of non-Abelian anyons: it is illustrated how it can be implemented in one-dimensional topological isolator wire networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shulamit Kapon1,*
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a teaching experiment designed to examine the learning (i.e., retention of content and conceptual development that takes place when public scientific web lectures delivered by scientists are utilized to present advanced ideas in physics to students with a high school background in physics. The students watched an exemplary public physics web lecture that was followed by a collaborative generic activity session. The collaborative session involved a guided critical reconstruction of the main arguments in the lecture, and a processing of the key analogical explanations. Then the students watched another exemplary web lecture on a different topic. The participants (N=14 were divided into two groups differing only in the order in which the lectures were presented. The students’ discussions during the activities show that they were able to reason and demonstrate conceptual progress, although the physics ideas in the lectures were far beyond their level in physics. The discussions during the collaborative session contributed significantly to the students’ understanding. We illustrate this point through an analysis of one of these discussions between two students on an analogical explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect that was presented in one of the lectures. The results from the tests that were administered to the participants several times during the intervention further support this contention.
Imaging snake orbits at graphene n -p junctions
Kolasiński, K.; Mreńca-Kolasińska, A.; Szafran, B.
2017-01-01
We consider conductance mapping of the snake orbits confined along the n -p junction defined in graphene by the electrostatic doping in the quantum Hall regime. We explain the periodicity of conductance oscillations at the magnetic field and the Fermi energy scales by the properties of the n -p junction as a conducting channel. We evaluate the conductance maps for a floating gate scanning the surface of the device. In the quantum Hall conditions the currents flow near the edges of the sample and along the n -p junction. The conductance mapping resolves only the n -p junction and not the edges. The conductance oscillations along the junction are found in the maps with periodicity related to the cyclotron orbits of the scattering current. Stronger probe potentials provide support to localized resonances at one of the sides of the junction with current loops that interfere with the n -p junction currents. The interference results in a series of narrow lines parallel to the junction with positions that strongly depend on the magnetic field through the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The consequences of a limited transparency of finite-width n -p junctions are also discussed.
Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality
Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.
2014-03-01
Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.
Schroer, Bert
2016-01-01
The Hilbert space formulation of interacting spin 1 vector-potentials stands in an interesting contrast with the point-local Krein space setting.of gauge theory. Already in the absence of interactions the Wilson loop in a Hilbert space setting has a topological property which is missing in the gauge theoretic description (Haag duality, Aharonov-Bohm effect); the conceptual differences increase in the presence of interactions. The Hilbert space positivity weakens the causal localization properties if interacting fields from point- to string-like, but it also improves the short distance properties in that the scale dimensions of string-local fields fields is independent of spin. This makes it possible to find interaction densities within the power-counting bound of renormalizability for any spin, But for string-local interacting fields there is a new requirement (existence of a L,V pair) which has no analog for point-local fields.It insures the preservation of string-localization in higher orders and secures th...
Valley-symmetry-preserved transport in ballistic graphene with gate-defined carrier guiding
Kim, Minsoo; Choi, Ji-Hae; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong
2016-11-01
Ever since the discovery of graphene, valley symmetry and its control in the material have been a focus of continued studies in relation to valleytronics. Carrier-guiding quasi-one-dimensional (1D) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with quantized energy subbands preserving the intrinsic Dirac nature have provided an ideal system to that end. Here, by guiding carriers through dual-gate operation in high-mobility monolayer graphene, we report the realization of quantized conductance in steps of 4e2/h in zero magnetic field, which arises from the full symmetry conservation of quasi-1D ballistic GNRs with effective zigzag-edge conduction. A tight-binding model calculation confirms conductance quantization corresponding to zigzag-edge conduction even for arbitrary GNR orientation. Valley-symmetry conservation is further confirmed by intrinsic conductance interference with a preserved Berry phase of π in a graphene-based Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring prepared by similar dual gating. This top-down approach for gate-defined carrier guiding in ballistic graphene is of particular relevance in the efforts towards efficient and promising valleytronic applications.
Malbon, Christopher L.; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Hua; Yarkony, David R.
2016-12-01
For two electronic states coupled by conical intersections, the line integral of the derivative coupling can be used to construct a complex-valued multiplicative phase factor that makes the real-valued adiabatic electronic wave function single-valued, provided that the curl of the derivative coupling is zero. Unfortunately for ab initio determined wave functions, the curl is never rigorously zero. However, when the wave functions are determined from a coupled two diabatic state Hamiltonian Hd (fit to ab initio data), the resulting derivative couplings are by construction curl free, except at points of conical intersection. In this work we focus on a recently introduced diabatization scheme that produces the Hd by fitting ab initio determined energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings to the corresponding Hd determined quantities in a least squares sense, producing a removable approximation to the ab initio determined derivative coupling. This approach and related numerical issues associated with the nonremovable ab initio derivative couplings are illustrated using a full 33-dimensional representation of phenol photodissociation. The use of this approach to provide a general framework for treating the molecular Aharonov Bohm effect is demonstrated.
Vortex states in a non-Abelian magnetic field
Nikolić, Predrag
2016-08-01
A type-II superconductor survives in an external magnetic field by admitting an Abrikosov lattice of quantized vortices. This is an imprint of the Aharonov-Bohm effect created by the Abelian U(1) gauge field. The simplest non-Abelian analog of such a gauge field, which belongs to the SU(2) symmetry group, can be found in topological insulators. Here we discover a superconducting ground state with a lattice of SU(2) vortices in a simple two-dimensional model that presents an SU(2) "magnetic" field (invariant under time reversal) to attractively interacting fermions. The model directly captures the correlated topological insulator quantum well, and approximates one channel for instabilities on the Kondo topological insulator surface. Due to its simplicity, the model might become amenable to cold atom simulations in the foreseeable future. The vitality of low-energy vortex states born out of SU(2) magnetic fields is promising for the creation of incompressible vortex liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.
Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection.
Kravets, V G; Schedin, F; Jalil, R; Britnell, L; Gorbachev, R V; Ansell, D; Thackray, B; Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Kabashin, A V; Grigorenko, A N
2013-04-01
The non-trivial behaviour of phase is crucial for many important physical phenomena, such as, for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Berry phase. By manipulating the phase of light one can create 'twisted' photons, vortex knots and dislocations which has led to the emergence of the field of singular optics relying on abrupt phase changes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of singular visible-light nano-optics which exploits the benefits of both plasmonic field enhancement and the peculiarities of the phase of light. We show that properly designed plasmonic metamaterials exhibit topologically protected zero reflection yielding to sharp phase changes nearby, which can be employed to radically improve the sensitivity of detectors based on plasmon resonances. By using reversible hydrogenation of graphene and binding of streptavidin-biotin, we demonstrate an areal mass sensitivity at a level of fg mm(-2) and detection of individual biomolecules, respectively. Our proof-of-concept results offer a route towards simple and scalable single-molecule label-free biosensing technologies.
Superpersistent currents and whispering gallery modes in relativistic quantum chaotic systems.
Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso
2015-03-11
Persistent currents (PCs), one of the most intriguing manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, are known to vanish for Schrödinger particles in the presence of random scatterings, e.g., due to classical chaos. But would this still be the case for Dirac fermions? Addressing this question is of significant value due to the tremendous recent interest in two-dimensional Dirac materials. We investigate relativistic quantum AB rings threaded by a magnetic flux and find that PCs are extremely robust. Even for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos, the amplitudes of PCs are of the same order of magnitude as those for integrable rings, henceforth the term superpersistent currents (SPCs). A striking finding is that the SPCs can be attributed to a robust type of relativistic quantum states, i.e., Dirac whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that carry large angular momenta and travel along the boundaries. We propose an experimental scheme using topological insulators to observe and characterize Dirac WGMs and SPCs, and speculate that these features can potentially be the base for a new class of relativistic qubit systems. Our discovery of WGMs in relativistic quantum systems is remarkable because, although WGMs are common in photonic systems, they are relatively rare in electronic systems.
Toward realistic gauge-Higgs grand unification
Furui, Atsushi; Hosotani, Yutaka; Yamatsu, Naoki
2016-09-01
The SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth-dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase θ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). SO(11) is broken to SO(4)×SO(6) by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to SU2×U1×SU3 by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential V(θ), we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to U1. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. Proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses given; however, it turns out to be smaller than the observed value.
Ashmead, John
2010-01-01
Normally we quantize along the space dimensions but treat time classically. But from relativity we expect a high level of symmetry between time and space. What happens if we quantize time using the same rules we use to quantize space? To do this, we generalize the paths in the Feynman path integral to include paths that vary in time as well as in space. We use Morlet wavelet decomposition to ensure convergence and normalization of the path integrals. We derive the Schr\\"odinger equation in four dimensions from the short time limit of the path integral expression. We verify that we recover standard quantum theory in the non-relativistic, semi-classical, and long time limits. Quantum time is an experiment factory: most foundational experiments in quantum mechanics can be modified in a way that makes them tests of quantum time. We look at single and double slits in time, scattering by time-varying electric and magnetic fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in time.
Probing the antisymmetric Fano interference assisted by a Majorana fermion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dessotti, F. A.; Ricco, L. S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp - Univ Estadual Paulista, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Souza, M. de [Departamento de Física, IGCE, Unesp - Univ Estadual Paulista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, São Paulo (Brazil); Souza, F. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Seridonio, A. C. [Departamento de Física e Química, Unesp - Univ Estadual Paulista, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física, IGCE, Unesp - Univ Estadual Paulista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, São Paulo (Brazil)
2014-11-07
As the Fano effect is an interference phenomenon where tunneling paths compete for the electronic transport, it becomes a probe to catch fingerprints of Majorana fermions lying on condensed matter systems. In this work, we benefit of this mechanism by proposing as a route for that an Aharonov-Bohm-like interferometer composed by two quantum dots, being one of them coupled to a Majorana bound state, which is attached to one of the edges of a semi-infinite Kitaev wire within the topological phase. By changing the Fermi energy of the leads and the symmetric detuning of the levels for the dots, we show that opposing Fano regimes result in a transmittance characterized by distinct conducting and insulating regions, which are fingerprints of an isolated Majorana quasiparticle. Furthermore, we show that the maximum fluctuation of the transmittance as a function of the detuning is half for a semi-infinite wire, while it corresponds to the unity for a finite system. The setup proposed here constitutes an alternative experimental tool to detect Majorana excitations.
The Case of the Disappearing (and Re-Appearing) Particle.
Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Landau, Ariel; Elitzur, Avshalom C
2017-04-03
A novel prediction is derived by the Two-State-Vector-Formalism (TSVF) for a particle superposed over three boxes. Under appropriate pre- and post-selections, and with tunneling enabled between two of the boxes, it is possible to derive not only one, but three predictions for three different times within the intermediate interval. These predictions are moreover contradictory. The particle (when looked for using a projective measurement) seems to disappear from the first box where it would have been previously found with certainty, appearing instead within the third box, to which no tunneling is possible, and later re-appearing within the second. It turns out that local measurement (i.e. opening one of the boxes) fails to indicate the particle's presence, but subtler measurements performed on the two boxes together reveal the particle's nonlocal modular momentum spatially separated from its mass. Another advance of this setting is that, unlike other predictions of the TSVF that rely on weak and/or counterfactual measurements, the present one uses actual projective measurements. This outcome is then corroborated by adding weak measurements and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results strengthen the recently suggested time-symmetric Heisenberg ontology based on nonlocal deterministic operators. They can be also tested using the newly developed quantum router.
Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Heremans, J. J.; van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.
2011-03-01
We investigate electron spin- and phase coherence in an array of quasi-ballistic InAs quantum well mesoscopic rings through observation of Aharonov-Bohm h/e oscillations (AB) and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak h/2e oscillations (AAS). The temperature dependence of the AAS oscillations is characterized through a single effective coherence length, Leff , following the formalism of Douçot and Rammal, from which the phase coherence length, Lϕ and the spin coherence length as limited by spin-orbit interaction, LSO , are extracted. AB oscillations are also present, and can be separated from AAS by Fourier transformation. We contrast the AAS method of extracting the coherence lengths with analysis of the AB oscillation amplitudes. Previous studies have examined Lϕ from AB signals in single ballistic rings, or by using AAS amplitudes in large networks, or have observed AB and AAS in single rings with spin-orbit interaction. Here the presence of both AB and AAS in an array with spin-orbit interaction allows for study of both Lϕ and LSO , and enables direct juxtaposition of different quantum coherence phenomena as means for measuring coherence lengths (DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532).
Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo
Kolodrubetz, Michael
2014-01-01
The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...
Coherent Detection of Electron Dephasing
Strambini, E.; Chirolli, L.; Giovanetti, V.; Taddei, F.; Fazio, R.; Piazza, V.
2010-01-01
We show that an Aharonov-Bohm ring with asymmetric electron injection can act as a coherent detector of electron dephasing. The presence of a dephasing source in one of the two arms of a moderately-to-highly asymmetric ring changes the response of the system from total reflection to complete transmi
Dynamic magnetoconductance fluctuations and oscillations in mesoscopic wires and rings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, D. Z.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Stafford, C. A.;
1994-01-01
and temperature, the fluctuations decrease as omega-1/2. Similar frequency-dependent behavior is found for the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a metal ring. However, the Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations, which predominate at high temperatures or in rings with many channels, are strongly suppressed at high...
Horwitz, L. P.
2015-05-01
The most recent meeting took place at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, on June 9-13, 2014. This meeting forms the basis for the Proceedings that are recorded in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Along with the work of some of the founding members of the Association, we were fortunate to have lecturers from application areas that provided strong challenges for further developments in quantum field theory, cosmological problems, and in the dynamics of systems subject to accelerations and the effects of general relativity. Topics treated in this issue include studies of the dark matter problem, rotation curves, and, in particular, for the (relatively accessible) Milky Way galaxy, compact stellar objects, a composite particle model, and the properties of a conformally invariant theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Stueckelberg theory is further investigated for its properties in producing bremsstrahlung and pair production and apparent superluminal effects, and, as mentioned above, the implications of low energy nuclear reactions for such off-shell theories. Other "proper time" theories are investigated as well, and a study of the clock synchronization problem is presented. A mathematical study of to quantum groupo associated with the Toda lattice and its implications for quantum field theory, as well as a phenomenological discussion of supernova mechanics as well as a semiclassical discussion of electron spin and the question of the compatibility of special relativity and the quantum theory. A careful analysis of the covariant Aharonov-Bohm effect is given as well. The quantization of massless fields and the relation to the Maxwell theory is also discussed. We wish to thank the participants who contributed very much through their lectures, personal discussions, and these papers, to the advancement of the subject and our understanding.
Higher-derivative terms, massive fermions and the Aharonov-Casher phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira Filho, L.G. [Universidade do Estado, Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia; Helayel-Neto, J.E.; Murga, J.L.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes GFT-JLL, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: gonzaga@fat.uerj.br; helayel@cbpf.br
2004-07-01
Dirac's equation with minimal electromagnetic coupling yields, in the weakly relativistic regime, the Pauli's equation for two-component minimally-interacting electron endowed with magnetic moment coupling and the right value of the Lande g-factor, g=2. On the other hand, another remarkable feature associated with spinning particles is the coupling of the magnetic dipole moment to an electric field, which gives rise to the so-called Aharonov-Casher phase for the wave function of the test particle. This phase shift shows up even though there is no force acting on the particle, just as in the familiar case of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The most accurate experimental measurements of the spin-electric field interaction are carried out with atomic systems. This work sets out to investigate how the Aharonov- Casher effect may be related to the relativistic regime: in practical terms, how it may appear by means of relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger equation, once an external electromagnetic field is switched on. One should understand at which order of velocities the Aharonov- Casher shift arises, either by adding up higher-order gradient terms to the Schroedinger equation or by carrying out the non-relativistic limit of Dirac's equation with higher-derivative terms. The latter has very interesting consequences whenever adjoined to the Dirac's equation, leading to a rich excitation spectrum and inducing interesting couplings in the low-energy regime. In view of the calculational complexity inherent to the task of finding solutions to these higher derivatives partial differential equations, wave-function solutions and phase shifts have to be searched for with the help of numerical methods and computer-algebra software. (author)
Operation of a superconducting nanowire quantum interference device with mesoscopic leads
Pekker, David; Bezryadin, Alexey; Hopkins, David S.; Goldbart, Paul M.
2005-09-01
A theory describing the operation of a superconducting nanowire quantum interference device (NQUID) is presented. The device consists of a pair of thin-film superconducting leads connected by a pair of topologically parallel ultranarrow superconducting wires. It exhibits intrinsic electrical resistance, due to thermally activated dissipative fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. Attention is given to the dependence of this resistance on the strength of an externally applied magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the leads, for lead dimensions such that there is essentially complete and uniform penetration of the leads by the magnetic field. This regime, in which at least one of the lead dimensions—length or width—lies between the superconducting coherence and penetration lengths, is referred to as the mesoscopic regime. The magnetic field causes a pronounced oscillation of the device resistance, with a period not dominated by the Aharonov-Bohm effect through the area enclosed by the wires and the film edges but, rather, in terms of the geometry of the leads, in contrast to the well-known Little-Parks resistance of thin-walled superconducting cylinders. A detailed theory, encompassing this phenomenology quantitatively, is developed through extensions, to the setting of parallel superconducting wires, of the Ivanchenko-Zil’berman-Ambegaokar-Halperin theory of intrinsic resistive fluctuations in a current-biased Josephson junction and the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of intrinsic resistive fluctuations in a superconducting wire. In particular, it is demonstrated that via the resistance of the NQUID, the wires act as a probe of spatial variations in the superconducting order parameter along the perimeter of each lead: in essence, a superconducting phase gradiometer.
Classical interaction of a magnet and a point charge: The Shockley-James paradox
Boyer, Timothy H.
2015-01-01
It is pointed out that the interaction of a magnet and a point charge has not been properly understood because the mutual interactions of the magnet's current carriers have been neglected. The magnet-point-charge interaction is important for understanding some theoretical paradoxes, such as the Shockley-James paradox, and for interpreting some experimentally observed effects, such as the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phase shifts. Coleman and Van Vleck provide a discussion of the Shockley-James paradox where they note that internal relativistic mechanical momentum (hidden momentum) can be carried by the current carriers of the magnet. Although internal mechanical momentum is indeed dominant for noninteracting particles moving in a closed orbit under the influence of an external electric field, the presence of interactions among the magnet's current carriers leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum, which does not seem to be recognized in the physics literature. In the interacting multiparticle situation, the external charge induces an electrostatic polarization of the magnet, which leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum in the magnet where both the electric and magnetic fields for the momentum are contributed by the magnet particles. This internal electromagnetic momentum for the interacting multiparticle situation is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction compared to the familiar external electromagnetic momentum where the electric field is contributed by the external charged particle and the magnetic field is that due to the magnet. In the present article, the momentum balance of the Shockley-James situation for a system of a magnet and a point charge is calculated in detail for a magnet model consisting of two interacting point charges, which are constrained to move in a circular orbit on a frictionless ring with a compensating negative charge at the center.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵宏康; 王清
2005-01-01
应用非平衡格林函数方法研究通过环形碳纳米管-量子点耦合系统的介观输运.相干隧穿与环形碳纳米管和量子点各自的能级结构有强烈的依赖关系,阿哈郎诺夫-玻姆效应使能级周期性变化,隧穿电流则随磁通量作周期性振荡.环形碳纳米管的具体纳米结构显示出金属-半导体相变特性,这种行为也在输出电流中体现出来.子系统量子能级的匹配与失配关系在介观输运过程中起重要作用.%The mesoscopic transport through a quantum dot and a toroidal carbon nanotube (TCN) coupled system is investigated with the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The coherent tunneling is strongly related to the energy structures of the TCN and the quantum dot. The Aharonov-Bohm effect causes energy levels of the TCN to change periodically, and the tunneling current oscillates with the magnetic flux. The detailed nanostructure of TCN exhibits metal-semiconductor transition, and this behavior is reflected in the output current. The matching-mismatching of quantum levels of the sub-systems plays important role in the mesoscopic transport.
4D scattering amplitudes and asymptotic symmetries from 2D CFT
Cheung, Clifford; de la Fuente, Anton; Sundrum, Raman
2017-01-01
We reformulate the scattering amplitudes of 4D flat space gauge theory and gravity in the language of a 2D CFT on the celestial sphere. The resulting CFT structure exhibits an OPE constructed from 4D collinear singularities, as well as infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras encoding the asymptotic symmetries of 4D flat space. We derive these results by recasting 4D dynamics in terms of a convenient foliation of flat space into 3D Euclidean AdS and Lorentzian dS geometries. Tree-level scattering amplitudes take the form of Witten diagrams for a continuum of (A)dS modes, which are in turn equivalent to CFT correlators via the (A)dS/CFT dictionary. The Ward identities for the 2D conserved currents are dual to 4D soft theorems, while the bulk-boundary propagators of massless (A)dS modes are superpositions of the leading and subleading Weinberg soft factors of gauge theory and gravity. In general, the massless (A)dS modes are 3D Chern-Simons gauge fields describing the soft, single helicity sectors of 4D gauge theory and gravity. Consistent with the topological nature of Chern-Simons theory, Aharonov-Bohm effects record the "tracks" of hard particles in the soft radiation, leading to a simple characterization of gauge and gravitational memories. Soft particle exchanges between hard processes define the Kac-Moody level and Virasoro central charge, which are thereby related to the 4D gauge coupling and gravitational strength in units of an infrared cutoff. Finally, we discuss a toy model for black hole horizons via a restriction to the Rindler region.
What is What in the Nanoworld: A Handbook on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Borisenko, Victor E.; Ossicini, Stefano
2004-10-01
This introductory, reference handbook summarizes the terms and definitions, most important phenomena, and regulations discovered in the physics, chemistry, technology, and application of nanostructures. These nanostructures are typically inorganic and organic structures at the atomic scale. Fast progressing nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, molecular electronics and spintronics, nanotechnology and quantum processing of information, are of strategic importance for the information society of the 21st century. The short form of information taken from textbooks, special encyclopedias, recent original books and papers provides fast support in understanding "old" and new terms of nanoscience and technology widely used in scientific literature on recent developments. Such support is indeed important when one reads a scientific paper presenting new results in nanoscience. A representative collection of fundamental terms and definitions from quantum physics, and quantum chemistry, special mathematics, organic and inorganic chemistry, solid state physics, material science and technology accompanies recommended second sources (books, reviews, websites) for an extended study of a subject. Each entry interprets the term or definition under consideration and briefly presents main features of the phenomena behind it. Additional information in the form of notes ("First described in: ?", "Recognition: ?", "More details in: ?") supplements entries and gives a historical retrospective of the subject with reference to further sources. Ideal for answering questions related to unknown terms and definitions of undergraduate and Ph.D. students studying the physics of low-dimensional structures, nanoelectronics, nanotechnology. The handbook provides fast support, when one likes to know or to remind the essence of a scientific term, especially when it contains a personal name in its title, like in terms "Anderson localization", "Aharonov-Bohm effect", "Bose-Einstein condensate", e
Beyond the Dirac phase factor: Dynamical Quantum Phase-Nonlocalities in the Schroedinger Picture
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
Generalized solutions of the standard gauge transformation equations are presented and discussed in physical terms. They go beyond the usual Dirac phase factors and they exhibit nonlocal quantal behavior, with the well-known Relativistic Causality of classical fields affecting directly the phases of wavefunctions in the Schroedinger Picture. These nonlocal phase behaviors, apparently overlooked in path-integral approaches, give a natural account of the dynamical nonlocality character of the various (even static) Aharonov-Bohm phenomena, while at the same time they seem to respect Causality. Indeed, for particles passing through nonvanishing magnetic or electric fields they lead to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point, generalizing earlier semiclassical experimental observations (of Werner & Brill) to delocalized (spread-out) quantum states. This leads to a correction of previously unnoticed sign-errors in the literature, and to a natural explanation of the deeper reason why certa...
Measuring the Momentum of a Nanomechanical Oscillator through the Use of Two Tunnel Junctions
Doiron, C. B.; Trauzettel, B.; Bruder, C.
2008-01-01
We propose a way to measure the momentum p of a nanomechanical oscillator. The p detector is based on two tunnel junctions in an Aharonov-Bohm-type setup. One of the tunneling amplitudes depends on the motion of the oscillator, the other one not. Although the coupling between the detector and the oscillator is assumed to be linear in the position x of the oscillator, it turns out that the finite-frequency noise output of the detector will in general contain a term proportional to the momentum spectrum of the oscillator. This is a true quantum phenomenon, which can be realized in practice if the phase of the tunneling amplitude of the detector is tuned by the Aharonov-Bohm flux Φ to a p-sensitive value.
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Asymmetric coherent transmission for single particle diode and gyroscope
S. Yang; Song, Z; Sun, C.P.
2009-01-01
We study the single particle scattering process in a coherent multi-site system consisting of a tight-binding ring threaded by an Aharonov-Bohm flux and several attaching leads. The asymmetric behavior of scattering matrix is discovered analytically in the framework of both Bethe Ansatz and Green's function formalism. It is found that, under certain conditions, a three-site electronic system can behave analogous to a perfect semiconductor diode where current flows only in one direction. The g...
How efficient is the Langacker-Pi mechanism of monopole annihilation?
Holman, R; Rey, S J; Rey, Soo-Jong
1992-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of monopole annihilation by the Langacker-Pi mechanism. We find taht considerations of causality, flux-tube energetics and the friction from Aharonov-Bohm scatteering suggest that the monopole annihilation is most efficient if electromagnetism is spontaneously broken at the lowest temperature ($T_{em} \\approx 10^6 GeV$) consistent with not having the monopoles dominate the energy density of the universe.
Spintronics in nanoscale devices
Hedin, Eric R
2013-01-01
By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Saharian, Aram; Kotanjyan, Anna; Sargsyan, Hayk; Simonyan, David
2016-07-01
The models with compact spatial dimensions appear in a number of fundamental physical theories. In particular, the idea of compactified dimensions has been extensively used in supergravity and superstring theories. In quantum field theory, the modification of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum by the periodicity conditions imposed on the field operator along compact dimensions leads to a number of interesting physical effects. A well known example of this kind, demonstrating the close relation between quantum phenomena and global geometry, is the topological Casimir effect. In models with extra compact dimensions, the Casimir energy creates a nontrivial potential for the compactification radius. This can serve as a stabilization mechanism for moduli fields and for the effective gauge couplings. The Casimir effect has also been considered as a possible origin for the dark energy in Kaluza-Klein-type and braneworld models. In the resent presentation we investigate the effects of the gravity and topology on the local properties of the quantum vacuum for a charged scalar field in the presence of a classical gauge field. Vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and current density are investigated for a charged scalar field in dS spacetime with toroidally compact spatial dimensions in the presence of a classical constant gauge field. Due to the nontrivial topology, the latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effect on the vacuum characteristics. The vacuum current density, energy density and stresses are even periodic functions of the magnetic flux enclosed by compact dimensions. For small values of the comoving lengths of compact dimensions, compared with the dS curvature radius, the effects of gravity on the topological contributions are small and the expectation values are expressed in terms of the corresponding quantities in the Minkowski bulk by the standard conformal relation. For large values of the comoving lengths, depending on the field mass, two
Quantum transport through complex networks - from light-harvesting proteins to semiconductor devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreisbeck, Christoph
2012-06-18
Electron transport through small systems in semiconductor devices plays an essential role for many applications in micro-electronics. One focus of current research lies on establishing conceptually new devices based on ballistic transport in high mobility AlGaAs/AlGa samples. In the ballistic regime, the transport characteristics are determined by coherent interference effects. In order to guide experimentalists to an improved device design, the characterization and understanding of intrinsic device properties is crucial. We develop a time-dependent approach that allows us to simulate experimentally fabricated, complex devicegeometries with an extension of up to a few micrometers. Particularly, we explore the physical origin of unexpected effects that have been detected in recent experiments on transport through Aharonov-Bohm waveguide-interferometers. Such interferometers can be configured as detectors for transfer properties of embedded quantum systems. We demonstrate that a four-terminal waveguide-ring is a suitable setup for measuring the transmission phase of a harmonic quantum dot. Quantum effects are not restricted exclusively to artificial devices but have been found in biological systems as well. Pioneering experiments reveal quantum effects in light-harvesting complexes, the building blocks of photosynthesis. We discuss the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, which is a network of coupled bacteriochlorophylls. It acts as an energy wire in the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. Recent experimental findings suggest that energy transfer takes place in the form of coherent wave-like motion, rather than through classical hopping from one bacteriochlorophyll to the next. However, the question of why and how coherent transfer emerges in light-harvesting complexes is still open. The challenge is to merge seemingly contradictory features that are observed in experiments on two-dimensional spectroscopy into a consistent theory. Here, we provide such a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birkholz, Jens Eiko
2008-10-06
. Moreover, we show how the linear conductance and the spin-polarization can be controlled by tuning the spin-orbit interaction in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot in one arm. Finally, an estimation of the magnitude of the spin-orbit interaction in e.g. semiconductor heterojunctions shows that the system parameters used in our simulations are achievable in experiments. Therefore, the theoretical results obtained in this thesis might also be observable experimentally pointing out the relevance for future spintronic applications. (orig.)
Optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures in magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grochol, M.
2007-04-03
In this work, the near bandgap linear optical properties of semiconductor quantum structures under applied magnetic field are investigated. First, the exciton theory is developed starting with the one-electron Hamiltonian in a crystal, continuing with the Luttinger and Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian, and ending with the exciton Hamiltonian in the envelope function approximation. Further, concentrating on the quantum well and thus assuming strong confinement in the growth direction, the motion parallel and perpendicular to the xy-plane is factorized leading to the well-known single sublevel approximation. A magnetic field perpendicular to the xy-plane is applied, and a general theorem describing the behavior of the energy eigenvalues is derived. The strain calculation within the isotropic elasticity approach is described in detail. The Schroedinger equation is solved numerically for both the full model and the factorization with artificially generated disorder potentials. Furthermore the statistical properties of the disorder in a real quantum well have been analyzed. In particular, temperature dependent photoluminescence spectra and diamagnetic shift statistics, have been compared with the experimental ones and very good agreement has been found. The second part of this thesis deals predominantly with highly symmetrical structures embedded in the quantum well: namely quantum rings and dots. First, adopting an ansatz for the wave function, the Hamiltonian matrix is derived discussing which matrix elements are non-zero according to the symmetry of the potential. Additionally, the expectation values of the current and magnetization operators are evaluated. Then, concentrating on the case of the highest (circular) symmetry, the model of zero width ring is introduced. Within this model the close relation between the oscillatory component of the exciton energy (exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect) and the persistent current is revealed. Examples for different material systems follow
Kreisbeck, C.; Kramer, T.; Molina, R. A.
2017-04-01
We have performed time-dependent wave packet simulations of realistic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) devices with a quantum dot embedded in one of the arms of the interferometer. The AB ring can function as a measurement device for the intrinsic transmission phase through the quantum dot, however, care has to be taken in analyzing the influence of scattering processes in the junctions of the interferometer arms. We consider a harmonic quantum dot and show how the Darwin–Fock spectrum emerges as a unique pattern in the interference fringes of the AB oscillations.
Quantum Spin Transport in Mesoscopic Interferometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zein W. A.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Spin-dependent conductance of ballistic mesoscopic interferometer is investigated. The quantum interferometer is in the form of ring, in which a quantum dot is embedded in one arm. This quantum dot is connected to one lead via tunnel barrier. Both Aharonov- Casher and Aharonov-Bohm e ects are studied. Our results confirm the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and quantum interference e ects in such confined quantum systems. This investigation is valuable for spintronics application, for example, quantum information processing.
Generalized Maxwell equations and charge conservation censorship
Modanese, G
2016-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm electrodynamics is a generalization of Maxwell theory with reduced gauge invariance. It allows to couple the electromagnetic field to a charge which is not locally conserved, and has an additional degree of freedom, the scalar field $S=\\partial_\\alpha A^\\alpha$, usually interpreted as a longitudinal wave component. By re-formulating the theory in a compact Lagrangian formalism, we are able to eliminate $S$ explicitly from the dynamics and we obtain generalized Maxwell equation with interesting properties: they give $\\partial_\\mu F^{\\mu \
Period Halving of Persistent Currents in Mesoscopic Mobius Ladders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓文基; 许基桓; 刘平
2002-01-01
We investigate the period halving of persistent currents (PCs) of non-interacting electrons in isolated mesoscopicMobius ladders without disorder, pierced by Aharonov-Bohm flux. The mechanisms of the period halving effectdepend on the parity of the number of electrons as well as on the interchain hopping. Although the data of PCsin mesoscopic systems are sample specific, some simple rules are found in the canonical ensemble average, forexample, all the odd harmonics of the PCs disappear and the signals of even harmonics are non-negative.
Path Integral Solution by Sum Over Perturbation Series
Lin, D H
1999-01-01
A method for calculating the relativistic path integral solution via sum over perturbation series is given. As an application the exact path integral solution of the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system is obtained by the method. Different from the earlier treatment based on the space-time transformation and infinite multiple-valued trasformation of Kustaanheimo-Stiefel in order to perform path integral, the method developed in this contribution involves only the explicit form of a simple Green's function and an explicit path integral is avoided.
Dirac fields in a Bohm-Aharonov background and spectral boundary conditions
Beneventano, C G; Santangelo, E M
1998-01-01
We study the problem of a Dirac field in the background of an Aharonov-Bohm flux string. We exclude the origin by imposing spectral boundary conditions at a finite radius then shrinked to zero. Thus, we obtain a behaviour of the eigenfunctions which is compatible with the self-adjointness of the radial Hamiltonian and the invariance under integer translations of the reduced flux. After confining the theory to a finite region, we check the consistency with the index theorem, and discuss the vacuum fermionic number and Casimir energy.
Dirac fields in the background of a magnetic flux string and spectral boundary conditions
Beneventano, C G; Santangelo, E M
1999-01-01
We study the problem of a Dirac field in the background of an Aharonov-Bohm flux string. We exclude the origin by imposing spectral boundary conditions at a finite radius then shrinked to zero. Thus, we obtain a behaviour of eigenfunctions which is compatible with the self-adjointness of the radial Hamiltonian and the invariance under integer translations of the reduced flux. After confining the theory to a finite region, we check the consistency with the index theorem, and evaluate its vacuum fermionic number and Casimir energy.
The Luther-Emery liquid: Spin gap and anomalous flux period
Seidel, Alexander; Lee, Dung-Hai
2005-01-01
We study the dependence of the ground state energy on an applied Aharonov-Bohm flux Φ for the Luttinger model with large momentum scattering. Employing the method of finite size bosonization, we show that for systems with a spin gap but with gapless charge degrees of freedom, the ground state energy has an exact period of hc/2e , i.e., half a flux quantum, in the limit of large system size L . Finite size corrections are found to vanish exponentially in L . This behavior is contrasted to that of the spin gapless case, for both even and odd particle number. Generalizations to finite temperature are also discussed.
Stojetz, B.; Roche, S.; Miko, C.; Triozon, F.; Forró, L.; Strunk, C.
2007-03-01
Magnetotransport measurements in large diameter multiwall carbon nanotubes (20 40 nm) demonstrate the competition of a magnetic-field dependent bandstructure and Altshuler Aronov Spivak oscillations. By means of an efficient capacitive coupling to a backgate electrode, the magnetoconductance oscillations are explored as a function of Fermi level shift. Changing the magnetic field orientation with respect to the tube axis and by ensemble averaging, allows the contributions of different Aharonov Bohm phases to be identified. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical calculations of the band structure and the conductance.
Random matrix theory for closed quantum dots with weak spin-orbit coupling.
Held, K; Eisenberg, E; Altshuler, B L
2003-03-14
To lowest order in the coupling strength, the spin-orbit coupling in quantum dots results in a spin-dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux. This flux decouples the spin-up and spin-down random matrix theory ensembles of the quantum dot. We employ this ensemble and find significant changes in the distribution of the Coulomb blockade peak height, in particular, a decrease of the width of the distribution. The puzzling disagreement between standard random matrix theory and the experimental distributions by Patel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5900 (1998)
Quasiballistic Transport of Dirac Fermions in a Bi2Se3 Nanowire
Dufouleur, J.; Veyrat, L.; Teichgräber, A.; Neuhaus, S.; Nowka, C.; Hampel, S.; Cayssol, J.; Schumann, J.; Eichler, B.; Schmidt, O. G.; Büchner, B.; Giraud, R.
2013-05-01
Quantum coherent transport of surface states in a mesoscopic nanowire of the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 is studied in the weak-disorder limit. At very low temperatures, many harmonics are evidenced in the Fourier transform of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations, revealing the long phase coherence length of spin-chiral Dirac fermions. Remarkably, from their exponential temperature dependence, we infer an unusual 1/T power law for the phase coherence length Lφ(T). This decoherence is typical for quasiballistic fermions weakly coupled to their environment.
Ensemble Averaging in Metallic Quantum Networks
Mallet, François; Schopfer, Félicien; Ericsson, Jerry; Saminadayar, Laurent; Bäuerle, Christopher; Mailly, Dominique; Texier, Christophe; Montambaux, Gilles
2008-10-01
We report on the size dependence of the amplitudes of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) as well as Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) magnetoconductance oscillations in silver networks with anisotropic aspect ratio and for various sizes ranging from 10 to 106 plaquettes. We show that the amplitude of both AB and AAS oscillations exhibit an unexpected dependence as a function of number of plaquettes N when the smallest dimension of the network becomes smaller than the phase coherence length: in this case, the network can be considered as a fully coherent object (mesoscopic) in one direction, whereas macroscopic in the other.
Robnik, M; Prosen, T; Robnik, Marko; Dobnikar, Jure; Prosen, Tomaz
1999-01-01
Energy spectra of a particle with mass $m$ and charge $e$ in the cubic Aharonov-Bohm billiard containing around $10^4$ consecutive levels starting from the ground state have been analysed. The cubic Aharonov-Bohm billiard is a plane billiard defined by the cubic conformal mapping of the unit disc pervaded by a point magnetic flux through the origin perpendicular to the plane of the billiard. The magnetic flux does not influence the classical dynamics, but breaks the antiunitary symmetry in the system, which affects the statistics of energy levels. By varying the shape parameter $\\lam$ the classical dynamics goes from integrable ($\\lam =0$) to fully chaotic ($\\lam = 0.2$; Africa billiard). The level spacing distribution $P(S)$ and the number variance interval ($0\\le\\lam\\le0.2$). GUE statistics has proven correct for completely chaotic case, while in the mixed regime the fractional power law level repulsion has been observed. The exponent of the level repulsion has been analysed and is found to change smoothly ...
Giraud, O.; Thain, A.; Hannay, J. H.
2004-02-01
The shrunk loop theorem proved here is an integral identity which facilitates the calculation of the relative probability (or probability amplitude) of any given topology that a free, closed Brownian (or Feynman) path of a given 'duration' might have on the twice punctured plane (plane with two marked points). The result is expressed as a 'scattering' series of integrals of increasing dimensionality based on the maximally shrunk version of the path. Physically, this applies in different contexts: (i) the topology probability of a closed ideal polymer chain on a plane with two impassable points, (ii) the trace of the Schrödinger Green function, and thence spectral information, in the presence of two Aharonov-Bohm fluxes and (iii) the same with two branch points of a Riemann surface instead of fluxes. Our theorem starts from the Stovicek scattering expansion for the Green function in the presence of two Aharonov-Bohm flux lines, which itself is based on the famous Sommerfeld one puncture point solution of 1896 (the one puncture case has much easier topology, just one winding number). Stovicek's expansion itself can supply the results at the expense of choosing a base point on the loop and then integrating it away. The shrunk loop theorem eliminates this extra two-dimensional integration, distilling the topology from the geometry.
M.F. Sabry; M.R. Hamed; El Sayed, M.E.
2014-01-01
Stress alters psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression. Protein malnutrition (PM) contributes to psychological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (DDB) on anxiety of psychologically stressed protein malnourished mice as compared to its effect in normally-fed mice. Fluoxetine (FLX) was used as reference standard. Animals were randomly divided into two major groups, normally-fed group provided with 20% casein diet and a p...
Amin Abdou Seleem; Fakhr El-Din M. Lashein
2016-01-01
Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker that belongs to the phenylalkylamine group. It has been clinically used for various diseases such as combating hypertension, ischemic heart diseases, supraventricular antiarrhythmic and tycolysis. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of verapamil on selected pro- and apoptotic factors during prenatal retinal differentiation of mice at E14 and E17 of gestation. The pregnant females were classified into two groups, the first is the control and...
Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo
2009-06-01
through a laterally coupled triple quantum dot forming Aharonov-Bohm interferometer / T. Kubo ... [et al.]. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in parallel coupled vertical double quantum dot / T. Hatano ... [et al.]. Laterally coupled triple self-assembled quantum dots / S. Amaha ... [et al.]. Spectroscopy of charge states of a superconducting single-electron transistor in an engineered electromagnetic environment / E. Abe ... [et al.]. Numerical study of the coulomb blockade in an open quantum dot / Y. Hamamoto, T. Kato. Symmetry in the full counting statistics, the fluctuation theorem and an extension of the Onsager theorem in nonlinear transport regime / Y. Utsumi, K. Saito. Single-artificial-atom lasing and its suppression by strong pumping / J. R. Johansson ... [et al.] -- Entanglement and quantum information processing, qubit manipulations. Photonic entanglement in quantum communication and quantum computation / A. Zeilinger. Quantum non-demolition measurement of a superconducting flux qubit / J. E. Mooij. Atomic physics and quantum information processing with superconducting circuits / F. Nori. Theory of macroscopic quantum dynamics in high-T[symbol] Josephson junctions / S. Kawabata. Silicon isolated double quantum-dot qubit architectures / D. A. Williams ... [et al.]. Controlled polarisation of silicon isolated double quantum dots with remote charge sensing for qubit use / M. G. Tanner ... [et al.].Modelling of charge qubits based on Si/SiO[symbol] double quantum dots / P. Howard, A. D. Andreev, D. A. Williams. InAs based quantum dots for quantum information processing: from fundamental physics to 'plug and play' devices / X. Xu ... [et al.]. Quantum aspects in superconducting qubit readout with Josephson bifurcation amplifier / H. Nakano ... [et al.]. Double-loop Josephson-junction flux qubit with controllable energy gap / Y. Shimazu, Y. Saito, Z. Wada. Noise characteristics of the Fano effect and Fano-Kondo effect in triple quantum dots, aiming at charge qubit
Electronic transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloemers, Christian
2012-10-19
from the field-effect measurements due to the influence of surface states. The homogeneity in transport characteristics of the InN nanowires allowed for an accurate analysis of the diameter dependence of the nanowire resistivity. The effect of donor deactivation has been found to increase the resistivity of InN nanowires with small diameters. Furthermore, a quantum confinement effect has been observed in GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires. For very low shell thicknesses below 10 nm a drastic resistivity increase has been found. Simulations with a self consistent Schroedinger-Poisson solver confirmed the interpretation in terms of quantum confinement. A further major topic of this work has been the analysis of phase coherent transport at low temperatures. In particular, universal conductance fluctuations have been analyzed and a consistent method to determine the phase coherence length quantitatively has been developed. In addition, transport measurements on GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires with a magnetic field applied parallel to the wire axis demonstrated Aharonov-Bohm-type conductance oscillations. An explanation in terms of coherent angular momentum quantum states in the conductive InAs shell has been developed to interpret these oscillations. To conclude, both room temperature and low temperature measurements allowed gaining insights into basic classical as well as quantum transport properties of nanowires. In the face of a future application of nanowires in quantum information processing or their use in so-called phase-based switching devices, valuable information is provided within this work. Furthermore, the room temperature results show that for application of nanowires in electronic devices, both the crystal structure and the surface conditions have to be controlled. Here, it will be inevitable for future progress to achieve a controlled passivation of the wire surfaces for defined and stable surface conditions. Furthermore, a more detailed investigation of the
Electrical control of spin in topological insulators
Chang, Kai
2012-02-01
by changing the gate voltage. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. The gap opened by doped magnetic ions can lead to a short-range Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. The competition among the Heisenberg, Ising, and DM terms leads to rich spin configurations and an anomalous Hall effect on different lattices [4]. There are many proposals for quantum computation scheme are based on the spin in semiconductor quantum dots. Topological insulator quantum dots display a very different behavior with that of conventional semiconductor quantum dots [5]. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and optically dark. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ring-like edge states by using the SQUID technique. [0pt]Refs: [1] W. Yang, Kai Chang, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056602 (2008); J. Li and Kai Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 222110 (2009). [2] L. B. Zhang, Kai Chang, X. C. Xie, H. Buhmann and L. W. Molenkamp, New J. Phys. 12, 083058 (2010). [3] L. B. Zhang, F. Cheng, F. Zhai and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. B 83 081402(R) (2011); Z. H. Wu, F. Zhai, F. M. Peeters, H. Q. Xu and Kai Chang, Phys, Rev. Lett. 106, 176802 (2011). [4] J. J. Zhu, D. X. Yao, S. C. Zhang, and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 097201 (2011). [5] Kai Chang, and Wen-Kai Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206802 (2011).
Transport studies of mesoscopic and magnetic topological insulators
Kandala, Abhinav
Topological Insulators (TI) are a novel class of materials that are ideally insulating in the bulk, but have gapless, metallic states at the surface. These surface states have very exciting properties such as suppressed backscattering and spin-momentum locking, which are of great interest for research efforts towards dissipation-less electronics and spintronics. The popular thermo-electrics from the Bi chalcogenide family -- Bi2Se3 and Bi 2Te3 -- have been experimentally demonstrated to be promising candidate TI materials, and form the chosen material system for this dissertation research. The first part of this dissertation research focuses on low temperature magneto-transport measurements of mesoscopic topological insulator devices (Chapter 3). The top-down patterning of epitaxial thin films of Bi2Se 3 and Bi2Te3 (that are plagued with bulk conduction) is motivated, in part, by an effort to enhance the surface-to-volume ratio in mesoscopic channels. At cryogenic temperatures, transport measurements of these devices reveal periodic conductance fluctuations in straight channel devices, despite the lack of any explicit patterning of the TI film into a ring or a loop. A careful analysis of the surface morphology and comparison with the transport data then demonstrate that scattering off the edges of triangular plateaus at the surface leads to the creation of Aharonov-Bohm electronic orbits responsible for the periodicity. Another major focus of this dissertation work is on combining topological insulators with magnetism. This has been shown to open a gap in the surface states leading to possibilities of magnetic "gating" and the realization of dissipation-less transport at zero-field, amongst several other exotic quantum phenomena. In this dissertation, I present two different schemes for probing these effects in electrical transport devices -- interfacing with insulating ferromagnets (Chapter 4) and bulk magnetic doping (Chapter 5). In Chapter 4, I shall present the
Time-resolved spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures
Murphy, Joseph R.
-photoluminescence measurements of InGaAs quantum wells, the observation of optical Aharonov-Bohm oscillations were identified in the photoluminescence emission intensity. This effect, generally observed in type-II systems, was unexpected in a quantum well structure, however the recombinations dynamics were identified through the use of a lifetime comparison with samples that did not contain indium and cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy that show indium rich islands within the quantum well layer. Analysis of the oscillations yielded a value of 17.3 nm for the exciton radius for sample 1 and 14.8 nm for sample 2. Magneto-photoluminescence is used to probe the behavior of a series of coreshell- shell CdSe/CdMnS/CdS nanoplatelets. This study shows that the magnetic character of the nanoplatelets is directly related to the wave function overlap of the regions containing manganese ions. The atomically-precise synthesis of these nanoplatelets allows for the placement of magnetic ions in specific monolayers of these two-dimensional heterostructures and the optical characterization identifies how this placement affects the magneto-optical properties. A surprising result is that in some magnetic samples with limited carrier wave function overlap of the regions containing manganese ions, the magneto-optical properties more closely resemble those of non-magnetic samples. Using time-resolved differential transmission, the carrier lifetime in several graphene related structures is determined. In these measurements, the changes in transmission are too small to measure using conventional techniques, therefore a background-free technique is required to obtain the necessary sensitivity. These measurement yielded carrier lifetimes ranging from 0.4 ps to 12 ps depending on the composition of the structure and the form it was measured as i.e., in solution or film.
Realizing Controllable Quantum States
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku
1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara
Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification
Hosotani, Yutaka
Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unifiation scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase θH in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for θH bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.
Gauge-Higgs EW and Grand Unification
Hosotani, Yutaka
2016-01-01
4D Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. $SO(5) \\times U(1)$ gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase $\\theta_H$ in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for $\\theta_H < 0.1$, and predicts $Z'$ bosons around 6 - 10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is genelarized to $SO(11)$ gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of $SO(11)$. Proton decay is naturally forbidden.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R
2015-01-01
Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hyper-complex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories, by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the $U(1)$ gauge field theory, corresponds to a {\\it hybrid} potential with two real components, and with $U(1)\\times SO(1,1)$ as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as the spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the {\\it hyp...
Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux
Jin, L.
2016-07-01
Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.
$H\\to Z\\gamma$ in the gauge-Higgs unification
Funatsu, Shuichiro; Hosotani, Yutaka
2015-01-01
The decay rate of the Higgs decay $H \\to Z \\gamma$ is evaluated at the one-loop level in the $SO(5)\\times U(1)$ gauge-Higgs unification. Although an infinite number of loops with Kaluza-Klein states contribute to the decay amplitude, there appears the cancellation among the loops, and the decay rate is found to be finite and non-zero. It is found that the decay rate is well approximated by the decay rate in the standard model multiplied by $\\cos^2\\theta_H$, where $\\theta_H$ is the Aharonov-Bohm phase induced by the vacuum expectation value of an extra-dimensional component of the gauge field.
Renormalization group analysis of graphene with a supercritical Coulomb impurity
Nishida, Yusuke
2016-08-01
We develop a field-theoretic approach to massless Dirac fermions in a supercritical Coulomb potential. By introducing an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid at the potential center, the critical Coulomb charge can be made arbitrarily small for one partial-wave sector, where a perturbative renormalization group analysis becomes possible. We show that a scattering amplitude for reflection of particle at the potential center exhibits the renormalization group limit cycle, i.e., log-periodic revolutions as a function of the scattering energy, revealing the emergence of discrete scale invariance. This outcome is further incorporated in computing the induced charge and current densities, which turn out to have power-law tails with coefficients log-periodic with respect to the distance from the potential center. Our findings are consistent with the previous prediction obtained by directly solving the Dirac equation and can in principle be realized by graphene experiments with charged impurities.
Biprism Electron Interferometry with a Single Atom Tip Source
Schütz, Georg; Pooch, Andreas; Meier, Simon; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Günther, Andreas; Chang, Wei-Tse; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Stibor, Alexander
2013-01-01
Experiments with electron or ion matter waves require a coherent, monochromatic and long-term stable source with high brightness. These requirements are best fulfilled by single atom tip (SAT) field emitters. The performance of an iridium covered W(111) SAT is demonstrated and analyzed for electrons in a biprism interferometer. Furthermore we characterize the emission of the SAT in a separate field electron and field ion microscope and compare it with other emitter types. A new method is presented to fabricate the electrostatic charged biprism wire that separates and combines the matter wave. In contrast to other biprism interferometers the source and the biprism size are well defined within a few nanometers. The setup has direct applications in ion interferometry and Aharonov-Bohm physics.
Renormalization group analysis of graphene with a supercritical Coulomb impurity
Nishida, Yusuke
2016-01-01
We develop a field theoretical approach to massless Dirac fermions in a supercritical Coulomb potential. By introducing an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid at the potential center, the critical Coulomb charge can be made arbitrarily small for one partial wave sector, where a perturbative renormalization group analysis becomes possible. We show that a scattering amplitude for reflection of particle at the potential center exhibits the renormalization group limit cycle, i.e., log-periodic revolutions as a function of the scattering energy, revealing the emergence of discrete scale invariance. This outcome is further incorporated in computing the induced charge and current densities, which turn out to have power law tails with coefficients log-periodic with respect to the distance from the potential center. Our findings are consistent with the previous prediction obtained by directly solving the Dirac equation and can in principle be realized by graphene experiments with charged impurities.
Classical Interaction of a Magnet and a Point Charge: The Shockley-James Paradox
Boyer, Timothy H
2014-01-01
It is pointed out that Coleman and Van Vleck make a major blunder in their discussion of the Shockly-James paradox by designating relativistic hidden mechanical momentum as the basis for resolution of the paradox. This blunder has had a wide influence in the current physics literature, including erroneous work on the Shockley-James paradox, on Mansuripur's paradox, on the motion of a magnetic moment, on the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift, and on the Aharonov-Casher phase shift. Although hidden mechanical momentum is indeed dominant for non-interacting particles moving in a closed orbit under the influence of an external electric field, the attention directed toward hidden mechanical momentum represents a fundamental misunderstanding of the classical electromagnetic interaction between a multiparticle magnet and an external point charge. In the interacting multiparticle situation, the external charge induces an electrostatic polarization of the magnet which leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum in the magne...
Quantum operations: technical or fundamental challenge?
Mielnik, Bogdan
2013-09-01
A class of unitary operations generated by idealized, semiclassical fields is studied. The operations implemented by sharp potential kicks are revisited and the possibility of performing them by softly varying external fields is examined. The possibility of using the ion traps as ‘operation factories’ transforming quantum states is discussed. The non-perturbative algorithms indicate that the results of abstract δ-pulses of oscillator potentials can become real. Some of them, if empirically achieved, could be essential to examine certain atypical quantum ideas. In particular, simple dynamical manipulations might contribute to the Aharonov-Bohm criticism of the time-energy uncertainty principle, while some others may verify the existence of fundamental precision limits of the position measurements or the reality of ‘non-commutative geometries’.
Scattering off an SO(10) cosmic string
Davis, A C; Davis, A C; Jeannerot, R
1995-01-01
The scattering of fermions from the abelian string arising during the phase transition SO(10) \\rightarrow SU(5) \\times Z_2 induced by the Higgs in the 126 representation is studied. Elastic cross-sections and baryon number violating cross-sections due to the coupling to gauge fields in the core of the string are computed by both a first quantised method and a perturbative second quantised method. The elastic cross-sections are found to be Aharonov-Bohm type. However, there is a marked asymmetry between the scattering cross-sections for left and right handed fields. The catalysis cross-sections are small, depending on the grand unified scale. If cosmic strings were observed our results could help tie down the underlying gauge group.
Electronic implementations of interaction-free measurements
Chirolli, L.; Strambini, E.; Giovannetti, V.; Taddei, F.; Piazza, V.; Fazio, R.; Beltram, F.; Burkard, G.
2010-07-01
Three different implementations of interaction-free measurements (IFMs) in solid-state nanodevices are discussed. The first one is based on a series of concatenated Mach-Zehnder interferometers, in analogy to optical-IFM setups. The second one consists of a single interferometer and concatenation is achieved in the time domain making use of a quantized electron emitter. The third implementation consists of an asymmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring. For all three cases we show that the presence of a dephasing source acting on one arm of the interferometer can be detected without degrading the coherence of the measured current. Electronic implementations of IFMs in nanoelectronics may play a fundamental role as very accurate and noninvasive measuring schemes for quantum devices.
Eshghi, Mahdi; Ikhdair, Sameer M
2016-01-01
We solve the Schr\\"odinger equation with a position-dependent mass (PDM) charged particle interacted via the superposition of the Morse and Coulomb potentials and exposed to external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The non-relativistic bound state energies together with their wave functions are calculated for two spatially-dependent mass distribution functions. We also study the thermal quantities of such a system. Further, the canonical formalism is used to compute various thermodynamic variables for second choosing mass by using the Gibbs formalism. We give plots for energy as a function of various physical parameters. The behavior of the internal energy, specific heat and entropy as functions of temperature and mass density parameter in the inverse-square mass case for different values of magnetic field are shown.
Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eshghi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehraban, H. [Semnan University, Faculty of Physics, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ikhdair, S.M. [An-Najah National University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Near East University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus (Turkey)
2016-07-15
We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states. (orig.)
Onorato, P.
2012-12-01
We study the quantum transport properties of cylindrical shaped wires, with submicrometric diameters and large aspect ratio. The zero bias conductance as a function of temperature, magnetic field and disorder is calculated for different kinds of nano cylinders, from semiconductor quantum wires to carbon nanotubes. A comparison between our findings and the experimental results allows the understanding of the charge carriers' localization, in the external surface or in the core of the wires, by highlighting the basic mechanism of charge transport. We discuss how we can infer that in InAs quantum wires the carriers move in the core. We examine the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and the quenching that should be observed in the measured magneto conductivity of InAs nano cylinders and carbon nanotubes emphasizing the role of the angle between field and tube.
Interactions and excitations of non-Abelian vortices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alford, M.G.; Benson, K.; Coleman, S.; March-Russell, J. (Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (USA)); Wilczek, F. (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (USA))
1990-04-02
We examine bosonic zero modes of vortices formed in the gauge breaking {ital G}{r arrow}{ital H}. For non-Abelian {ital G}, zero modes are generic. Their solutions depend on global symmetry structure. Vortices render the embedding {ital H}{contained in}{ital G} space dependent, with a dynamically determined subgroup {ital {tilde H}} single valued. They Aharonov-Bohm scatter gauge bosons associated with multivalued generators. Alice strings ({ital H}=O(2), {ital {tilde H}}={ital openZ}{sub 2}) attract charges and scatter SO(2) photons,'' and a two-string system has zero modes with unlocalizable Cheshire'' charge. The resulting superconductivity has novel electrodynamics.
Gate-tunable indirect exchange interaction in spin-orbit-coupled mesoscopic rings
Nikoofard, H.; Heidari Semiromi, E.
2015-05-01
We study the carrier-mediated exchange interaction, the so-called Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling, between two magnetic impurity moments embedded in a semiconductor mesoscopic ring. We treat the ring in the presence of an Aharonov-Bohm-type magnetic flux and the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (RSOI and DSOI). Energy eigenvalues of the system are obtained within a tight-binding framework and the strength of the indirect exchange interaction vs. RSOI strengths are plotted for different values of DSOI strength. The results show that the type of the impurity magnetic order, ferromagnetic (F) or antiferromagnetic (AF), depends on the RSOI and DSOI strengths. This leads to a full electrical control on the magnetic alignment of the system through, e.g., an external gate voltage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bäßler, Svenja, E-mail: sbaessle@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Hamdou, Bacel; Sergelius, Philip; Michel, Ann-Kathrin; Zierold, Robert; Gooth, Johannes [Institute of Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Reith, Heiko; Nielsch, Kornelius [Institute of Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany)
2015-11-02
The geometry of topological insulators (TIs) has a major impact on the magnetoelectric band structure of their surface states. Here, we investigate the surface states of cylindrical TI bismuth telluride selenide nanowires with three different diameters, by parallel and transverse magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. In parallel configuration, we observe Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as well as weak antilocalization, indicating two-dimensional TI surface states. In transverse magnetic fields, we observed MR oscillations that are non-linear against the reciprocal of the magnetic field and thus cannot be explained by two- or three-dimensional states. Instead, our transport data analysis reveals that these MR oscillations are the consequence of one-dimensional edge channels at the nanowire surface that form due to the projection of the external magnetic field on the cylindrically curved surface plane in high magnetic fields. Our observation provides an exotic class of surface states that might be used for electronic and spintronic devices.
Klein-Gordon oscillator in Kaluza-Klein theory
Carvalho, Josevi; Carvalho, Alexandre M. de M.; Cavalcante, Everton; Furtado, Claudio
2016-07-01
In this contribution we study the Klein-Gordon oscillator on the curved background within the Kaluza-Klein theory. The problem of the interaction between particles coupled harmonically with topological defects in Kaluza-Klein theory is studied. We consider a series of topological defects, then we treat the Klein-Gordon oscillator coupled to this background, and we find the energy levels and corresponding eigenfunctions in these cases. We show that the energy levels depend on the global parameters characterizing these spacetimes. We also investigate a quantum particle described by the Klein-Gordon oscillator interacting with a cosmic dislocation in Som-Raychaudhuri spacetime in the presence of homogeneous magnetic field in a Kaluza-Klein theory. In this case, the energy spectrum is determined, and we observe that these energy levels represent themselves as the sum of the terms related with Aharonov-Bohm flux and of the parameter associated to the rotation of the spacetime.
H →Z γ in the gauge-Higgs unification
Funatsu, Shuichiro; Hatanaka, Hisaki; Hosotani, Yutaka
2015-12-01
The decay rate of the Higgs decay H →Z γ is evaluated at the one-loop level in the S O (5 )×U (1 ) gauge-Higgs unification. Although an infinite number of loops with Kaluza-Klein states contribute to the decay amplitude, there appears the cancellation among the loops, and the decay rate is found to be finite and nonzero. It is found that the decay rate is well approximated by the decay rate in the standard model multiplied by cos2θH, where θH is the Aharonov-Bohm phase induced by the vacuum expectation value of an extra-dimensional component of the gauge field.
Spin transistor action from hidden Onsager reciprocity.
Adagideli, İ; Lutsker, V; Scheid, M; Jacquod, Ph; Richter, K
2012-06-01
We investigate generic Hamiltonians for confined electrons with weak inhomogeneous spin-orbit coupling. Using a local gauge transformation we show how the SU(2) Hamiltonian structure reduces to a U(1)×U(1) structure for spinless fermions in a fictitious orbital magnetic field, to leading order in the spin-orbit strength. Using an Onsager relation, we further show how the resulting spin conductance vanishes in a two-terminal setup, and how it is turned on by either weakly breaking time-reversal symmetry or opening additional transport terminals, thus allowing one to switch the generated spin current on or off. We numerically check our theory for mesoscopic cavities as well as Aharonov-Bohm rings.
Unidirectional perfect absorber
Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.
2016-09-01
This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.
Optical conductivity of curved graphene.
Chaves, A J; Frederico, T; Oliveira, O; de Paula, W; Santos, M C
2014-05-07
We compute the optical conductivity for an out-of-plane deformation in graphene using an approach based on solutions of the Dirac equation in curved space. Different examples of periodic deformations along one direction translates into an enhancement of the optical conductivity peaks in the region of the far- and mid-infrared frequencies for periodicities ∼100 nm. The width and position of the peaks can be changed by dialling the parameters of the deformation profiles. The enhancement of the optical conductivity is due to intraband transitions and the translational invariance breaking in the geometrically deformed background. Furthermore, we derive an analytical solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space for a general deformation along one spatial direction. For this class of geometries, it is shown that curvature induces an extra phase in the electron wave function, which can also be explored to produce interference devices of the Aharonov-Bohm type.
Loop Quantization Versus Fock Quantization Of P-form Electromagnetism On Static Spacetimes
Carrion Alvarez, M
2004-01-01
As a warmup for studying dynamics and gravitons in loop quantum gravity. Varadajan showed that Wilson loops give operators on the Fock space for electromagnetism in Minkowski spacetime—but only after regularizing the loops by smearing them with a Gaussian. Unregularized Wilson loops are too singular to give densely defined operators. Here we present a rigorous treatment of unsmeared Wilson loops for vacuum electromagnetism on an arbitrary globally hyperbolic static spacetime. Our Wilson loops are not operators, but “quasioperators”: sesquilinear forms on the dense subspace of Fock space spanned by coherent states corresponding to smooth classical solutions. To obtain this result we begin by carefully treating electromagnetism on globally hyperbolic static spacetimes, addressing various issues that are usually ignored, such as the definition of Aharonov-Bohm modes when space is noncompact. We then use a new construction of Fock space based on coherent states to define Wilson loop ...
Geometric gauge potentials and forces in low-dimensional scattering systems
Zygelman, B
2012-01-01
We introduce and analyze several low-dimensional scattering systems that exhibit geometric phase phenomena. The systems are fully solvable and we compare exact solutions of them with those obtained in a Born-Oppenheimer projection approximation. We illustrate how geometric magnetism manifests in them, and explore the relationship between solutions obtained in the diabatic and adiabatic pictures. We provide an example, involving a neutral atom dressed by an external field, in which the system mimics the behavior of a charged particle that interacts with, and is scattered by, a ferromagnetic material. We also introduce a similar system that exhibits Aharonov-Bohm scattering. We propose some practical applications. We provide a theoretical approach that underscores universality in the appearance of geometric gauge forces. We do not insist on degeneracies in the adiabatic Hamiltonian, and we posit that the emergence of geometric gauge forces is a consequence of symmetry breaking in the latter.
Conductance maps of quantum rings due to a local potential perturbation
Petrović, M. D.; Peeters, F. M.; Chaves, A.; Farias, G. A.
2013-12-01
We performed a numerical simulation of the dynamics of a Gaussian shaped wavepacket inside a small sized quantum ring, smoothly connected to two leads and exposed to a perturbing potential of a biased atomic force microscope tip. Using the Landauer formalism, we calculated conductance maps of this system in the case of single and two subband transport. We explain the main features in the conductance maps as due to the AFM tip influence on the wavepacket phase and amplitude. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the tip modifies the ϕ0 periodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillation pattern into a ϕ0/2 periodic Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation pattern. Our results in the case of multiband transport suggest tip selectivity to higher subbands, making them more observable in the total conductance map.
Persistent currents in mesoscopic graphene rings with armchair edges%扶手椅型石墨烯介观环中的持续电流∗
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
代楠; 邓文基
2015-01-01
Based on the tight-binding model, the energy spectrum and persistent currents of mesoscopic graphene rings with armchair edges are studied analytically and numerically. Characters of the persistent currents changing with Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) magnetic flux in rings in different geometry are investigated in datail. The periodicity and special symmetry of energy spectrum and persistent currents changing with the magnetic flux are revealed. It is demonstrated that the persistent currents are determined by the geometric structures of the rings;the quantum states with small eigen-energies may carry much larger currents than those quantum states with eigen-energies far away from zero.%在紧束缚近似下，解析求解了扶手椅型边界石墨烯介观环的能量本征值问题，计算和讨论了不同大小尺寸的介观环中持续电流随Aharonov-Bohm (A-B)磁通的变化，并证明了能级和持续电流关于磁通变化的周期性和特殊对称性。研究表明，持续电流显著地依赖于介观环的几何结构；零能量附近的能级可以承载较大的持续电流，而远离零能量的其他能级对持续电流的贡献很小。
Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato
2008-10-01
distance on the magnetization configuration of submicron-sized ferromagnetic rings / Tetsuya Miyawaki. A wide GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well simultaneously containing two dimensional electrons and holes / Ane Jensen. Simulation of the photon-spin quantum state transfer process / Yoshiaki Rikitake. Magnetotransport in two-dimensional electron gases on cylindrical surface / Friedland Klaus-Juergen. Full counting statistics for a single-electron transistor at intermediate conductance / Yasuhiro Utsumi. Creation of spin-polarized current using quantum point contacts and its detection / Mikio Eto. Density dependent electron effective mass in a back-gated quantum well / S. Nomura. The supersymmetric sigma formula and metal-insulator transition in diluted magnetic semiconductors / I. Kanazawa. Spin-photovoltaic effect in quantum wires / A. Fedorov -- Quantum interference. Nonequilibrium transport in Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with electron-phonon interaction / Akiko Ueda. Fano resonance and its breakdown in AB ring embedded with a molecule / Shigeo Fujimoto, Yuhei Natsume. Quantum resonance above a barrier in the presence of dissipation / Kohkichi Konno. Ensemble averaging in metallic quantum networks / F. Mallet -- Coherence and order in exotic materials. Progress towards an electronic array on liquid helium / David Rees. Measuring noise and cross correlations at high frequencies in nanophysics / T. Martin. Single wall carbon nanotube weak links / K. Grove-Rasmussen. Optical preparation of nuclear spins coupled to a localized electron spin / Guido Burkard. Topological effects in charge density wave dynamics / Toru Matsuura. Studies on nanoscale charge-density-wave systems: fabrication technique and transport phenomena / Katsuhiko Inagaki. Anisotropic behavior of hysteresis induced by the in-plane field in the v = 2/3 quantum Hall state / Kazuki Iwata. Phase diagram of the v = 2 bilayer quantum Hall state / Akira Fukuda -- Trapped ions (special talk). Quantum computation with trapped
Transport of Dirac fermions on the surface of strong topological insulator and graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kundu, Arijit
2012-06-14
estimates covering the full temperature range are provided for the parameters of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} which possibly can be verified by experiment. Afterwards, a theory of quantum transport and scattering by spatially localized static magnetic fields is developed in a unified way for the low energy Dirac Fermions on topological insulator and graphene. The employed model describes in a unified manner the effects of orbital magnetic fields, Zeeman and exchange fields in topological insulators, and the pseudo-magnetic fields caused by strain or defects in monolayer graphene. The general scattering theory is formulated, and for radially symmetric fields, the scattering amplitude and the total and transport cross sections are expressed in terms of phase shifts. As applications, I study ring-shaped magnetic fields. The Aharonov-Bohm geometry is also studied as a limit to the ring geometry. I also review the superconducting proximity effect on graphene and study resonant tunneling through a superconducting double barrier structure in graphene as a function of the system parameters. In this geometry, transmission resonances occur because of the formation of Andreev bound states. The evolution of the transport through this geometry as a function of the incident energy for various angles of incidence shows the damping of the resonance as normal reflection between the barriers increases. I also consider the phenomenon of quantum charge pumping of electrons in this geometry in the adiabatic limit. Quantum charge pumping can be achieved by modulating the amplitudes (Δ{sub 1} and Δ{sub 2}) of the gaps associated with the two superconducting strips. Because of transmission resonances in the Δ{sub 1} - Δ{sub 2} plane of parameter space, a large value of pumped charge is obtained when the pumping contour encloses the resonances. This is in sharp contrast to the case of charge pumping in a normal double barrier structure in graphene, where the pumped charge is very small, due to the
Doubled Lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills Theories with Discrete Gauge Group
Caspar, Stephan; Olesen, Therkel Z; Vlasii, Nadiia D; Wiese, Uwe-Jens
2016-01-01
We construct doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group $G$ in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention to the realization of gauge transformations on quantum states, we examine the dynamics in the group space of a single cross, which is spanned by a single link and its dual. The dynamics is governed by the single-cross electric Hamiltonian and admits a simple quantum mechanical analogy to the problem of a charged particle moving on a discrete space affected by an abstract electromagnetic potential. Such a particle might accumulate a phase shift equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm pha...
Valley-symmetry-preserved transport in ballistic graphene layers with gate-defined carrier guiding
Kim, Minsoo; Choi, Ji-Hae; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong
Zigzag graphene nanoribbons are predicted to exhibit interesting electronic properties stemming from its Dirac band structure. However, to date, investigation of them is highly limited because of the defects and the roughness at the edges, which mix different valley properties of graphene. Here, we report the signature of conservation of valley symmetry in two types of quasi-1D ballistic graphene transport devices; one is a quantum point contact (QPC) and another is an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer. In measurements, charge carriers were confined in a potential well formed by the dual gates operation and the four-terminal magnetoconductance (MC) was measured with varying the carrier density, dc bias, and temperature. It exhibits the conductance quantization in steps of ΔG = 4e2/ h starting from G = (2, 6), 10 ×e2 / h in a constricted conducting channel of QPC-type devices. This behavior is similar to the one observed in zigzag graphene nanoribbons having edge localized channels. Our tight-binding calculation shows that quasi-1D charge flow on a graphene plane acts a zigzag-type nanoribbon, unless it is perfectly aligned along the armchair direction. In the AB interferometry, we observed h/ e periodic modulation of MC and the zero-field conductance minimum with a negative MC background.
Weak gauge principle and electric charge quantization
Minguzzi, E; Almorox, A L
2006-01-01
We review the argument that relates the quantization of electric charge to the topology of the spacetime manifold starting from the gauge principle. We formulate it in the language of Cech cohomology so that its generalization to cases that do not involve a monopole field becomes straightforward. We consider two different formulations of the gauge principle, the usual (strong) version and a weaker version in which the transition functions can differ from matter field to matter field. From both versions it follows that the charges are quantized if the electromagnetic field is not exact. The weak case is studied in detail. To each pair of particles there corresponds an interference class $k \\in H^{1}(M,U(1))$ that controls the different behavior of the particles under topological Aharonov-Bohm experiments. If this class is trivial the phenomenology reduces to that of the usual strong gauge principle case. It is shown that the theory may give rise to two natural quantization units that we identify with the quant...
Transport in selectively magnetically doped topological insulator wires
Acero, Sergio; Brey, Luis; Herrera, William J.; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy
2015-12-01
We study the electronic and transport properties of a topological insulator nanowire including selective magnetic doping of its surfaces. We use a model which is appropriate to describe materials like Bi2Se3 within a k .p approximation and consider nanowires with a rectangular geometry. Within this model the magnetic doping at the (111) surfaces induces a Zeeman field which opens a gap at the Dirac cones corresponding to the surface states. For obtaining the transport properties in a two terminal configuration we use a recursive Green's function method based on a tight-binding model which is obtained by discretizing the original continuous model. For the case of uniform magnetization of two opposite nanowire (111) surfaces we show that the conductance can switch from a quantized value of e2/h (when the magnetizations are equal) to a very small value (when they are opposite). We also analyze the case of nonuniform magnetizations in which the Zeeman field on the two opposite surfaces change sign at the middle of the wire. For this case we find that conduction by resonant tunneling through a chiral state bound at the middle of the wire is possible. The resonant level position can be tuned by imposing an Aharonov-Bohm flux through the nanowire cross section.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R.; Meza-Aldama, O.
2016-02-01
Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hypercomplex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the U(1) gauge field theory, corresponds to a hybrid potential with two real components, and with U(1)× SO(1,1) as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and such as Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the hyperbolic electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries.
Shot noise in nano-electronic systems under the perturbation of ac fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Hong-kang
2007-01-01
Current noise exists in circuits and electronic devices generally, and it exhibits specific features as the system reaches nanometer size. The noise in the nano-system where external ac fields are applied plays an important role, since the properties of the fields and the nano-system together govern the resulting noise. In this paper, we present the derivation of shot noise by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The more general formulas for the current correlation and noise spectral density are given. The system is composed of a central nanosystem coupled to electrodes, and the obtained noise formulas are related to the Green's functions of detailed central regime and the terminals. As an example, we have performed the numerical calculation on a system with a toroidal carbon nanotube coupled to normal metal leads. The noise and Fano factor show intimate relation with the structure of the system and ac fields. The Aharonov-Bohm-like behaviors on the shot noise spectral density and Fano factor are observed to exhibit oscillation structures with period of quantum flux.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cartas-Fuentevilla, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Fisica, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Meza-Aldama, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)
2016-02-15
Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hypercomplex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the U(1) gauge field theory, corresponds to a hybrid potential with two real components, and with U(1) x SO(1,1) as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and such as Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the hyperbolic electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries. (orig.)
Quantum gas microscopy of the interacting Harper-Hofstadter system
Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alex; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Schittko, Robert; Kaufman, Adam; Greiner, Markus
2016-05-01
At the heart of many topological states is the underlying gauge field. One example of a gauge field is the magnetic field which causes the deflection of a moving charged particle. This behavior can be understood through the Aharonov-Bohm phase that a particle acquires upon traversing a closed path. Gauge fields give rise to novel states of matter that cannot be described with symmetry breaking. Instead, these states, e.g. fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, are characterized by topological invariants, such as the Chern number. In this talk, we report on experimental results upon introducing a gauge field in a system of strongly-interacting ultracold Rb87 atoms confined to a 2D optical lattice. With single-site resolution afforded by a quantum gas microscope, we can prepare a fixed atom number and project hard walls. With an artificial gauge field, this quantum simulator realizes the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian. We can independently control the two tunneling strengths as well as dynamically change the flux. This flexibility enables studies of topological phenomena from many perspectives, e.g. site-resolved images of edge currents. With the strong on-site interactions possible in our system, these experiments will pave the way to observing FQH-like states in a lattice.
... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD The placebo effect Joseph H. Friedman, MD Richard Dubinsky, MD WHAT ... placebo: a “dummy” medication that should have no effect on the condition. Placebos are not only drugs. ...
Habayeb, A R
1987-01-01
Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.
Kinigstein, Steven Michael
In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.
... CDC Policy Partners Climate Effects on Health Air Pollution Allergens Wildfires Temperature Extremes Precipitation Extremes Diseases Carried by Vectors Food and Waterborne Diarrheal Disease Food Security Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders Climate-Ready States and ...
STOICA, Anamaria
2011-01-01
This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frost, Jacob
To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....
Gowthaman, S.; A. P. Sathiyagnanam
2016-01-01
This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI) fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure ...
Vicent Almela, Vicente
2014-01-01
Treball final de Grau en Economia. Codi: EC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 Monday effect consists of fuel price falling between Monday and Sunday, followed by price increases during the following days. It is coincidentally on Monday when the European Commission collects fuel prices data to be able to elaborate statistics. In this essay we have firstly studied which has been the recent evolution of the Monday effect in our country. After that we have analysed the magnitude and the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi
2014-01-01
This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.;
Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy...
Doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group
Caspar, S.; Mesterházy, D.; Olesen, T. Z.; Vlasii, N. D.; Wiese, U.-J.
2016-11-01
We construct doubled lattice Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills theories with discrete gauge group G in the Hamiltonian formulation. Here, these theories are considered on a square spatial lattice and the fundamental degrees of freedom are defined on pairs of links from the direct lattice and its dual, respectively. This provides a natural lattice construction for topologically-massive gauge theories, which are invariant under parity and time-reversal symmetry. After defining the building blocks of the doubled theories, paying special attention to the realization of gauge transformations on quantum states, we examine the dynamics in the group space of a single cross, which is spanned by a single link and its dual. The dynamics is governed by the single-cross electric Hamiltonian and admits a simple quantum mechanical analogy to the problem of a charged particle moving on a discrete space affected by an abstract electromagnetic potential. Such a particle might accumulate a phase shift equivalent to an Aharonov-Bohm phase, which is manifested in the doubled theory in terms of a nontrivial ground-state degeneracy on a single cross. We discuss several examples of these doubled theories with different gauge groups including the cyclic group Z(k) ⊂ U(1) , the symmetric group S3 ⊂ O(2) , the binary dihedral (or quaternion) group D¯2 ⊂ SU(2) , and the finite group Δ(27) ⊂ SU(3) . In each case the spectrum of the single-cross electric Hamiltonian is determined exactly. We examine the nature of the low-lying excited states in the full Hilbert space, and emphasize the role of the center symmetry for the confinement of charges. Whether the investigated doubled models admit a non-Abelian topological state which allows for fault-tolerant quantum computation will be addressed in a future publication.
Gambaryan, K. M.; Harutyunyan, V. G.; Aroutiounian, V. M.; Ai, Y.; Ashalley, E.; Wang, Z. M.
2015-06-01
The InAsSbP composition type-II quantum dots (QDs) are grown on a InAs(1 0 0) substrate from In-As-Sb-P quaternary liquid phase at a constant temperature in Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. Device structures in the form of photoconductive cells are prepared for investigation. Magnetospectroscopy and high-precision capacitance spectrometry are used to explore the QDs structure’s electric sheet resistance in a magnetic field and the capacitance (charge) law at lateral current flow. Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations with the period of δB = 0.38 ± 0.04 T are found on the magnetoresistance curve at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The influence of the QDs size distribution on the period of AB oscillations is investigated. The magnetoresistance hysteresis equals to ~50 mΩ and ~400 mΩ is revealed at room and liquid nitrogen temperature, respectively. The capacitance hysteresis (CH) and contra-directional oscillations are also detected. Behavior of the CH versus applied voltage frequency in the range f = 103-106 Hz is investigated. It is shown that the CH decreases with increasing frequency up to 106 Hz. The time constant and corresponding frequency for the QDs R-C parallel circuit (generator) equal to τ = 2.9 × 10-7 s and f 0 = 5.5 × 105 Hz, respectively, are calculated.
Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics; Botero, A. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)
1995-10-01
The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3.
Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Goldbart, Paul M.
2008-06-01
As a function of the magnetic flux threading the object, the Little-Parks oscillation in the critical temperature of a large-radius, thin-walled superconducting ring or hollow cylinder has a period given by h/2e , due to the binding of electrons into Cooper pairs. On the other hand, the single-electron Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in the resistance or persistent current for a clean (i.e., ballistic) normal-state system, having the same topological structure, has a period given by h/e . A basic question is whether the Little-Parks oscillation changes its character, as the radius of the superconducting structure becomes smaller, and if it is even comparable to the zero-temperature coherence length. We supplement a physical argument that the h/e oscillations should also be exhibited with a microscopic analysis of this regime, formulated in terms of the Gor’kov approach to BCS theory. We see that, as the radius of the ring is made smaller, an oscillation in the critical temperature of period h/e emerges in addition to the usual Little-Parks h/2e -period oscillation. We argue that, in the clean limit, there is a superconductor-normal transition at nonzero flux as the ring radius becomes sufficiently small and that the transition can be either continuous or discontinuous, depending on the radius and the external flux. In the dirty limit, we argue that the transition is rendered continuous, which results in continuous quantum phase transitions tuned by flux and radius.
Quantum-ring spin interference device tuned by quantum point contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diago-Cisneros, Leo [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, C.P.10400, La Habana (Cuba); Mireles, Francisco [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico)
2013-11-21
We introduce a spin-interference device that comprises a quantum ring (QR) with three embedded quantum point contacts (QPCs) and study theoretically its spin transport properties in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Two of the QPCs conform the lead-to-ring junctions while a third one is placed symmetrically in the upper arm of the QR. Using an appropriate scattering model for the QPCs and the S-matrix scattering approach, we analyze the role of the QPCs on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations of the QR-device. Exact formulas are obtained for the spin-resolved conductances of the QR-device as a function of the confinement of the QPCs and the AB/AC phases. Conditions for the appearance of resonances and anti-resonances in the spin-conductance are derived and discussed. We predict very distinctive variations of the QR-conductance oscillations not seen in previous QR proposals. In particular, we find that the interference pattern in the QR can be manipulated to a large extend by varying electrically the lead-to-ring topological parameters. The latter can be used to modulate the AB and AC phases by applying gate voltage only. We have shown also that the conductance oscillations exhibits a crossover to well-defined resonances as the lateral QPC confinement strength is increased, mapping the eigenenergies of the QR. In addition, unique features of the conductance arise by varying the aperture of the upper-arm QPC and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our results may be of relevance for promising spin-orbitronics devices based on quantum interference mechanisms.
Synthetic gauge potentials for ultracold neutral atoms
Lin, Yu-Ju; Spielman, I. B.
2016-09-01
Synthetic gauge fields for ultracold neutral atoms—engineered using the interaction between laser fields and the atoms’ internal ‘spin’ degrees of freedom—provide promising techniques for generating the large (synthetic) magnetic fields required to reach the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) limit in quantum gases, bosonic or fermionic alike. Because neutral atoms can move in a nearly disorder-free environment and they have extremely simple contact interactions, the resulting FQH states would be revealed in their most essential form. Moreover, bosonic FQH states represent a new frontier and have never been seen in any setting. Going beyond electromagnetism's conventional scalar gauge field, it is possible to create more general non-Abelian gauge potentials. When these are spatially uniform, they are equivalent to spin-orbit coupling familiar in material systems, and can lead to cold atom analogs of topological insulators and topological superconductors. In this tutorial, we introduce basic concepts underlying these gauge fields, making connections to the Aharonov-Bohm phase and geometric phase. We focus on the system of neutral atoms ‘dressed’ by multiple laser beams, where the eigenstates of the resulting Hamiltonian are known as dressed states. Synthetic gauge potentials arise from the unitary transformation required to express these dressed states in terms of the laser-free eigenstates. We discuss stability of laser-dressed atoms corresponding to the adiabatic condition and the probability of non-adiabatic transitions. Adopting both the semiclassical and quantum mechanical approaches, we demonstrate they agree in the suitable limit. We also analyze using both the conventional adiabatic picture and exact picture, where the kinetic energy is neglected in the former and retained in the latter picture.
Measurement of the transmission phase of an electron in a quantum two-path interferometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takada, S., E-mail: shintaro.takada@neel.cnrs.fr; Watanabe, K. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 331-0012 (Japan); Bäuerle, C. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2015-08-10
A quantum two-path interferometer allows for direct measurement of the transmission phase shift of an electron, providing useful information on coherent scattering problems. In mesoscopic systems, however, the two-path interference is easily smeared by contributions from other paths, and this makes it difficult to observe the true transmission phase shift. To eliminate this problem, multi-terminal Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometers have been used to derive the phase shift by assuming that the relative phase shift of the electrons between the two paths is simply obtained when a smooth shift of the AB oscillations is observed. Nevertheless, the phase shifts using such a criterion have sometimes been inconsistent with theory. On the other hand, we have used an AB ring contacted to tunnel-coupled wires and acquired the phase shift consistent with theory when the two output currents through the coupled wires oscillate with well-defined anti-phase. Here, we investigate thoroughly these two criteria used to ensure a reliable phase measurement, the anti-phase relation of the two output currents, and the smooth phase shift in the AB oscillation. We confirm that the well-defined anti-phase relation ensures a correct phase measurement with a quantum two-path interference. In contrast, we find that even in a situation where the anti-phase relation is less well-defined, the smooth phase shift in the AB oscillation can still occur but does not give the correct transmission phase due to contributions from multiple paths. This indicates that the phase relation of the two output currents in our interferometer gives a good criterion for the measurement of the true transmission phase, while the smooth phase shift in the AB oscillation itself does not.
Spin-dependent quantum transport in nanoscaled geometries
Heremans, Jean J.
2011-10-01
We discuss experiments where the spin degree of freedom leads to quantum interference phenomena in the solid-state. Under spin-orbit interactions (SOI), spin rotation modifies weak-localization to weak anti-localization (WAL). WAL's sensitivity to spin- and phase coherence leads to its use in determining the spin coherence lengths Ls in materials, of importance moreover in spintronics. Using WAL we measure the dependence of Ls on the wire width w in narrow nanolithographic ballistic InSb wires, ballistic InAs wires, and diffusive Bi wires with surface states with Rashba-like SOI. In all three systems we find that Ls increases with decreasing w. While theory predicts the increase for diffusive wires with linear (Rashba) SOI, we experimentally conclude that the increase in Ls under dimensional confinement may be more universal, with consequences for various applications. Further, in mesoscopic ring geometries on an InAs/AlGaSb 2D electron system (2DES) we observe both Aharonov-Bohm oscillations due to spatial quantum interference, and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations due to time-reversed paths. A transport formalism describing quantum coherent networks including ballistic transport and SOI allows a comparison of spin- and phase coherence lengths extracted for such spatial- and temporal-loop quantum interference phenomena. We further applied WAL to study the magnetic interactions between a 2DES at the surface of InAs and local magnetic moments on the surface from rare earth (RE) ions (Gd3+, Ho3+, and Sm3+). The magnetic spin-flip rate carries information about magnetic interactions. Results indicate that the heavy RE ions increase the SOI scattering rate and the spin-flip rate, the latter indicating magnetic interactions. Moreover Ho3+ on InAs yields a spin-flip rate with an unusual power 1/2 temperature dependence, possibly characteristic of a Kondo system. We acknowledge funding from DOE (DE-FG02-08ER46532).
Necessity of Integral Formalism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶勇
2011-01-01
To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 （1974） 44fi], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 （1975） 3846]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 （2004） 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schroedinger differential equation （i.e., differential formalism for wave function） shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schroedinger integral equation （i.e., integral formalism for wave function）, in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion： There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description.
Johnston, M.
1978-01-01
Measurements of the actual stress within the Earth and its changes with time are very difficult. It is much easier to monitor the direct effects of this stress, such as ground strain, or the indirect effects, such as changes in resistivity, strain, changes in seismic velocity or changes in magnetic field, and so forth. The latter technique is one of the more promising methods for monitoring substantial volumes of the Earth's crust near active faults with only a few instruments. It derives from the piezomagnetic properties of rocks (that is, the change in rock magnetization and, therefore, local magnetic field due to a change in applied stress). AS stress and strain fields along active faults vary, these variations should be reflected in changing local magnetic fields. In particular, rapidly changing fields might be expected to occur just before a large earthquake.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahieu, L
1998-07-01
The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
创建物体动画最快速的方法是使用运动捕捉，这是一种以真实世界物体为动画而提供的运动。现在打开光盘After Effects Shortcut文件夹中的文件,依照我们循序渐进的技巧教程来学习如何使用这种方法。
Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred
2004-01-01
Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.
Transport quantique dans des nanostructures
Naud, C.
2002-09-01
Quantum transport in nanostructures This work is devoted to the design, fabrication and magnetotransport investigations of mesoscopic devices. The sample are obtain by e-beam lithography and the measurements are performed at low temperature in a dilution refrigerator in the presence of a magnetic field. We have used MBE grown AlGaAs/GaAs heterojonctions as starting material to fabricate a bipartite tiling of rhombus called mathcal{T}3 lattice. We observe for the first time large amplitude h/e oscillations in this network as compared to the one measured in square lattices of similar size. These oscillations are the signature of a recently predited localization phenomenon induced by Aharonov-Bohm interferences on this peculiar topology. For particular values of the magnetic field the propagation of the electron wave function is bounded in a small number of cells, called Aharonov-Bohm cages. More strikingly, at high magnetic field, h/2e oscillations appear whose amplitude can be much higher than the fundamental period. Their temperature dependence is similar to that of the h/e signal. These observations withdraw a simple interpretation in terms of harmonics generation. The origin of this phenomenon is still unclear and needs more investigations. The influence electrical width of the wire defining the network and so the rule of the number of channels can be studied using a gate deposited over the lattice. In particular we have measured the amplitude dependence of the h/e and h/2e signal versus the gate voltage. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation d'échantillons mésoscopiques à partir de la lithographie électronique ainsi qu'à leur caractérisation à très basse température en magnétotransport. Nous avons pour cela exploité le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons situé à l'interface d'une hétérojonction AlGaAs/GaAs pour réaliser un réseau de boucle d'une géométrie particulière baptisée la géométrie mathcal{T}3. Nous avons observé sur cette
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beverly A. King Miller
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Gowthaman
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure in the port fuel injector is varied from 3 bar to 5 bar respectively. From the results, the optimum inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure for efficient HCCI engine operation are identified. The result shows that, brake thermal efficiency of HCCI is nearer to the value of conventional diesel engine, and can be obtained if HCCI engine operates with 5 bar injection pressure and 60 °C air temperature and a simultaneous reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx and smoke emissions compared to conventional diesel engine. However, when inlet air is heated for improvement of vaporisation of diesel fuel, the higher inlet air temperature limits the operation range of HCCI engine, due to high knocking intensity, high NOx emissions and misfire of charge. The fuel injection pressure is also limited due to high level of HC and NOx emissions.
Physiological effects in aromatherapy
2004-01-01
The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...
Physiological effects in aromatherapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tapanee Hongratanaworakit
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects
Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.
2012-01-01
The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thelma J. Mielenz
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Physical therapy researchers are interested in how beneficial an intervention is or the “treatment effect.” There are many measures of treatment effect that are applicable for understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions. Given that each treatment effect has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, understanding these characteristics can help guide which measure is most appropriate for a specific study. This article presents the more common treatment effects for both dichotomous and continues outcomes. The overall aim is to serve as a guide to newer physical therapy researchers on using and interpreting treatment effects.
Experiences with effects specifications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders
2011-01-01
We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....
Aulas, J-J
2005-11-01
The word placebo appeared for the first time in an English medical dictionary in 1785. In French, it appeared much latter in 1958. This word defines an experimental tool used for rigourous evaluation of a specific effect of pharmacological treatment and the non specific effect of any therapy. The placebo effect is the strictly psychological or psychophysiological effect of a placebo. The two principal components of placebo effect as a pain killer, which has been extensively studied in this field, are positive expectancies of both the patient and the physician. Although the mechanisms of action of placebo effect are not well understood, results of several recent works are particularly interesting.
Effective Business Communication requires effective practices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨福明
2011-01-01
@@ The topic of this essay is that effective businees communication requires effective practices.This essay will focus on communication practices that can assist an organi- zation in reaching its strategic goals and objectives.This article will present this topic by analyzing the communication theory, writing process and business writing style, team building and interpersonal communication, negotiation and persuasion tech- niques and intercultural communication.
Gravitomagnetic Effect in Magnetars
Chatterjee, Debarati; Bandyopadhyay, Debades
2016-01-01
Rotating bodies in General Relativity produce frame dragging (or Lense-Thirring effect), also known as the {\\it Gravitomagnetic effect} in analogy with Classical Electromagnetism. In this work, we study the effect of strong magnetic fields in neutron stars on the Gravitomagnetic effect, which is produced as a result of its rotation. We show that the magnetic field has a non-negligible impact on frame dragging. The maximum effect of the magnetic field appears along the polar direction, where the Lense-Thirring frequency decreases with increase in magnetic field, and along the equatorial direction, where its magnitude increases. For intermediate angles, the effect of the magnetic field decreases, and goes through a minimum for a particular angular value at which magnetic field has no effect on Gravitomagnetism. Beyond that particular angle Gravitomagnetic effect increases with increasing magnetic field. We try to identify this "Null Region" for the case of magnetars, both inside and outside, as a function of th...
... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...
Hinze, J. O.
1979-01-01
Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.
Prooxidant effects of nitrofurantoin.
Novikov, O O; Pokrovskii, M V; Konovalenko, A B
2002-08-01
We studied the possibility of using prooxidant effects of nitrofurantoin (furadonin) for stimulation of the natural antioxidant systems for preventing myocardial damage after coronary occlusion. A pronounced cardioprotective effect of the drug was observed.
Characteristics of Effective Argumentation.
Frana, Adrian W.
1989-01-01
Examines how the 1988 Presidential Debates provide a resource for effective instruction in public argument. Provides several examples of effective (and ineffective) argumentative speaking taken from the debates. (MM)
Huque, Entazul M.
1989-01-01
Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund
2010-01-01
The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.......The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe
2015-01-01
A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e.Righi-Leduc effect) in lattices of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This effect is related to a symetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat-transport by photon tunneling thanks to the particles anisotropy tuning.
Magnetic effects in electrochemistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC
2005-05-01
Full Text Available The effect of imposed magnetic fields onto the electrodeposition of magnetic (nickel and non – magnetic (copper metals was analysed. Also, magnetic properties of electrochemically obtained nanocontacts were examined. An effort to establish a possible correlation between the morphologies of the nanocontacts and the effect of the very large ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR effect was made.
Ellens, W.; Spieksma, F.M.; Mieghem, P. van; Jamakovic, A.; Kooij, R.E.
2011-01-01
This paper studies an interesting graph measure that we call the effective graph resistance. The notion of effective graph resistance is derived from the field of electric circuit analysis where it is defined as the accumulated effective resistance between all pairs of vertices. The objective of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...
Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material
Lewis, Laura J. H.
2006-07-18
A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.
EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE CALCULATION GUIDE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
D.S.BIEDENHARN; C.R.THORNE; P.J.SOAR; R.D.HEY; C.C.WATSON
2001-01-01
This paper presents a procedure for calculating the effective discharge for rivers with alluvial channels.An alluvial river adjusts the bankfull shape and dimensions of its channel to the wide range of flows that mobilize the boundary sediments. It has been shown that time-averaged river morphology is adjusted to the flow that, over a prolonged period, transports most sediment. This is termed the effective discharge.The effective discharge may be calculated provided that the necessary data are available or can be synthesized. The procedure for effective discharge calculation presented here is designed to have general applicability, have the capability to be applied consistently, and represent the effects of physical processes responsible for determining the channel, dimensions. An example of the calculations necessary and applications of the effective discharge concept are presented.
Effective School Counseling Teams
Lilley, Stacey Custer
2007-01-01
Despite much attention given to effective teams in the workplace, school counseling teams have been neglected in the research. The primary purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn what characteristics secondary counselors perceive contribute to an effective school counseling team. The first research phase conducted six team interviews; themes emerging from the interviews yielded the development of the Effective School Counseling Team Questionnaire (ESCTQ). The following research quest...
The Hubble effective potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2009-05-15
We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.
Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R
2014-11-01
We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency.
Máximo, C E; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R
2014-01-01
We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease of the magnetic field efficiency.
Impedance and Collective Effects
Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W
2013-01-01
This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling
Shnirelman, Alexander
2016-01-01
The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagraev, N T; Galkin, N G; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gehlhoff, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: impurity.dipole@mail.ioffe.ru
2008-04-23
We present findings for the 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature in the hole quantum conductance staircase that is caused by silicon one-dimensional channels prepared by the split-gate method inside the p-type silicon quantum well (SQW) on the n-type Si(100) surface. Firstly, the interplay of the spin depolarization with the evolution of the 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature from the e{sup 2}/h to 3/2 e{sup 2}/h values as a function of the sheet density of holes is revealed by the quantum point contact connecting two 2D reservoirs in the p-type SQW. The 1D holes are demonstrated to be spin polarized at low sheet density, because the 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature is close to the value of 0.5(2e{sup 2}/h) that indicates the spin degeneracy lifting for the first step of the quantum conductance staircase. The 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature is found to take, however, the value of 0.75(2e{sup 2}/h) when the sheet density increases, thereby giving rise to the spin depolarization of the 1D holes. Secondly, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature are studied by varying the value of the external magnetic field and the top-gate voltage that are applied perpendicularly to the plane of the double-slit ring embedded in the p-type SQW, with the extra quantum point contact inserted in the one of its arms. The Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher conductance oscillations obtained are evidence of the interplay of the spontaneous spin polarization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in the formation of the 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature. Finally, the variations of the 0.7(2e{sup 2}/h) feature caused by the Rashba SOI are found to take in the fractional form with both the plateaus and steps as a function of the top-gate voltage.
Scheerens, J.; Wright, James D.
2015-01-01
School effectiveness research is described as the scientific approach to determine the causal influence of malleable conditions of schooling. The article describes how different strands of school effectiveness have developed and are now increasingly combined into more integrative approaches. The kno
School Effectiveness and Leadership.
Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.
1992-01-01
Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.
Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.
The Creativity Passdown Effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard
2015-01-01
effect in which the creative thinking of a team of design theorist(s) inherent in DT invokes a creative mind of a team of artifact instance designer(s) in creating an IDA. In this study, the authors empirically investigate the creativity passdown effect through an action case in which a DT (DT nexus...
Presenting Food Science Effectively
Winter, Carl K.
2016-01-01
While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…
da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto
1983-01-01
Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)
The Aid Effectiveness Literature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mie Østergaard
The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Landex, Alex
2012-01-01
Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross...
Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen
2015-01-01
Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sidharth Sonthalia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nocebo effect, originally denoting the negative counterpart of the placebo phenomenon, is now better defined as the occurrence of adverse effects to a therapeutic intervention because the patient expects them to develop. More commonly encountered in patients with a past negative experience, this effect stems from highly active processes in the central nervous system, mediated by specific neurotransmitters and modulated by psychological mechanisms such as expectation and conditioning. The magnitude of nocebo effect in clinical medicine is being increasingly appreciated and its relevance encompasses clinical trials as well as clinical practice. Although there is hardly any reference to the term nocebo in dermatology articles, the phenomenon is encountered routinely by dermatologists. Dermatology patients are more susceptible to nocebo responses owing to the psychological concern from visibility of skin lesions and the chronicity, unpredictable course, lack of ′permanent cure′ and frequent relapses of skin disorders. While finasteride remains the prototypical drug that displays a prominent nocebo effect in dermatologic therapeutics, other drugs such as isotretinoin are also likely inducers. This peculiar phenomenon has recently been appreciated in the modulation of itch perception and in controlled drug provocation tests in patients with a history of adverse drug reactions. Considering the conflict between patients′ right to information about treatment related adverse effects and the likelihood of nocebo effect stemming from information disclosure, the prospect of ethically minimizing nocebo effect remains daunting. In this article, we review the concept of nocebo effect, its postulated mechanism, relevance in clinical dermatology and techniques to prevent it from becoming a barrier to effective patient management.
[Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].
Shirahase, Joichiro
2015-01-01
A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Roumen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.
Creating more effective graphs
Robbins, Naomi B
2012-01-01
A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr
Seebeck effect in electrolytes.
Chikina, I; Shikin, V; Varlamov, A A
2012-07-01
We study Seebeck effect in liquid electrolytes, starting from its simple neutral analog--thermodiffusion (so-called Ludwig-Soret or Soret effect). It is observed that when two or more subsystems of mobile particles are subjected to the temperature gradient, various types of them respond to it differently. In the case when these fractions, with different mobility parameters (Soret coefficients), are oppositely charged (a case typical for electrolytes), the nonhomogeneous internal electric field is generated. The latter field prevents these fractions from space separation and determines the intensity of the appearing Seebeck effect.
Complex Effective Action and Schwinger Effect
Kim, Sang Pyo
2016-01-01
Spontaneous pair production from background fields or spacetimes is one of the most prominent phenomena predicted by quantum field theory. The Schwinger mechanism of production of charged pairs by a strong electric field and the Hawking radiation of all species of particles from a black hole are the consequence of nonperturbative quantum effects. In this review article, the vacuum structure and pair production is reviewed in the in-out formalism, which provides a consistent framework for quantum field theory in the sense that the complex action explains not only the vacuum persistence but also pair production. The current technology of intense lasers is still lower by a few order than the Schwinger limit for electron-positron pair production, while magnetic fields of magnetars on the surface are higher than the Schwinger limit and even higher at the core. On the other hand, the zero effective mass of electron and hole in graphene and Dirac or Weyl semimetals will open a window for experimental test of quantum...
Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark
2011-09-01
Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.
Frost Effects Research Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...
Stretching Safely and Effectively
... it safely and effectively. By Mayo Clinic Staff Stretching may take a back seat to your exercise routine. The main concern is exercising, not stretching, right? Not so fast. Stretching may help you: ...
... Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...
Wright, Jeannette T.
1988-01-01
The most effective college presidents are those whose leadership styles are dominant, decisive, and when appropriate, autocratic. The president has to believe profoundly in the intrinsic value of the college. (Author/MSE)
The Effective Volunteer Teacher
2013-01-01
This publication provides information for volunteer teachers of adults and older youth on how to conduct an effective presentation. Topics include focus of presentation, characteristics of the learners, teaching methods, visual aides and evaluations.
Social and Labour Bulletin, 1980
1980-01-01
Transnational implications of technological change and innovation in telecommunications are discussed, including impact on jobs and industrial relations, computer security, access to information, and effects of technological innovation on international economic systems. (SK)
Developing Effective Working Relationships.
Bennett, Roger, Ed.; And Others
1990-01-01
Two workshops are described in detail. One explores ways to increase the effectiveness of work groups and includes the workshop leader's personal observations. The second involves training transformational leaders, whose characteristics include idealized influence, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational…
Developing Effective Performance Measures
2014-10-14
University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from
Frost Effects Research Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditions The Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for...
Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)
... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...
Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.
Strategies for Effective Outsourcing.
Moneta, Larry; Dillon, William L.
2001-01-01
Emphasizes strategies that can be employed for effective outsourcing in higher education settings. Several models of outsourcing are identified and described, and examples of institutions using each model are provided. (GCP)
Monetary Policy Proving Effective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2010-01-01
@@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.
Radiative transfer dynamo effect
Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2017-01-01
Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.
Extracardiac Effects of Statins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suleyman Ercan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Statins are one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Although it plays a valuable role in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, it has some extracardiac effects which are frequently ignored by physicians during routine practice. In this review we would like to summarise the potential beneficial or harmful extracardiac effects of statins which comprise a wide spectrum of systems and organs.
The Cosmological Memory Effect
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.
2016-01-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to m...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul
2016-01-01
relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow...... practices do not have direct effects on performance. Instead, standardized flow provided that foundation for companies to implement continuous improvement, which, in turn, directly affect performance positively. Another cause, in addition to flow practices, of continuous improvement was the delegation...
Pharmacological Effects of Mangiferin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI Zhi-quan; DENG Jia-gang; YAN Li
2011-01-01
Mango leaves have been widely used in the clinical practice for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.Mangiferin,an effective constituent in the mango leaves,has multiple pharmacological actions involved in some basic pathological processes,such as inflammation,oxidative injury,tumor growth,micro-organism infections,metabolic regulations,and immunological regulations.The pharmacological effects of mangiferin from some published data are reviewed in this article.
Advertising Effectiveness In Events
Jain, Sushilkumar
2012-01-01
Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...
Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David R Lloyd
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.
Pleiotropic effects of statins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narasaraju Kavalipati
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe.