WorldWideScience

Sample records for agroecology

  1. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  2. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  3. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete......Darwinian evolution by natural selection is driven primarily by differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population. When the evolutionary interest of an individual is in conflict with the interests of the population, the genes increasing individual fitness at the cost...

  4. Book review: Agroecology in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroecology extends the boundaries of modern agriculture relying primarily on reductionistic scientific investigations of how plants and animals respond to and interact with the environment to a more holistic understanding between humans and nature to produce more sustainable agricultural systems th...

  5. The relationships between organic farming and agroecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellon, Stephane; Lamine, Claire; Ollivier, Guillaume; Abreu, Lucimar

    2009-01-01

    While acknowledging an extension of agroecology in the organic sector and a growing influence of agroecology in the academic world, we explore their relationships. These relationships cannot be reduced to an opposition between a scientific field and a practical domain. A Brazilian case study based on the analysis of researchers and social actors trajectories exemplifies the diversity of existing relations, whether inclusive or exclusive. With a literature review, this allows characterising th...

  6. Actors and networks of agroecology in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Jean-Christophe; Kibler, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of agroecology network led to a classification based on their conditions of emergence, their structure and governance mechanisms. The study points the strengths and weaknesses of the existing networks at the different scales. It shows that the different agroecology schools are not necessarily well coordinated at each level (national, regional, global) nor across levels for each agroecology school. The activities of a regional agroecology learning alliance should be grou...

  7. Towards Responsible Action through Agroecological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Lieblein

    Full Text Available In the Agroecology MSc Program in the Nordic Region, conventional training of routine skills and memorizing facts, principles and theories are only two components of the educational activities.We have established a dual learning ladder metaphor to explore the expanded learning process. To establish context and build relevance, student teams begin their studies in agroecology by working with farmers and other key clients in the food system. After exploring the current situation, students can step down the learning ladder to acquire additional needed information and skills. Next they explore the links between theory and application, and we provide a safe space to experiment with putting knowledge into directed action. To help clients plan for a desirable future in farming and food systems, students step up the learning ladder to practice their ability to think creatively about the future, and then to evaluate the expected impacts and potential implications of alternative scenarios. Underlying the learning of skills, principles, and methods for action are the internal values and attitudes that will motivate and drive students in their future work. These include individual learning as a process of practicing, assimilating, connecting, creating, and acting with responsibility. In this paper we describe the educational process used in agroecology, with the dual learning ladder as metaphor for both cognitive learning and personal growth.

  8. Towards Responsible Action through Agroecological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Francis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Agroecology MSc Program in the Nordic Region, conventional training of routine skills and memorizing facts, principles and theories are only two components of the educational activities.We have established a dual learning ladder metaphor to explore the expanded learning process. To establish context and build relevance, student teams begin their studies in agroecology by working with farmers and other key clients in the food system. After exploring the current situation, students can step down the learning ladder to acquire additional needed information and skills. Next they explore the links between theory and application, and we provide a safe space to experiment with putting knowledge into directed action. To help clients plan for a desirable future in farming and food systems, students step up the learning ladder to practice their ability to think creatively about the future, and then to evaluate the expected impacts and potential implications of alternative scenarios. Underlying the learning of skills, principles, and methods for action are the internal values and attitudes that will motivate and drive students in their future work. These include individual learning as a process of practicing, assimilating, connecting, creating, and acting with responsibility. In this paper we describe the educational process used in agroecology, with the dual learning ladder as metaphor for both cognitive learning and personal growth.

  9. New Concepts in Agroecology: A Service-Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Andow, David A.; Mercer, Kristin L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe our pedagogical approaches and experiences with a novel course in agroecology (one semester, three credit-hours, for graduate students and upper level undergraduates). Our course responds to recent proposals that agroecology expand its disciplinary focus to include human factors as well as ecological factors, thus taking a more…

  10. Students Learning Agroecology: Phenomenon-Based Education for Responsible Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Edvin; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Preparing students for a complex and dynamic future is a challenge for educators. This article explores three crucial issues related to agroecological education and learning: (1) the phenomenological foundation for learning agroecology in higher education; (2) the process of students' interactions with a wide range of various learners within and…

  11. Agroecology of Novel Annual and Perennial Crops for Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production.......The agroecological potential of many crops under sustainable intensification has not been investigated. This study investigates such potential for novel annual and perennial crops grown for biomass production....

  12. Agroecología y sustentabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Gastón Gutiérrez Cedillo; Luis Isaac Aguilera Gómez; Carlos Ernesto González Esquivel

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo enfatiza la importancia de la agroecología en la búsqueda de la sustentabilidad en el manejo de recursos naturales en zonas rurales. Se inicia discutiendo la relevancia de lograr el equilibrio en tre los sistemas natural y social para la sustentabilidad. Se propone la interpretación integral de los sistemas naturales y humanos a través del concepto de coevolución, así como la incorporación de elementos socioculturales y económicos en el análisis de ecosistemas, enfatizando el re...

  13. Diagnosis production agroecology of Municipality Areia - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agroecology is on the concept of sustainable development whose primary objective is combining economic development with environmental conservation, being able to meet the needs of the current generation without depleting resources for the future. The municipality of Areia - PB has always had its economic development in footwear production and its derivatives, is known as "Land of rum and Rapadura”, two icons of the agricultural economy of Areia. Presents favorable conditions of climate, soil and topography in order to enable the coexistence of diverse cultures and its variations, however, local farmers only cultivate crops as banana, cassava, maize, beans and sugar-cane. This work aimed to evaluate the profile of the producer and the production of the municipality of Areia - PB, via a questionnaire applied to five associations of farmers and producer's fair, where you can see that the majority of producers are illiterate or just read or write, characteristic of small areas have on average 1 to 3 ha; occurs traditional cultivation of maize, beans and cassava, banana, and grown on a smaller scale are found orange, sugar-cane, sweet potatoes and vegetables, production is characteristic of subsistence.Key-words: agroecology, sustainable development, food security.

  14. Stephen R. Gliessman: Alfred E. Heller Professor of Agroecology, UC Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Reti, Irene H.

    2010-01-01

    An internationally recognized leader in the field of agroecology, Stephen (Steve) Gliessman is the Alfred E. Heller Professor of Agroecology in UC Santa Cruz’s Environmental Studies Department, where he has taught since 1981. He earned his doctorate in plant ecology at UC Santa Barbara, and was the founding director of the UCSC Agroecology Program (now the Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems). His teaching focuses on agroecology, sustainable agriculture, organic gardening, eth...

  15. Methodological difficulties of conducting agroecological studies from a statistical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianconi, A.; Dalgaard, Tommy; Manly, Bryan F J;

    2013-01-01

    Statistical methods for analysing agroecological data might not be able to help agroecologists to solve all of the current problems concerning crop and animal husbandry, but such methods could well help agroecologists to assess, tackle, and resolve several agroecological issues in a more reliable...... and accurate manner. Therefore, our goal in this paper is to discuss the importance of statistical tools for alternative agronomic approaches, because alternative approaches, such as organic farming, should not only be promoted by encouraging farmers to deploy agroecological techniques, but also by providing...

  16. Agroecology as a Science of Integration for Sustainability in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge contribution is provided in order to understand agroecology as both a scientific discipline and a philosophical paradigm for promoting sustainability in agriculture. The peculiar character of agroecology as an applied science based on the systems paradigm is explored in the fields of research and tuition. As an organisational capability of connecting different hierarchical levels in accordance with the goal of sustainability, integration is shown as an emergent property of the evolution of agriculture as a human activity system.

  17. The evolution of agroecology's concept as a science and a practice

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Vitoria; Bonaudo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Agroecology is a subject that has gained importance in the scientific domain since the last two decades. The use of the term agroecology in the scientific literature increased 60% in the last five years, comparing to its first citation in 1928 until 2007. In this bibliography our objective is to study the evolution of the concepts of agroecology taking into account these two dimensions: a science and a practice. As conclusion, we understand that the domain of agroecology concerns a lot more t...

  18. Agroecology as a science, a movement and a practice. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wezel, A.; Bellon, Stephane; Doré, Thierry; Francis, C.; Vallod, D.; David, C.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Agroecology involves various approaches to solve actual challenges of agricultural production. Though agroecology initially dealt primarily with crop production and protection aspects, in recent decades new dimensions such as environmental, social, economic, ethical and development issues are becoming relevant. Today, the term 'agroecology' means either a scientific discipline, agricultural practice, or political or social movement. Here we study the different meanin...

  19. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  20. Agro-ecological engineering in China: a way towards sustainableagriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable development, as a "hot topic", concerns not only economic development but also environmental protection. Agriculture, the base of other economic activities, has faced many difficulties that include over-growth population, land decrease, end land degradation and so on. Therefore, how to increase the food supply, to meet the over-growth population demands, is the main taskall over the world at present, especially in the developing countries, such as China, but we also must protect agricultural environment for medinm- and long-term development simultaneously. Hence, sustainable development in agriculture is the most important estate that we must concern. Its sustainable development determines the sustainability of other economic development to a great extent. Despite Chinese government has paid much attention to develop agricultural production and obtained great successions, there are also many shortcomings in Chinese agriculture. Therefore, China must seek new approaches for its development end environmental protection that suit local conditions and are based on local resources. Agro-ecological engineering, the application of ecological engineering in agriculture, is very thriving in China in recent decades. In this paper, the ecological, economic and social benefits of agro-ecological engineering are analyzed. The principles are discussed. The results indicated that agro-ecological engineering can meet the farmer's short-, medium- and long-term benefits. In the meanwhile, it also concerns not only economic benefits but ecological and social benefits. Therefore, agro-ecological engineering is a way that leads to sustainable agriculture in the future in China.

  1. Toward thick legitimacy: Creating a web of legitimacy for agroecology

    OpenAIRE

    Maywa Montenegro de Wit; Alastair Iles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Legitimacy is at the heart of knowledge politics surrounding agriculture and food. When people accept industrial food practices as credible and authoritative, they are consenting to their use and existence. With their thick legitimacy, industrial food systems paralyze the growth of alternative agricultures, including agroecology. Questions of how alternative agricultures can attain their own thick legitimacy in order to compete with, and displace, that of industrial food have not yet...

  2. Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Papaïx, Julien; Burdon, Jeremy J; Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Remnant areas hosting natural vegetation in agricultural landscapes can impact the disease epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of crop pathogens. However, the potential consequences for crop diseases of the composition, the spatial configuration and the persistence time of the agro-ecological interface – the area where crops and remnant vegetation are in contact – have been poorly studied. Here, we develop a demographic–genetic simulation model to study how the spatial and temporal distrib...

  3. Sustainable agriculture: An assessment of Brazil's family farm programmes in scaling up agroecological food production

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Ben; Nehring, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Agroecology in Brazil is quickly gaining momentum with the recent passing of Decree 7.794 of 20 August 2012 for a National Policy for Agroecology and Organic Production (PLANAPO) and strong support from civil society organisations. While PLANAPO was officially launched on 17 October 2013, the implementation of this policy in terms of outreach, coverage and effectiveness is yet to be determined. This study examines agroecological farm production in Brazil and the effectiveness of family farm p...

  4. Toward thick legitimacy: Creating a web of legitimacy for agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maywa Montenegro de Wit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Legitimacy is at the heart of knowledge politics surrounding agriculture and food. When people accept industrial food practices as credible and authoritative, they are consenting to their use and existence. With their thick legitimacy, industrial food systems paralyze the growth of alternative agricultures, including agroecology. Questions of how alternative agricultures can attain their own thick legitimacy in order to compete with, and displace, that of industrial food have not yet attracted much scrutiny. We show that both agroecological and scientific legitimacy grow out of a web of legitimation processes in the scientific, policy, political, legal, practice, and civic arenas. Crucially, legitimation often comes through meeting what we call ‘credibility tests’. Agroecologists can learn to navigate these co-constituted, multiple bases of legitimacy by paying attention to how credibility tests are currently being set in each arena, and beginning to recalibrate these tests to open more room for agroecology. Using a schematic of three non-exclusive pathways, we explore some possible practical interventions that agroecologists and other advocates of alternative agricultures could take. These pathways include: leveraging, while also reshaping, the existing standards and practices of science; extending influence into policy, legal, practical, and civic arenas; and centering attention on the ethical legitimacy of food systems. We conclude that agroecologists can benefit from considering how to build legitimacy for their work.

  5. “I made a pact with God, with nature, and with myself” : exploring deep agroecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veira Botelho, Maria Izabel; Cardoso, Irene; Otsuki, K.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the consequences of agroecology for smallholders’ personal and social world in a coffee-growing region of Zona da Mata in Brazil. Agroecology is usually considered a technically and politically rational approach for smallholders to counter large-scale agribusinesses. However,

  6. Co-creation in the practice, science and movement of agroecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milgroom, J.; Bruil, Janneke; Leeuwis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge building is central to agroecology rooted in family farming. But why? What type of knowledge, and whose knowledge is mobilised? This issue of Farming Matters explores what we really mean by co-creation of knowledge in agroecology, why it is so essential for today’s challenges, and how it t

  7. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; WU; Zichen; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers,to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection.This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technological reserve,failure to bring into play expected compensation effect due to scant attention,and failure to set up perfect input mechanism due to insufficient financing channel.In line with these problems,it came up with feasible policy recommendations,including strictly implementing top frame design for agro-ecological compensation and giving impetus to standardized and institutionalized work,building pilot demonstration area for agro-ecological compensation,setting up diversified agro-ecological compensation approaches,establishing long-term security mechanism for agro-ecological compensation,and strengthening propaganda and education of agro-ecological compensation.It is expected to provide reference for establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,and also provide system guarantee for promoting ecological progress and agricultural modernization in Jiangsu Province.

  8. Agroecological Formación in Rural Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils McCune

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the many sectors currently engaged in struggle against the corporate food system, small farmers play a particularly important role—not only do they constitute a legitimate alternative to global agribusiness, but also they are the heirs to long traditions of local knowledge and practice. In defending peasant agriculture, rural social movements defend popular control over seeds and genetic resources, water, land and territory against the onslaught of globalized financial capital. A framework called food sovereignty has been developed by the international peasant movement La Via Campesina (LVC, to encompass the various elements of a food system alternative based on reclaiming popular resource control, defending small-scale agriculture and traditional knowledge, rebuilding local circuits of food and labor, and recovering the ecological processes that can make farming sustainable. Recognizing the need to develop “movement people” capable of integrating many ecological, social, cultural and political criteria into their organizational activities, LVC increasingly has articulated processes of popular education and consciousness-raising as part of the global social movement for agroecology and food sovereignty. Given the enormous diversity of organizations and actors in LVC, an underlying feature known in Spanish as diálogo de saberes (roughly the equivalent of “dialogue between ways of knowing” has characterized LVC processes of education, training, formation and exchange in agroecology. The diálogo de saberes takes place at the level of training centers and schools of the LVC organizations, as well as the larger scale of agricultural landscapes and peasant territories. The interactions between peasant, family or communal farmers, their organizations, their youth and their agroecology create social processes that assume the form and dynamic of a social movement in several countries of Latin America.

  9. Agroecology and biodiversity of the catchment area of Swat River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agroecological studies of the of the Swat River catchment area showed that the terrestrial ecosystem of the area is divided into subtropical, humid temperate, cool temperate, cold temperate, subalpine, alpine and cold desert zones. Indicator species along with their altitudinal limits are specified for each zone. Unplanned population growth, agriculture extension, habitat losses, deforestation, environmental pollution and unwise use of natural resources are threats to the natural biodiversity of these zones. Its severity is very evident in the subtropical and humid temperate zones. The losses encountered to the biodiversity of the area under the influence of various anthropogenic stresses are highlighted. (author)

  10. Agroecology: foundations in agrarian social thought and sociological theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Guzmán, Eduardo; Woodgate, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo examina los orígenes y el impacto de la modernización agrícola para revelar las bases sociales de la agroecología como disciplina científica y como movimiento social agrario. El impacto del capitalismo en las sociedades rurales ha proporcionado un enfoque para el pensamiento y la movilización social desde el siglo XIX y, así, tomamos en consideración algunos de los discursos en conflicto que han acompañado al desarrollo de la agricultura industrial. También reflex...

  11. Agroecología, territorio, recampesinización y movimientos sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michael Rosset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el fenómeno de la agroecología en el contexto actual de disputa por los territorios rurales entre el agronegocio, y otros acaparadores de tierras, y el campesinado organizado y sus aliados. Usando los conceptos de soberanía alimentaria, territorios material e inmaterial en disputa y recampesinización, se explica el mayor énfasis que los movimientos sociales rurales dan a la agroecología en este contexto. Se muestran ejemplos de “Campesino a Campesino,” tanto un movimiento propio, como una meto- dología que otros movimientos sociales rurales han usado para llevar la agroecología a mayor escala y se analiza el proceso creciente de construcción de procesos de agroecología dentro del movimiento social transnacional, de movimientos rurales, organizaciones campesinas y agricultores familiares, La Vía Campesina ( LVC .

  12. Agroecological evaluation of soils suitable for viniculture on the southeastern macroslope of the Great Caucasus (Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, G. Sh.; Yusifova, M. M.

    2013-08-01

    Data on the agroecological evaluation of soils suitable for viniculture on the southeastern macroslope of the Great Caucasus in Azerbaijan are discussed. The quality of major soil types and subtypes has been assessed on the basis of special scales developed for the particular soil properties. The agroecological classes of soils have been specified, and the limiting and favorable ecological factors for winegrowing have been determined. On this basis, the areas with best ecological conditions for the development of viniculture have been outlined.

  13. Organic certification, agro-ecological practices and return on investment: Farm level evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemann, Linda; Abdulai, Awudu

    2012-01-01

    The recent empirical literature on economic sustainability of certified export crops shows that certification standards that enhance yields are important for improving farm revenues and farmer welfare. However, limited evidence exists on the impact of organic certification on the adoption of agro-ecological practices. In this study, we use unique farm-level data from Ghana to examine the impact of organic certification on the use of agro-ecological practices to improve environmental condition...

  14. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Zichen

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers, to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection. This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province, including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technolo...

  15. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  16. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  17. Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaïx, Julien; Burdon, Jeremy J; Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    Remnant areas hosting natural vegetation in agricultural landscapes can impact the disease epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of crop pathogens. However, the potential consequences for crop diseases of the composition, the spatial configuration and the persistence time of the agro-ecological interface - the area where crops and remnant vegetation are in contact - have been poorly studied. Here, we develop a demographic-genetic simulation model to study how the spatial and temporal distribution of remnant wild vegetation patches embedded in an agricultural landscape can drive the emergence of a crop pathogen and its subsequent specialization on the crop host. We found that landscape structures that promoted larger pathogen populations on the wild host facilitated the emergence of a crop pathogen, but such landscape structures also reduced the potential for the pathogen population to adapt to the crop. In addition, the evolutionary trajectory of the pathogen population was determined by interactions between the factors describing the landscape structure and those describing the pathogen life histories. Our study contributes to a better understanding of how the shift of land-use patterns in agricultural landscapes might influence crop diseases to provide predictive tools to evaluate management practices. PMID:25926883

  18. How to measure the agroecological performance of farming in order to assist with the transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008.

  19. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina.

  20. How to measure the agroecological performance of farming in order to assist with the transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008. PMID:26527345

  1. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina. PMID:26348151

  2. Agroecología: plantando las raíces de la resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gliessman, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    La agroecología actual se centra claramente en llevar la sostenibilidad a la producción de alimentos, concentrados y fibra. Pero también hay un mayor enfoque sobre los “conductores” sociales, económicos y políticos que mueven los sistemas alimentarios más allá de las condiciones que ha creado la insostenibilidad en la agricultura moderna industrial. Con su fundamento en el ecosistema, la ciencia de la agroecología se ha convertido en una herramienta poderosa para el cambio del ...

  3. Agroecología: promoviendo una transición hacia la sostenibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Gliessman; F. J. Rosado-May; C. Guadarrama Zugasti; Jedlicka, J.; V. E. Mendez; Cohen, R.; L. Trujillo; Bacon, C; A. Cohn; Jaffe, R

    2007-01-01

    Agroecología: promoviendo una transición hacia la sostenibilidad. En este artículo se define agroecología como la aplicación de los conceptos y prinicipios ecológicos al diseño y manejo de los sistemas alimentarios sostenibles. Se presentan los argumentos principales que sostienen la validez, importancia y pertinencia del enfoque agroecológico, no solo para entender los procesos involucrados en la producción de alimentos, sino para proponer alternativas que conduzcan a esos procesos ...

  4. Agroecología, territorio, recampesinización y movimientos sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Michael Rosset; María Elena Martínez Torres

    2016-01-01

    El artículo analiza el fenómeno de la agroecología en el contexto actual de disputa por los territorios rurales entre el agronegocio, y otros acaparadores de tierras, y el campesinado organizado y sus aliados. Usando los conceptos de soberanía alimentaria, territorios material e inmaterial en disputa y recampesinización, se explica el mayor énfasis que los movimientos sociales rurales dan a la agroecología en este contexto. Se muestran ejemplos de “Campesino ...

  5. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Agroecological zones (AEZ's) have traditionally been defined by integrating multiple layers of biophysical (e.g. climate, soil, terrain) and occasionally socioeconomic data to create unique zones with specific ranges of land use constraints and potentials. Our approach to defining AEZ's assumes that current agricultural land uses have emerged as a consequence of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers. Therefore, we explore the concept that AEZ's can be derived from classifying the geographic distribution of current agricultural systems (e.g. the wheat-fallow cropping system zone) based on spatially geo-referenced annual cropland use data that is currently available through the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS). By defining AEZ's in this way, we expect to: (1) provide baseline information that geographically delineates the boundaries of current AEZ's and subzones and therefore the capacity to evaluate shifts in AEZ boundaries over time; (2) assess the biophysical (e.g. climate, soils, terrain) and socioeconomic factors (e.g. commodity prices) that are most useful for predicting and correctly classifying current AEZ's, subzones or future shifts in AEZ boundaries; (3) identify and develop AEZ-relevant climate mitigation and adaptation strategies; and (4) integrate biophysical and socioeconomic data sources to pursue a transdisciplinary examination of climate-driven AEZ futures. Achieving these goals will aid in realizing major objectives for a USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, Cooperative Agricultural Project entitled "Regional Approaches to Climate Change (REACCH) for Pacific Northwest Agriculture". REACCH is a research, education and extension project under the leadership of the University of Idaho with significant collaboration from Washington State University, Oregon State University and the USDA Agricultural Research Service that is working towards increasing the capacity of Inland Pacific

  6. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  7. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  8. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  9. Formalizing agro-ecological knowledge for future-oriented land use studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : agro-ecological engineering, land use system, modeling, uncertainty, temporal variability, Costa Rica, West Africa.Identification and ex-ante assessment of alternative land use systems is increasingly important to

  10. Genetic Diversity of Parkia biglobosa from Different Agroecological Zones of Nigeria Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Amusa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. is an important leguminous tree crop in the African Savannahs useful to the natives where it is found, for domestic use. Previous diversity studies on this tree crop had been majorly on morphological and biochemical analysis. In order to capture the maximum diversity not obtained by previous research, the study aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity of accessions of this crop in the different agroecological zones in Nigeria using RAPD markers. A total of 81 scorable bands with an average of 8.1 bands per primer were amplified among the accessions studied. Intrazonal genetic diversity analysis showed a percentage polymorphism with a range of 11.11% to 65.43% among the agroecological zones studied. Although, gene diversity was highest within Humid forest agroecological zone, a low genetic distance and high genetic similarity between the agroecological zones were observed. Cluster analysis indicated six main groups of which four groups had single accessions while the two groups clustered the remaining accessions, indicating a narrowed genetic base from the 23 accessions studied.

  11. IT-based soil quality evaluation for agroecologically smart land-use planning in RF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Activated in the first decades of XXI century global climate, economy and farming changes sharply actualized novel IT-based approaches in soil quality evaluation to address modern agricultural issues with agroecologically smart land-use planning. Despite global projected climate changes will affect a general decline of crop yields (IPCC 2014), RF boreal and subboreal regions will benefit from predicted and already particularly verified temperature warming and increased precipitation (Valentini, Vasenev, 2015) due to essential increasing of growing season length and mild climate conditions favorable for most prospective crops and best available agrotechnologies. However, the essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central European region of Russia which is one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF. In these conditions potentially favorable climate circumstances will increase not only soil fertility and workability features but also their dynamics and spatial variability that determine crucial issues of IT-based soil quality evaluation systems development and agroecologically smart farming planning. Developed and verified within the LAMP project (RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regionally adapted DSS (ACORD-R - RF #2012612944) gives effective informational and methodological support for smart farming agroecological optimization in global climate and farming changes challenges. Information basis for agroecologically smart land-use planning consists of crops and agrotechnologies requirements, regional and local systems of agroecological zoning, local landscape and soil cover patterns, land quality and degradation risk assessments, current and previous farming practices results, agroclimatic predictions and production agroecological models, environmental limitations and planned profitability, fertilizing efficiency DSS ACORD-R. Smart land-use practice refers to sustainable balance

  12. IT-based soil quality evaluation for agroecologically smart land-use planning in RF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Activated in the first decades of XXI century global climate, economy and farming changes sharply actualized novel IT-based approaches in soil quality evaluation to address modern agricultural issues with agroecologically smart land-use planning. Despite global projected climate changes will affect a general decline of crop yields (IPCC 2014), RF boreal and subboreal regions will benefit from predicted and already particularly verified temperature warming and increased precipitation (Valentini, Vasenev, 2015) due to essential increasing of growing season length and mild climate conditions favorable for most prospective crops and best available agrotechnologies. However, the essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central European region of Russia which is one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF. In these conditions potentially favorable climate circumstances will increase not only soil fertility and workability features but also their dynamics and spatial variability that determine crucial issues of IT-based soil quality evaluation systems development and agroecologically smart farming planning. Developed and verified within the LAMP project (RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regionally adapted DSS (ACORD-R - RF #2012612944) gives effective informational and methodological support for smart farming agroecological optimization in global climate and farming changes challenges. Information basis for agroecologically smart land-use planning consists of crops and agrotechnologies requirements, regional and local systems of agroecological zoning, local landscape and soil cover patterns, land quality and degradation risk assessments, current and previous farming practices results, agroclimatic predictions and production agroecological models, environmental limitations and planned profitability, fertilizing efficiency DSS ACORD-R. Smart land-use practice refers to sustainable balance

  13. Agroecología: Desafíos de una ciencia ambiental en construcción

    OpenAIRE

    León Sicard, Tomás Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Este documento presenta algunas razones que sustentan la idea de que la agroecología es una ciencia ambiental, discute la definición de agroecosistema como objeto de estudio de la agroecología y las derivaciones discursivas de tipo político y social que inspira esta ciencia. Además, examina algunos campos de análisis autónomos de la agroecología y la conexión de esta ciencia con otras disciplinas y ramas del conocimiento. Finalmente, se exploran algunos significados de la ...

  14. Agroecología y movimientos agroalimentarios alternativos en los Estados Unidos: Hacia un sistema agroalimentario sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Margarita; Goodall, Katherine; Richards, Meryl; Mendez, V. Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    El concepto de agroecología en Estados Unidos nace de un proceso dialéctico de coproducción de conocimiento por el cual la ciencia de la agroecología ha formado, y se ha formado a sí misma, gracias a movimientos agroalimentarios, políticas y prácticas locales alternativas. Este artículo examina la relación entre la agroecología y los movimientos agroalimentarios alternativos e identifica oportunidades para un mayor compromiso. El artículo concluye con una discusión sobre los re...

  15. Biodiversity and agro-ecology in field margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauwer, B; Reheul, D; Nijs, I; Milbau, A

    2005-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study investigates agro-ecological functions (nature conservation, agriculture, environment) and implications of newly created, mown sown and unsown field margin strips installed on ex-arable land to increase biodiversity. From conservational concern, the development of species rich field margin strips was not strongly affected by the installed type of margin strip since species diversity converged over time, whether strips were sown or not. Convergence between unsown and sown margin strips occurred also in terms of species composition: unsown and sown strips became similar over time. Mowing without removal of cuttings significantly reduced species richness, yielded more grassy margin strips and delayed similarity in species composition between sown and unsown margin strips. Species richness on the longer term was not significantly affected by light regime nor by disturbance despite significant temporary effects shortly after the disturbance event. On the contrary vegetation composition in terms of importance of functional groups changed after disturbance: the share of spontaneous species within functional groups increased resulting in higher similarity between the sown and unsown vegetation. Furthermore risk of invasion was highest in the disturbed unsown community on the unshaded side of a tree lane. A positive effect of botanical diversity on insect number and diversity was found. However the effects of botanical diversity on insect number was mediated by light regime. At high light availability differences between plant communities were more pronounced compared to low light availablilty. The abundance of some insect families was dependent on the vegetation composition. Furthermore light availability significantly influenced insect diversity as well as the spatial distribution of families. From agricultural concern, installing margin strips by sowing a species mixture and a mowing regime with removal of cuttings are good practices to

  16. Social innovation in the commercialization of organic and agroecological products of family farming in Brazil’s Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pierre Sabourin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Federal District and particularly the city of Brasilia constitute a booming market for organic and agro-ecological products. This paper develops a characterization of the modes of family farmer’s organization for marketing of organic and agro-ecological products in the Federal District of Brasilia. The methodology has associated an analysis of documents and statistics and interviews of the various actors of the two main chains of products in the Federal District: producers of the agro-ecological fairs, farmer’s organizations, supermarkets, extension agents and technicians of public agencies. Family farmers have progressively invested the short food chains with direct sales and agro-ecological fairs, through specific and innovative modalities of coordination and organization. The main results show a combination between formal and informal status and institutions and the mobilization of renewed forms of reciprocity, mutual help and collective learning.

  17. Agro-Ecology and Irrigation Technology : Comparative Research on Farmer-Management Irrigation Systems in the Mid- Hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and examines their relationships with irrigation infrastructure, especially water division structures. Of the various types of water division structures, this thesis concentrates mainly on the proportioning weir, w...

  18. Agroecology in the tropics: Achieving a balance between land use and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliessman, Stephen R.

    1992-11-01

    Agroecology is the application of ecological concepts and principles to the design and management of sustainable agricultural systems. An agroecological approach to agriculture has special importance in the humid tropics where agricultural development and the preservation of tropical forests are most often in direct conflict. It is proposed that a more sustainable approach to development is needed, where agroecosystems depend on low external inputs, function more on the use of locally available and renewable resources, have benign impacts on the environment, and are based on the knowledge and culture of the local inhabitants. Examples of traditional agroecosystem management in Mesoamerica that can provide this basis are presented. The preservation of both biological and cultural diversity are integral to the long-term sustainable management of natural resources in the tropics.

  19. Anotaciones para una historia de la agroecología en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Cecilia Rivera; Tomás Enrique León Sicard

    2013-01-01

    En este texto se consignan los testimonios de algunos pioneros de la agroecología en Colombia que tienen como fin destacar momentos importantes de la consolidación de este proceso en nuestro país. Tales relatos están contextualizados a partir de una aproximación a la definición de agroecología y sus derivaciones de acuerdo con las tendencias y las discusiones de la época narrada, que se sitúa entre finales de 1980 y la primera década del año 2000. La información se recopiló mediante documento...

  20. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  1. Study on the morphology and agroecology of creat (Andrographis panculata ness.) in various habitat

    OpenAIRE

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO; JODY MOENANDIR; SYAMSULBAHRI; KUSWANTO

    2007-01-01

    Raw material supply which still depends on nature has caused genetic erotion of medicinal plants. The objectives of the research were to study creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness.) morphology; and agroecology in many habitat for cultivated be medical substance. The research were conducted at three different locations, ie. at lowland ( 700 m asl.). The result showed that creat growth on 180 m – 861 m above sea level wit...

  2. Anotaciones para una historia de la agroecología en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cecilia Rivera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se consignan los testimonios de algunos pioneros de la agroecología en Colombia que tienen como fin destacar momentos importantes de la consolidación de este proceso en nuestro país. Tales relatos están contextualizados a partir de una aproximación a la definición de agroecología y sus derivaciones de acuerdo con las tendencias y las discusiones de la época narrada, que se sitúa entre finales de 1980 y la primera década del año 2000. La información se recopiló mediante documentos escritos y relatos de académicos, directores de organizaciones no gubernamentales y profesionales de diferentes disciplinas, que han trabajado activamente en el tema (17 entrevistas semiestructuradas. El resultado es  una revisión histórica de la gestación y difusión  de la agroecología en Colombia, a partir de experiencias individuales e institucionales originadas inicialmente alrededor de la agricultura ecológica.

  3. 农业生态学的新视野%New dimensions in agroecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文雄; 陈婷; 周明明

    2012-01-01

    The authors reviewed the developmental history and characteristics of agroecology, and pointed out that the research areas of agroecology were broadening in both macroscopic and microscopic aspects, and the researches were going more deeply. On the macroscopic level, the investigation of agroecology was expanding from a pure macroscopic study of agricultural biology to a sociological study concerning the issues related to agriculture, fanner and rural areas. The research works shifted from the relationships between structure and function of agroecosystem to the food system. The major task was to study the impacts of the energy and material flow in agroecosystem on the social and economic development, and the regulation of food system by policy and laws from the eco-economic perspective. Modern agroecology emphasized the awakening of social ecological consciousness and the important role of ecological consciousness which played great roles in the protection of argoecosystem and the promotion of pollution-free production. Therefore, in western countries, community movements or actions were important ways that agroecologists relied on to make government, production units, sell units and administrations accept the agroecological concepts, act in compliance withagroecological laws and ensure the health and efficiency of the food system. These activities had become essential subjects in the education, research and practice of modem agroecology, which involved all processes in agroecology, including scientific research, demonstration and its extension of experiments, promotion by society or association actions, spontaneous participation of publics. All these efforts embodied the feature of the modern agroecology.On the microscopic level, modern agroecology was entering the age of molecular agroecology. Molecular agroecology employed the state-of-art techniques of modern biology and introduced the theories and assays from systems biology to unveil the underlying

  4. Combined agro-ecological strategies for adaptation of organic horticultural systems to climate change in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Diacono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity and related agro-ecological measures could play a crucial role in the agro-ecosystems adaptation to climate changes, thus sustaining crop production. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability (and the best combination of agro-ecological techniques as potential resilience strategies in organic horticultural systems in a Mediterranean environment. A long-term experimental device called MITIORG (Long-term climatic change adaptation in organic farming: synergistic combination of hydraulic arrangement, crop rotations, agro-ecological service crops and agronomic techniques is set-up at Metaponto (MT, testing the following agro-ecological measures as well as organic and conservation farming best practices: i hydraulic arrangement by a kind of ridge-furrow system; ii cash crop rotations; iii agro-ecological service crops (ASC introduction; iv ASC termination techniques (green manure vs roller crimper; and v organic fertilisation. The research here reported was carried out during the 2014-2015 season in the MITIORG device, on a rotation of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crops. A detailed description of the scientific cognitive process that led to setup of the device, its components explanation, as well as preliminary yield results are reported. The outcomes suggest that organic vegetable cropping systems, designed following agro-ecological principles, are able to sustain yield of cash crops in rotation, in spite of changes in temperature and rainfall of the study site. Experimental data available in the next years will allow a deeper integrated analysis of the manifold effects of agro-ecological measures on horticultural systems.

  5. Towards sustainable food systems: the concept of agroecology and how it questions current research practices. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a promising concept for achieving greater sustainability. This paper offers an overview and discussion of the concept based on existing literature and case studies, and explores the way it questions our current research approaches and education paradigms. Literature. In order to improve the sustainability of agriculture, the use of external and chemical inputs needs to be minimized. Agroecological farming practices seek to optimize ecological processes, thus minimizing the need for external inputs by providing an array of ecosystem services. Implementing such practices challenges the current structure of the food system, which has been criticized for its lack of social relevance and economic viability. An agroecological approach includes all stakeholders, from field to fork, in the discussion, design and development of future food systems. This inclusion of various disciplines and stakeholders raises issues about scientists and their research practices, as well as about the education of the next generation of scientists. Conclusions. Agroecology is based on the concept that agricultural practices and food systems cannot be dissociated because they belong to the same natural and socio-economic context. Clearly, agroecology is not a silver-bullet, but its principles can serve as avenues for rethinking the current approaches towards achieving greater sustainability. Adapting research approaches in line with indicators that promote inter- and transdisciplinary research is essential if progress is to be made.

  6. La agroecología postproductivista en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Márquez, Martín; Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    1998-01-01

    El trabajo presenta, en el contexto de la PAC (Política Agraria Comunitaria), una mirada amplia para detectar la situación de la agricultura ecológica en Andalucía en los momentos finales del s. XX. Partiendo del contexto general de la agroecología en España, se analizan cuestiones como la distribución provincial de este tipo de actividad agraria en Andalucía, la estructura del sector según cultivos y la situación de la actividad industrial derivada de esta producción agroecológica.

  7. Agroecología : Bases teóricas para el diseño y manejo de agroecosistemas sustentables

    OpenAIRE

    Sarandón, Santiago Javier; Flores, Claudia Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    El libro Agroecología y Desarrollo Sustentable, editado por Santiago J. Sarandon y Claudia Cecilia Flores de La Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales de la UNLP, viene a llenar un gran vacío en nuestra literatura agroecológica al entregarnos un libro adaptado a las necesidades del currículo agronómico que se desarrolla en la mayoría de las Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Agropecuaria en América Latina. El libro se suma a la escuela de pensamiento que define a la Agroecología c...

  8. La agroecología como un enfoque transdisciplinar, participativo y orientado a la acción

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Méndez, V.; Bacon, Christopher M; Cohen, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo examina las múltiples direcciones en la evolución de la agroecología, desde su temprano énfasis en los procesos ecológicos de los sistemas agrícolas, hasta su desarrollo como planteamiento multidimensional amplio, y orientado hacia los sistemas agroalimentarios. La publicación de esta edición especial es muy oportuna, pues la agroecología se está aplicando cada vez más en diversas iniciativas científicas, políticas y prácticas. En este artículo contrastamos distin...

  9. The Cook Agronomy Farm LTAR: Knowledge Intensive Precision Agro-ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drowning in data and starving for knowledge, agricultural decision makers require evidence-based information to enlighten sustainable intensification. The agro-ecological footprint of the Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) site is embedded within 9.4 million ha of diverse land uses primarily cropland (2.9 million ha) and rangeland (5.3 million ha) that span a wide annual precipitation gradient (150 mm through 1400 mm) with diverse social and natural capital (see Figure). Sustainable intensification hinges on the development and adoption of precision agro-ecological practices that rely on meaningful spatio-temporal data relevant to land use decisions at within-field to regional scales. Specifically, the CAF LTAR will provide the scientific foundation (socio-economical and bio-physical) for enhancing decision support for precision and conservation agriculture and synergistic cropping system intensification and diversification. Long- and short-term perspectives that recognize and assess trade-offs in ecosystem services inherent in any land use decision will be considered so as to promote the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. Presented will be current and future CAF LTAR research efforts required for the development of sustainable agricultural systems including cropping system cycles and flows of nutrients, water, carbon, greenhouse gases and other biotic and abiotic factors. Evaluation criteria and metrics associated with long-term agro-ecosystem provisioning, supporting, and regulating services will be emphasized.

  10. Agro-food Quality and Safety Based on Agro-ecological Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Reflection of the rise of agro-food production costs is analyzed based on the introduction of the quality safety situation of agricultural products in China.Firstly,rise of production costs caused by the demarcation of prohibited areas;secondly,rise of production costs caused by using environment-friendly agricultural inputs;thirdly,rise of production costs caused by quality control;fourthly,rise of production costs caused by product identification.The ecological compensation mechanism which is beneficial to agro-food quality safety is set up according to the principle "the one who is benefited compensates".Firstly,laws and regulations of agricultural production compensation are to be actively perfected.Secondly,experience of developed countries can be borrowed to establish a fiscal transfer payment system of production compensation.Thirdly,ecological agriculture is to be developed to produce products with safety and excellent quality.Since agro-ecological compensation can make up for the costs paid for protecting agro-ecological environment and producing safe agro-products by agro-food producers and is beneficial to motivating producers’ initiative,compensation is made for agricultural producers from compensation objects,compensation scope and compensation mechanism to improve the quality safety level of agricultural products.

  11. Interinstitutional relations on agro-ecological fairs in the region of Campina Grande-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramonildes Alves Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the State’s strategies to promote family farming, the practice of agroecology opens up possibilities for increased production and economic dynamism, combining ecological processes to social structures and giving importance to peculiar attributes of local territories. In this article, it highlights the practice of ecologic based agriculture that has increased visibility in the region of Campina Grande-Paraíba State (Brazil, where there are seven Agro-ecological Fairs. It is discussed how farmers, Labor Unions, NGOs and Government Agencies interact for carrying out the mentioned fairs, using as analytical perspective the Actor-Network Theory (ANT, by Bruno Latour. For that, it was used as investigative techniques the non-interventional observation, documental research and semi-structured interviews with the farmers and the different representatives that support the fairs. It’s concluded that the heterogenety on the networks shows differences about the affective support to family agriculture in this research field. JEL-Code | O13; Q18; Q58.

  12. Open-Ended Cases in Agroecology: Farming and Food Systems in the Nordic Region and the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Charles; King, James; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Salomonsson, Lennart; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Porter, Paul; Wiedenhoeft, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Our aim is to describe open-ended case studies for learning real-life problem solving skills, and relate this approach to conventional, closed-ended decision case studies. Teaching methods are open-ended cases in agroecology, an alternative to traditional strategies that lead students through prepared materials and structured discussions to…

  13. Resource use and food self-sufficiency at farm scale within two agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and management are major determinants of the food self-sufficiency of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Rwanda in two contrasting agro-ecological zones (Central plateau and Buberuka) to characterise farms, quantify their resource flows, and evaluate the

  14. The long-term agroecological research (LTAR) experiment supports organic yields, soil quality, and economic performance in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Long-Term Agroecological Research (LTAR) experiment, at the Iowa State University Neely-Kinyon Farm in Greenfield, Iowa, was established in 1998 to compare the agronomic, ecological and economic performance of conventional and organic cropping systems. The main goals of the project are to evalua...

  15. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. PMID:27475055

  16. Simulated potential and water-limited yields of cocoa under different agro-ecological zones in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabawi, A.G.M.; Gerritsma, W.

    2009-01-01

    The yield of cocoa under potential and water-limited production levels in different agro-ecological zones was simulated using cocoa model CASE2. For both production levels, the yield was simulated using five years of elirnatic data (1991-1995) and plant data of three-year-old plant. The results show

  17. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, B; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Jouven, M; Thomas, M; Tichit, M

    2013-06-01

    Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies, a finding that can be explained by the economic and regulatory constraints affecting animal production. Integrated management of animal health was seldom mobilized, as alternatives to chemical drugs have only recently been investigated, and the results are not yet transferable to farming practices. A number of ecological functions and ecosystem services (recycling of nutrients, forage yield, pollination, resistance to weed invasion, etc.) are closely linked to biodiversity, and their persistence depends largely on maintaining biological diversity in agroecosystems. We conclude that the development of such ecology

  19. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral

  20. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  1. The role of trees in agroecology and sustainable agriculture in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, Roger R B

    2014-01-01

    Shifting agriculture in the tropics has been replaced by sedentary smallholder farming on a few hectares of degraded land. To address low yields and low income both, the soil fertility, the agroecosystem functions, and the source of income can be restored by diversification with nitrogen-fixing trees and the cultivation of indigenous tree species that produce nutritious and marketable products. Biodiversity conservation studies indicate that mature cash crop systems, such as cacao and coffee with shade trees, provide wildlife habitat that supports natural predators, which, in turn, reduce the numbers of herbivores and pathogens. This review offers suggestions on how to examine these agroecological processes in more detail for the most effective rehabilitation of degraded land. Evidence from agroforestry indicates that in this way, productive and environmentally friendly farming systems that provide food and nutritional security, as well as poverty alleviation, can be achieved in harmony with wildlife.

  2. Beyond yields: Climate change effects on specialty crop quality and agroecological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change is impacting the sustainability of food systems through shifts in natural and human dimensions of agroecosystems that influence farmer livelihoods, consumer choices, and food security. This paper highlights the need for climate studies on specialty crops to focus not only on yields, but also on quality, as well as the ability of agroecological management to buffer climate effects on quality parameters. Crop quality refers to phytonutrient and secondary metabolite profiles and associated health and sensory properties that influence consumer buying decisions. Through two literature reviews, we provide examples of specialty crops that are vulnerable to climate effects on quality and examples of climate-resilient agroecological strategies. A range of specialty crops including fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, stimulants, and herbs were identified to respond to climate variables with changes in quality. The review on climate-resilient strategies to mitigate effects on crop quality highlighted a major gap in the literature. However, agricultural diversification emerged as a promising strategy for climate resilience more broadly and highlights the need for future research to assess the potential of diversified agroecosystems to buffer climate effects on crop quality. We integrate the concepts from our literature review within a socio-ecological systems framework that takes into account feedbacks between crop quality, consumer responses, and agroecosystem management. The presented framework is especially useful for two themes in agricultural development and marketing, nutrition-sensitive agriculture and terroir, for informing the design of climate-change resilient specialty crop systems focused on management of quality and other ecosystem services towards promoting environmental and human wellbeing.

  3. Impacts of the Climate Change on Agricultural Food Security, Traditional Knowledge and Agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on both impacts of the climate change on agriculture and food security, and multidisciplinary scientific assessment and recommendations for sustainable agro ecological solutions including traditional knowledge responding to these impacts. The climate change will very likely affect four key dimensions of the food security including availability, accessibility, utilization and sustainability of the food, due to close linkage between food and water security and climate change. In one of the most comprehensive model studies simulating impacts of global climate change on agriculture to date, it was estimated that by 2080, in a business-as-usual scenario, climate change will reduce the potential output of global agriculture by more than 3.2 per cent. Furthermore, developing countries will suffer the most with a potential 9.1 per cent decline in agricultural output, for example with a considerable decrease of 16.6 per cent in Africa. Some comprehensive studies pointed out also that all regions may experience significant decreases in crop yields as well as significant increases, depending on emission scenarios and the assumptions on effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2 fertilization. One of the tools that would ensure the food security by making use of local sources and traditional knowledge is agroecology. Agroecology would contribute to mitigation of the anthropogenic climate change and cooling down the Earth’s increasing surface and lower atmospheric air temperatures, because it is mainly labour-intensive and requires little uses of fossil fuels, energy and artificial fertilisers. It is also necessary to understand the ecological mechanisms underlying sustainability of traditional farming systems, and to translate them into ecological principles that make locally available and appropriate approaches and techniques applicable to a large number of farmers.

  4. Agroecological urban agriculture - strategy for health promotion and food and nutrition security - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p381

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To raise considerations about the agroecological urban agriculture, in articulation with movements for promotion of health and food and nutrition security, with participation of local communities. Data synthesis: Documental research carried out through the reading and analysis of report, field activities’ records, participants’ testimonies and interview performed with the project coordinator. The contribution of agroecological urban agriculture was perceivable in regard to the community protagonism, popular participation, and the rising of feeding and environmental awareness among social actors. Conclusion: Relevant aspects in consonance with the principles and fields of action of Health Promotion were identified, especially the strengthening of intersetorial actions, the local community empowerment, individual and collective protagonism, creation of health-friendly environments and community mobilization.

  5. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling;

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation....... Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic...

  6. A method combining simulation models and on farm surveys for ex ante assessment of agro-ecological innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Blazy, Jean-Marc; Ozier Lafontaine, Harry; Thomas, Alban; Meynard, Jean Marc,; Wery, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Agro-ecological innovations are needed to reduce the impacts of current intensive agricultural practices on biodiversity and ecosystems. Whereas many published studies focus on the biophysical impacts of such innovations at field level, few attention has been given to the analysis of the potential of adoption of these innovations at farm and regional levels. In order to reduce the gap between on station and in silico innovation and farmer’s adoption process, we developped an interdisciplinary...

  7. Assessment of soil fertility change and sustainability of agroecological management in different land use systems of the southern Ecuadorian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was conducted to investigate soil fertility changes and assess the sustainability of agroecological management in different land-use systems of the southern Ecuadorian Andes using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ecuador still holds the highest deforestation rate of all Latin American countries which also has a large impact in the research area by forest conversion into agricultural land. Agricultural land-use systems in the research area are multifaceted due to heterogeneous ...

  8. Effects of climatic conditions and agro-ecological settings on the productive efficiencies of small-holder farmers in Ethopia

    OpenAIRE

    Temesgen Tadesse Deressa

    2011-01-01

    This study argues that the adaptation measures farmers take to reduce the negative impacts of climate change do affect farmers’ efficiency of production. To support this argument, two steps were followed to understand how climatic factors especially long term average seasonal rainfall and temperature; and agro-ecological settings affect production efficiency in Ethiopian agriculture. In the first step, the stochastic frontier approach was employed to analyze the farm level technical efficie...

  9. Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

  10. Memorias del V Congreso Latinoamericano de Agroecología - SOCLA : Trabajos científicos y relatos de experiencias: la agroecología, un nuevo paradigma para redefinir la investigación, la educación y la extensión para una agricultura sustentable

    OpenAIRE

    Sarandón, Santiago J.; Abbona, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Este libro reúne los resúmenes de trabajos científicos y relatos de experiencias presentados en el V Congreso Latinoamericano de Agroecología, organizado por la Sociedad Científica Latinoamericana de Agroecología, que tuvo lugar en la ciudad de La Plata, Argentina, del 7 al 9 de Octubre del 2015. Los trabajos y experiencias abordan diferentes líneas temáticas del amplio campo de la Agroecología y tienen como objetivos: a) contribuir a la difusión de los avances en investigación agroecológica ...

  11. Land agroecological quality assessment in conditions of high spatial soil cover variability at the Pereslavskoye Opolye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morev, Dmitriy; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The essential spatial variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis and agroecological interpretation of representative soil cover spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. Pereslavskoye Opolye is traditionally actively used in agriculture due to dominated high-quality cultivated soddy-podzoluvisols which are relatively reached in organic matter (especially for conditions of the North part at the European territory of Russia). However, the soil cover patterns are often very complicated even within the field that significantly influences on crop yield variability and have to be considered in farming system development and land agroecological quality evaluation. The detailed investigations of soil regimes and mapping of the winter rye yield have been carried in conditions of two representative fields with slopes sharply contrasted both in aspects and degrees. Rye biological productivity and weed infestation have been measured in elementary plots of 0.25 m2 with the following analysis the quality of the yield. In the same plot soil temperature and moisture have been measured by portable devices. Soil sampling was provided from three upper layers by drilling. The results of ray yield detailed mapping shown high differences both in average values and within-field variability on different slopes. In case of low-gradient slope (field 1) there is variability of ray yield from 39.4 to 44.8 dt/ha. In case of expressed slope (field 2) the same species of winter rye grown with the same technology has essentially lower yield and within-field variability from 20 to 29.6 dt/ha. The

  12. Study on the morphology and agroecology of creat (Andrographis panculata ness. in various habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Raw material supply which still depends on nature has caused genetic erotion of medicinal plants. The objectives of the research were to study creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness. morphology; and agroecology in many habitat for cultivated be medical substance. The research were conducted at three different locations, ie. at lowland ( 700 m asl.. The result showed that creat growth on 180 m – 861 m above sea level with environmental conditions : temperature 20.320C – 26.930C, relative humidity 78% - 87%, perticipation 2053.2 mm/ year – 3555.6 mm/ year. The creat can growth on soil mineral that contains N medium, P low, K medium, Mg low, Ca verylow until low ,C organic low until medium, and pH less acid until acid. The heihgt plant of creat in middleland is the highest of in lowland and upland, that also leaf of creat. The flower, fruit, and root of creat as good as in the habitat various. The highest andrographolid contain in middleland (2.27%, whereas in lowland (1.37% and upland (0.89%.

  13. Implementing plant biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystems. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mire, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of sustainable agricultural production, agroecology aims at optimizing the economic and environmental performances of beneficial ecosystem services in order to (i increase the productivity and resilience of cultivated ecosystems and (ii preserve their natural resources. The maintenance of such performances is supported by research via the development of new tools that enhance plant tolerance to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Literature. Biostimulants can be used as a tool to complement the use of chemical inputs, by involving non-living-based products, or living-based products containing beneficial rhizosphere microbiome, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Pest management research has also made major advances in the development of efficient biocontrol methods. Elicitors and semiochemicals are considered to be some of the most promising tools for inducing plant resistance to various diseases and enhancing natural predation, respectively. Several products are already on the market. This review discusses current methods for exploiting and applying biostimulant and biocontrol products in contemporary agricultural systems. Future applications of these tools for sustainable management of cultivated ecosystems are also discussed. Conclusions. These tools are still difficult to use because of their lack of reliability in the field and their uneasy integration in the cropping systems. Further studies are needed to better understand the parameters influencing the efficiency of PGPR, elicitors and semiochemicals. Special attention needs to be given to the formulation and the interactions of these products with plant physiology and the environment.

  14. Gully Morphology and Rehabilitation Measures in Different Agroecological Environments of Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Kendie Addis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gully erosion is a serious threat to the society and environment of the study, primarily caused by surface runoff and dramatically accelerated due to rugged topography and human induced factors. Intensive measurements of gully characteristics were undertaken to investigate the morphologies of gully, while aiming for sustainable gully rehabilitation; therefore, a total of 63 gully samples from three different agroecologies were randomly observed. The morphological variability of measured gullies was evaluated and the resulting CVs had been between 0.27 and 0.39 except for gully length, which had highest variability (CV = 1.10. The highest gully length (2,400 m and highest lower width (6 m were observed on Dembia district, which might be due to the loose and pulverized condition of the soil. The correlation matrices for many parameters of gully morphology in different districts of Semien Gondar showed several sets of significant relationships. Some of the assessed gullies showed that appropriate physical gully control structures integrated with vegetative measures have resulted in a significant reduction of soil loss and stabilized the gully from further enlargement. There could be various justifications for the success of these structures; however, the most important measures were vegetative management and exclusion of cattle.

  15. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  16. Colored and agroecological cotton may be a sustainable solution for future textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness topics ofcolored cottonand fashion do not have any practical scientific literature published on the subject,only when the theme is treated primarily as the aim of sustainability. Colored and agroecological cotton, despite the limitation in color,could become an industrial production with less environmental, impact using less water. The aim of this study was to present the colored fiber and organic cotton, produced by small farmers in the Northeast region of Brazil, as an alternative product to promote sustainability in cotton agribusiness and the textile industry, and to identify the lack of scientific studies related to the theme. Surveys were carried out on available national literature and international database publications on the topic, and the results of research on toxic products used for the production of white cotton and textile industry were presented. Governmental incentives through funding agencies to farmers engaged in this production are suggested, in order to improve production and distribution. It is also necessary to provide the infrastructure necessary for this product to reach the global market, including in cooperation with poorer countries in order to promote changes in environmental impact worldwide in the fashion industry

  17. The Campesino-to-Campesino agroecology movement of ANAP in Cuba: social process methodology in the construction of sustainable peasant agriculture and food sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter Michael; Sosa, Braulio Machín; Jaime, Adilén María Roque; Lozano, Dana Rocío Ávila

    2011-01-01

    Agroecology has played a key role in helping Cuba survive the crisis caused by the collapse of the socialist bloc in Europe and the tightening of the US trade embargo. Cuban peasants have been able to boost food production without scarce and expensive imported agricultural chemicals by first substituting more ecological inputs for the no longer available imports, and then by making a transition to more agroecologically integrated and diverse farming systems. This was possible not so much because appropriate alternatives were made available, but rather because of the Campesino-a-Campesino (CAC) social process methodology that the National Association of Small Farmers (ANAP) used to build a grassroots agroecology movement. This paper was produced in a 'self-study' process spearheaded by ANAP and La Via Campesina, the international agrarian movement of which ANAP is a member. In it we document and analyze the history of the Campesino-to-Campesino Agroecology Movement (MACAC), and the significantly increased contribution of peasants to national food production in Cuba that was brought about, at least in part, due to this movement. Our key findings are (i) the spread of agroecology was rapid and successful largely due to the social process methodology and social movement dynamics, (ii) farming practices evolved over time and contributed to significantly increased relative and absolute production by the peasant sector, and (iii) those practices resulted in additional benefits including resilience to climate change. PMID:21284238

  18. Manipulating Crop Density to Optimize Nitrogen and Water Use: An Application of Precision Agroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.; Smith, J. L.; Keller, C. K.; Kruger, C.

    2011-12-01

    Rising levels of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment coupled with increasing population positions agriculture as a major contributor for supplying food and ecosystem services to the world. The concept of Precision Agroecology (PA) explicitly recognizes the importance of time and place by combining the principles of precision farming with ecology creating a framework that can lead to improvements in Nr use efficiency. In the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA, relationships between productivity, N dynamics and cycling, water availability, and environmental impacts result from intricate spatial and temporal variations in soil, ecosystem processes, and socioeconomic factors. Our research goal is to investigate N use efficiency (NUE) in the context of factors that regulate site-specific environmental and economic conditions and to develop the concept of PA for use in sustainable agroecosystems and science-based Nr policy. Nitrogen and plant density field trials with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA under long-term no-tillage management in 2010 and 2011. Treatments were imposed across environmentally heterogeneous field conditions to assess soil, crop and environmental interactions. Microplots with a split N application using 15N-labeled fertilizer were established in 2011 to examine the impact of N timing on uptake of fertilizer and soil N throughout the growing season for two plant density treatments. Preliminary data show that plant density manipulation combined with precision N applications regulated water and N use and resulted in greater wheat yield with less seed and N inputs. These findings indicate that improvements to NUE and agroecosystem sustainability should consider landscape-scale patterns driving productivity (e.g., spatial and temporal dynamics of water availability and N transformations) and would benefit from policy incentives that promote a PA

  19. Characteristics of Rural Poultry Production in Different Agroecological Zones in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cross-sectional was conducted to establish the characteristics of rural poultry production in Nyandarua, Nakuru and Laikipia districts of Kenya. Sites of diverse agroecological zones (AEZ) in the 3 district were selected, thus Ol Kalou in Nyandarua, Njoro in Nakuru and Ng'arua in Laikipia. Each site was divided into 4 clusters according to AEZ and land size. Systematic sampling techniques were applied to select farmers. A checklist was then used to collect the baseline information for every household. The study revealed that the average flock size was 17.3 chicken with Ng'arua region demonstrating the largest flock size of 21 chickens. The purpose of rearing indigenous chicken were stated as home consumption and sale of eggs and meat, hatching eggs, and as gifts.Farmers in Ng'arua region reported the highest sale of eggs and chicken meat. the average number of broodings per year, number of eggs laid before a chicken becomes broody, eggs set for hatching and hatchability was 2.5, 16.5, 11.1 and 84.2%, respectively. The average chick mortality reported by farmers in te first eight weeks was 47.9%. Disease especially Newcastle, were cited as the main cause of mortality. Farmers did not commonly practice selection for genetic improvement, but occasionally they purchased a cock or hen to control inbreeding. In all the 3 regions, 78.4% of the respondents indicated that women took greater responsibility and decision making in the production of indigenous chicken; 54.8% of farmers used different herbs to treat and control diseases. Conventional vaccination,disinfection and deworming rarely practiced. On most farms, chickens were left to scavenge around the homestead, often they were supplemented with kitchen leftovers and a handful of grains. The survey results demonstrated that there was potential for improving rural poultry production through interventions using appropriate technologies that are currently on-shelf

  20. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host-pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host-pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such interactions have for

  1. Economics of milk production of major dairy buffalo breeds by agro-ecological zones in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to compare costs of rearing and returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainous-AJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Hence, Nili-Ravi buffalo breed is more productive and yields better returns over Kundhi breed. Moreover, buffalo milk production is a profitable business in the country except in coastal areas of Sindh, where investment in milk production just covers the cost of production due to comparatively higher feed prices and low milk prices. Econometric analysis of milk production in the country revealed that use of green fodder and concentrates contribute positively and significantly to milk production. (author)

  2. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  3. Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus defined by agro-ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Wallace, Rob G; Ottaviani, Daniela; Slingenbergh, Jan; Prosser, Diann; Bergmann, Luc; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has spread across Eurasia and into Africa. Its persistence in a number of countries continues to disrupt poultry production, impairs smallholder livelihoods, and raises the risk a genotype adapted to human-to-human transmission may emerge. While previous studies identified domestic duck reservoirs as a primary risk factor associated with HPAI H5N1 persistence in poultry in Southeast Asia, little is known of such factors in countries with different agro-ecological conditions, and no study has investigated the impact of such conditions on HPAI H5N1 epidemiology at the global scale. This study explores the patterns of HPAI H5N1 persistence worldwide, and for China, Indonesia, and India includes individual provinces that have reported HPAI H5N1 presence during the 2004-2008 period. Multivariate analysis of a set of 14 agricultural, environmental, climatic, and socio-economic factors demonstrates in quantitative terms that a combination of six variables discriminates the areas with human cases and persistence: agricultural population density, duck density, duck by chicken density, chicken density, the product of agricultural population density and chicken output/input ratio, and purchasing power per capita. The analysis identifies five agro-ecological clusters, or niches, representing varying degrees of disease persistence. The agro-ecological distances of all study areas to the medoid of the niche with the greatest number of human cases are used to map HPAI H5N1 risk globally. The results indicate that few countries remain where HPAI H5N1 would likely persist should it be introduced. PMID:20585972

  4. Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus defined by agro-ecological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Wallace, Rob G.; Ottaviani, Daniela; Slingenbergh, Jan; Prosser, Diann; Bergmann, Luc; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has spread across Eurasia and into Africa. Its persistence in a number of countries continues to disrupt poultry production, impairs smallholder livelihoods, and raises the risk a genotype adapted to human-to-human transmission may emerge. While previous studies identified domestic duck reservoirs as a primary risk factor associated with HPAI H5N1 persistence in poultry in Southeast Asia, little is known of such factors in countries with different agro-ecological conditions, and no study has investigated the impact of such conditions on HPAI H5N1 epidemiology at the global scale. This study explores the patterns of HPAI H5N1 persistence worldwide, and for China, Indonesia, and India includes individual provinces that have reported HPAI H5N1 presence during the 2004–2008 period. Multivariate analysis of a set of 14 agricultural, environmental, climatic, and socio-economic factors demonstrates in quantitative terms that a combination of six variables discriminates the areas with human cases and persistence: agricultural population density, duck density, duck by chicken density, chicken density, the product of agricultural population density and chicken output/input ratio, and purchasing power per capita. The analysis identifies five agro-ecological clusters, or niches, representing varying degrees of disease persistence. The agro-ecological distances of all study areas to the medoid of the niche with the greatest number of human cases are used to map HPAI H5N1 risk globally. The results indicate that few countries remain where HPAI H5N1 would likely persist should it be introduced.

  5. La investigación participativa en agroecología: una herramienta para el desarrollo sustentable

    OpenAIRE

    G. I. Guzmán Casado; A. M. Alonso Mielgo

    2007-01-01

    La investigación participativa en agroecología: una herramienta para el desarrollo sustentable. La agricultura, tanto a escala mundial como de la Unión Europea, está sumida en una grave crisis, que tiene su origen en una compleja trama de problemas sociales (desempleo, envejecimiento de la población rural…), económicos (incremento de los costes de producción, pérdida de renta agraria…) y ecológicos (contaminación de agua, polución del aire, erosión del suelo…). En este contexto, la A...

  6. Agroecología, soberanía alimentaria y la nueva revolución verde

    OpenAIRE

    Holt-Giménez, Eric; Miguel A Altieri

    2013-01-01

    Frente a la crisis alimentaria global recurrente, las instituciones del régimen corporativo alimentario proponen una nueva Revolución Verde acompañada por la continuación de las políticas económicas neoliberales. En tanto que, para empezar, éstas son causas de las crisis, este enfoque puede empeorar el problema del hambre, en lugar de resolverlo. Construir un contramovimiento depende en parte de la formación de fuertes alianzas estratégicas entre la agroecología y la soberanía ...

  7. Una herencia en Manaos (anotaciones sobre historia ambiental, ecología política y agroecología en una perspectiva latinoamericana)

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Alimonda

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo pretende explorar algunas vinculaciones de la agroecología con la historia ambiental, en sus escalas macro y micro, y con la ecología política. Una clave de interpretación es un interrogante sobre la identidad latinoamericana, que es percibida como articulación y sedimentación de varias herencias diferentes, en la cultura, la tecnología, los paisajes y la naturaleza.This article intends to explore some links between agroecology, environmental history (in macro and micro scales) ...

  8. Agroecología escolar en comunidades urbanas mediterráneas. El caso de Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona)

    OpenAIRE

    Llerena del Castillo, Germán; Espinet Blanch, Mariona

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta la agroecología escolar como práctica educativa, que tiene su referente social en la agroecología, a través del trabajo realizado durante seis años en el municipio de Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona). Se trata de una experiencia escolar en red que involucra centros escolares, administración, universidad y el sector de educadores/as agroambientales del municipio. Se presenta la práctica educativa a partir del huerto escolar ecológico y sus raíces agroecológicas. Finalmente, se en...

  9. Agro-ecological sustainability and land degradation potential in Nang Rong, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William F.

    This dissertation examines specific aspects of the land use history of Nang Rong (1972 to 1997), Buriram Province, northeast Thailand, emphasizing the relationship between patterns of land use/land cover (LULC) and soils. The potential for land degradation---a reduction in the capability of soil to support plant growth (including crops) due to human actions---was assessed by comparison of multi-temporal LULC data to soil surveys, using the situational indicator approach. Resulting patterns of land degradation potential were then used to infer agro-ecological sustainability (the ability to obtain and maintain socio-economically viable crop yields given the prevailing biophysical milieu of a place) on the basis of likely changes to soil attributes associated with land use practices. Digital and analogue geographical analysis techniques were used to manipulate and process the image, map, and field data collected and compiled to represent the phenomena of interest. Geographical information science, earth systems science, landscape ecology, and political ecology form the theoretical context influencing the research design and the interpretation of results. The research was conducted in three distinct phases. First, Landsat imagery, cartographic, and field data were processed to produce LULC change trajectories (1972--1985--1997) for agriculturally-relevant classes (rice paddy, field crop, forest, savanna). Second, a composite soil crop suitability variable was created and compared to the LULC change trajectories to derive a map based on a qualitative Land Degradation Potential Index. Third, spatial pattern metric analysis was performed using the LULC data, stratified by composite soil suitability classes over time. The LULC change trajectories indicate that cropland was extended between 1972 and 1997 (net increase in area of 17.9%), through conversion of forest and savanna (net decreases of 9.8% and 8.1%, respectively). Rice paddy was the dominant LULC type in all

  10. Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and Its Relation to the World's Agro-ecological Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Caron, Carolyn T; Fedoruk, Michael; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Coyne, Clarice J; McGee, Rebecca; Bett, Kirstin E

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections plays a critical role in supporting conservation and crop genetic enhancement strategies. We used a cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) collection consisting of 352 accessions originating from 54 diverse countries to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure using 1194 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers which span the lentil genome. Using principal coordinate analysis, population structure analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis, the accessions were categorized into three major groups that prominently reflected geographical origin (world's agro-ecological zones). The three clusters complemented the origins, pedigrees, and breeding histories of the germplasm. The three groups were (a) South Asia (sub-tropical savannah), (b) Mediterranean, and (c) northern temperate. Based on the results from this study, it is also clear that breeding programs still have considerable genetic diversity to mine within the cultivated lentil, as surveyed South Asian and Canadian germplasm revealed narrow genetic diversity. PMID:27507980

  11. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (ppractices and mass vaccination. PMID:26100405

  12. The influence of storage practices on aflatoxin contamination in maize in four agroecological zones of Benin, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell; Cardwell; Setamou; Poehling

    2000-10-15

    Aflatoxin level in 300 farmers' stores in four agro-ecological zones in Benin, a west African coastal country, were determined over a period of 2 years. At sampling a questionnaire was used to evaluate maize storage practices. Farmers were asked what storage structure they used, their storage form, storage period, pest problems in storage and what was done against them. Beninese farmers often changed their storage structures during the storage period, transfering the maize from a drying or temporary store to a more durable one. Most of the farmers complained about insects damaging stored maize. Often, storage or cotton insecticides were utilized against these pests. Regression analysis identified those factors that were associated with increased or reduced aflatoxin.Maize samples in the southern Guinea and Sudan savannas were associated with higher aflatoxin levels and the forest/savanna mosaic was related to lower toxin levels. Factors associated with higher aflatoxin were: storage for 3-5 months, insect damage and use of Khaya senegalensis-bark or other local plants as storage protectants. Depending on the agroecological zone, storage structures that had a higher risk of aflatoxin development were the "Ago", the "Secco", the "Zingo" or storing under or on top of the roof of the house. Lower aflatoxin levels were related to the use of storage or cotton insecticides, mechanical means or smoke to protect against pests or cleaning of stores before loading them with the new harvest. Fewer aflatoxins were found when maize was stored in the "Ago" made from bamboo or when bags were used as secondary storage containers. PMID:10880814

  13. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  14. Una herencia en Manaos (anotaciones sobre historia ambiental, ecología política y agroecología en una perspectiva latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alimonda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende explorar algunas vinculaciones de la agroecología con la historia ambiental, en sus escalas macro y micro, y con la ecología política. Una clave de interpretación es un interrogante sobre la identidad latinoamericana, que es percibida como articulación y sedimentación de varias herencias diferentes, en la cultura, la tecnología, los paisajes y la naturaleza.This article intends to explore some links between agroecology, environmental history (in macro and micro scales and political ecology. A question on latin american identity is a key of lecture. Its is seen as articulation and sedimentation of differents heritages, in culture, in tecnology, in landscapes and in Nature.

  15. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C.; J.Okello-Onen; G.W. Nasinyama; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E. K.; W. Mwayi; Musunga, D.; Wandukwa, W.

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-preva...

  16. Agroecologia, consumo sustentável e aprendizado coletivo no Brasil Agroecology, sustainable consumption and collective learning in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Passos dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O que acontece quando consumidores e produtores agroecológicos adotam uma prática econômica alternativa ao consumo convencional? O presente artigo analisa e qualifica as comunidades aprendentes existentes no âmbito desse tipo de prática econômica. O estudo de caso do grupo de consumo coletivo de produtos agroecológicos Trocas Verdes, situado em Campinas (SP, no contexto da agricultura familiar no Brasil, mostrou que as trocas econômicas são também trocas de saberes. Além disso, tais trocas constituem uma práxis em educação ambiental. As três dimensões da sustentabilidade - econômica, social e ambiental - são as categorias de análise utilizadas para determinar o potencial pedagógico existente na articulação de uma prática de consumo coletivo. A partir da metodologia da pesquisa participante, observou-se que, na venda direta de produtos agroecológicos a grupos de consumidores organizados de forma autônoma ou que funcionam em regime de autogestão, essa prática econômica também caracteriza um processo de educação ambiental crítica, pois possibilita que se apreenda coletivamente a realidade socioeconômica dos atores envolvidos. As dinâmicas socioeconômicas são objeto de aprendizado dos consumidores e pesquisadores atuantes nas compras e, assim, conclui-se que esse tipo de prática promove um aprendizado coletivo. O presente estudo confirma que um importante fator para a existência de comunidades aprendentes é a autogestão da organização social.What happens when consumers and agro-ecological producers adopt an economic practice alternative to conventional consumption? This article characterizes and analyzes the learning communities which exist within this type of economic practice. The case study of Trocas Verdes (Green Exchange, - a group of collective consumption of agro-ecological products, located in Campinas (SP - in the context of family farming in Brazil, has shown that economic exchanges are also

  17. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  18. Agro-ecological aspects when applying the remaining products from agricultural biogas processes as fertilizer in crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo Dominguez, Gabriela

    2012-06-11

    With the increase of biogas production in recent years, the amount of digestates or the remaining residues increased accordingly. Every year in Germany more than 50 million tons of digestates are produced, which are used as fertilizer. Thus nutrients return into the circulation of agricultural ecosystems. However, the agro-ecological effects have not been deeply researched until now. For this reason, the following parameters were quantified: the influence of dry and liquid fermentation products on the yield of three selected crops in comparison to or in combination with mineral-N-fertilizers in on-farm experiments; the growth, development and yield of two selected crops in comparison to mineral-N-fertilizer, liquid manure and farmyard manure in a randomized complete block design; selected soil organisms as compared to mineral-N-fertilizer, liquid manure and farmyard manure in a randomized complete block design. In addition, the mineralization of dry and wet digestates in comparison with liquid manure and farmyard manure was investigated in order to evaluate the effects of different fertilizers on the humus formation under controlled conditions. The 2-year results of on-farm experiments showed that for a sandy soil, the combination of digestates in autumn and mineral-N-fertilizer in spring for winter crops (wheat, rye and rape) brought the highest yields. The wet digestate achieved the highest dry-matter yield as the only fertilizer for maize in spring. In a clayey soil, the use of 150 kg ha{sup -1} N mineral-N-fertilizer brought the highest grain yield. These results were similar to the ones obtained by the application of dry digestates, if they were applied in two doses. Maize showed no signif-icant differences between the dry-matter yields of the different treatments. The results in the field experiments from 2009 to 2011 showed that the effect of digestates on the yield of winter wheat and Sorghum sudanense was up to 15 % lower than the effect of the mineral

  19. Serosurvey of peste des petits ruminants virus in small ruminants from different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woma, Timothy Y; Ekong, Pius S; Bwala, Dauda G; Ibu, John O; Ta'ama, Louisa; Dyek, Dyek Y; Saleh, Ladi; Shamaki, David; Kalla, Demo J U; Bailey, Dalan; Kazeem, Haruna M; Quan, Melvyn

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants, caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), is a highly contagious and economically important transboundary viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and a major hindrance to small-ruminant production in Nigeria. The seroprevalence and distribution of PPRV antibodies in small ruminants in rural households, farms, live animal markets and slaughter slabs across the six different agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were determined. A total of 4548 serum samples from 3489 goats and 1059 sheep were collected in 12 states. A PPRV competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the samples and the data analysed with R statistical software version 3.0.1. The study animals included all ages and both sexes. The overall prevalence estimate of sera positive for PPRV antibodies was 23.16% (n = 1018 positive samples per 4548 total samples, 95% confidence interval: 21.79% - 24.57%). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence between the states (p = 0.001). Taraba State had the highest seroprevalence of 29.51%, whilst the lowest seroprevalence of 14.52% was observed in Cross River State. There were no significant differences in the PPRV seroprevalence between male and female animals (p = 0.571), age (p = 0.323) and between species (p = 0.639). These data indicate the current seroprevalence to PPRV in the small-ruminant population in Nigeria. PMID:26974177

  20. Fungal and bacterial metabolites of stored maize (Zea mays, L.) from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Modupeade; Atanda, Olusegun; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt; Beltrán, Eduardo; Krska, Rudolf; Obadina, Olusegun; Bakare, Adegoke; Chilaka, Cynthia A

    2014-05-01

    Seventy composite samples of maize grains stored in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria where maize is predominantly produced were evaluated for the presence of microbial metabolites with the LC-MS/MS technique. The possible relationships between the storage structures and levels of mycotoxin contamination were also evaluated. Sixty-two fungal and four bacterial metabolites were extracted from the grains, 54 of which have not been documented for maize in Nigeria. Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 were quantified in 67.1 and 92.9% of the grains, while 64.1 and 57.1% exceeded the European Union Commission maximum acceptable limit (MAL) for aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins, respectively. The concentration of deoxynivalenol was, however, below the MAL with occurrence levels of 100 and 10% for its masked metabolite, deoxynivalenol glucoside. The bacterial metabolites had low concentrations and were not a source of concern. The storage structures significantly correlated positively or negatively (p diet, may therefore expose the population to mycotoxin contamination. There is need for an immediate action plan for mycotoxin mitigation in Nigeria, especially in the Derived Savannah zone, in view of the economic and public health importance of the toxins.

  1. Toxigenic Potential of Aspergillus Species Occurring on Maize Kernels from Two Agro-Ecological Zones in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Joutsjoki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS. Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively. Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the l-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur.

  2. Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus species occurring on maize kernels from two agro-ecological zones in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth, Sheila; Nyongesa, Beatrice; Ayugi, Vincent; Kang'ethe, Erastus; Korhonen, Hannu; Joutsjoki, Vesa

    2012-10-25

    Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively). Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the l-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur.

  3. La agroecología como base de la formación profesional del administrador de empresas agropecuarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Manuel Sáenz Torres

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El sector agrario del país se encuentra frente a la encrucijada de la apertura de mercados y la preservación de los casi deteriorados recursos naturales. Es preciso que desde la universidad, se generen alternativas de gestión sostenible de los recursos agropecuarios, que también involucren calidad y competitividad. Para ello, se necesitan instituciones que buscando en la moderna ciencia de la Agroecología, encuentren cómo afrontar el reto de la globalización en la que ya estamos inmersos. La Facultad de Administración de Empresas Agropecuarias de la Universidad de La Salle, hace eco de la nueva realidad mundial y en sus espacios académicos viene gestando una formación empresarial sustentada en los modernos conceptos agroecológicos para ser irradiados a los líderes agropecuarios del país y sobre todo a los sectores rurales menos favorecidos.

  4. Seed-borne fungi of soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr in the guinea savannah agroecology of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed health testing of fifteen soybean cultivars obtained from five locations in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecology of Nigeria was carried out using two main seed health testing methods described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA; the standard blotter and two variants of agar plate incubation method (Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapeck Dox Agar plate methods to determine the seed infection by fungi. Seed component plating was also carried out to determine the most active site of infection of the seeds by the fungi. Five fungal species were isolated from the cultivars tested. The percentage of seeds infected with Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. was significantly different (p<0.05 among the cultivars, with the highest value standing at 15.20 percent of Fusarium sp. and 8.54 percent of Penicillium sp. in cultivars MSJ and FSSBu, respectively. The difference in the methods of isolation was also significant (p<0.05 and the agar (PDA plate method was the most efficient in the isolation of Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Phomopsis sp. The efficiency of the other methods of isolation however varied for the different organisms. The cotyledon was observed to be the most active site of infection with thirteen of the fifteen tested cultivars showing 40-100% of infection of the cotyledons. The need for soybean seed health testing before their distribution to farmers is made manifest in this study.

  5. Land husbandry: an agro-ecological approach to land use and management Part 1: Considerations of landscape conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Shaxson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this, the first of two papers, the roles of key features of any landscape in determining potentials for erosional losses of soil and water are considered from an agro-ecological viewpoint. In this light, the effectiveness of past commonly-accepted approaches to soil and water conservation are often found to have been inadequate. In many cases they have tackled symptoms of land degradation without appreciating fully the background causes, which often relate to inadequate matching of land-use/land-management with features of the landscape. A number of reasons for this mismatch are suggested. Understanding the ecological background to land husbandry (as defined below will improve the effectiveness of attempts to tackle land degradation. In particular, an ecologically based approach to better land husbandry helps to foresee potential problems in some detail, so that appropriate forward planning can be undertaken to avoid them. This paper describes some practical ways of undertaking an appropriate survey of significant landscape features, enabling the definition and mapping of discrete areas of different land-use incapability classes. This is accompanied by an example of how the outcome was interpreted and used to guide the selection of appropriate areas which were apparently suitable for growing flue-cured tobacco within an area of ca. 140 km2 in Malawi. This process relied on knowledge and experience in various disciplines (interpretation of air-photos, topographic survey, soil survey, vegetation analysis, hydrology, soil & water conservation, geology, agronomy so as to ensure that the mapping process was based on the principles of better land husbandry.

  6. Evaluations on the potential productivity of winter wheat based on agro-ecological zone in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Li, Q.; Du, X.; Zhao, L.; Lu, Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J.

    2015-04-01

    Wheat is the most widely grown crop globally and an essential source of calories in human diets. Maintaining and increasing global wheat production is therefore strongly linked to food security. In this paper, the evaluation model of winter wheat potential productivity was proposed based on agro-ecological zone and the historical winter wheat yield data in recent 30 years (1983-2011) obtained from FAO. And the potential productions of winter wheat in the world were investigated. The results showed that the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in Western Europe was highest and it was more than 7500 kg/hm2. The realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in North China Plain were also higher, which was about 6000 kg/hm2. However, the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in the United States which is the main winter wheat producing country were not high, only about 3000 kg/hm2. In addition to these regions which were the main winter wheat producing areas, the realistic potential productivity in other regions of the world were very low and mainly less than 1500 kg/hm2, like in southwest region of Russia. The gaps between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were biggest, and the percentages of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were more than 40%. In Russia, the gap between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat was lowest and the percentage of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Russia was only 10%.

  7. Effect of two agroecological management strategies on ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) diversity on coffee plantations in southwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Escobar, M X; Armbrecht, I

    2013-04-01

    Simplification of agroecosystems because of industrialization of agriculture may cause the loss of associated animal biodiversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. To measure how the agricultural intensification on coffee plantations affects ant biodiversity, we intensively sampled ants in Caldono (Cauca, Colombia). We surveyed 15 sites classified into three management types: sun coffee plantations, shaded coffee plantations, and forest patches. Fifteen 50-m linear transects, each one consisting of 5 pitfall traps and 5 tuna baits, were set at each sampling location between December of 2009 and February of 2010. We collected 18,186 ants that represent 82 ant species, 34 genera, and 9 subfamilies of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The management intensification index showed an increasing intensification gradient along the 15 sampling locations from forest patches to shaded coffee to sun coffee plantations. Shaded coffee plantations harbored the highest number of species (60), followed by forest (56) and sun coffee (33). Ant species composition and plant structure on shaded coffee plantations resembled the forest patches more than the sun coffee plantations. Forest and shaded coffee plantations had a more equitable distribution of ant species, whereas in sun coffee plantations, Linepithema neotropicum (Emery) and Ectatomma ruidum (Roger) typically outnumbered all other ant species. Evidence from functional groups indicated that specific habitat and feeding requirements exist among the species that are found together. Our results confirmed that intensification of agriculture negatively affects ant diversity, despite the fact that farms were located in a heterogeneous landscape, suggesting that agroecological management is a strong determinant in the conservation of wild fauna. PMID:23575008

  8. Effect of two agroecological management strategies on ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) diversity on coffee plantations in southwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Escobar, M X; Armbrecht, I

    2013-04-01

    Simplification of agroecosystems because of industrialization of agriculture may cause the loss of associated animal biodiversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. To measure how the agricultural intensification on coffee plantations affects ant biodiversity, we intensively sampled ants in Caldono (Cauca, Colombia). We surveyed 15 sites classified into three management types: sun coffee plantations, shaded coffee plantations, and forest patches. Fifteen 50-m linear transects, each one consisting of 5 pitfall traps and 5 tuna baits, were set at each sampling location between December of 2009 and February of 2010. We collected 18,186 ants that represent 82 ant species, 34 genera, and 9 subfamilies of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The management intensification index showed an increasing intensification gradient along the 15 sampling locations from forest patches to shaded coffee to sun coffee plantations. Shaded coffee plantations harbored the highest number of species (60), followed by forest (56) and sun coffee (33). Ant species composition and plant structure on shaded coffee plantations resembled the forest patches more than the sun coffee plantations. Forest and shaded coffee plantations had a more equitable distribution of ant species, whereas in sun coffee plantations, Linepithema neotropicum (Emery) and Ectatomma ruidum (Roger) typically outnumbered all other ant species. Evidence from functional groups indicated that specific habitat and feeding requirements exist among the species that are found together. Our results confirmed that intensification of agriculture negatively affects ant diversity, despite the fact that farms were located in a heterogeneous landscape, suggesting that agroecological management is a strong determinant in the conservation of wild fauna.

  9. Innovative approaches to linking sustainable and agro-ecological production with markets in developing countries: a researcher-practitioner workshop. Final report.

    OpenAIRE

    Vicovaro, Marcello; Loconto, Allison Marie; Santacoloma, Pilar; Vandecandelaere, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    As an output of the international workshop held in Bogota from 23 to 25 June, the Plant Production and Protection and Division and the Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division of FAO have launched a report on innovative approaches for linking sustainable and agro-ecological production to markets in developing countries (Enfoques innovadores que vinculan la producción sostenible y agroecológica con los mercados en los países en desarrollo). The report focuses on the role of markets...

  10. Analysis of Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change among Farmers in the Sahel Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Borno State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Idrisa, Y.L.; Ogunbameru, B. O.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Bawa, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the awareness and adaptation to climate change among farmers in the Sahel Savannah agro-ecological zone of Borno State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 225 respondents selected through the Multi-stage sampling technique. A socio-economic profile of the respondents indicated that 48.89% were above 45 years of age and majority (78.23%) had educational qualifications below the secondary school level. The study also revealed that a majority (79.12%) of the resp...

  11. Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to Different Rates of Palm Bunch Ash Application in the Semi-deciduous Forest Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of palm bunch ash (PBA) and mineral fertilizer application on grain yield and nutrient uptake in maize and soil chemical properties were studied in both the major and minor rainy seasons in the semi-deciduous forest agro-ecological zone of Ghana. In both the major and minor rainy seasons, the response of maize to four levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 tons per hectare) of palm bunch ash and 200 kg per hectare of NPK (15-15-15) application was evaluated using randomised complete block design....

  12. Ecología política y agroecología: marcos cognitivos y diseño institucional

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Peña, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    La ideología política y el modelo institucional producen “marcos cognitivos” y “marcos institucionales” que favorecen uno u otro tipo de elecciones y conductas. La Ecología Política como generadora de marcos cognitivos (ideología) y marcos institucionales (normas y programas de gobierno). En este trabajo tratamos de identificar las virtualidades que para el desarrollo de la agroecología tiene el contar con marco cognitivos e institucionales afines como los que proponen la Ecolo...

  13. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  14. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  15. Effect of NPK fertiliser on growth, flowering and yield of fonio (Digitaria exilis) in a coastal agro-ecological environment of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonio (Digitaria spp) is neglected and underutilised crop traditionally grown in the Sahelian savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana for its grain which is rich in crude protein, fibre and has medicinal properties. Decline in the production of the crop is attributed to poor agronomic and yield characteristics and changing agro-climatic conditions as a result of clobal warming which has rendered traditional growing areas too dry to surport cultivation of the crop. There is the need to explore the possibility of growing the crop in new agro-ecologies to sustain the production. The study was therefore conducted in Kwabenya-Atomic area which is located in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana, to evaluate the adaptability of three fonio landraces (Yadema, Nomber and Nvoni) to the coastal zone, their growth and response to NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser treatment, apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery (AFNR) as well as presence basic elements in the grains. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 during the major cropping season, using three fonio landraces grown at a planting distance of 0.05m x 0.45m. The experiment design used was the split plot in three replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the growing season. Grain yield (GY) and its associated apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery were significantly different (P≤ 0.05) among the fonio landraces during the cropping season with the landrace Nvoni producing the highest grain yield of 96 kg ha-1 at NPK fertiliser rate of 60 kg ha-1 and with a AFNR of 33.1%. The study also establised a positive correlation between biomass accumulation and grain yield. The efficiency of grain production per unit of fertiliser nitrogen (FN) increased, but at a diminishing rate with each traditional unit of FN. Additionally, ten essentials mineral elements (Na,Mg, K, Ca, I, CI, Cu, AI, Mn, and V) were detected among the grain of the three fonio landrace using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA

  16. Detection and spatial distribution of multiple-contaminants in agro-ecological Mediterranean wetlands (Marjal de Pego-Oliva, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda; Masia, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Socio economic activities are more and more producing amounts (in quantity and quality) of non desirable chemical substances (contaminants) that can be found in open air environments. As many of these products persist and may also circulate among environmental compartments, the cumulative incidence of such multiple contaminants combination may be a cause of treat that should not exists taking only in consideration concentrations of each contaminant individually because the number and the type of compounds are not known, as well as their cumulative and interaction effects. Thus prior to any further work analyzing the environmental risk of multiple contaminants their identification and level of concentration is required. In this work the potential presence of multiple contaminants of anthropogenic origin in a protected agro-ecological Mediterranean wetland is studied: the Pego-Oliva Marsh Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain), which is characterized by a long history of human pressures, such as marsh transformation for agricultural uses. Two major groups of relevant pollutants have been targeted according o two distinct environmental matrices: seven heavy metals in soils (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and fourteen emerging contaminants /drugs of abuse in surface waters of the natural lagoon, rivers and artificial irrigation networks (6-ACMOR, AMP, BECG, COC, ECGME, HER, KET, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MET, MOR, THC, THC-COOH). The wetland was divided in nine representative zones with different types of land cover and land use. For soils, 24 samples were collected and for waters 33 taking in consideration the spatial representativeness of the above mention nine environments. Spatial analysis applying Geographical Information Systems to determine areas with greater incidence of both types of contaminants were also performed. With regard to heavy metals, Zn showed values under the detection limits in all samples, the remainder metals appeared in concentrations surpassing the

  17. Ensuring Equitable Distribution Of Land In Ghana: Spirituality Or Policy? A Case Study From The Forest-Savanna Agroecological Zone Of Ghana

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    Paul Sarfo-Mensah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pent-up question of equitable distribution of land in Ghana using the Forest-Savanna Agroecological Zone as a case study. It focuses on the dichotomy of policy versus indigenous spirituality in contemporary distribution of land in Ghana. After independence several attempts have been made to restructure land title holding in Ghana by way of land registration. The effectiveness of these attempts is also examined. The paper concludes that Ghana needs pragmatic steps (policies to confront the challenges of land distribution. And in taking these pragmatic policies, the religio-cultural underpinnings (the people`sworldview of land issues in Ghana should be factored into the policy that will result. Anything short of this will make the implementation of any land policy in Ghana ineffective.

  18. The Dynamic Analysis of Agro-ecological Economic System on the Basis of Emergy: A Case Study of Wu’an City in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongya; ZHANG; Meichen; FU; Yan; MENG; Weibin; GUO

    2013-01-01

    Using the method of emergy analysis, we analyze the input and output of agroecological economic system, and select five indicators (net emergy yield ratio, emergy investment ratio, environmental loading ratio, emergy sustainability index, and dominance of emergy yield system) for assessment. The results show that the emergy input-output in Wu’an City is in general on the rise; the emergy investment ratio rises constantly, but the net emergy yield ratio decreases, and the comparative advantage in the prices of agricultural products is gradually lost. At the same time, with increase in the non-renewable industrial support emergy, the environmental pressures are also mounting. In the future agricultural development, it is necessary to pay more attention to the coordination between agricultural development and ecological environment, achieving sustainable development of agriculture.

  19. The Incidence, Severity and Occurrence of Four Viruses Infecting Pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

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    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, severity and occurrence of four viruses infecting pepper were determined in Kwara State, Nigeria. A disease survey and antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA were the tools deployed to achieve these objectives. The survey indicated the highest virus incidence (97% in four locations, and the lowest incidence (16% in three locations, with variations in severity scores. Th e ELISA result indicated the occurrence of all four viruses with the highest percentage occurrence of virus in the samples as follows: Pepper veinal mottle virus (36.3%, Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (16.2%, Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (7.4%, and Cucumber mosaic virus in the locations (4.8%. The results indicate the prevalence of these viruses on pepper in the Southern Guinea savannah agroecological zone and therefore the need for constant studies to detect other viruses that limit pepper production.

  20. Towards an agro-ecological village at the Flora Community : reducing greenhouse gas emissions through organic based farming and energy self reliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Mulkins, L. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada); Amongo, L.; Yap, E. [MASIPAG, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Mendoza, T. [Univ. of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). Dept of Agronomy

    2000-07-01

    A former haciendero owned sugarcane plantation in Negros Occidental, Philippines was transformed into a diversified, self-reliant, agro-ecological village, and its transition is documented in this paper. In 1995, through the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, the Philippine Government awarded 87 hectares of land to 76 hacienda workers. Community organizing, farm planning, training in organic farming, and loan support from a number of social welfare agencies were all areas where the community received assistance. The sugarcane production has been reduced at Flora since the land transition, and the community diversified into the growing of organic rice, corn and vegetables. Through its transition into an agro-ecological village, the Flora community has become more self-reliant in the areas of food and energy. Most individual farms and communally farmed areas have adopted organic based farming practices. The main products sold off the farm are sugarcane and high value vegetables. The MASIPAG rice farming system is being adhered to in the production of rice, the community's staple food. Nitrogen fixed during straw decomposition and the use of azolla, a nitrogen-fixing plant, represent some of the sources of nitrogen for the rice production. Other nutrient sources used are the mudpress from sugarcane processing and rice hull ash. To encourage nitrogen fixation and soil carbon accumulation from cane litter, a system of continuous trash farming was implemented for the production of sugarcane. In excess of 140 water buffaloes (carabaos) are employed for tillage and on-farm hauling, which minimizes the requirements for fossil fuels. Liquid propane gas (LPG), kerosene and wood fuel use in home cooking are being minimized by the efficient rice hull cookers. The local environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emissions are minimized, and the Flora community largely meets its requirements in terms of food security, on-farm energy and income. refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  1. Based on CVM Agro-ecological Compensation in Upstream of Erhai Lake Basin%基于 CVM 意愿调查的洱海流域上游农业生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施翠仙; 郭先华; 祖艳群; 陈建军; 李元

    2014-01-01

    Farmers are the core stakeholders of agro-ecological compensation. Their cognition and participation willingness in agro-ecologi-cal compensation greatly influence the efficiency and sustainability of agro -ecological compensation. In this study, contingent valuation method(CVM)was used to collect information including farmersˊ cognition level of eco-environment and agro-ecological compensation and willingness to accept(WTA)agro-ecological compensation in Eryuan County in the upstream of Erhai lake basin. Agro-ecological compen-sation criteria for adjusting agricultural industry structure were also estimated. Total 350 questionnaires were sent out and valid 305 re-ceived. About 70% of farmers showed correct understanding of ecological environment and high cognition level of agro-ecological compen-sation. More than half of farmers who participated in projects of agro-ecological compensation were satisfied with agro-ecological compensa-tion in 2007-2009, while 42.77% farmers were dissatisfied due to low compensation standards and inequities in agro-ecological compen-sation. Farmers preferred policy compensation and technology compensation. Total amount of the compensation for the whole county should be 3.248 0×108 Yuan(RMB)per year. Of four agricultural structure adjustment modes in Eryuan County, 71.15% farmers chose non-zero WTA. Farmersˊ education level, cognition and participating willingness of agro-ecological compensation showed positive effects on the pref-erence of agro-ecological compensation modes, while family income had a negative effect. This study suggests that raising farmersˊ cognition of agro-ecological compensation and performing pilot scale trials of agro-ecological compensation are essential for sustainability of agro-e-cological compensation.%农民是农业生态补偿的主要利益相关者,其对生态补偿的认知态度和参与意愿直接影响生态补偿项目的实施效果和可持续性。以洱海流域上游水源地洱源

  2. Impactos ambientais do manejo agroecológico da caatinga no Rio Grande do Norte Environmental impacts of caatinga agroecological handling in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Felipe Marinho Barreto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os impactos ambientais do manejo agroecológico da caatinga, em unidades de produção familiar no Rio Grande do Norte, pelo método Ambitec de produção animal - dimensão ambiental, desenvolvido pela Embrapa Meio Ambiente. Foram avaliadas sete unidades de produção familiar, em quatro projetos de assentamentos de reforma agrária do Município de Apodi, RN. Os dados para o levantamento foram obtidos por meio de questionários aplicados aos representantes das unidades produtivas familiares, que atribuíram, a cada variável estudada, um valor que representou a alteração proporcionada pela implementação da tecnologia. Após a inserção dos coeficientes de alteração de cada variável dos indicadores por unidade de produção, o coeficiente de impacto foi automaticamente calculado por meio da planilha Ambitec. O manejo agroecológico da caatinga resultou num impacto ambiental positivo, e suas maiores contribuições foram relacionadas aos efeitos positivos dos seguintes indicadores: capacidade produtiva do solo, uso de insumos materiais, qualidade do produto e diminuição da emissão de poluentes à atmosfera. Dois indicadores geraram efeitos negativos: o uso de energia e o uso de recursos naturais. Pela superioridade dos benefícios gerados, o manejo agroecológico da caatinga é uma inovação tecnológica geradora de impactos ambientais positivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental impacts of caatinga agroecological handling, in production unities of family farms, in Rio Grande do Norte, using the method Ambitec of animal production - environmental dimension, developed by Embrapa Meio Ambiente. Seven family farm production units were evaluated within four projects of agrarian reform in the county of Apodi, RN, Brazil. The data for surveying were obtained through applying queries to the responsibles for the production units, who attributed - to each studied variable - a

  3. Weed seedbank biodiversity in emmer wheat (triticum dicoccum (schrank schübler in a mountainous agro-ecological oasis (garfagnana, tuscany

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    Macchia Mario

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytocoenoses of conventional agroecosystems are subjected, already from several decades, to the reduction of the weed species present in the various crops. Such floristic decreasing is directly proportional to intensity of the agronomic impact. The present work is born from the hypothesis that the agro-ecological oases, managed with the ancient agrotechniques, are linked by an high degree of plant biodiversity. In this perspective it was carried out not only an analysis of the field emerged weeds, but even an evaluation of the seedbank since this one synthesizes the weed flora of a wider period. In the experimental agroecosystems, selected due to the typical Emmer wheat presence, an high degree of weed species diversity was observed, above all of terophytes, in the emerged flora as well in the seedbank. In both cases relative densities of each species were found low and without any weed dominance. Probably it occurs as a function of the high degree of competitive and allelopathic interactions. Almost scarce was the presence of exhumed seeds of graminaceae virtually due to their inability to store in the soil a persistent seedbank. Of particular importance it was the discovery of two rare species such as Agrostemma githago and Centaurea cyanus disappeared from many years by the landscape of “conventional” agricultural systems. The seedbank was found uniformly distributed in both sampled soil layers (0-15 and 15-30 cm confirming that plowing induced an uniform burial of the annually produced seeds. The total examined soil profile (0-30 cm showed a quantitative seedbank similar to those already found in “biological” agricultural systems (from 12.000 to 47.000 seeds m-2. However it was qualitatively formed even from several weed species of negligible agronomic impact as a function of their scarce competitivity like in the case of some caryophyllaceae (Silene noctiflora and S.alba, boraginaceae (Myosotis arvensis and Echium vulgaris and

  4. Zoneamento agroecológico do município de Lagoa Seca, PB Agroecological zoning of the municipal district of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba State

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    Íris do S. Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Visa-se, cinzelar, neste estudo um zoneamento em que se considerem os aspectos agrícolas, ecológicos e sociais inerentes ao município de Lagoa Seca, PB, elaborado através da análise dos vários cenários apresentados na área. O uso de um conjunto de recursos, como fotointerpretação, processamento de imagens georreferenciadas, posicionamento por satélites, associados à teoria sistêmica de Bertrand, possibilitou a identificação, delimitação e análise das áreas de uso antrópico, agrícola e das áreas com remanescentes vegetais significativos, que caracterizam o município. Foram elaborados para a área em estudo, arquivos digitais georreferenciados, relativos aos temas: limite municipal, áreas urbanizadas, infra-estrutura viária, rede de drenagem, altimetria, cobertura vegetal natural, uso agrícola do solo e zoneamento. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o município apresenta quatro regiões com aspectos distintos, as quais foram identificadas como regiões agroecológicas, de acordo com o fator que mais se destacou em cada área.This work sought to perfect zoning which concerns the agricultural, ecological and social aspects in the municipality of Lagoa Seca in the State of Paraíba through the study of several scenarios in that area. It consisted of a set of approaches such as photo interpretation, geo-referenced image processing, and satellite positioning associated with Bertrand's Systemic Theory that allowed the identification, delimitation and analysis of areas of anthropic and agricultural usage as well as of those with remaining significant vegetation, which characterize the municipality. Digital geo-referenced files were elaborated for the studied area comprising basic data about the municipal limit, urbanized areas, road systems, drainage system, altimetry, cover of natural vegetation, soil farming usage and zoning of agroecological regions. The study showed that the municipality of Lagoa Seca has four regions

  5. Response of Maize (Zea mays L. to Different Rates of Palm Bunch Ash Application in the Semi-deciduous Forest Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana

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    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of palm bunch ash (PBA and mineral fertilizer application on grain yield and nutrient uptake in maize and soil chemical properties were studied in both the major and minor rainy seasons in the semi-deciduous forest agro-ecological zone of Ghana. In both the major and minor rainy seasons, the response of maize to four levels (0, 2, 4, and 6 tons per hectare of palm bunch ash and 200 kg per hectare of NPK (15-15-15 application was evaluated using randomised complete block design. Results of the study showed that application of palm bunch ash significantly (P<0.05 increased soil pH, soil phosphorus, and exchangeable cations. Maize grain yield varied significantly (P<0.05 among the different treatments in both the major and minor rainy seasons. The highest maize grain yield of 4530 and 6120 kg ha-1 was obtained at PBA application rate of 2 tons ha-1 for the major and minor rainy seasons, respectively.

  6. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pdiets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pzone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.

  7. Changes in physical and biological soil quality indicators in a tropical crop system (Havana, Cuba) in response to different agroecological management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, I; Caravaca, F; Alguacil, M M; Roldán, A

    2003-11-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the response of physical (aggregate stability and bulk density) and biological (enzyme activities and microbial biomass) soil quality indicators to the adoption of agroecological management practices, such as the planting of forage species (forage area) and the rotation of local crops (polycrop area), carried out in a representative tropical pasture on an integrated livestock-crop farm. The pasture system was used as control (pasture area). In all three areas, the values of water-soluble C were higher in the rainy season compared to the dry season. Pasture and forage areas had the highest percentage of stable aggregates in the rainy season, while polycrops developed soils with less stable aggregates. Soil bulk density was lower in the pasture and forage areas than in the polycrop area. In the pasture area, the microbial biomass C values, dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities were higher than in the forage and polycrop areas, particularly in the dry season. The highest increase in the microbial biomass C in the rainy season, with respect to the dry season, was recorded in the pasture area (about 1.2-fold). In conclusion, the planting of forage species can be considered an effective practice for carrying out sustainable, integrated livestock-crop systems, due to its general maintenance of soil quality, while the adoption of polycrop rotations appears to be less favorable because it decreases soil quality.

  8. Clade-level Spatial Modelling of HPAI H5N1 Dynamics in the Mekong Region Reveals New Patterns and Associations with Agro-Ecological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artois, Jean; Newman, Scott H; Dhingra, Madhur S; Chaiban, Celia; Linard, Catherine; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella; Fusaro, Alice; Xenarios, Ioannis; Engler, Robin; Liechti, Robin; Kuznetsov, Dmitri; Pham, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tung; Pham, Van Dong; Castellan, David; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Claes, Filip; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Inui, Ken; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Asia since 2003 and diversified into several genetic lineages, or clades. Although the spatial distribution of its outbreaks was extensively studied, differences in clades were never previously taken into account. We developed models to quantify associations over time and space between different HPAI H5N1 viruses from clade 1, 2.3.4 and 2.3.2 and agro-ecological factors. We found that the distribution of clades in the Mekong region from 2004 to 2013 was strongly regionalised, defining specific epidemiological zones, or epizones. Clade 1 became entrenched in the Mekong Delta and was not supplanted by newer clades, in association with a relatively higher presence of domestic ducks. In contrast, two new clades were introduced (2.3.4 and 2.3.2) in northern Viet Nam and were associated with higher chicken density and more intensive chicken production systems. We suggest that differences in poultry production systems in these different epizones may explain these associations, along with differences in introduction pressure from neighbouring countries. The different distribution patterns found at the clade level would not be otherwise apparent through analysis treating all outbreaks equally, which requires improved linking of disease outbreak records and genetic sequence data. PMID:27453195

  9. Food Insecurity and Not Dietary Diversity Is a Predictor of Nutrition Status in Children within Semiarid Agro-Ecological Zones in Eastern Kenya

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    Zipporah N. Bukania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya are associated with historical land degradation, climate change, and food insecurity. Both counties lie in lower midland (LM lower humidity to semiarid (LM4, and semiarid (LM5 agroecological zones (AEZ. We assessed food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status of children and women. Materials and Methods. A total of 277 woman-child pairs aged 15–46 years and 6–36 months respectively, were recruited from farmer households. Food security and dietary diversity were assessed using standard tools. Weight and height, or length in children, were used for computation of nutritional status. Findings. No significant difference (P>0.05 was observed in food security and dietary diversity score (DDS between LM4 and LM5. Stunting, wasting, and underweight levels among children in LM4 and LM5 were comparable as were BMI scores among women. However, significant associations (P=0.023 were found between severe food insecurity and nutritional status of children but not of their caregivers. Stunting was significantly higher in older children (>2 years and among children whose caregivers were older. Conclusion. Differences in AEZ may not affect dietary diversity and nutritional status of farmer households. Consequently use of DDS may lead to underestimation of food insecurity in semiarid settings.

  10. Factors influencing the prevalence and infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies in two highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemurot, Moses; Akol, Anne M; Masembe, Charles; de Smet, Lina; Descamps, Tine; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2016-04-01

    Varroa mites are ecto-parasites of honeybees and are a threat to the beekeeping industry. We identified the haplotype of Varroa mites and evaluated potential factors that influence their prevalence and infestation levels in the eastern and western highland agro-ecological zones of Uganda. This was done by collecting samples of adult worker bees between December 2014 and September 2015 in two sampling moments. Samples of bees were screened for Varroa using the ethanol wash method and the mites were identified by molecular techniques. All DNA sequences obtained from sampled mite populations in the two zones were 100 % identical to the Korean Haplotype (AF106899). Mean mite prevalence in the apiaries was 40 and 53 % for the western and eastern zones, respectively, during the first sampling. Over the second sampling, mean mite prevalence increased considerably in the western (59 %) but not in the eastern (51 %) zone. Factors that were associated with Varroa mite infestation levels include altitude, nature of apiary slope and apiary management practices during the first sampling. Our results further showed that Varroa mites were spreading from lower to higher elevations. Feral colonies were also infested with Varroa mites at infestation levels not significantly different from those in managed colonies. Colony productivity and strength were not correlated to mite infestation levels. We recommend a long-term Varroa mite monitoring strategy in areas of varying landscape and land use factors for a clear understanding of possible changes in mite infestation levels among African honeybees for informed decision making. PMID:26801158

  11. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pcaregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pcaregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (Pcaregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (Pchild nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions. PMID:26560016

  12. Fenologia e produção de cultivares de amoreira-preta em sistema agroecológico Phenology and production of blackberry cultivars in agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A amoreira-preta é uma espécie de exploração recente no Brasil. Nos últimos ano, s tem sido dada especial atenção ao cultivo orgânico ou agroecológico dessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o comportamento fenológico e produtivo das cultivares de amora-preta 'Tupy', 'Guarani', 'Caingangue', 'Cherokee' e 'Brazos', e das seleções denominadas 'seleção 97' e 'seleção 787' na região de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul(RS, em sistema agroecológico. O trabalho foi realizado na Estação Experimental de Cascata (EEC, Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas foram dispostas no pomar, em blocos varietais aleatórios, com 10 plantas por genótipo, perfazendo quatro linhas com duas cultivares por linha. Foram observadas as datas de início da floração e fim da floração, início e final de colheita, massa (gramas e número de frutos por planta, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (°Brix, produção média por planta (g pl-1 e produtividade estimada por hectare (kg ha-1. Para análise das características dos frutos, a média de cada ano de avaliação (três foi considerada como uma repetição. Na região de Pelotas-RS, é viável o cultivo agroecológico de amoreira-preta. Não há diferenças de produção, produtividade, número de frutos e teores de sólidos solúveis totais entre os genótipos estudados.The aim of this research was to evaluate yield and quality of blackberry cultivars Tupy, Guarani, Caingangue, Cherokee and Brazos, and the 'selection 97' and 'selection 787' at Pelotas, in the Southern of Rio Grande do Sul State, under agroecological system. The plants were available in blocks varietal randomized in the orchard, with 10 plants per row, four lines with two cultivars per line. For statistic analysis of the fruit characteristics each year of evaluation (three was considered as one repetition. The characteristics evaluate were the beginning and end of flowering and harvest, mass (g, number of fruit per plant

  13. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224

  14. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  15. Using a Remote Sensing-Supported Hydro-Agroecological Model for Field-Scale Simulation of Heterogeneous Crop Growth and Yield: Application for Wheat in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias B. Hank

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of converting global agricultural food, fiber and energy crop cultivation into an ecologically and economically sustainable production process requires the most efficient agricultural management strategies. Development, control and maintenance of these strategies are highly dependent on temporally and spatially continuous information on crop status at the field scale. This paper introduces the application of a process-based, coupled hydro-agroecological model (PROMET for the simulation of temporally and spatially dynamic crop growth on agriculturally managed fields. By assimilating optical remote sensing data into the model, the simulation of spatial crop dynamics is improved to a point where site-specific farming measures can be supported. Radiative transfer modeling (SLC is used to provide maps of leaf area index from Earth Observation (EO. These maps are used in an assimilation scheme that selects closest matches between EO and PROMET ensemble runs. Validation is provided for winter wheat (years 2004, 2010 and 2011. Field samples validate the temporal dynamics of the simulations (avg. R² = 0.93 and > 700 ha of calibrated combine harvester data are used for accuracy assessment of the spatial yield simulations (avg. RMSE = 1.15 t∙ha−1. The study shows that precise simulation of field-scale crop growth and yield is possible, if spatial remotely sensed information is combined with temporal dynamics provided by land surface process models. The presented methodology represents a technical solution to make the best possible use of the growing stream of EO data in the context of sustainable land surface management.

  16. Transformações da terra: para uma perspectiva agroecológica na história Transformation of the land: towards an agroecological perspective in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Worster

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a constituição do campo da história ambiental, que se deu nos anos 70 em meio aos debates sobre a crise ecológica e a eclosão do movimento ambientalista. Esta história não aceita a noção de que as sociedades humanas não produzem alterações ambientais significativas, e interpela as condições específicas dessa interação recorrente. O sistema agroecológico representa um dos casos mais típicos de rearranjo da atividade humana sobre os ecossistemas naturais, em uma relação complexa de interação entre plantas nativas, vegetação forasteira, fertilidade dos solos e diversas práticas agrícolas. O itinerário dessas mudanças é essencial para se compreender a história do ponto de vista ambientalThis article discusses the formation of the field of environmental history which originated in the 1970s in the middle of the debates on the ecologic crisis and the emergence of the environmental movement. This history rejects the notion that human societies do not cause significant environmental alterations and analyzes the specific conditions of that recurring interaction. The agroecologic system is one of the most typical cases of the intervention of human activity on natural ecosystems in a complex interaction between indigenous plants, exotic vegetation, fertility of the soil and diverse agricultural practices. The roadmap of these changes is essential to understand history from the view point of the environment.

  17. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

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    E. Ndor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined to form nine treatments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated three times to form twenty seven plots. The result showed that Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant (p<0.05 effect on the entire growth and yield parameter assessed in both years. 40 kg/ha of phosphorus gave a significantly higher number of nodulation count/plant (34.95 and 32.24, number of pod/plant (20.64 and 20.24, seed weight/plant (39.56 and 37.64, pods weight/plant (51.45 and 45.31 and seed weight/ha (1.56 and 1.52 t/ha in both years. The spacing also had a significant (p<0.05 response on almost the entire growth and yield parameter assessed except on the weight of 100 seeds. Spacing of 30×60 cm did not differ significantly with 45x80 cm which gave similar result in the no. of pod/plant, seed weight/plant, pods weight/plant and seed weight (t/ha in both years.

  18. Educación, resistencia y contra-hegemonía: la Escuela de Agroecología del Movimiento Campesino de Santiago del Estero/Vía Campesina

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    El escrito presenta los resultados de una investigación en curso que estudia la construcción de proyectos educativos en el marco de las luchas de los nuevos movimientos sociales. Se centra en una propuesta educativa contra-hegemónica nacida en el marco de un movimiento de resistencia a las transformaciones neoliberales, para jóvenes del Movimiento Campesino de Santiago del Estero/Vía Campesina: la Escuela de Agroecología. Se trata de un movimiento social que surge en el año 1990 en lucha por ...

  19. Agro-ecological compensation standard based on emergy analysis in Yongding River basin%基于能值分析的永定河流域农业生态补偿标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 高婷; 闫丽娟; 张爱静; 阮本清

    2013-01-01

      实施农业生态补偿是消除当前农业生产中的负面影响,保证环境友好型农业生产顺利进行的前提.针对当前的农业生态补偿标准计算中,价值受时空动态变化影响较大、投入成本难以准确计量的弊端,借助能值与价值之间的可转化性,给出基于农业可持续发展的生态补偿标准计算体系.选择永定河官厅水库以上流域为研究区,从可更新资源(R)、不可更新资源(N)、物质投入(M)、服务成本(S)的能值计算出发,计算得出永定河流域的农业生产的总能值为3.80×1016 Sej/hm2,其中可更新的能值为1.59×1016 Sej/hm2,不可更新能值2.21×1016 Sej/hm2.研究区农业生产的环境可持续指数(ESI)为0.1056,流域农业处于严重不可持续状态,应实施农业生态补偿进行调整.借鉴能值与生态服务价值之间的可转化性,为实现流域农业生产的可持续,下游区域政府或受益部门应对上游农业水土流失防护补偿约4亿元.该文研究结果的应用表明,基于能值的农业生态补偿标准计算方法具有一定的适用性.%The aim of agro-ecological compensation is to eliminate the negative effects during agricultural production, and promote the strategy implementation of environment-friendly agriculture. At present, agro-ecological compensation standard is greatly affected by the temporal and spatial variation of value, and the inaccuracy of input cost calculation result. Emergy is an important advanced technology in calculation of material inputs and efficiency of agricultural ecological protection quality. The paper gave the study method of agro-ecological compensation standard based on the conversion between emergy and value, as well as the process to calculate agro-ecological protection cost and benefit. On the basis of defining the components within the system, and allowing the identification of inputs and output of agricultural production, the annual emergy flows

  20. Analyzing anthropogenic pressures in soils of agro-ecological protected coastal wetlands in L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands, despite the importance of their environmental and ecological functions, are areas that suffer of great pressures. Most of them are produced by the rapid development of the surrounding artificial landscapes. Socio-economic factors such as population growth and urban-industrial surfaces expansion introduce pressures on the nearby environment affecting the quality of natural and agricultural landscapes. The present research analyses interconnections among landscapes (urban, agricultural and natural) under the hypothesis that urban-artificial impacts could be detected on soils of an agro-ecological protected area, L'Albufera de Valencia, Natural Park, located in the vicinity or the urban area of the City of Valencia, Spain. It has been developed based on Environmental Forensics criteria witch attend two types of anthropogenic pressures: (1) direct, due to artificialization of soil covers that produce anthropogenic soil sealing, and (2) indirect, which are related to water flows coming from urban populations throw artificial water networks (sewage and irrigation systems) and that ultimately will be identified by the presence of o emerging-pharmaceuticals contaminants in soils of the protected area. For the first case, soil sealing a methodology based on temporal comparison of two digital layers for the years 1991 and 2011 applying Geographical Information Systems and Landscapes Metrics were undertaken. To determine presence of emerging contaminants 15 soil samples within the Natural Park were analyzed applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of 17 pharmaceutical compounds. Results show that both processes are present in the Natural Park with a clear geographical pattern. Either soil sealing or detection of pharmaceuticals are more intensive in the northern part of the study area. This is related to population density (detection of pharmaceuticals) and land cover conversion from agricultural and natural surfaces to

  1. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model estimates biofuel feedstock crop production across diverse agro-ecological zones within the state, under different future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffka, S.; Jenner, M.; Bucaram, S.; George, N.

    2012-12-01

    Both regulators and businesses need realistic estimates for the potential production of biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. This includes the need to understand how climate change will affect mid-tem and longer-term crop performance and relative advantage. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model is a partial mathematical programming optimization model that estimates the profit level needed for new crop adoption, and the crop(s) displaced when a biomass feedstock crop is added to the state's diverse set of cropping systems, in diverse regions of the state. Both yield and crop price, as elements of profit, can be varied. Crop adoption is tested against current farmer preferences derived from analysis of 10 years crop production data for all crops produced in California, collected by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Analysis of this extensive data set resulted in 45 distinctive, representative farming systems distributed across the state's diverse agro-ecological regions. Estimated yields and water use are derived from field trials combined with crop simulation, reported elsewhere. Crop simulation is carried out under different weather and climate assumptions. Besides crop adoption and displacement, crop resource use is also accounted, derived from partial budgets used for each crop's cost of production. Systematically increasing biofuel crop price identified areas of the state where different types of crops were most likely to be adopted. Oilseed crops like canola that can be used for biodiesel production had the greatest potential to be grown in the Sacramento Valley and other northern regions, while sugar beets (for ethanol) had the greatest potential in the northern San Joaquin Valley region, and sweet sorghum in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Up to approximately 10% of existing annual cropland in California was available for new crop adoption. New crops are adopted if the entire cropping system becomes more profitable. In

  2. Calibration of Daycent biogeochemical model for rice paddies in three agro-ecological zones in Peninsular India to optimize cropping practices and predict GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S.; Kritee, K.; Keough, C.; Parton, W. J.; Ogle, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple for nearly half of the world population with irrigated and rainfed lowland rice accounting for about 80% of the worldwide harvested rice area. Increased atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are expected to adversely affect rice yields by the end of the 21st century. In addition, different crop management practices affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies antagonistically warranting a review of crop management practices such that farmers can adapt to the changing climate and also help mitigate climate change. The Daily DayCent is a biogeochemical model that operates on a daily time step, driven by four ecological drivers, i.e. climate, soil, vegetation, and management practices. The model is widely used to simulate daily fluxes of various gases, plant productivity, nutrient availability, and other ecosystem parameters in response to changes in land management and climate. We employed the DayCent model as a tool to optimize rice cropping practices in Peninsular India so as to develop a set of farming recommendations to ensure a triple win (i.e. higher yield, higher profit and lower GHG emissions). We applied the model to simulate both N2O and CH4 emissions, and crop yields from four rice paddies in three different agro-ecological zones under different management practices, and compared them with measured GHG and yield data from these plots. We found that, like all process based models, the biggest constraint in using the model was input data acquisition. Lack of accurate documentation of historic land use and management practices, missing historical daily weather data, and difficulty in obtaining digital records of soil and crop/vegetation parameters related to our experimental plots came in the way of our execution of this model. We will discuss utilization of estimates based on available literature, or knowledge-based values in lieu of missing measured parameters in our simulations with DayCent which could prove to be a

  3. AGROECOLOGICAL FACTORS OF FOOD SECURITY

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    L. Moldavan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experience of development of forms of economy in developed countries is analysed. Ways of development of domestic agriculture are proposed. The paper proved that Ukraine needs a new model of agriculture that was based not on the dynamic growth market of export production, and the balanced development of multipurpose field, which meets the needs of the country in food and foreign exchange earnings, warned to the depletion of natural resources. The extent of devastating effects of industrial model of agriculture development, which is oriented on economic growth without social and environmental price of its growth is revealed. Retrospective analysis of entry in international practice like formal institutional status of an alternative model in which an economic function of a branch (production and income is balanced with ecological (conservation potential land and social (food security is realized. Basic principles of ecologically oriented agriculture as a factor in long-term food security are formulated.

  4. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS OF AGROECOLOGICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BUDEANU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova has an enormous potential of exploiting the ecologicalagricultural and genetic modified food products. Consumers, especially of EU market, havedemanded both the conformity of products in regard to harmless effects and additionalrequirements for the quality.In this view, in the RM the Law on ecological agri-food products, 6 GovernmentalDecisions, 5 Presidential Decrees, 1 Ministerial Order and several standards were passed. Thebasic principles of ecological agrifood production have been proposed for adoption.Consumers, especially those on European Union markets, don’t ask only the guarantees ofconfirmation of products and of harmlessness in consumption, but solicit additionalconfirmations concerning their quality, including ensurance that the products which theyconsume are pure ecological and genetic unmodified.For that reason, The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova adopted the law “Concerningecological agrifood products” which anticipates settlement of social reports that are under toobtain ecological agrifood products without using the unending chemical substances,inclusively commercialization of ecological food products of vegetal and animal origin. Somegeneral principles of ecological agrifood products were proposed.

  5. Tamanho de amostra para avaliação de caracteres de cenoura em sistemas de cultivo agroecológico Sample size for evaluation of carrot traits in agroecologic cultivation systems

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    Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O correto dimensionamento de experimentos deve ser utilizado para que se possa reduzir o erro experimental e com isso, maximizar a precisão das informações obtidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o número mínimo de famílias e de plantas por parcela para avaliação de caracteres de raiz em uma população de cenoura cultivada em sistema agroecológico. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no verão de 2006/2007 em duas propriedades com cultivo agroecológico em Brasília: Associação Mokiti Okada, que segue modelo de Agricultura Natural em Brazlândia-DF e Núcleo Rural Taguatinga, seguindo modelo de Agricultura Orgânica em Taguatinga-DF. Foram avaliadas 100 famílias de meio-irmãos de cenoura dispostas em delineamento de blocos casualizados com duas repetições e parcelas de 1 m². Foram colhidas 20 plantas competitivas por parcela e avaliadas individualmente para os caracteres comprimento de raiz, diâmetro da raiz, massa da raiz, diâmetro do xilema da raiz, relação diâmetro do xilema/diâmetro da raiz, tipo de ponta da raiz, tipo de ombro da raiz, parâmetro a* para os tecidos xilema e floema. Foi realizada análise de variância conjunta e para cada sistema, com informação entre e dentro de parcelas. Foram realizadas ainda análises de representatividade do número mínimo de famílias e de plantas para representar uma população de cenoura. Foi verificado que uma amostra de 18 plantas competitivas/parcela coletadas em ensaios com 2 repetições, bem como de 74 famílias, são suficientes para garantir uma adequada avaliação de famílias meio-irmãos de cenoura para os caracteres estudados.The correct experiment design should be used to reduce the experimental error and, with that, maximize the precision of the information obtained. The objective of this work was to estimate the minimum number of families and of plants per plot for evaluation of root traits in a carrot population cultivated in agroecologic systems. The

  6. Potencial agroecológico de Ateleia cubensis (DC Dietr. var. cubensis (Griseb. Mohlenber en condiciones naturales del núcleo ultramáfico de Camagüey/Agroecological potential of Ateleia cubensis (DC Dietr. var. cubensis (Griseb. Mohlenber in natural conditions of Camagüey ultramafic core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmy Triana González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial agroecológico de Ateleia cubensis (DC Dietr. var. cubensis (Griseb. Mohlenber en condiciones naturales del núcleo ultramáfico de Camagüey, se desarrolló un estudio en el municipio Minas, durante los meses comprendidos entre enero del 2014 y enero del año 2015, sobre un suelo Fersialítico rojo pardusco ferromagnesial (Inceptisol - Cambisol. Se estimó la densidad natural de la especie en el área a través de 20 parcelas de muestreo permanentes (36 m2 distribuidas aleatoriamente, se determinó la densidad de la madera para ser utilizada en el cálculo del carbono retenido, el volumen de madera, raíces, follaje y hojarasca. Los resultados muestran una densidad de 8 055 plantas /ha de A. cubensis con beneficios desde el punto de vista agroecológico reconocido por las bondades que ofrece al ecosistema. ABSTRACT Agroecological potential of Ateleia cubensis (DC Dietr. var. cubensis (Griseb. Mohlenber in natural conditions of Camagüey ultramafic core In order to evaluate the agroecological potential of o Ateleia cubensis (DC Dietr. var. cubensis (Griseb. Mohlenber in natural conditions of Camagüey ultramafic core, a study was conducted in the municipality Minas, during the months between January 2014 and January 2015, on a brownish red soil Fersialitic ferromagnesian (Inceptisol - Cambisol. The natural density of the species in the area through 20 permanent sample plots (36 m2 randomly distributed, estimated density of the wood to be used in the calculation of carbon retained, the volume of wood, roots, foliage was determined and stubble. The results show a density of 8 055 plants / ha of A. cubensis with benefits from the agroecological point of view recognized the advantages offered to ecosystem.

  7. AGROECOLOGY: BASIS OF SUSTAINABILITY AGROECOSYSTEMSDiante da insustentabilidade ambiental dos sistemas de produção agrícolas na atualidade, o enfoque agroecológico surge como uma alternativa sustentável aos agroecossistemas. A ciência agroecológica trabal Agroecologia: base da sustentabilidade dos agroecossistemas

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    Daiane Loreto Vargas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the environmental unsustainability of agricultural production systems today, the agroecological approach is an alternative to sustainable agroecosystems. The agroecological science works with the idea of biodiversity, the interaction of various plants and animals, which should keep a crop diversification, as well as organic matter and microorganisms in the soil acting, without the use of chemical intervention. Questions which will contribute to increased productivity, for reestablishment and maintenance of balance and hence Agroecosystems, for processing and social environment in a way that it holds over time.Diante da insustentabilidade ambiental dos sistemas de produção agrícolas na atualidade, o enfoque agroecológico surge como uma alternativa sustentável aos agroecossistemas. A ciência agroecológica trabalha com a idéia de biodiversidade, da interação de diversas plantas e animais, onde deve-se manter uma diversificação de culturas, assim como a matéria orgânica e os microorganismos atuando no solo, sem fazer uso da intervenção de produtos químicos. Questões que vão contribuir para o aumento da produtividade, para o reestabelecimento e manutenção do equilíbrio dos agroecossistemas e consequentemente, para a transformação ambiental e social de uma forma que se sustente ao longo do tempo.

  8. Caracterización de sistemas agroecológicos para el establecimiento comercial de cacao orgánico (Theobroma cacao en Talamanca Description of agro-ecological systems to the shop of organic cocoa (Theobroma cacao in Talamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar Díaz

    2012-11-01

    for the five selected farms and a socioeconomic characterization of the beneficiary families; based on the results it was proposed a production design and an agronomic management, for establishing the agroecological systems.

  9. Initiatives and experiences in agroecology as a strategy for local development in a land reform settlement As iniciativas e experiências em agroecologia como estratégia de desenvolvimento local em um assentamento de reforma agrária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Botton Barcellos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper searches to understand which disputes and conflicts are around the consolidation of agroecology as one of the alternatives and initiatives of local development in a land reform settlement. Thus, this paper, which consists of one of the results presented in the authorïs dissertation, aims to identify the disputes and conflicts that occur among local initiatives related to agroecology. Santa Rosa settlement is located in one of the densest areas in relation to rural settlements in Rio Grande do Sul (RS State. The research sources used to collect data and references to this paper were obtained in: researched bibliography in the writing of the author's dissertation; academic articles; and perceptions from the author's experiences in some land reform settlements. In this research it was considered that initiatives and actions in agroecology in the studied settlement can be strategic to make the social relations potential to the occurrence of experiences in local development different from those that occur alongside agribusiness.Por meio desse trabalho será buscado compreender quais são as disputas e os conflitos acerca da consolidação da agroecologia como uma das alternativas e iniciativas de desenvolvimento local em um assentamento de reforma agrária. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho, que é um dos resultados apresentados como trabalho de dissertação do autor, é identificar as disputas e os conflitos que ocorrem em meio a iniciativas locais relacionadas à agroecologia. O assentamento Santa Rosa está localizado em uma das regiões de maior densidade de assentamentos e assentados no Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As fontes de pesquisa utilizadas para coletar os dados e as referências nesse trabalho foram obtidas em: bibliografias temáticas pesquisadas; artigos acadêmicos; e percepções de vivências do autor em alguns assentamentos de reforma agrária. Por meio da pesquisa considerou-se que as iniciativas e ações em

  10. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  11. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  12. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla

    2015-04-01

    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  13. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    other agro-management practices. At the farm management level, reasonable intercropping patterns at the landscape level were needed for effective disease and insect-pests control. Tree-crop intercrops, rice-fish/duck farms, fallows, deep ploughs, conservation tillages, organic fertilizations, etc., constituted other important control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests. The combination of the above in constructing integrated agro-ecological landscapes for comprehensive control of plant diseases and insect-pests was demonstrated in the Hani terraced fields.%化学农药控制农田病虫害面临诸如农药残留、环境污染等问题,而生物农药及生物防治存在着药效缓慢、成本高、防治对象单一等不足,目前缺乏综合、效果明显、环境友好的农田病虫害控制手段.景观生态学研究显示,致病菌、害虫及其天敌种群受到大尺度上景观格局的影响,从而为病虫害控制提供了一条新的途径:通过合理规划农业生态景观格局,在景观尺度上合理安排种植结构和农事活动,从而控制农田病虫害.本文从景观、田块、耕种管理措施3个层次上论述通过农业生态景观建设控制农业病虫害.景观上:应提高半自然生境的面积比例;丰富半自然生境类型和农田生境作物类型;同时注意景观结构异质性的营建;关注景观连接度,使其保持在既有利于天敌昆虫的迁移、又能较好地阻止病虫害传播的水平上;同时还应提升半自然生境斑块的质量.田块上:通过保留原有的农田边界和新建农田植被缓冲带来控制相邻农田中的病虫害;农田缓冲带的建设要与原有的半自然生境及农田边界构成一个整体,建设过程中主要关注植被的搭配,后期要特别注意杂草、割草、施肥、喷药等管理措施.耕种管理措施上:通过景观层次上合理安排间套混作控制农田中的病虫害,同时注重与农林间作,稻田

  14. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    other agro-management practices. At the farm management level, reasonable intercropping patterns at the landscape level were needed for effective disease and insect-pests control. Tree-crop intercrops, rice-fish/duck farms, fallows, deep ploughs, conservation tillages, organic fertilizations, etc., constituted other important control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests. The combination of the above in constructing integrated agro-ecological landscapes for comprehensive control of plant diseases and insect-pests was demonstrated in the Hani terraced fields.%化学农药控制农田病虫害面临诸如农药残留、环境污染等问题,而生物农药及生物防治存在着药效缓慢、成本高、防治对象单一等不足,目前缺乏综合、效果明显、环境友好的农田病虫害控制手段.景观生态学研究显示,致病菌、害虫及其天敌种群受到大尺度上景观格局的影响,从而为病虫害控制提供了一条新的途径:通过合理规划农业生态景观格局,在景观尺度上合理安排种植结构和农事活动,从而控制农田病虫害.本文从景观、田块、耕种管理措施3个层次上论述通过农业生态景观建设控制农业病虫害.景观上:应提高半自然生境的面积比例;丰富半自然生境类型和农田生境作物类型;同时注意景观结构异质性的营建;关注景观连接度,使其保持在既有利于天敌昆虫的迁移、又能较好地阻止病虫害传播的水平上;同时还应提升半自然生境斑块的质量.田块上:通过保留原有的农田边界和新建农田植被缓冲带来控制相邻农田中的病虫害;农田缓冲带的建设要与原有的半自然生境及农田边界构成一个整体,建设过程中主要关注植被的搭配,后期要特别注意杂草、割草、施肥、喷药等管理措施.耕种管理措施上:通过景观层次上合理安排间套混作控制农田中的病虫害,同时注重与农林间作,稻田

  15. Agroecologia e relazione con “l’altra”. Appunti di un’etnografia collaborativa con il movimento di donne contadine in Santa Catarina (Brasile - Agroecology and the relation with “the other”: notes on a collaborative ethnography with the movement of peasant women in Santa Catarina - (Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Muraca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a collaborative ethnography about political and pedagogical practices of the Movement of Peasant Women in Santa Catarina (Brazil. In particular, it investigates the educational potential of the agroecological practices and reflections developed by the movement, in order to rethink the “negated relation” between the peasants of European origin and the native population, into the social-political-cultural context of the State of Santa Catarina. After a brief reference to the background of the study about the educational practices of the social movements, the author presents her research and focuses on the political, ethical and methodological implications of an investigation with a social movement. How can the identification with the struggles of the social movement contribute to the research? In which way, is it possible to promote the reciprocity in all stages of the survey? Can the discussion about the researcher’s interpretations with her interlocutors promote any non-individualistic modalities of ethnographic writing?

  16. 农业生态环境监测中无线传感节点信号有效传输距离的确定%Determination of effective transmission distances of wireless sensor network nodes for agro-ecological environment monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴元; 章玥; 季民河※; 宋洋

    2013-01-01

      农业生态环境的物理形态和结构复杂多样,对WSN(wireless sensor networks)的无线信号传输造成不同衰减影响。为确保无线传感器网络在农业环境中经济、合理、高效部署,有必要明确典型农业环境中无线传感节点间的有效传输距离。该文基于Shadowing信号衰减模型,利用当前通用的CC2530和CC2591无线通信模块,分别选定4种不同农业环境(湖泊、草地、农田、树林)开展单跳组网试验,通过设定不同距离测试传感器节点的接收信号强度指标(received signal strength indication,RSSI),分析不同环境中RSSI与传输距离间的变化特征。试验结果表明,所有测试环境获得的RSSI值与有效距离遵从Shadowing模型,其拟合度在0.9232~0.9846之间。通过对实测数据建立拟合模型,以接收节点的灵敏度为临界值,计算出湖泊、草地、农田、树林4种环境的理论传输距离分别为663.3,419.3,208.0和79.5 m,而实测有效传输距离与理论值之间的相对误差在22%~34%之间。从误差分布看,复杂环境的实测值更接近理论值,而特殊结构的复杂环境似对实际信号传输有增强作用。该文的研究方法和模型估算获得的信号衰减系数可为实际环境监测组网提供有益参考。%  Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been widely adopted for monitoring of agro-ecological environment, as they offer a number of advantages over traditional field observation methods. Signal transmission distances and qualities achieved by wireless sensors are highly related to the types of external environments. Attenuation of radio signals varies drastically for wireless sensor networks in different agro-ecological environments with diverse physical forms and structures. To achieve the economic, rational, and efficient goal for WSN deployment, it is essential to identify the effective transmission distance between wireless

  17. Avaliação do incremento em volume de madeira de Quassia amara L.- Simaroubaceae, em cultivo agroecológico no trópico úmido da Costa Rica Evaluation of wood volume increment in Quassia amara L. - Simaroubaceae, under agroecological cultivation in the humid tropic of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Próspero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quassia amara é arbusto de 3 a 6 metros de altura, tendo sido retirado indiscriminadamente das florestas para extrair do caule as quassinas usadas na indústria farmacêutica e como inseticida em agricultura orgânica. Não se tem muita informação técnica acerca do crescimento desta espécie para subsidiar estratégias de manejo sustentado. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de Q. amara L. em cultivo agroecológico na Costa Rica. O trabalho consistiu em realizar avaliações do desenvolvimento de indivíduos de Q. amara em parcelas permanentes de medições, instaladas em meio às plantações desta espécie em consórcio com essências arbóreas. Foram efetuadas medições de diâmetro do caule a 10 cm do solo e altura total. Foi observado que em função das taxas de crescimento vegetal e incrementos médio e corrente anuais (IMA e ICA, mesmo após cinco anos de plantio, a madeira de Quassia amara para extração de quassinas não está pronta para colheita.Quassia amara is a 3-6m tall bush which has been indiscriminately removed from forests for extraction of quassins from its stem. These substances have been used in pharmaceutical industry and as insecticide in organic agriculture. There is not much technical information about the growth of this species to subsidize sustainable management strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of Quassia amara under agroecological cultivation in Costa Rica. The study consisted in evaluating the development of Q. amara individuals in permanent plots intercropped with other tree species. Stem diameter at 10 cm from the ground and total height were measured. According to the results concerning growth rates, Mean Annual Increment (MAI and Current Annual Increment (CAI, even at five years after planting, Q. amara wood is not ready to be harvested.

  18. Zoneamento agroecológico para a região de Ribeirão Preto utilizando um sistema de informações geográficas Agroecologic zoning for the Ribeirão Preto Region using a geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieta G. Martorano

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando contribuir com a metodologia de identificação de potencialidades de uso das terras, este trabalho apresenta uma proposta de zoneamento agroecológico da quadrícula de Ribeirão Preto, SP, localizada entre as coordenadas de 21o00'S a 21o30'S e 47o30'W a 48o00'W, com base em características de solo, relevo e clima, utilizando-se de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas. Para caracterizar o regime térmico-hídrico da área utilizou-se os dados de temperatura do ar e de chuva, de 22 localidades, referentes ao período de 1967 a 1996. De acordo com os critérios adotados, quanto a capacidade de uso das terras, o zoneamento identificou seis unidades de utilização da área: agricultura (I; agricultura (II; agricultura (III; pecuária; agrossilvicultura e preservação. As principais conclusões referentes à área de estudo foram: o regime térmico-hídrico é praticamente homogêneo, a vocação dominante é para agricultura (I representando aproximadamente 191.118 hectares, correspondentes a 66,3% da área e cerca de 82,5% das terras possuem vocação para agropecuária e 10,4% devem ser preservadas ou utilizadas seguindo técnicas conservacionistas.In order to contribute with the methodology of identification of land use potentialities, this paper presents a proposal of agroecologic zoning of the quadrangle (21o00'S at 21o30'S and 47o30'W to 48o00'W, of the county of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, based on soil, relief and climate characteristics, in a GIS environment. Data of air temperature and rainfall of 22 locations from 1967 to 1996 were used to characterize the thermo-hydric regime of the area. Criteria were adopted according to the capacity of land use. The zoning identified six units of land use: agriculture (I; agriculture (II; agriculture (III; cattle; agroforest systems and preservation. It was concluded that the quadrangle has: a relative climatic uniformity; the dominant zone is the agriculture (I; about 82.5% of

  19. Agroecology: Implications for plant response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural ecosystems (agroecosystems) represent the balance between the physiological responses of plants and plant canopies and the energy exchanges. Rising temperature and increasing CO2 coupled with an increase in variability of precipitation will create a complex set of interactions on plant ...

  20. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. McKay (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the

  1. Agroecology: the key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gollotte, Armelle; Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Redecker, Dirk; Wipf, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    The beneficial effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant performance and soil health are essential for the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems. Nevertheless, since the 'first green revolution', less attention has been given to beneficial soil microorganisms in general and to AM fungi in particular. Human society benefits from a multitude of resources and processes from natural and managed ecosystems, to which AM make a crucial contribution. These resources and processes, which are called ecosystem services, include products like food and processes like nutrient transfer. Many people have been under the illusion that these ecosystem services are free, invulnerable and infinitely available; taken for granted as public benefits, they lack a formal market and are traditionally absent from society's balance sheet. In 1997, a team of researchers from the USA, Argentina and the Netherlands put an average price tag of US $33 trillion a year on these fundamental ecosystem services. The present review highlights the key role that the AM symbiosis can play as an ecosystem service provider to guarantee plant productivity and quality in emerging systems of sustainable agriculture. The appropriate management of ecosystem services rendered by AM will impact on natural resource conservation and utilisation with an obvious net gain for human society. PMID:20697748

  2. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation.

  3. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Ben

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty. The dominant model of agricultural development practised by many countries today is based on chemical-intensive agr...

  4. Chlorophyll as a measure of plant health: Agroecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pavlović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As photosynthesis is the basic process during which light energy is absorbed and converted into organic matter, the importance of the plant pigment chlorophyll (a and b forms as an intermediary in transformation of the absorbed solar energy and its activity in the process of photosynthesis and synthesis of organic substances in plants are crucial. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of methods for monitoring the optical activity of chlorophyll molecules and methods (non-destructive and destructive for quantification of chlorophyll in plants. These methods are used to estimate the effects of different stress factors (abiotic, biotic and xenobiotic on the efficiency of photosynthesis and bioproductivity, aiming to assess the impact that these limiting factors have on the yield of various cultivars. Also, those methods for analysis of chlorophyll optical activity and/or content are appropriate for assessing the reaction of weed species to different agricultural practices (mineral nutrition, treatment by herbicides, etc. and studies of different aspects of weed ecophysiology and their influence on crop harvest.

  5. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be bas...

  6. Agro-ecological characterization of inland valleys in West Arica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Windmeijer, P.N.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual issues related to inland valleys, their morphology, hydrology and agro-ecosystems are discussed, as well as a method for their step-wise characterization at different levels of detail. A definition of inland valleys is given, including the description of the main landscape elements (uplan

  7. Commercialization of innovative technologies in agroecology: Problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Raushan Ramazanova

    2014-01-01

    Efficient use of natural resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is impossible without economic optimization and stabilization of agro ecosystems at the present stage of development of agriculture. Sustainable agricultural production is highly dependent on the rational use of land and soil fertility status, which are associated with the function of maintaining life of plant organisms. The ever-increasing burden on the environment highlights the organization management and protection of land i...

  8. Agroecological features of the fiber flax mineral fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kornuta

    2014-01-01

    Generalization of published and own experimental data on the effects of mineral fertilizers for the cultivation of flax has proved the benefits of complex fertilizers in comparison with the effect of simple mixture fertilizers. Depending on the doses and ratios of nutrient elements, terms and methods of making complex fertilizers the indicators of quality flax can essentially change, therefore improvement of technology cultivation flax in zonal conditions on the basis of using the latest adva...

  9. 作为学科与专业的“农学”之历史反思与体系再构——以农业生态学作为新农学的核心理论科目%Historical review of Agronomy both as a discipline and a specialty and its reframing: Taking Agroecology as its core theoretical subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松良

    2011-01-01

    sustainable agricultural production strategies. In this paper, the author proposed bridging agronomy with ecology. This posed agroecology as a core discipline, upon which crop cultivation, cropping system and crop genetics/breeding research was regulated and broadened. These sub-disciplines of agronomy used agro-ecosystem management as a core applied system that integrates modern biological, ecological, information and material engineering. Methodologically, it paved a practical path to sustainable modern agriculture by integrating China's archaic deductivism thinking with western neoteric reductionism thinking.

  10. Matéria seca de plantas de cobertura, produção de cebola e atributos químicos do solo em sistema plantio direto agroecológico Dry matter of cover crops, onion yield and soil chemical attributes in agroecological no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo e a deposição de resíduos de plantas de cobertura em sistema plantio direto podem afetar os atributos químicos do solo e a produção de cebola. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a interferência do cultivo de plantas de cobertura sobre a produção de cebola e sobre os atributos químicos do solo em sistema plantio direto (SPD agroecológico. O experimento foi conduzido na EPAGRI, em Ituporanga (SC, em um Cambissolo Húmico, nas safras de 2010 e 2011. Em abril, foram implantados os tratamentos: testemunha com vegetação espontânea (T1; cevada (2010/aveia-preta (2011 (T2; centeio (T3; nabo-forrageiro (T4; centeio + nabo-forrageiro (T5; e cevada (2010/aveia-preta (2011 + nabo-forrageiro (T6. Aos 60, 80 e 95 dias após a semeadura (DAS das espécies de inverno, coletou-se a parte aérea das plantas e determinou-se a produção de matéria seca por hectare. Em julho, foram transplantadas mudas de cebola e, em novembro, avaliou-se a produção. Após o acamamento das plantas de cobertura de inverno e a colheita da cebola, foi coletado solo na camada de 0-10 cm e submetido à análise de atributos químicos. O cultivo e a deposição dos resíduos de matéria seca das espécies de plantas de cobertura em SPD contribuíram para o aumento e a manutenção da produção total de cebola ao longo dos anos. Os atributos químicos do solo, com exceção do K trocável, P disponível e valores de saturação da CTCpH7,0 por bases não foram afetados pelo cultivo de plantas de cobertura.The cultivation and deposition of waste from cover crops in no-tillage can affect soil chemical attributes and onion yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter yield of plant species from winter cover crops, onion yield and chemical attributes of soil in agroecological no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out at EPAGRI Experimental Station in Ituporanga (SC under Humic Haplumbrept in the agricultural years of 2010 and 2011. The following

  11. Atributos químicos e físicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em sistema integrado de produção agroecológica Chemical and physical attributes of an Udult soil in agroecological production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Loss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de sistemas de manejo agroecológico sobre os atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram selecionadas as seguintes áreas: preparo convencional (milho/feijão; plantio direto (berinjela/milho; consórcio maracujá/Desmodium sp.; área cultivada com figo; e sistema agroflorestal (SAF. Amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas em duas profundidades (0-5 e 5-10 cm e em duas épocas (verão/2005 e inverno/2006. As propriedades edáficas analisadas foram: densidade do solo (Ds; volume total de poros; diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP e diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG de agregados; pH, Al, Ca+Mg, K, H+Al, P e carbono orgânico total (COT. Os maiores valores de Ds, P e K foram verificados na área de figo. O sistema milho/feijão apresentou os menores valores de DMP e DMG. Os maiores valores de DMP e DMG foram observados nos sistemas maracujá/Desmodium e berinjela/milho. As diferenças entre os valores de COT foram maiores à profundidade de 5-10 cm. O SAF apresentou maiores percentuais de porosidade total. A análise de componentes principais mostrou que a área cultivada com figo está associada a maiores índices de fertilidade do solo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of agroecological management systems on physical and chemical attributes of an Udult soil. The following areas were selected: conventional tillage (corn/beans; no tillage (eggplant/corn; consortium of passion fruit/Desmodium sp.; fig cultivation; and an agroforestry system (AFS. The undisturbed soil samples were taken from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm and in two periods, the summer of 2005 and the winter of 2006. The soil properties analyzed were: bulk density (Ds, total pore volume, mean weight diameter (MWD and mean geometric diameter (MGD of aggregates, pH, Al, Ca+Mg, K, H+Al, P, and total organic carbon (TOC. The highest values of Ds, P and K were observed in the fig area

  12. 基于改进农业生态区划法的耕地综合量能指数模型构建%Comprehensive index model building of cultivated land yield and productivity based on improved agro-ecological zoning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽; 郝晋珉; 艾东; 朱传民; 周宁; 洪舒蔓

    2014-01-01

    研究粮食产量与耕地产能间的关系以及区域差异,对于挖掘区域增产潜力,提高耕地资源利用效率,实现区域均衡增产,保障粮食安全战略具有重要意义。该文在农业生态区划法估算土地生产潜力基础上,提出基于耕地质量新内涵的耕地质量修正的耕地产能核算方法。通过探讨耕地综合产能的概念体系,构建了反映粮食产量与耕地产能关系的耕地综合量能指数模型,模型由耕地综合量能指数、耕地质量产能指数和耕地数量产能指数构成。并以曲周县为例,对该模型进行了实证研究,曲周县耕地综合量能指数为0.16,耕地质量产能指数为0.31,耕地数量产能指数为0.99,耕地总体产出效率不高,粮食增产的潜力较大,耕地粮食生产平均开发程度也不高,但数量增加潜力较小。%Study on the relationships between grain production and cultivated land productivity and its regional difference is of great significance for food security. Besides, it is also important for finding regional potential yields of grain, improving the utilization efficiency of cultivated land resources and achieving the regional increase of grain yield. In this paper, on the basis of agro-ecological zoning (AEZ) model, a new method was proposed to calculate the cultivated land productivity under cultivated land quality modification. Furthermore, the modification of cultivated land quality was based on a new concept that the quality of cultivated land was not only affected by natural factors but also by artificial factors such as irrigation canals, greenhouse, nursery factory, mechanical facilities and its supporting service station. By discussing the conceptual system of cultivated land integrated productivity which took the potential quantity of cultivated land and the quality index of cultivated land into the consideration, we proposed that comprehensive productivity of cultivated land

  13. La agroecología frente a la crisis alimentaria global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Altieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las presiones ejercidas sobre el área agrícola socavan la capacidad de la naturaleza para suplir las demandas humanas en cuanto a alimentos, fibras y energía. La tragedia es que la población depende de los servicios ecológicos (ciclos de agua, polinizadores, suelos fértiles, clima, etc. que la agricultura intensiva continuamente empuja más allá de sus límites.

  14. Sustainable Agriculture: An Assessment of Brazil's Family Farm Programmes in Scaling Up Agroecological Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. McKay (Ben); R. Nehring (Ryan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Global poverty and hunger are most prevalent where food is actually being produced — in rural areas. Roughly 70 per cent of the 1.4 billion extremely poor people in the world live in rural areas (IFAD, 2010). The increasing volatility in food prices, erratic effects of

  15. The debate on food sovereignty theory: agrarian capitalism, dispossession and agroecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution reviews recent critiques of the food sovereignty framework. In particular it engages with the debate between Henry Bernstein and Philip McMichael and analyzes their different conceptualizations of agrarian capitalism. It critically identifies tendencies in food sovereignty approach

  16. Assessing farmers' interest in agroforestry in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van, M.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and management of agroforestry technologies differs among farms in Rwanda and needs to be documented as a basis for shaping future research and development programs. The objective of this study was to investigate current agroforestry practices, farmers’ preferences, tree management and perspectives for agroforestry technologies. The study consisted of a combination of a formal survey, a participatory tree testing, farmer evaluation and focus group discussions in the Central Plateau (mo...

  17. Intensify pastures for livestock production: vermicompost use, an agro-ecological practice

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline; Faverial, J.; Mulciba, P.; Loranger-Merciris, G.L.M.; Sierra, J

    2013-01-01

    The intensification of animal production at pasture is essential to meet the growing demand for animal products but also for other functions, the maintenance of areas, livelihoods and well-being of populations. This intensification must also take into account the reduction of agricultural land, promote positive interactions with the environment and biodiversity, while ensuring the supply of populations. The use of vermicompost involving the action of earthworms is an example of agro-ecologica...

  18. Policies for a greener agriculture: the agro-ecological approach of current programs in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Lucimar Santiago de; Almeida, Gustavo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Based a multiple-cases-study approach, our main objective is to discuss to what extent the new political approach of 2003 has been able so far to obtain and increase concrete progress in rural areas in Brazil.

  19. Assessing farmers' interest in agroforestry in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and management of agroforestry technologies differs among farms in Rwanda and needs to be documented as a basis for shaping future research and development programs. The objective of this study was to investigate current agroforestry practices, farmers’ preferences, tree management and perspe

  20. La agroecología, ciencia para el desarrollo rural sustentable. Estudio de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Casimiro Rodríguez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación  pretende demostrar cómo se desarrollan agroecosistemas sustentables  familiares sin el uso de energías fósiles, a través de la presentación del estudio de caso del Faro agroecológico “Finca del Medio”, municipio de Taguasco, provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Se utilizaron métodos de investigación de tipo teórico y empírico a través del trabajo de campo, entrevistas y encuestas. La creatividad e innovación campesina y el trabajo familiar, permitió: la obtención de un multiimplemento de tracción animal que  realiza más de 28 labores de forma agroecológica. El ahorro de más de 20.00 pesos en moneda nacional por metro de cercado con piña de ratón y de 3 a 5 litros de petróleo diarios con la instalación de arietes hidráulicos y 2 molinos de vientos. El biodigestor produce 109 500 litros de biofertilizantes por año; obteniéndose biogás como combustible para la cocción y refrigeración de alimentos. La “Finca del Medio” logra el autoabastecimiento de más del 95% de la alimentación familiar. El análisis realizado demuestra cómo el trabajo familiar agroecológico, crea un sistema alimentario capaz de proveerse de alimentos y servicios ecosistémicos, viendo la agricultura no solo como una forma de subsistencia; sino como proyecto de vida.

  1. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgosz, Benjamin; Kato, Edward; Ringler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a par...

  2. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide. PMID:27316676

  3. Effects of agroecological conditions and hybrid combinations on maize seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Tabaković M.; Glamočlija Đ.; Jovanović S.; Popović V.; Simić D.; Anđelković S.

    2013-01-01

    Germination energy and seed germination of four maize combinations cultivated under different growing conditions were observed. Analysis of hybrid seed of four commercial combinations derived at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, grown in three locations, were done on the working sample of 4 x 100 seeds under laboratory conditions. The experimental data was processed for the mean and total variability (X and C.V.) for both seed traits and for each t...

  4. FIELD PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. BIOMASS PRODUCTION DEPENDED ON SEED AGE AND AGROECOLOGICAL GROWTH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of weather conditions and seed age on fresh and dry biomass production, field germination, seed yield and 1000 seed weight of field pea were investigated in field trials during two years at two locations of East Croatia (Osijek and Vinkovci. Seed of „Timo“ cultivar 9 and 21 month old was used for sowing. In the investigation of the years influence, significantly higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (57,035 t/ha, dry matter yield (9.796 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (129.7 g was found in the first year of the investigation. On the average for years, significantly higher field germination (87.0% and seed yield (2.173 t/ha at p=0.01, and green mass yield (55.728 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (130.1 g at p=0.05 were found at location Osijek. Seed of 21 month old had higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (64.376 t/ha, dry matter yield (10.934 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (134 g but significantly lower field germination (76.4% at location Vinkovci in the investigation of seed age and location influences during 2005 year..

  5. Climate Science, Development Practice, and Policy Interactions in Dryland Agroecological Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twyman, C.; Fraser, E.D.G.; Stringer, L.C.; Quinn, C.; Dougill, A.J.; Crane, T.A.; Sallu, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on drought, livelihoods, and poverty suggests that dryland residents are especially vulnerable to climate change. However, assessing this vulnerability and sharing lessons between dryland communities on how to reduce vulnerability has proven difficult because of multiple definitions o

  6. The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatta-Kassinos, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Vasquez, M I

    2011-09-01

    Treated wastewater reuse for irrigation, landscape and surface or groundwater replenishment purposes is being widely implemented. Although the reuse practice is accompanied by a number of benefits relating to the enhancement of water balances and soil nutrition by the nutrients existing in the treated effluents, a number of unanswered questions are still related to this practice. Besides the lack of knowledge in respect to possible elemental interactions that may influence the accumulation of heavy metals and other elements in the soil and the subsequent uptake by plants and crops, during the last several years, the technological progress in respect to analytical chromatographic methods has enabled the identification and quantitation of a number of organic xenobiotic compounds in treated wastewater. Therefore it is now known that the effluents' remaining organic matter most usually expressed as Chemical Oxygen Demand consists of a number of biorecalcitrant organic xenobiotic compounds including potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, etc. It is also widely accepted that the currently applied treatment processes for urban wastewater abatement fail to completely remove such contaminants and this lead to their subsequent release in the terrestrial and aquatic environment through disposal and reuse applications. The number of studies focusing on the analysis and the toxicological assessment of such compounds in the environment is constantly increasing the aim being to bridge the various knowledge gaps associated with these issues. The existing knowledge in respect to the relevant existing legislation framework, the types of elements and chemicals of concern, the uptake of xenobiotic pollutants and also that of other neglected chemical elements along with their potential environmental interactions constitute the focus of the present review paper. The review addresses the problems that might be related to the repeated treated wastewater release in the environment for reuse applications in respect to the wastewater residual load in heavy metals, accumulating in soil and plants and especially in their edible parts, in xenobiotic compounds, including EDCs, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, drugs' metabolites, illicit drugs, transformation products, and also genes resistant to antibiotics. PMID:20435343

  7. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological

  8. Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Pierre, C; Burgueño, J; Crossa, J; Fuentes Dávila, G; Figueroa López, P; Solís Moya, E; Ireta Moreno, J; Hernández Muela, V M; Zamora Villa, V M; Vikram, P; Mathews, K; Sansaloni, C; Sehgal, D; Jarquin, D; Wenzl, P; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and pedigree predictions for grain yield and agronomic traits were carried out using high density molecular data on a set of 803 spring wheat lines that were evaluated in 5 sites characterized by several environmental co-variables. Seven statistical models were tested using two random cross-validations schemes. Two other prediction problems were studied, namely predicting the lines' performance at one site with another (pairwise-site) and at untested sites (leave-one-site-out). Grain yield ranged from 3.7 to 9.0 t ha(-1) across sites. The best predictability was observed when genotypic and pedigree data were included in the models and their interaction with sites and the environmental co-variables. The leave-one-site-out increased average prediction accuracy over pairwise-site for all the traits, specifically from 0.27 to 0.36 for grain yield. Days to anthesis, maturity, and plant height predictions had high heritability and gave the highest accuracy for prediction models. Genomic and pedigree models coupled with environmental co-variables gave high prediction accuracy due to high genetic correlation between sites. This study provides an example of model prediction considering climate data along-with genomic and pedigree information. Such comprehensive models can be used to achieve rapid enhancement of wheat yield enhancement in current and future climate change scenario. PMID:27311707

  9. Experiential learning online - experiences from designing and running a nordic course in agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah; Christensen, Dorthe; Lieblein, Geir

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports experiences from designing and running the Nordic online course "Ecology of Farming and Food Systems". The aim was two-fold: 1) to design an online course which uses an explicit experiential learning approach and 2) to design a structure for online faculty collaboration across...

  10. La agroecología, ciencia para el desarrollo rural sustentable. Estudio de caso.

    OpenAIRE

    Leidy Casimiro Rodríguez; Silvia Manuela Pacheco Méndez; Rosaidy López Jorge

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación  pretende demostrar cómo se desarrollan agroecosistemas sustentables  familiares sin el uso de energías fósiles, a través de la presentación del estudio de caso del Faro agroecológico “Finca del Medio”, municipio de Taguasco, provincia de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Se utilizaron métodos de investigación de tipo teórico y empírico a través del trabajo de campo,...

  11. Economía, agricultura ecológica y agroecología

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Rodríguez, Susana R.

    1997-01-01

    Las políticas dirigidas a la revitalización de los espacios rurales, como en el ámbito comunitario las medidas de acompañamiento de la reforma en 1992 de la PAC, parten de su valoración tanto desde una perspectiva ecológica como social y económica. De ahí nuestro interés en aproximarnos mediante este trabajo a los conceptos implicados en esta realidad.

  12. Los Guardianes de Semillas : una red de agroecología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Torres

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fundada en noviembre del 2002, la Red de Guardianes de Semillas arrancó con el esfuerzo de un pequeño grupo de productores orgánicos del valle de Tumbaco, en el Ecuador. Desde entonces, la Red ha crecido incluyendo miembros de la costa, la sierra, el oriente del Ecuador y del sur de Colombia.

  13. Comparison of eight degree-days estimation methods in four agroecological regions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight methods were used to estimate degree-days in four Colombian localities. Four methods have been previously proposed in literature: Simple Sine, Double Sine, Simple Triangle, and Double Triangle methods. The other four methods are proposed in this research: Simple Logistic, Double Logistic, Simple Normal, and Double Normal. The estimation of the degree-days through hourly temperature values was used as the reference standard method, and the four localities from where the temperature values were taken were the municipalities of Cajicá (Cundinamarca, Santa Elena (Antioquia, Carepa (Urabá Antioqueño, and Ciudad Bolivar (Zona cafetera Antioqueña. Degree-days obtained by all methods under study were compared through linear regression to those obtained by the reference standard method. There were differences in the correlation of each method to the reference when compared within each region and among regions. The Simple Logistic and Double Logistic methods showed the best performance with acceptable R² values and considerably lower bias than the other methods. The poorest fit was found in Cajicá, where the average R² was 0.571. For the regions of Santa Elena and Carepa, the average R² was 0.756 and 0.733. The best fit was found in Ciudad Bolivar, with an average R² of 0.826.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  15. Collaboration between school and community through school agroecology: a vegetable school garden as a boundary object

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Arnau; Espinet Blanch, Mariona

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a case on how people from different backgrounds work together in a school agroeocology project. This case study is part of a wider project within the European Comenius multilateral network CoDeS (Collaboration of schools and communities for a sustainable development), whose main objective is to foster school community collaboration for sustainability. In a little kindergarten and primary school from a small community, with only fifty students, we have been studying for four...

  16. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  17. Visual Programming of Stochastic Weather Generator and Future Applications on Agroecological Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-guang; SHEN Zuo-rui; HUANG Shao-ming; LI Zhi-hong; GAO Ling-wang

    2003-01-01

    Based on former studies on weather simulator modules in IPMist laboratory, study on visual programming of stochastic weather generator (VS-WGEN) was continued. In this study, Marlkov Chain,Monte Carlo, Fourier Series, and weak stationary process were used to generate the daily weather data in software Matlab 6.0, with the data input from 40 years' weather data recorded by Beijing Weather Station. The generated data includes daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. It has been verified that the weather data generated by the VS-WGEN were more accurate than that by the old WGEN, when twenty new model parameters were included. VS-WGEN bas wide software applications,such as pest risk analysis, pest forecast and management. It can be implemented in hardware development as well, such as weather control in weather chamber and greenhouse for researches on ecological adaptation of crop varieties to a given location over time and space. Overall, VS-WGEN is a very useful tool for studies on theoretical and applied ecology.

  18. Agroecological monitoring of small-scale parcels in the zones of radioactive contamination of Chernihiv region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is found out that agricultural products grown at small parcels in Chernihiv region of Ukraine have high content of not only radionuclides but that of heavy metals and nitrates as well. That enhances the threat to human health. In order to ensure food production that meet requirements of their ecological purity and radiological safety the strict control of their quality is a must. The correspondent countermeasures directed at reduction of the toxicants level in plants are to be undertaken as well

  19. Agroecology, a Tool for the Realization of the Right to Food

    OpenAIRE

    De Schutter, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. Sustainable agriculture is a discipline that addresses current issues such as climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control, and biodiversity depletion. Novel, environmentally-friendly solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from science...

  20. Microbial biomass and enzyme activity of a Cerrado Oxisol under agroecological production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the effects of soil management and cover crops on microbial indicators of soil quality, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in which common bean and corn were cropped under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT after sunnhemp, velvet bean, pigeon pea, jack bean, sorghum and fallow (weeds. The basal soil respiration (BSR, C and N of the microbial biomass (Cmic and Nmic, metabolic quotient (qCO2, total enzymatic activity (TEA, β-glycosidase (β-GA activity and acid phosphatase activity (APA were evaluated in samples collected in 0-0.10 m depth. Cmic, qCO2, TEA, β-GA and APA were more sensitive in determining the effects caused by tillage and cover crops. Although the cover crops had not provided a remarkably influence on the studied indicators, in general, the highest values of Cmic, Nmic, BSR, TEA, β-GA and APA and the lowest values of qCO2 were observed under NT compared to CT. Cmic and TEA values were 35% and 13% higher under NT when compared to CT, respectively. In addition, NT showed values closer to those found under "Cerrado" area for the studied parameters, indicating a greater sustainability under this soil management system compared to CT management.

  1. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  2. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide.

  3. De la agroecología maya a la arqueología demográfica: ¿Cuántas casas por familia? From Mayan Agroecology to Demographic Archaeology: How Many Houses per Family?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Guadalupe Zetina Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2006, en Pich, Campeche, se recuperaron 31 historias orales enfocadas en los patrones de movilidad entre familias agricultoras que viven en rancherías establecidas cerca de fuentes permanentes de agua. Se identificaron dos patrones: 1 el movimiento de una ranchería a otra cada 14 años, en promedio, con reocupación en un ciclo generacional; y 2 movimientos repetidos durante el año entre la casa en la ranchería y otra en el pueblo (bilocalidad. Así, en un ciclo doméstico de aproximadamente 35 años, la típica familia agricultora ocupaba por lo menos tres casas. Esto sugiere que las estimaciones del tamaño de las poblaciones agrícolas que suministraban alimentos a las ciudades-estado mayas en las Tierras Bajas del Norte deberían ser revisadas y ajustadas. Hasta ahora dichos cálculos no han incluido una tasa de reducción basada en información etnográfica detallada como la que presentamos ahora sobre las familias agricultoras de Pich.During 2006, thirty-one oral histories were collected in Pich, Campeche, to research patterns of mobility among agricultural families living in hamlets (rancherías located near permanent water sources. Two patterns were found: (1 movement from one hamlet to another on average every fourteen years with reoccupation in a generational cycle; and (2 repeated movements throughout the year between the hamlet home and a permanent house in town (dual-residence. Thus, over a domestic cycle of approximately thirty-five years, the typical agricultural family occupied at least three houses. These data suggest a need to revise existing Pre-Columbian population estimates for the agricultural population providing food to the city-states of the Northern Maya Lowlands. In general, estimates based on house mounds have not included rates of reduction due to mobility or dual residency for lack of detailed ethnographic information such as we here provide for the agricultural families of Pich.

  4. Agro-ecological indicators (AEIs) for dairy and mixed farming systems classification: Identifying alternatives for the Cuban livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.; Monzote, M.; Lantinga, E.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Sánchez, J.E.; Keulen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Attainment of acceptable levels of land and labor productivity and low external input use is not a mutually exclusive proposition. This study examines characteristics of a range of current specialized dairy farming systems (DFS) and mixed (crop-livestock) farming systems (MFS) in Cuba to determine t

  5. An integrated agro-economic and agro-ecological framework for land use planning and policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The growing concern about land resource management and the associated decline in land qualities, has led to the realisation that land use planning and policy problems cannot be addressed adequately through a single discipline. This awareness has resulted in renewed attention for integrated, interdis

  6. An integrated agro-economic and agro-ecological framework for land use planning and policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, A A

    1999-01-01

    The growing concern about land resource management and the associated decline in land qualities, has led to the realisation that land use planning and policy problems cannot be addressed adequately through a single discipline. This awareness has resulted in renewed attention for integrated, interdisciplinary approaches. It is argued that such an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to problems of land use planning and policy analysis is specifically hampered by lack of an adequate methodolo...

  7. Dark gray soils on two-layered deposits in the north of Tambov Plain: Agroecology, properties, and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidelman, F. R.; Nikiforova, A. S.; Stepantsova, L. V.; Volokhina, V. P.

    2012-05-01

    Dark gray soils in the Tambov Plain are developed from the light-textured glaciofluvial deposits underlain by the calcareous loam. Their morphology, water regime, and productivity are determined by the depth of the slightly permeable calcareous loamy layer, relief, and the degree of gleyzation. The light texture of the upper layer is responsible for its weak structure, high density, the low content of productive moisture, and the low water-holding capacity. If the calcareous loam is at a depth of 100-130 cm, dark gray soils are formed; if it lies at a depth of 40-70 cm, temporary perched water appears in the profile, and dark gray contact-gleyed soils are formed. Their characteristic pedofeatures are skeletans in the upper layers, calcareous nodules in the loamy clay layer, and iron nodules in the podzolized humus and podzolic horizons. The appearance of Fe-Mn concretions is related to gleyzation. The high yield of winter cereals is shown to be produced on the dark gray soils; the yields of spring crops are less stable. Spring cereals should not be grown on the contact-gleyed dark gray soils.

  8. Identifying agroecological mixed farming strategies for local conditions in San Antonio de Los Baños, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monzote, F.R.F.; Bello, R.; Alvarex, A.; Hernández, A.; Lantinga, E.A.; Keulen, van H.

    2012-01-01

    Building on previous research at the experimental and national scales, this study was carried out at the local scale over a four-year period on three farms of reference: one specialized dairy farm ‘Vaquería 10’ (33.7 ha) and two mixed farms, ‘Remedio’ (9.4 ha) and ‘La Sarita’ (47 ha). All three farm

  9. Variabilities in Rainfall Onset, Cessation and Length of Rainy Season for the Various Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard K. Amekudzi; Edmund I. Yamba; Kwasi Preko; Ernest O. Asare; Jeffrey Aryee; Michael Baidu; Samuel N. A. Codjoe

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the onset and cessation dates of the rainy season over Ghana using rain gauge data from the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet) over the period of 1970–2012. The onset and cessation dates were determined from cumulative curves using the number of rainy days and rainfall amount. In addition, the inter-annual variability of the onset and cessation dates for each climatic zone was assessed using wavelet analysis. A clear distinction between the rainfall characteristics and the...

  10. Variabilities in Rainfall Onset, Cessation and Length of Rainy Season for the Various Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Amekudzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the onset and cessation dates of the rainy season over Ghana using rain gauge data from the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet over the period of 1970–2012. The onset and cessation dates were determined from cumulative curves using the number of rainy days and rainfall amount. In addition, the inter-annual variability of the onset and cessation dates for each climatic zone was assessed using wavelet analysis. A clear distinction between the rainfall characteristics and the length of the rainy season in the various climatic zones is discussed. The forest and coastal zones in the south had their rainfall onset from the second and third dekads of March. The onset dates of the transition zone were from the second dekad of March to the third dekad of April. Late onset, which starts from the second dekad of April to the first dekad of May, was associated with the savannah zone. The rainfall cessation dates in the forest zone were in the third dekad of October to the first dekad of November, and the length of the rainy season was within 225–240 days. The cessation dates of the coastal zone were within the second and third dekad of October, and the length of rainy season was within 210–220 days. Furthermore, the transition zone had cessation dates in the second to third dekad of October, and the length of the rainy season was within 170–225 days. Lastly, the savannah zone had cessation dates within the third dekad of September to the first dekad of October, and the length of rainy season was within 140–180 days. The bias in the rainfall onset, cessation and length of the rainy season was less than 10 days across the entire country, and the root mean square error (RMSE was in the range of 5–25 days. These findings demonstrate that the onset derived from the cumulative rainfall amount and the rainy days are in consistent agreement. The wavelet power spectrum and its significant peaks showed evidence of variability in the rainfall onset and cessation dates across the country. The coastal and forest zones showed 2–8- and 2–4-year band variability in the onsets and cessations, whereas the onset and cessation variability of the transition and savannah zones were within 2–4 and 4–8 years. This result has adverse effects on rain-fed agricultural practices, disease control, water resource management, socio-economic activities and food security in Ghana.

  11. Agro-ecological modelling for monitoring rice productions: contribution of field experiment and multi-temporal EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, M.; Confalonieri, R.; Stroppiana, D.; Bocchi, S.; Brivio, P. A.

    2005-10-01

    Crop growth and production can be simulated by models for the whole canopy as a function of intercepted radiation, water availability, air temperature and nitrogen availability. Simulation models supply quantitative outputs starting from quantitative inputs and they need quite complex databases to run simulations. In practice, the more complex and physically based these tools are, the more inputs are required for their application. In most cases such data are not available. This is the reason why, for large scale evaluations, simplified models are often applied and satellite data are used as input. In particular, multi-temporal Earth Observation data represent a valid tool to define crop phenological stages and derive temporal and spatial variability of vegetation biophysical parameters, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI). In 2003 and 2004 two intensive field campaigns were conducted over different areas of the Italian Rice Belt, Northern Italy, with the objective of collecting data for growth model calibration. Field spectroradiometer measurements and LAI estimation, retrieved by LAI2000, have been used to study the best Vegetation Index (VI) for rice growth monitoring. VI vs LAI relationship has been scaled up to MODIS data to produce LAI map for the entire growing season and the key phenological rice events have been detected by multitemporal MODIS analysis. Preliminary results of rice production estimation using a Light Use efficiency model that ingests spatially distributed phenological information are presented. Comparison with CropSyst model phenological parameters are provided and the contribution of multi-temporal EO data for regional crop monitoring is discussed.

  12. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effah Kwabena Antwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  13. Practice of Biodiversity conservation and Agroecology Enhance Climate Change Resilience of Organized Small Scale Organic Farmers in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Charito P.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and utilization of rice varieties by small scale farmers in the Philippines for more than two decades has led to retrieval of more than a thousand varieties of rice. The variety of rice plant characters like performance under organic farming, growth duration, height, differential resistance to pests and diseases, adaptation to climate change as well as eating quality has challenged farmers to learn breeding from their scientist partners. As a result of breeding, more than a tho...

  14. From novice to expert: agroecological competences of children orphaned by AIDS compared to non-orphans in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming knowledge of children made orphans by AIDS. The question we investigate is if there is a difference in agricultural expertise between AIDS affected and non-affected adults and children. Methods The research was carried out in rural Benin with 77 informants randomly selected according to their AIDS status: 13 affected and 13 non-affected adults; 13 paternal, 13 maternal and 13 double orphans; and 12 non-orphan children. Informants descriptions from pile sorting exercises of maize and cowpea pests were categorized and then aggregated into descriptions based form (morphology and function (utility and used to determine whether the moving from novice to expert is impaired by children orphaned by AIDS. Differences and similarities in responses were determined using the Fischer exact test and the Cochran-Mantzel-Haenszel test. Results No significant differences were found between AIDS affected and non-affected adults. Results of the study do reveal differences in the use of form and function descriptors among the children. There is a statistically significant difference in the use of form descriptors between one-parent orphans and non-orphans and in descriptors of specific damages to maize. One-parent paternal orphans were exactly like non-affected adults in their 50/50 balanced expertise in the use of both form and function descriptors. One-parent orphans also had the highest number of descriptors used by children overall and these descriptors are spread across the various aspects of the knowledge domain relative to non-orphans. Conclusions Rather than a knowledge loss for one-parent orphans, particularly paternal orphans, we believe we are witnessing acceleration into adult knowledge frames. This expertise of one-parent orphans may be a result of a combination of factors deserving further investigation including enhanced hands-on work experience with the food crops in the field and the expertise available from the surviving parent coupled with the value of the food resource to the household.

  15. From Novice to Expert: Agroecological Competencies of Children Orphaned by AIDS Compared to Non-orphans in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbémissi, C.O.R.; Price, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: AIDS has created new vulnerabilities for rural African households due to prime-age adult mortality and is assumed to lead to impairment of the intergenerational transfer of farming knowledge. There has been scant research to date, however, on the impacts of parental death on farming know

  16. Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Defined by Agro-Ecological Niche

    OpenAIRE

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Wallace, Rob G.; Ottaviani, Daniela; Slingenbergh, Jan; Prosser, Diann; Bergmann, Luc; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has spread across Eurasia and into Africa. Its persistence in a number of countries continues to disrupt poultry production, impairs smallholder livelihoods, and raises the risk a genotype adapted to human-to-human transmission may emerge. While previous studies identified domestic duck reservoirs as a primary risk factor associated with HPAI H5N1 persistence in poultry in Southeast Asia, little is known of such factors in countries with...

  17. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with...

  18. Methods and software tools for agro-ecological evaluation at farm level: the livestock component within the SIPEAA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Basile

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock farms need to adapt to social and economics changes. Often, farmers must take decision in order to: - remain competitive, meanwhile market and public aids change; - reduce impact on environment. Improvement of efficiency seems to be the only way to conciliate these two different needs. Livestock farm are very complex systems involving physical and biologic components.

  19. Agro-ecological Assessment for the Transition of the Agricultural Sector in Ukraine: Methodology and Results for Baseline Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Gumeniuk, K.; Mishchenko, N.; Fischer, G.(DESY, Hamburg and Zeuthen, Germany); van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1991, Ukraine has been undergoing a transformation of its economic and social system to enable the transition to a market economy. There are a number of developments that have already resulted from the changes in the socio-economic environment. However the transformation of farming systems into new forms has not so far greatly improved the sustainable use of natural resources or strengthened the economic performance, so that the influence of this intervention on sustainability of f...

  20. Agro-Ecological Assessment for the Transition of the Agricultural Sector in Ukraine. Part I: Socio-Economic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, N.; Gumeniuk, K.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, Ukraine has been undergoing a transformation of its economic and social system to enable the transition to a market economy. There are a number of positive developments that have already resulted from the changes in the socio-economic environment. However the transformation of farming systems into new forms did not greatly improve the sustainable use of natural resources or strengthen the economic performance, so that the influence of this intervention on sustainability of ...

  1. La agroecología como una alternativa de seguridad alimentaria para las comunidades indígenas

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Sámano Rentería

    2013-01-01

    La economía mundial está enfrentando una crisis financiera a nivel global, el modelo de acumulación de capital muestra signos de agotamiento. Esto ha repercutido en el incremento de los precios de los alimentos - entre abril de 2007 y abril de 2008 los precios internacionales de los alimentos subieron 54%; los principales se dieron en los cereales (92%) y los aceites (84%). (FAO, FAOSTAT, índice de precios de los alimentos, Gómez, 2008)- y el número de pobres ha aumentado, a tal grado que en ...

  2. Effect of increasing levels of nitrogen on yield of tea in different agro-ecological conditions of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.S. Hamid; Tahira Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted on mature tea bushes of Qi-Men variety at two different altitudes from sealevel i.e. at National Tea Research Institute Shinkiari (1000 m) and on farmer's field in Konsh valley at village Battal (1500m). Different levels of nitrogen with constant dose of phosphorus and potassium were applied to observe the optimal dose of nutrients for highest yield under local edaphic conditions. The experiment was repeated for three consecutive years.The highest yield of fresh tea leaves were obtained by the application of 420 kg ha-1 N followed by the application of 360kg ha-1 N at 1000 masl. The highest dose of nitrogen also reduced significantly the soil pH in the upper (0-15cm) layer depth during 1998 and 1999. During the year 2000, the reduction in soil pH was observed by the application of highest dose of nitrogen but was non-significant at 5% level. The lower soil depth (15-30 cm) showed the reduction in pH with the highest dose of nitrogen during the experimental year but was statistically non significant.At the higher altitude of 1500 masi the highest yield of fresh tea leaves was obtained by the application of 420 kg ha-1during the experimental years but the increase was significant during the year 1999 and 2000. The yield of the fresh tea leaves was positively correlated with the amount of nitrogen application at both the altitudes. The increasing amount of nitrogen decreased the soil pH at both the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm. Unlike the lower altitude (1000 m) there was no any significant reduction in the soil pH during 1998 and 1999. A significant reduction in soil pH was found in the year 2000.

  3. La ‘nueva ruralidad’ en Cañuelas. Entre la agroecología y las nuevas urbanizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires han impactado en territorios rurales. Es el caso de Cañuelas, donde “proyectos de desarrollo urbano” han avanzado, con lo cual desplazaron actividades agrícolas. No obstante, algunos de ellos intentan ser parte de la “nueva ruralidad” que se busca para el partido.Esta investigación exploratoria busca contribuir al estado del arte sobre “nueva ruralidad”. Específicamente, indagamos sobre transformaciones territoriales y modelos de desarrollo que se disputan hegemonía en el territorio. Se utiliza un enfoque que conjuga estudios urbanos y rurales, una metodología cualitativa y basada en fuentes secundarias. Los resultados plantean una difícil convivencia entre usos del suelo.

  4. Effect of Oily Effluent on Leaf Characteristics of Insitu Park Plants in Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Alamu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent engine oil is the hydrocarbon product of crude oil and it is unsatisfactory for plant growth due to insufficient reaction of the soil and the microbes because of the displacement of air from spaces between soil particles This research looked at two major trees used as park plants (Azerdirachta indica and Gliricidia sepium in Ogbomoso North environment of Oyo State. Leaf samples were collected from three different mechanic workshops and three different farmlands in the study area. The leaf samples collected were analyzed using the following parameters, Weight of leaf, Stomata quantity, Leaf area, Leaf acidity and Leaf color difference. The result of the analysis for Azerdirachta indica indicated that leaf weight of polluted trees had a higher average weight of 1.84mm2 compared to that of the unpolluted tree 1.75mm2. The leaf stomata (upper surface of polluted trees had a higher average value 38mm-2. Results for leaf acidity indicated that unpolluted trees had a greater value of 0.142ug/g compared to the average acidity value of 1.423ug/g for polluted trees. Measuring the colour difference; Azerdirachta indica (A. Juss on unpolluted site had the highest colour difference of 0.1566ug/gThe result of the analysis for Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. indicated that leaf weight of polluted trees had a higher average weight of 2.81mm2 compared to that of unpolluted trees 1.42mm2. The leaf stomata (upper surface of polluted trees had a higher average value of 58mm-2. Result s for leaf acidity indicated that unpolluted trees had a greater value of 0.142ug/g compared to the average acidity value of 1.423ug/g for polluted trees. Measuring the colour difference; Gliricidia sepium on unpolluted site had the highest colour difference of 0.1566ug/g. The generic composition of these trees may change over time due to the level of pollution recorded it is therefore recommended that the mechanics should build their workshops far away from trees and the general public should be educated on the danger of using the park plants medicinal purposes.

  5. Virus symptoms and viruses associated with two cucurbit crops grown in a derived savannah agro-ecology in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AYO-JOHN; EMILY IBITAIYEWA; MOHAMMED; WASIU ADEDAMOLA; OYAGBINRIN; SAMUEL TUNDE

    2014-01-01

    Five watermelon varieties, Sugar Baby, Charleston Grey, Kaolak, Crimson Sweet and Oranaise and three cucumber varieties, Poinsett, Ashley and Royal hybrid were grown on the field in two trials (i) late season between August and October 2008 and (ii) early season between April and June 2012 in Abeokuta, Ogun State to evaluate the cultivars for virus symptoms and viruses under natural tropical conditions. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected from each crop variety and indexed for Cucumber m...

  6. Virus symptoms and viruses associated with two cucurbit crops grown in a derived savannah agro-ecology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYO-JOHN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five watermelon varieties, Sugar Baby, Charleston Grey, Kaolak, Crimson Sweet and Oranaise and three cucumber varieties, Poinsett, Ashley and Royal hybrid were grown on the field in two trials (i late season between August and October 2008 and (ii early season between April and June 2012 in Abeokuta, Ogun State to evaluate the cultivars for virus symptoms and viruses under natural tropical conditions. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected from each crop variety and indexed for Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The disease incidence was 100.0% at 6 weeks after planting (WAP for all the cucurbits crops for both seasons while the highest symptom severity score at 10 WAP was 4 and 5 for watermelon and 3.6 and 4 for cucumber in the 1st and 2nd trials. The viruses detected in late season were CMV, CGMMV and MNSV which occurred in all the cucumber and watermelon varieties. In addition PRSV, WMV and ZYMV occurred in mixed infection in the cucumber varieties Pointsett and Royal Hybrid. In the early season, PRSV was the most prevalent virus infection in the cucumber and watermelon varieties. Also CMV+PRSV, PRSV+WMV, and MNSV+PRSV occurred in mixed infection in Charleston Grey, Oranaise and Sugar Baby respectively. The viruses detected are among the viruses reported to limit the production of cucurbit crops world-wide.

  7. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  8. Agricultural Policies and Soil Degradation in Western Canada: An Agro-Ecological Economic Assessment, Report 2: The Environmental Modeling System

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Shogren, Jason F.; Derald Holtkamp; Gassman, Philip W; David Archer; P. G. Lakshminarayan; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Randall Reese

    1994-01-01

    An environmental modeling system is being constructed around the EPIC model that will be interfaced with an economic component (RS-CRAM) within an integrated modeling system to analyze agricultural policies such as GRIP for western Canada. A description of the major EPIC subcomponents is provided, including the most important data inputs. An environmental database also has been constructed for EPIC. This database consists of: (1) soil layer and landform data in separate databases for each Pra...

  9. Desafios para a Agroecologia: as dificuldades da mudança do modelo produtivo | Challenges for Agroecology: the difficulties of changing the production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Rabello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Introdução: Esse trabalho surge das ações de pesquisa e reflexões suscitadas no âmbito atividades do Projeto "Práticas Agroecológicas no Pontal do Paranapanema (SP", financiado pelo CNPq/MDA, e coordenado pelo professor Antonio Thomaz Junior. Os modelos produtivos desenvolvidos e/ou em desenvolvimento no campo, atualmente, são reflexos do pacote tecnológico conhecido como “Revolução Verde”. Historicamente verificamos que cresceu o interesse por parte das grandes empresas agroindustriais em alavancar a modernização das formas produtivas, amparadas, pois, na prerrogativa da necessidade de atender a demanda externa. Assim, novas técnicas e procedimentos de controle do trabalho são implementados nas atividades agroindustriais, daí a intensificação do uso de maquinários agrícolas e utilização de insumos químicos, que cada vez mais substituem as formas convencionais/tradicionais de produção. Metodologia/Desenvolvimento.  A agroecologia tem se apresentado como uma alternativa para os camponeses resistir às investiduras do capital agroindustrial, criando condições de trabalho e vida para manter-se no campo e sob o controle dos mecanismos de sua reprodução social e familiar. Pensa em mudanças no modelo produtivo imposto no campo nos dias de hoje é considerar que os agentes dificultadores se apresentam com diversas faces, de diversas maneiras. As atividades monocultoras têm expandido cada vez mais seus imites, e em alguns casos, como o do Assentamento Guarani, no município de Sandovalina, e o Assentamento Paulo Freire no município de Mirante do Paranapanema, ambos no estado de São Paulo, as lavouras de cana-de-açúcar têm estão "engolindo" os assentamentos, de tal forma e intensidade que seu limite se faz com a porteira de entrada da propriedade. Diante destas condições, o produção familiar fica a mercê dos impactos causados pelas atividades desenvolvidas nas lavouras de cana-de-açúcar como, por exemplo, a pulverização aérea de insumos químicos, altamente tóxicos, recurso esse utilizado cada vez mais pelas unidades agroindustriais canavieiras. Outro aspecto que se apresenta como impedimento para uma produção agroecológica são as possibilidades de comercialização da produção, que embora alguns programas criados pelo governo vem contribuindo para isso, como o Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA, há ainda uma grande dificuldade com comercializar o que é produzido nas pequenas propriedades, principalmente quando olhamos para o escoamento desta produção e os preços oferecidos por elas. Considerações finais: Movido por critérios econômicos, o modelo de produção hoje praticado vislumbra a exportação, desconsiderando assim as reais necessidades e demandas alimentares da população, a agroecologia traz consigo a Soberania Alimentar, e pretende assim, oferecer condições que possibilitem ao pequeno agricultor desenvolver sua produção com possibilidade de comercialização local, produção de alimentos livres de agrotóxicos e respeito ao meio ambiente. Acreditamos ser a agroecologia uma importante alternativa para o enfrentamento das urdiduras do capital, e de reprodução familiar para o campesinato. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Influence of weeding regime on severity of sugarcane mosaic disease in selected improved sugarcane germplasm accessions in the Southern Guinea Savanna agroecology of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted during 2011 to 2012 cropping season using potted plants, to evaluate the influence of weeding regime on sugarcane mosaic disease severity in selected improved sugarcane varieties from the University of Ilorin – Nigeria sugarcane germplasm. The experiment was laid out following a split plot arrangement where the weeding regime constitutes the main plot and the sugarcane varieties were the subplot. Disease parameters such as symptom manifestation, number of diseased leaves, percentage severity were measured. Growth and yield parameters such as stalk length, number of leaves, number of tillers and yield parameters such as fresh and dry shoot weights, percentage dry matter at harvest were also measured. Analysis of variance showed that percentage severity of sugarcane mosaic disease, increased in non-weeded plots compared with weeded plots. Twice weeding (52.1% and the weed free plots (53.7% had the significantly lowest severities. Varietal influence significantly influenced severity and variety NCO-270 produced the significantly lowest severity (45.8%.The interaction of weeding regime and variety indicated that variety CB36411 in the weed free plots, produced the lowest severity (33.5%.Yield parameters showed that significantly highest shoot weight was recorded in the weed free plot, while variety NCO-270 gave the highest fresh and dry shoot weights (254.8g and 50.2g respectively. The results indicate that variety NCO-270 was the most tolerant and that weeding at least once in six months is required to mitigate the effect of sugarcane mosaic disease, as witnessed in significantly increased growth and yield attributes of plants in the weeded plots.

  11. Nutrient intakes from complementary foods consumed by young children (aged 12-23 months) from North Wollo, northern Ethiopia : the need for agro-ecologically adapted interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, K.; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Mouquet Rivier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize current feeding practices and to evaluate the adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of young children in subsistence farming rural households in North Wollo, Ethiopia. Design: A cross-sectional study examining sociodemographic status, anthropometry, breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices using two in-home nonconsecutive 24 h recalls. Settings: Two rural villages in the highlands and lowlands of Gobalafto district, North Wollo. Subjects: Seventy-six you...

  12. Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nchang Ntumngia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote market integration, and increase incomes of

  13. Production function analysis for smallholder semi-subsistence and semi-commercial poultry production systems in three agro-ecological regions in Northern provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Dinh Xuan; Rasmussen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    . The general assumption is that the poultry production output at the farm level depends on the number of birds, feed amount, labor amount, garden size, income level and veterinary costs. In this study statistical tests were conducted to analyze the differences between regions and production systems...

  14. Agroecología: Única esperanza para la soberanía alimentaria y la resiliencia socioecológica

    OpenAIRE

    Altieri, Miguel A.; Nicholls, Clara I.

    2012-01-01

    La revolución verde no solo falló en proveer alimentos para la población mundial, sino que fue creada bajo premisas no validas: agua y energía abundante y barata, y un clima no cambiante. En algunas de la regiones cerealistas, la tasa de incremento de rendimientos esta declinando a pesar del mayor uso de agroquímicos, en la medida que los cultivos alcanzan el punto de los rendimientos decrecientes. Dada la ausencia de mecanismos de regulación ecológica, los monocultivos que cub...

  15. Soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure, as related to agricultural management practices across agroecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effects of crop management practices on soil macrofauna and the links with soil aggregation and soil organic matter dynamics, which is key to the improvement of infertile or degrading soils in Sub-Sahara Africa. Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termite

  16. Effect of organic fertilizers on soil chemical properties and performance of blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus) in two agroecology zones of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of two organic fertilizers on soil chemical properties and plant performance blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus cv.Vino) in two areas of Costa Rica were evaluated. For this purpose, two experiments were established, one in Buena Vista of Perez Zeledon (BVPZ) and another in San Martin of Leon Cortes (SMLC), both in the province of San Jose, Costa Rica. The research was conducted between August 2005 and July 2008. Three treatments were evaluated in each experiment: Compost (C) and Vermicompost (L), at the rate of 4 kg/plant and 3 kg/plant respectively, and a control without fertilizer (T). The frequency of application of fertilizer at planting was given at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months for a total of 6,6 t/ha for C and 4,9 t/ha for L. Soil samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 35 months, after planting for analysis. The results have shown that in both agro-ecosystems, the application of C and L has increased soil pH, reduced acidity, has increased the availability of Ca, Mg, K, N, and P, and has favored the effective cation exchange capacity (ICC) and the percentage of organic matter. The accumulation of Mn, Cu and Zn was not observed. Performance-wise, in BVPZ only significant have found differences (P = 0,00188) between C (1,8 t/ha) and T (0,9 t/ha), while in SMLC, found no differences statistical significant (P <0,05) between treatments. (author)

  17. Agroecología y agricultura ecológica: hacia una "re" construcción de la soberanía alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla-Guzmán, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    En este texto pretendo (tras una contextualización histórica del surgimiento de la agricultura industrializada mostrando sus formas de degradación) pasar a caracterizar el proceso de globalización económica y su articulación con el neoliberalismo en lo que ya se acepta a conceptualizar como “sociedad del riesgo”, en la actual “era informacional” del capitalismo. Así, una vez establecidas las formas de degradación de los “recursos naturales” (que se suman a los históricos y nuevos mecanismos d...

  18. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  19. Transformações da terra: para uma perspectiva agroecológica na história Transformation of the land: towards an agroecological perspective in history

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Worster

    2003-01-01

    O artigo discute a constituição do campo da história ambiental, que se deu nos anos 70 em meio aos debates sobre a crise ecológica e a eclosão do movimento ambientalista. Esta história não aceita a noção de que as sociedades humanas não produzem alterações ambientais significativas, e interpela as condições específicas dessa interação recorrente. O sistema agroecológico representa um dos casos mais típicos de rearranjo da atividade humana sobre os ecossistemas naturais, em uma relação complex...

  20. Prevalence of the gastro-intestinal parasites of domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 in Tunisia according to the agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2016-09-01

    Helminthosis is a very important disease affecting the poultry industry, especially the traditionally reared free ranging chickens. In Tunisia, the poultry production is considered as the most important source of protein in as much as chickens provide 53 % of animal protein production. The traditionally reared poultry farming system exposes chickens to many types of parasites, however, very little work has been done to establish the extend of helminth infection in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to investigate various aspects of helminth infections. A significant difference (p nematodes included Heterakis spp. (100 %), Ascaridia galli (53.33 %) and Acuaria hamulosa (37 %). The principal cestode species encountered were Hymenolepis spp. (73.33 %) and Raillietina spp. (33.33 %). PMID:27605783

  1. The Analysis and Calculation of Energy Flow and Ecological Efficiency in Agro-Ecological Engineering——With the Beijing Liuminying as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Yousheng

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a general description of the energy flow in Liuminying agro-eco-system through the facts of on-the-spot tests, quantitative analysis and calculation of output-input ratio of energy as well as of some main subsystems' ecological efficiency. The results show that the output-input rate of the artificial supplementary energy was 1, the energy conversion efficiency of primary producer reached 1.54 % and the light energy utilization rate was 0.65 %. All kept higher rates. However, the ratio of secondary production was a little lower. The paper also gives a brief analysis of the calculation result and the relevant conclusion as well.

  2. Species Composition, Distribution, and Seasonal Abundance of Liriomyza Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) Under Different Vegetable Production Systems and Agroecological Zones in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foba, C N; Salifu, D; Lagat, Z O; Gitonga, L M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2015-04-01

    A longitudinal study to identify the species of Liriomyza leafminer, their distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal variation, including their host range, was conducted in vegetable fields at three altitudes in Kenya from November 2011 to November 2012. Three main species were identified: Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), of which L. huidobrensis was the most abundant across all altitudes irrespective of the cropping season and accounting for over 90% of the total Liriomyza specimens collected. Liriomyza species were collected from all infested incubated leaves of 20 crops surveyed belonging to seven families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Amaryllidaceae. However, more than 87.5% of the Liriomyza species were obtained from only four of these crops: Pisum sativum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Solanum lycopersicum L., and Solanum tuberosum, thereby demonstrating that Fabaceae and Solonaceae crops are the most important hosts with regard to Liriomyza species richness and relative abundance. L. huidobrensis had the widest host range (20 crops), followed by L. sativae (18 crops) and L. trifolii (12 crops). Although L. trifolii has been considered the dominant Liriomyza leafminer in Kenya, this study suggests that this may not be the case anymore, as L. huidobrensis dominates at all altitudes. PMID:26313175

  3. Research progresses of carbon cycle models in agroecological system%农业生态系统中碳循环基本模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔军龙; 赵京音; 杨娟

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the domestic and foreign research dynamics and applications of the agricultural ecosystem carbon cycle models,summarizes the basic agricultural carbon cycle models as photosynthesis model,respiration model,and biogeochemical model of soil organic carbon cycle;Then,the paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these models,as well as the suitable con-ditions and range;Finally,the paper summarizes the impact factors of agricultural ecosystem carbon cycle models,and puts forward the necessity of establishing regional agricultural ecosystem carbon cy-cle model and the future research directions.%介绍了国内外农业生态系统中碳循环模型的研究动态及其应用,将农业碳循环基本模型概括为光合作用模型、呼吸作用模型和土壤有机碳循环的生物地球化学模型,讨论了它们的优缺点、适用条件和范围,总结了农业生态系统中碳循环模型的影响因素,并提出了建立区域农业生态系统碳循环模型的必要性和未来的研究方向。

  4. Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Nchang Ntumngia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote market integration, and increase incomes of small farm households. Essentially, AGRA’s arguments, which are either implicit or explicit in the policies and programmes of the Government of Cameroon and of several CGIAR institutes that the Gover...

  5. La revalorización de la agroecología andina : estrategia local de diálogo de saberes para enfrentar problemas globales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arguello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la gestión de sistemas bioculturales en la región, la experiencia práctica del Programa Regional BioAndes en la serranía central del Ecuador, específicamente en los sectores rurales de los cantones Riobamba y Guano (zona de amortiguamiento de la Reserva de Producción Faunística Chimborazo, ha puesto en marcha un proceso enmarcado en el diálogo entre las visiones de los pueblos indígenas Puruhá y varios actores de la sociedad que han asumido la visión y estrategias de vida influidas por la ciencia occidental moderna, tanto urbanos como rurales.

  6. Agroecology-based aggradation-conservation agriculture (ABACO): Targeting innovations to combat soil degradation and food insecurity in semi-arid Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Scopel, E.; Andrieu, N.; Posthumus, H.; Mapfumo, P.; Corbeels, M.; Halsema, van G.E.; Lahmar, R.; Lugandu, S.; Rakotoarisoa, J.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Pound, B.; Chikowo, R.; Naudin, K.; Triomphe, B.; Mkomwa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in semi-arid Africa are in an increasingly vulnerable position due to the direct and indirect effects of climate change, demographic pressure and resource degradation. Conservation agriculture (CA) is promoted as an alternative to restore soil productivity through increased water

  7. Determinants of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] production system in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji; Pascal Houngnandan; Houinsou Dedehouanou; Fatiou Toukourou

    2015-01-01

    Present study was conducted to analyze the soybean production system in Benin. Data were collected from 324 soybean producers selected from the three major soybean-producing agro-ecological areas i.e. agro-ecological zone 3 (southern Borgou), agro-ecological zone 4 (West Atacora) and agro-ecological zone 5 (Cotton zone of the Centre of Benin). A participatory research approach with group discussions followed by individual interviews was carried out for extracting the information f...

  8. Pacific Northwest (U.S.) In: Conversion to Sustainable Agriculture: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Stephen R. Gliessman, Martha Rosemeyer, and Sean Swezey (Editors). CRC Press Advances in Agroecology Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture represents a critical land use throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW). It makes important contributions to the region’s economy, the nation’s food supply and to regional ecosystem services including air, water, and soil quality. As in many other regions of the U.S., adverse environmental...

  9. Produção de mudas de almeirão e cultivo no campo, em sistema agroecológico Agroecological seedling production and field cultivation of chicory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dercio C. Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o desenvolvimento das mudas de almeirão em diferentes substratos orgânicos e verificar o comportamento em bandejas, após o transplante no campo e na pós-colheita, constituindo três experimentos. Foram avaliados o uso do substrato comercial e quatro misturas de proporções de composto, areia e pó de basalto. Foram quatro fases de avaliação: aos 13 e 26 dias após a emergência (DAE, aos 74 dias após o transplante e na pós-colheita. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e a massa da matéria seca de raiz e de parte aérea, número de folhas por planta, diâmetro do coleto, área foliar e a conservação pós-colheita. O composto orgânico e as misturas foram superiores ao substrato comercial, na maioria das características avaliadas nos 13 e 26 DAE; entretanto, o substrato comercial superou os demais tratamentos para o comprimento de raiz. Os substratos orgânicos (T2 e T3 podem ser recomendados para a produção de mudas de almeirão com desenvolvimento satisfatório em sistema de cultivo em bandejas e a campo e, de igual forma, em pós-colheita; o uso de composto orgânico como substrato para produção de mudas propiciou o desenvolvimento de mudas mais vigorosas e plantas mais resistentes no campo do que o substrato comercial.This study aimed to evaluate the development of chicory seedlings in different organic substrates and verify its behavior in trays, after transplanting in field and in post-harvest, constituting three experiments. Commercial substrate and four mixtures with different proportions of compost, basalt powder and sand were evaluated. Four stages of assessment were: 13 and 26 days after emergence (DAE, at 74 days post-transplant and post-harvest. The length and dry mass of roots and shoots, number of leaves plant-1, stem diameter, leaf area and post-harvest conservation were evaluated. The organic compost and the mixtures were superior to commercial substrate in most of the characteristics evaluated at 13 and 26 DAE. However, the commercial substrate was superior to other treatments for root length. The organic substrates can be recommended for seedling production of chicory with a satisfactory development in trays and in the field, and also at post-harvest. The use of compost as a substrate for seedlings provided the development of more vigorous seedlings and stronger plants in field than the commercial substrate.

  10. Produção agroecológica de mudas e desenvolvimento a campo de couve-chinesa Agroecological production of seedlings and field development of Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinéia Tessaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido em duas etapas: a produção de mudas de couve-chinesa em bandejas e posterior transplante para o campo, objetivando avaliar o desempenho de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura. Para isso determinou-se, tanto na fase de formação das mudas, quanto nas plantas adultas, o comprimento da parte aérea, número de folhas, comprimento da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e diâmetro do coleto. A etapa de produção de mudas foi conduzida em ambiente protegido, com os seguintes tratamentos: T0 substrato comercial Plantmax® (HA; T1: 100% composto; T2: 95% composto + 2,5% areia + 2,5% pó de rocha; T3: 90% composto + 3% areia + 7% de pó de rocha e T4: 85% composto + 6% areia + 9% pó de rocha. Na produção de mudas, os substratos orgânicos, formulados com 100% e 85% composto, apresentaram melhores resultados, aos 15 e 28 DAS, respectivamente. Os resultados de campo demonstraram que adição de pó de rocha é um fator determinante no desempenho das mudas, sendo os melhores resultados obtidos nas parcelas cultivadas com mudas obtidas nos substratos formulados com 7 e 9% de pó de basalto.The research was carried out in two stages: the production of seedlings of chinese cabbage in trays with subsequent transplantation for the field, aiming to evaluate the performance of different substrates on the culture development. For this reason it was determined, both at the stage of formation of the seedlings, as in adult plants the length of the aerial part, number of leaves, root length, dry mass of the aerial part, root dry mass and diameter of the root collar. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment with the following treatments: T0 Plantmax substrate® (HA; T1: 100% compound; T2: 95% compost + 2.5% sand + 2.5% rock powder; T3: 90% compost + 3% sand + 7% powdered rock and T4: 85% compost + 6% sand + 9% rock powder. In the production of seedlings, the organic substrates formulated with 100% and 85% compound, had better results, the 15 and 28, respectively. The results of field have shown that the addition of rock powder is a determinant factor in the performance of seedlings, with the best results in the plots cultivated with seedlings obtained in the substrates formulated with 7 and 9% of basalt powder.

  11. 三峡环库多业共生耦合循环农业生态系统初构%Establishment of integrative circular agro-ecology system for multiple agricultural industries in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 熊棣文; 王久臣; 汤文志※; 孔文斌; 曾卓华; 欧阳柬; 刘明; 王国华; 黄明

    2013-01-01

      三峡蓄水后,水流减缓,自净力减弱,主要支流绿藻虐生;库区新生消落区出露成陆时正直多雨炎热潮湿的夏季,基本丧失拦截、消纳和过滤农业面源污染的功能,加重了长江污染。该文在研究库区优势特色农业发展和生态环境建设的基础上,将库区水域、消落区和生态屏障区作为整体,运用循环经济理论,研究建立库岸柑橘、消落区湿地牧场、水域天然渔场3条环库绿色经济带,集成4链交叉的多链循环经济组网模式,创立5层阻隔拦截和吸收消纳面源污染的工艺技术,围绕库区各主要农业产业发展,把前端废弃物作为内生要素进入后端生产活动中,在注重环境保护的形势下,凝练出多业共生耦合农业循环经济模式和“345”推进方法。创建的巫山大昌湖特色循环农业生态示范园区,实现了三峡库区柑橘、生猪、草食牲畜、长江鱼4大特色产业共生、要素耦合、整体循环、综合利用的产业生态链,推动了三峡库区生态文明建设,满足了库区特色农业发展、农移民增收和国家战略水资源库保护需求,可为大型水库区生态农业发展和水资源环境保护提供参考。%  The arable land per capita among the rural migrants located in the Three Gorges Reservoirs Area is only about 386.7 m2. The contradiction between people and their land is severe. After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Project, the water flow and the self-purification ability of the Yangtze River got slowed and declined which resulted in an overmuch growth of the green algae in main tributaries of the Yangtze River. Besides, to meet the electricity generation need in the dry winter or spring, and to prevent the deluge in the rainy summer, the Three Gorges Reservoir impound in the winter and spring, disembogue in the summer. Owing to this, the hydro-fluctuation belt along the river always outcrop into land in the hot and humid rainy summer, hence the hydro-fluctuation belt fail to intercept, absorb and filtrate the agricultural surface source pollution, which cause the increased pollution in the Yangtze River. The contradiction of the economic development and the environmental protection is severe.

  12. Comportamento de vacas em lactação em pastagem manejada sob princípios agroecológicos Behavior of grazing lactating cows in agro-ecological managed pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de vacas holandesas em lactação durante o período hibernal em pastagem constituída de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. As avaliações foram feitas em três ciclos de pastejo, em 17/06, 04/08 e 16/09 de 2004. Em cada avaliação, utilizaram-se seis vacas entre o 2º e o 5º mês de lactação. O registro de dados foi realizado por dois observadores das 18 às 6h e das 8 às 16h, a cada 10 minutos. As características comportamentais observadas foram os tempos de pastejo em capim-elefante e em aveia + azevém, em pastejo total (pastejo de capim-elefante + aveia e azevém, em ruminação e ócio. Concomitantemente, avaliaram-se os dados da massa de forragem inicial, da qualidade da forragem ingerida e das condições ambientais. A maior intensidade de pastejo ocorreu após cada ordenha, verificando-se posteriormente um decréscimo, tanto durante o dia quanto à noite. Em média, o turno que os animais demandaram mais tempo de pastejo foi o diurno. O tempo destinado pelas vacas ao consumo de aveia e de azevém foi maior no período em que o capim-elefante apresentava menor porcentagem de lâminas foliares. O tempo de ócio diminuiu e o de ruminação aumentou no decorrer dos pastejos, como resultado do declínio na porcentagem de lâminas foliares e da elevação na porcentagem de colmos das espécies de ciclo hibernal. O capim-elefante foi pastejado em todas as avaliações. A presença de espécies de ciclos diferentes possibilitou aos animais equilibrarem a dieta volumosa.The objective of this trial was to study the behavior of lactating Holstein cows grazing pasture containing elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. plus ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Data from six early to mid lactating cows were collected every 10 minutes interval by two observers (from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. and from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. at three grazing cycles: 06/17, 08/04, and 09/16 of 2004. The following variables were measured: elephantgrass grazing time, black oat plus ryegrass grazing time, total grazing time (sum of elephantgrass and oat plus ryegrass, rumination time, and idle time. Initial herbage mass, chemical composition of ingested forage, and environmental conditions were also evaluated. Cows spent more time grazing after each milking and decreased thereafter. Diurnal grazing time was longer than nocturnal. Black oat plus ryegrass grazing time was greatest when the percentage of leaf lamina was lowest in the elephantgrass. Idle time decreased and rumination time increased during grazing cycles as a consequence of reduction in the proportion of leaf lamina and elevation on that of stems in the winter species (black oat plus ryegrass. Elephantgrass was grazed at all three grazing cycles. Availability of plant species with different growth cycles allowed animals to select a high quality forage diet.

  13. Distribuição dos agregados e carbono orgânico influenciados por manejos agroecológicos = Aggregate and organic carbon distribution influenced by agroecological handling

    OpenAIRE

    Arcângelo Loss; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Nivaldo Schultz; Edilene Pereira Ferreira; Eliane Maria Ribeiro da Silva; Sidinei Julio Beutler

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do manejo agroecológico na distribuição dos agregados estáveis em água e no teor de carbono orgânico dos agregados em diferentes coberturas vegetais. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas, a saber: sistema agroflorestal; cultivo de figo (Ficus carica L.); consórcio maracujá (Passiflora edulis S.)–Desmodium sp.; cultivo de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), em manejo convencional, e cultivo de milho (Zeamays L.), em plantio direto. Em cada área, foram c...

  14. Miradas desde la agroecología a aparentes proyectos antagónicos en la comunidad indígena de Puerta de Platanares, Nayarit, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Madera Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el paisaje productivo y organizativo de Puerta de Platanares, se observan transformaciones diferenciadas, pero también en las lógicas de proyectos apa - rentemente antagónicos cuya finalidad continúa siendo una misma: el asegu - rar desde sus cotidianidades la reproducción familiar. Así, identidades como indígena y mestizo; o formas de producción agrícola como lo convencional- moderno de los cultivos con agroquímicos, y lo nuevo-antiguo como los cul - tivos orgánicos, se enfrentan, dialogan y forman parte de la multiplicidad de estrategias que adoptan las familias en el campo.

  15. Conversando con Eduardo Sevilla Guzmán. De la Sociología Rural a la Agroecología: la revalorización del conocimiento local como constante

    OpenAIRE

    Doñate Sastre, Miguel; Márquez Porras, Raúl; Romero Noguera, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Eduardo Sevilla Guzmán il·lustra l'especificitat de vàries disciplines centrades en el medi rural a partir de la seva pròpia experiència. Tal i com explica en l'entrevista, la seva deriva cap a les Ciències Socials es degué a la necessitat de sostreure's al domini que els interessos de latifundistes i multinacionals exercien sobre la recerca en l'escola d'enginyers on treballava. Més endavant, la necessitat de cercar una alternativa al que es coneix com agricultura "convencional" el dugué a f...

  16. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  17. 历史时期长江流域农业生态变迁述论%A Study of Change in Agro-Ecology in Yangtze River Valley from Historical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠富平; 李琦珂

    2011-01-01

    The ecological changes of the Yangtze River Valley in history,such as those in the climate,soil,water,forest vegetation and other environmental factors,have been closely linked with the human social activities,particularly with the agricultural activities of rice production as its center.On the one hand,the ecological environment has been limiting the development of rice agriculture;on the other hand,agricultural activities can exert certain effects on the ecological environment to some extent.Since Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty,the lager-scale agricultural economic development mainly focusing on land reclamation around lakes and from hills in the south in China has gradually had great negative influence on the ecological environment of the Yangtze River Valley,resulting in soil erosion,silting rivers and lakes,and frequent floods and droughts.At the same time,the agricultural production and people's lives,therefore,have been subject to great harm.In modern times,the economic development of the Yangtze River Valley has been further strengthened in a broad and deep sense,leading to serious river and lake silt waste,the increasing forest destruction and the severe chemical contamination of soil and water environment.Fortunately,the government has paid great attention to these problems,which have also aroused the public attention.The Yangtze River Valley is the cradle of Chinese rice civilization and the main place of rice production in china.Here,the study on the relationship between the changes of environmental factors and the development of rice agriculture will pose important academic significance to the protection of the regional ecological environment and the sustainable development of local agriculture.%历史时期长江流域气候、水土和森林植被等生态环境要素的变迁,与人类活动尤其是以稻空大点作生产为中心的农业活动有密切关系。一方面生态环境制约着稻作农业的发展变化,另一方面,农业活动对生态环境具有不同程度的影响。宋元以来,南方地区以围湖造田、丘陵山地开垦为主的大规模农业经济开发,对长江流域生态环境诸要素的负面作用逐步加大,导致水土流失、河湖淤塞和水旱灾害频发,农业生产和民众生活也因此受到很大危害。近现代长江流域经济开发进一步扩张,河湖淤废、森林破坏有增无减,而且水土环境的化学污染越来越严重。长江流域是中国稻作文明的发源地和主要的稻米产区,研究长江流域生态环境诸因素变迁与稻作农业发展的关系,对于保护区域生态环境,指导当地农业可持续发展,具有重要学术意义。

  18. Distribuição dos agregados e carbono orgânico influenciados por manejos agroecológicos = Aggregate and organic carbon distribution influenced by agroecological handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Loss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do manejo agroecológico na distribuição dos agregados estáveis em água e no teor de carbono orgânico dos agregados em diferentes coberturas vegetais. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas, a saber: sistema agroflorestal; cultivo de figo (Ficus carica L.; consórcio maracujá (Passiflora edulis S.–Desmodium sp.; cultivo de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em manejo convencional, e cultivo de milho (Zeamays L., em plantio direto. Em cada área, foram coletadas amostras de terra indeformadas, nas profundidades de 0 - 5 e 5 - 10 cm, e avaliada a estabilidade dos agregados e o teor de carbono orgânico nos agregados (COAGR. A maior massa de agregados encontra-se naclasse de 2,00 mm, em ambas as profundidades, com exceção do cultivo de feijão. Nas duas profundidades, a classe de 2,00 mm apresentou os maiores valores de COAGR para a área do consórcio macaracujá - Desmodium sp.The objective of this study was to verify the influence ofagroecological handling in the distribution of stable aggregates in water and in the levels of aggregate organic carbon under different vegetable covers. Five areas were selected: agroflorestal system; fig cultivation (Ficus carica L.; passion fruit (Passiflora edulis S. and Desmodium sp. consortium; bean cultivation (Phaseolus vulgaris L, under conventional system; and corn (Zea mays, in no-tillage system. In each area, undisturbed samples were collected, in 0-5 and 5-10 cm depths, and water aggregate distribution and organic carbon ofaggregate (OCAGR were quantified. The highest aggregate mass was observed in the 2.00 mm aggregate class, in both depths, except for the bean cultivation area. In both depths, the class with greater diameter showed the highest OCAGR values for the area of passion fruit– Desmodium sp. consortium.

  19. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  20. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, N.R; Dorn, K.; B. Runck; P. Ewing; Williams, A; Anderson, K A; L. Felice; K. Haralson; J. Goplen; Altendorf, K; Fernandez, A.; W. Phippen; Sedbrook, J.; Marks, M.; Wolf, K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultura...

  1. Impactos medioambientales de la cadena del frío de alimentos vegetales, en relación al cambio climático

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, José L., de la

    2008-01-01

    VIII Congreso cientifico de SEAE. "Agricultura y Alimentación Ecológica”. IV Congreso Iberoamericano Agroecología. II Encuentro Internacional de Estudiantes de Agroecología y Afines. Bullas, Murcia 16-20 septiembre 2008

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change, and Woody Vegetation Diversity in Human Driven Landscape of Gilgel Tekeze Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuale Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC change through inappropriate agricultural practices and high human and livestock population pressure have led to severe land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands. This has led to further degradation such as biodiversity loss, deforestation, and soil erosion. The study examined woody vegetation diversity status and the impact of drivers of change across different LULC types and agroecological zones in Gilgel Tekeze catchment, northern Ethiopian highlands. LULC dynamics were assessed using GIS techniques on 1976, 1986, and 2008 satellite images. Vegetation data were collected from 135 sample plots (20 m × 20 m from five LULC types, namely, forest, shrub-bush, grazing, settlement, and cultivated land, in the three agroecological zones; Kolla, Weyna-Dega, and Dega. Differences in vegetation structure and composition and their relationship to agroecological zones were tested using two-way ANOVA and PCA technique. The results show that vegetation structure and composition significantly differed across all LULC types in different agroecological zones particularly in sapling density, tree height, and shrub height and in each agroecological zone between forest land, shrub-bush land, and settlement area. Overall, Weyna-Dega agroecological zone and the shrub-bush land had more structural and compositional diversity than the other agroecological zones and LULC types.

  3. Atributos químicos e físicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em sistema integrado de produção agroecológica Chemical and physical attributes of an Udult soil in agroecological production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arcângelo Loss; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Nivaldo Schultz; Lúcia Helena Cunha dos Anjos; Eliane Maria Ribeiro da Silva

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de sistemas de manejo agroecológico sobre os atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram selecionadas as seguintes áreas: preparo convencional (milho/feijão); plantio direto (berinjela/milho); consórcio maracujá/Desmodium sp.; área cultivada com figo; e sistema agroflorestal (SAF). Amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas em duas profundidades (0-5 e 5-10 cm) e em duas épocas (verão/2005 e inverno/2006). As propr...

  4. Propuesta de un Diseño Agroecológico para un Parque Natural Multifuncional (Finca Agualinda, Vereda Olarte en Usme, Bogotá D.C. - Colombia Proposal of an Agroecologic Design for a Multifunctional Natural Park (Agualinda Farm, Olarte County, in Usme, Bogotá D.C. - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena García Peña

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las dificultades del bosque andino son de variada índole, por ello es necesario un estudio sistémico para solucionar problemas de tipo económico, social, político, tecnológico y ambiental en la región. Se muestran las potencialidades de la creación de un parque natural multifuncional (PNM, el cual se presenta como una oportunidad para la solución de las limitantes encontradas.La metodología seguida fue la aplicación del análisis PESTA, la matriz Vester, el procedimiento de impacto cruzado y la matriz IGO,de la cual resultan las variables que se califican. Con esta información se propone un árbol de problemas y de objetivos para un planteamiento de los escenarios posibles. La estrategia seleccionada consiste en una propuesta para el diseño de un PNM con especies endémicas colombianas de bosque altoandino y páramo. Se sustenta con la metodología seguida, el entendimiento de la problemática de la región y la identificación de las variables que deben impactarse para solucionarla.Abstract. This paper reveals the potential of creating a Multifunctional Natural Park (MNP. The difficulties of the Andean forest are of various kinds; for this reason, is needed to address a systematic study in order to propose answers to economic, social, political, technological and environmental affectations. The methodology was to apply PESTA analysis, priorization by application of Vester's matrix, the cross-impact procedure, and the importance and gobernability priorization of which results the variables that are scored. With this information is designed a tree of problems and objectives for a possible scenario useful for a subsequent selection of strategies. The choise way, is a proposal for sketch a MNP with endemic species, which is presented as an opportunity to solve the problems found. On the other hand, is sustained that the methodology employed is effective for understanding of region limitations and the identification of variables to be resolve.

  5. How to find and understand development problems and learning challenges in organic vegetable farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Laura Seppänen's doctoral dissertation in agroecology, using an approach derived from cultural historical activity theory, examines the developmental problems and learning challenges in organic vegetable farming.

  6. Biofuel production potentials in Europe: Sustainable use of cultivated land and pastures. Part I: Land productivity potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, G.; Prieler, S.; van Velthuizen, H.; Lensink, S.; Londo, H.M.; de Wit, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    IIASA's agro-ecological zones modelling framework has been extended for biofuel productivity assessments distinguishing five main groups of feedstocks covering a wide range of agronomic conditions and energy production pathways, namely: woody lignocellulosic plants, herbaceous lignocellulosic plants

  7. Strategies and economics of farming systems with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonato de Souza, H.; Graaff, de J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, family farmers are adjusting to agroecological principles to reconcile sustainable agriculture, livelihood improvements and biodiversity conservation. Starting in 1993, experimentation with coffee agroforestry was gradually initiated on an increasin

  8. Criteria for sustainable livestock production: a proposal for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Keulen, van H.; Zwart, D.

    1995-01-01

    After discussing some general problems in measuring sustainability, an identification of measurable criteria for the major agroecological problems is proposed, derived from explicit issues of unsustainability. The proposed criteria are briefly discussed. Factors which might influence the effect of i

  9. Soil erosion modelling: description and data requirements for the LISEM physically based erosion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Presentation of an EU funded project, An interdisciplinary approach to analyse the dynamics of forest and soil degradation and to develop a sustainable agro-ecological strategy for fragile Himalayan watersheds. 'Himalayan Degradation'

  10. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  11. Impacts of Cash Crop Production on Land Management and Land Degradation: The Case of Coffee and Cotton in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Pender, John L.; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Kato, Edward; Kaizzi, Crammer; Ssali, Henry

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of coffee and cotton production on land management and land degradation in Uganda, based on a survey of 851 households and soil measurements in six major agro-ecological zones, using matching and multivariate regression methods. The impacts of cash crop production vary by agro-ecological zones and cropping system. In coffee producing zones, use of organic inputs is most common on plots growing coffee with other crops (mainly bananas), and least common on mono-croppe...

  12. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  13. Agroecologia e agricultura orgânica: controvérsias e tendências

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Linhares de Assis; Ademar Ribeiro Romeiro

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the technical progress evolution in agriculture induced by environmental constrains. The rise of production systems based on agro-ecological practices is regarded as a response to the environmental impacts caused by modern agriculture disregards of the natural ecological equilibrium. The efforts to develop of an agro-ecological science were stimulated by the search of a theoretical base for organic production systems. The so called organic agriculture, howeve...

  14. Potential of conservation agriculture practices (CAPs) in enhancing food security of tribal people in central mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Thapa, K

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of steep sloping lands, resulting lower productivity, degradation of soil health and reduction of livelihood options. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological framework to develop improved conservation practices (CAPs) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of Chepang tribal people in central Nepal. CAPs were identif...

  15. Vers une agro-écologie des territoires, pour une gestion durable des services écosystémiques : de l’observation à l’expérimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bretagnolle, Vincent; Baudry, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Up to a landscape and territory dimension of agroecology and a sustainable management of ecosystem services: from observation to experimentation This text constitutes the introduction to the workshop “Landcape and territory management” of the symposium on Agroecology, on October, 18th. It is inspired by the discussions within SOERE Zones Ateliers (the French network for Long Term Ecological Research). The issues are exposed and the fundamental basis on how managing landscape and territoryin A...

  16. Community Perspectives on the On-Farm Diversity of Six Major Cereals and Climate Change in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtha Bdr. Katwal; Singay Dorji; Rinchen Dorji; Lhab Tshering; Mahesh Ghimiray; Ganesh B. Chhetri; Tashi Yangzome Dorji; Asta Maya Tamang

    2015-01-01

    Subsistence Bhutanese farmers spread across different agro-ecological zones maintain large species and varietal diversity of different crops in their farm. However, no studies have been undertaken yet to assess why farmers conserve and maintain large agro-biodiversity, the extent of agro-ecological richness, species richness, estimated loss of traditional varieties and threats to the loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. Information on the number of varieties cultivated by the farmers for six i...

  17. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS AND FARMERSâ CULTIVAR PREFERENCE CRITERIA OF CULTIVATED YAMS (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - D. ROTUNDATA COMPLEX) IN TOGO

    OpenAIRE

    Dansi A; Dantsey-Barry H; Agré A. P; Dossou-Aminon; Assogba P; Loko Y.L; N'Kpenu E. K; Kombaté K; Dansi M; Vodouhè R

    2013-01-01

    Fifty (50) villages randomly selected throughout agroecological zones in Togo were surveyed, using participatory approach, to identify and prioritize factors that affect production and farmers’ varietal preference criteria of Guinea yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex). A total of nineteen (19) constraints of varying importance across agro-ecological zones were identified among which the most important were insects’ damages on both leaves and tubers, nematodes attack on tubers, dro...

  18. Relações entre agricultura orgânica e agroecologia: desafios atuais em torno dos princípios da agroecologia

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Lucimar Santiago; Bellon, Stephane; Brandenburg, Alfio; Ollivier, Guillaume; Lamine, Claire; Darolt, Moacir Roberto; Aventurier, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between Agro-ecology and Organic Agriculture. The debate within scientific communities in different parts of the world and the analysis of positions or discourses of researchers and articles indicate that different combinations, exchanges and interactions between Organic Agriculture and Agro-ecology are underway. In this regard, and initially based on review of the literature, we look at the ongoing interaction between these two styles of agricultur...

  19. Does Land Use Patterns Matter for Bt-Maize: The Case of Maize Farming System in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Lutta; Owuor, George; De Groote , Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2006-01-01

    Population pressures and the need to optimize the use of limited available land has led to increasing cropping affluence levels within the maize agro-ecologies in Kenya, and a shift from large to smallholder intensification and multiple cropping patterns. Using a geographic information system, this study relates cropping patterns, by area share, maize productivity and household incomes across maize agro-ecologies, with the purpose to establish a decision support system for optimizing land all...

  20. Socio-economic and Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture: An Integrated Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M. M.; Tubiello, F.N.; H.T. van Velthuizen

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro- ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological- economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in...

  1. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conj...

  2. Community Perspectives on the On-Farm Diversity of Six Major Cereals and Climate Change in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirtha Bdr. Katwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsistence Bhutanese farmers spread across different agro-ecological zones maintain large species and varietal diversity of different crops in their farm. However, no studies have been undertaken yet to assess why farmers conserve and maintain large agro-biodiversity, the extent of agro-ecological richness, species richness, estimated loss of traditional varieties and threats to the loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. Information on the number of varieties cultivated by the farmers for six important staple crops were collected from nine districts and twenty sub-districts spread across six different agro-ecological zones of the country to understand farmers reasons for maintaining on-farm crop diversity, estimate agro-ecological richness, species richness and the overall loss of traditional varieties, to know the famers’ level of awareness on climate change and the different threats to crop diversity. The results from this study indicated that an overwhelming 93% of the respondents manage and use agro-biodiversity for household food security and livelihood. The average agro-ecological richness ranged from 1.17 to 2.26 while the average species richness ranged from 0.50 to 2.66. The average agro-ecological richness indicates a large agro-ecological heterogeneity in terms of the different species of staple crops cultivated. The average species richness on the other hand shows that agro-ecological heterogeneity determines the type and extent of the cultivation of the six different staple cereals under consideration. The overall loss of traditional varieties in a time period of 20 years stands at 28.57%. On climate change, 94% of the farmers recognize that local climate is changing while 86% responded that they are aware of the potential impacts of climate change on their livelihoods. Climate change and associated factors was considered the most imminent threat to the management and loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. The results from this study

  3. Agroecologia e agricultura orgânica: controvérsias e tendências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Linhares de Assis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the technical progress evolution in agriculture induced by environmental constrains. The rise of production systems based on agro-ecological practices is regarded as a response to the environmental impacts caused by modern agriculture disregards of the natural ecological equilibrium. The efforts to develop of an agro-ecological science were stimulated by the search of a theoretical base for organic production systems. The so called organic agriculture, however, is an agricultural practice whose social construction presents biases that can induce the economic agents to be more or less respectful regarding to the theoretical limits proposed by the agro-ecological science. In this sense the paper is intended at the clarification of some current misunderstandings about agro-ecology and organic agriculture. For the future is shown that there are good market perspectives for organic production. However, the paper also points out to the risk of a increasing organic production that is not entirely respectful of the ecological principies defined by agro-ecological science as to keep sustainability in the long run.

  4. Institucionalización del enfoque agroecológico en Brasil: Avances y desafíos

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Paulo; Mussoi, Eros Marion; Dal Soglio, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo esboza un breve panorama de los avances y desafíos que conlleva la implementación del enfoque agroecológico en las instituciones brasileñas. Comienza con un relato de las luchas de los movimientos sociales rurales que trabajan en el nivel de base más profundo del “ campo agroecológico” del país. Los procesos que condujeron a la creación y desarrollo de la Articulación Nacional de Agroecología (ANA) y la Asociación Brasileña de Agroecología (ABA- -Agroecología) se ...

  5. Population Density and Distance to Market Does not Influence the Farmers’ Use of Organic Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Olayide, Dr Olawale; Alene, Dr Arega; Ikpi, Prof Anthony; Nziguheba, Dr Generose

    2008-01-01

    This study developed and employed a socio-economic-ecological-modeling (SEEM) framework in its analyses. The SEEM is made up of four resource use domains of high/low population density and high/low access to market and two agro-ecologies in the savanna of Nigeria. Data used comprises a sample of 320 farm households in northern Nigeria. The pattern of organic manure use varied slightly and insignificantly across agro-ecological and resource use domains. The major finding of the study is that t...

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Jeeban Panthi; Piyush Dahal; Madan Lall Shrestha; Suman Aryal; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Soni M. Pradhanang; Tarendra Lakhankar; Ajay K. Jha; Mohan Sharma; Ramchandra Karki

    2015-01-01

    Landslides, floods, and droughts are recurring natural disasters in Nepal related to too much or too little water. The summer monsoon contributes more than 80% of annual rainfall, and rainfall spatial and inter-annual variation is very high. The Gandaki River, one of the three major rivers of Nepal and one of the major tributaries of the Ganges River, covers all agro-ecological zones in the central part of Nepal. Time series tests were applied for different agro-ecological zones of the Ganda...

  7. ¿Qué es Organic Eprints?

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Patricia; Ugas, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    La Sociedad Científica Latinoamericana de Agroecología – SOCLA, e IFOAM América Latina (Federación Internacional de Movimientos de Agricultura Orgánica – Grupo Regional de América Latina), en ocasión de realizarse el IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Agroecología, pone a disposición de la comunidad científica, miembros y colaboradores del movimiento agroecológico en la región; el servicio que brinda Organic Eprints con la finalidad de difundir y poner disponible en la internet, los trabajos pres...

  8. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

  9. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viscarra Rossel, R.A.; Behrens, T.; Ben-Dor, E.; Bartholomeus, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about

  10. Symbiotic effectiveness and host ranges of indigenous rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soyabean varieties in Zimbabwean soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musiyiwa, K.; Mpepereki, S.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Presence of indigenous rhizobia nodulating promiscuous soyabean was determined in 92, mainly sandy soils, from wetter agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe suited to soyabean production. A total of 129 isolates were obtained from nodules of promiscuous soyabean varieties, Magoye and Hernon 147, and a sp

  11. Land tenure and differential soil fertility management practices among native and migrant farmers in Wenchi, Ghana: implications for interdisciplinary action research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Leeuwis, C.; Giller, K.E.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Cobbina, J.; Kuyper, T.W.; Abekoe, M.; Werf, van der W.

    2004-01-01

    In the past, farmers in the forest-savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana relied on the bush fallow system for maintaining the productivity of their farmland. However, in recent years population growth-induced pressure on land has increased and farmers have developed various other strat

  12. Pollution of Solid Waste to Agricultural Environment and Preventive Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi; YAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated the pollution and hazards caused by different kinds of agricultural solid wastes to the agro-ecological environment from the aspects of the types of solid wastes and the way they are produced. Besides,it came up with some countermeasures for preventing and controlling solid waste pollution and hazards.

  13. Code modernization and modularization of APEX and SWAT watershed simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and APEX (Agricultural Policy / Environmental eXtender) are respectively large and small watershed simulation models derived from EPIC Environmental Policy Integrated Climate), a field-scale agroecology simulation model. All three models are coded in FORTRAN an...

  14. KARAKTERISTIK AGROEKOLOGI GARUT (Marantha arundinaceae L. PULAU MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Hermansyah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research purpose to learn agroecology, distribution and potential production of arrowroot in Madura island. Research methode is exploration, done in Madura island on December 2008 until May 2009. The observations include measurements agroecology, distribution, characterization of morphology and potential production. Data could be analyzed descriptively and statistical. Results agroecology observation shows that the average Rainfall during last 10 years as a lot as 1202.983 mm/years. The composition of Nitrogen are as a lot as 0.1342%. Arrowroot crop distribution in Madura island of west to east respectively - participated in the south region, central and central until north. The pattern of distribution is group. Based on the morphology characters there are 3 variations. Potential production of arrowroot is average as a lot as 2.65 tons/ha. Relationship potential production of arrowroot agroecology obtained equation Y = 3.7362 + 0.1441 (X1 + 0.888 (X2 (R2 = 0.523% at α 95%.

  15. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  16. Natuculture: Urban farming for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Panwala, R.; Joyce, A.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Natuculture (pronounced “nāychew” culture) is any human made system that mimics nature in human disturbed landscapes. Natuculture is an agroecologically balanced and biologically diverse system for food production, stormwater treatment and recreation. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  17. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J;

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  18. Weeds as agricultural constraint in Benin: results of a diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, P.V.; Gbèhounou, G.; Ahanchedé, A.; Kuyper, T.W.; Röling, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Weeds are an emerging constraint on crop production, as a result of population pressure and more intensive use of cultivated land. A diagnostic study was carried out from June through August 2002 in the five agro-ecological zones of Benin (1) to identify the relative importance of weeds among major

  19. Effect of Integrated Water-Nutrient Management Strategies on Soil Erosion Mediated Nutrient Loss and Crop Productivity in Cabo Verde Drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses are a big risk for soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands. In 2012, field trials were conducted in two agro-ecological zones to evaluate the effects of selected techniques of soil-water management combined with organic amendments (T1: compost/manure +

  20. Structuration d'un enseignement technique forestier en République du Cap Vert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reizer, C.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Structuration of a ranger's training in Cabo Verde. Based on the FAO-UNESCO soil map of Africa, the extent of the various soil types occuring in Cameroon, as well as the importance of major soil fertility constraints in this country, are evaluated with regards to the 4 agroecological regions which are first identified.

  1. Conservation Agriculture in Lesotho: Residue Use Patterns Among CA adopters vs. Non-Adopters

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, M.D.; Bisangwa, E.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marake, Makoala V.; Walker, F.R.; Eash, Neal S.; Moore, Keith M.; Park, W M

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts by the Government of Lesotho, non-government organizations (NGOs), and international attention have focused on developing conservation agriculture (CA) practices adapted to the cultural, economic, and agro-ecological conditions in Lesotho. Understanding the influence of the introduction of CA technologies on soil erosion, yields, labor allocation and gender roles is of critical importance for successfully deploying sustainable agriculture technologies.

  2. Relações entre agricultura orgânica e agroecologia: desafios atuais em torno dos princípios da agroecologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Santiago Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explore the relationship between Agro-ecology and Organic Agriculture. The debate within scientific communities in different parts of the world and the analysis of positions or discourses of researchers and articles indicate that different combinations, exchanges and interactions between Organic Agriculture and Agro-ecology are underway. In this regard, and initially based on review of the literature, we look at the ongoing interaction between these two styles of agricultural practices. We then move on to analyze emerging controversies and present a synthesis of two case studies which illustrate the practical applications of agro-ecological principles, evaluating practices and ethical values and relating them to familial or entrepreneurial logics of production. We conclude that the relations between agricultural styles cannot be reduced to a simple opposition between a scientific field and a practical domain. A variety of elements must be taken into account, amongst which we emphasize the degree of socio-cultural integration (values to society, practices and market participation. Studies within Brazil provide evidence of the diversity of current relationships, whether inclusive or exclusive, and of the fluidity marking concepts of agro-ecology and organic agriculture.

  3. Food security of small holding farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramaiyan, Panneer; Hermansen, John Erik; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    practicing different agro-ecological methods were higher under organic systems than conventional systems. These results suggest that organic farming has the potential to improve food security of small farmers by reducing indebtedness due to the lower cost of production without affecting total farm production...

  4. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  5. Evaluation of a phenological model for strategic decisions for hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) biomass production across European sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaducci, S.; Colauzzi, M.; Bellocchi, G.; Cosentino, S.L.; Pahkala, K.; Stomph, T.J.; Westerhuis, W.; Zatta, A.; Venturi, G.

    2012-01-01

    The optimal combination of yield and quality of hemp fibres from field grown crops is around flowering. Therefore prediction of flowering time would support in planning production and optimization of the cultivar choice for different agro-ecological zones. In the current paper the validation of a re

  6. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoux Stéphane; Sauzet Gilles; Valantin-Morison Muriel; Pontet Célia; Champolivier Luc; Robert Céline; Lieven Jean; Flénet Francis; Mangenot Olivier; Fauvin Pascal; Landé Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in ...

  7. Risk and agro-pastoral decision-making and natural resource management in Fulbe Society, Central Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Risk and uncertainty dominate life in the semiarid tropics where most of the world's pastoralists live. Scientific approaches to risk in semiarid zones have been dominated by agroecology and agroeconomics. Within these paradigms risk is treated as a stochastic occurrence, and decisionmaking strategi

  8. The role of research in conflict over natural resources. Experiences from the ‘Competing Claims’ programme in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Milgroom, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Complex’ problem situations are characterised by conflicting societal values and interests and high levels of uncertainty about agro-ecological and/or social dynamics. We are continuously confronted with such contexts, e.g. in the sphere of natural resource management, agricultural chains and rural

  9. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used se

  10. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  11. Life cycle assessment of local and crossbred cattle production systems in Central Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Viets, T.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is a prominent example where crossbreeding with European breeds has been promoted to intensify beef production. It is implemented throughout the country regardless of the different agro-ecological conditions, of which the available feed resources are the main element. Crossbreeding at farm

  12. Which options fit best? Operationalizing the socio-ecological niche concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Ronner, Esther; Ollenburger, Mary; Franke, Linus; Klapwijk, Lotte; Falconnier, Gatien; Wichern, Jannike; Giller, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The large diversity of farms and farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa calls for agricultural improvement options that are adapted to the context in which smallholder farmers operate. The socio-ecological niche concept incorporates the agro-ecological, socio-cultural, economic and institutional d

  13. Genome-wide association studies of morphological and agronomical traits in cultivated tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is adapted to high temperature arid agroecological zones. In light of the ongoing and rapid changes in the world climate, the evaluation and development of alternate grain legume species that have similar nutritional and culinary characteristics as common ...

  14. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: Report of the deliberations of an expert panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation -...

  15. Canola integration into semi-arid wheat cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inland Pacific Northwestern USA (iPNW) wheat-producing region has a diversity of environments and soils, yet it lacks crop diversity and is one of the few semi-arid wheat-growing regions without significant integration of oilseeds. Four major agroecological zones, primarily characterised by wate...

  16. Restoring and maintaining the productivity of West African soils: key to sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokwunye, A.U.; Jager, de A.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report highlights the alarming situation as to low soil fertility and its continued decline in West Africa. Through literature review, a description is given of farming systems and soil fertility in the three major agro-ecological zones: the Equatorial Forest Zone, the Guinea Savanna Zone, and

  17. Agricultural research – from recommendation domains to arenas for interaction: Experiences from West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röling, N.; Jiggins, J.; Hounkonnou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural research designs tend to be bounded by agroecological conditions, farming systems and other dimensions assumed to be homogeneous for the population of interest (that is, a recommendation domain or population for whom a technology or practice is expected to be relevant). Scaling is then

  18. Pollution of Solid Waste to Agricultural Environment and Preventive Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Shi

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated the pollution and hazards caused by different kinds of agricultural solid wastes to the agro-ecological environment from the aspects of the types of solid wastes and the way they are produced. Besides, it came up with some countermeasures for preventing and controlling solid waste pollution and hazards.

  19. Determinants of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] production system in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analyze the soybean production system in Benin. Data were collected from 324 soybean producers selected from the three major soybean-producing agro-ecological areas i.e. agro-ecological zone 3 (southern Borgou, agro-ecological zone 4 (West Atacora and agro-ecological zone 5 (Cotton zone of the Centre of Benin. A participatory research approach with group discussions followed by individual interviews was carried out for extracting the information from respondents. Information mainly referred to the socio-demographic characteristics of soybean producers, production practices, extent of yields and constraints. Descriptive statistics were then used to analyze the data. Ordered Probit regression was further carried out to assess the determinants of soybean yield levels in Benin. Results of this study revealed that soybean producers of the three agro ecological zones have most of the common demographic characteristics. They equally revealed that farmers do not follow correct soybean cropping practices. Improved seeds, plant density, fertilizers, fallow, and sex of farmers have significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001 influenced the yields of soybean in Benin. Within the context of sustainable agricultural production practices, it is recommended to develop appropriate technologies for soybean cultivation. The extension services should focus more on the appropriate combination of input resources which are found to contribute more to the soybean production

  20. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand

  1. Uncertainty quantification of soil property maps with statistical expert elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, N.P.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy assessment and uncertainty analyses are key to the quality of data and data analysis in a wide array of scientific disciplines. For soil science, it is important to quantify the accuracy of soil maps that are used in environmental and agro-ecological studies and decision making. Many soil m

  2. Grower perceptions of biotic and abiotic risks of potato production in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der J.E.; Steyn, J.M.; Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Growers' surveys took place in all sixteen potato growing regions of South Africa in 2013 and 2014. The agro-ecological climate of these regions is diverse and potato is produced in rainy or dry seasons, in winter or summer seasons, or year round. Growers were asked how often in ten years crops s

  3. Estratégias produtivas e aplicacao de princípios d agroecologia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; de Abreu, Lucimar Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of production strategies of certified units of a family-smallholder's cooperative from Itápolis - SP. Units were observed to incorporate agro-ecological principles of ecology-based agriculture, in observance of agro-biodiversity, material recycling and socioeconom...

  4. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, K.E.; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, B.K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Asten, Van P.J.A.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributi

  5. Reconciling approaches to climate change adaptation for Colombian agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Khoury, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    The projected impact of climate change on agro-ecological systems is considered widespread and significant, particularly across the global tropics. As in many other countries, adaptation to climate change is likely to be an important challenge for Colombian agricultural systems. In a recent study, a

  6. Adaptation and performance of rice genotypes in tropical and subtropical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Keulen, van H.; Cao, W.; Dai, T.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized field experiments were carried out to study the performance of five rice genotypes derived from different germplasm in terms of yield, harvest index (HI) and grain quality at eight agro-ecological sites of the tropics and subtropics across Asia during 2001 and 2002. Considering that ind

  7. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological knowled

  8. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  9. The communities of fungi occurring in the red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and red clover with cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata L. cultivations on the lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Truszkowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of fungal communities within cultures of clover planted into barley and clover with cocksfoot grass may be used to evaluate the antiphytopathogenic potential of the environment. Observation of the lack of common pathogenic fungi and the sensitivity of Fusarium oxysporum populations to agroecological conditions indicates the possibility of influencing the healthiness of the clover by agrotechnical methods.

  10. The yield gap of major food crops in family agriculture in the tropics: Assessment and analysis through field surveys and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affholder, F.; Poeydebat, C.; Corbeels, M.; Scopel, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gaps of major food crops are wide under rainfed family agriculture in the tropics. Their magnitude and causes vary substantially across agro-ecological, demographic and market situations. Methods to assess yield gaps should cope with spatio-temporal variability of bio-physical conditions, mana

  11. Diversity and conservation of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) and its relation to household food and livelihood security in South-western Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture in Ethiopia is characterized by diverse farming practices. Farmers with various ethnic background and cultural diversity living in the country's diverse agro-ecological zones have developed farming systems, characterized by a high degree of species diversity. The enset based farmi

  12. Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Zingore, S.; Mapfumo, P.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Herrero, M.; Chikowo, R.; Corbeels, M.; Rowe, E.C.; Baijukya, F.P.; Mwijage, A.; Smith, J.; Yeboah, E.; Burg, van der W.J.; Sanogo, O.; Misiko, M.; Ridder, de N.; Karanja, S.; Kaizzi, C.K.; K'ungu, J.; Mwale, M.; Nwaga, D.; Pacini, C.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2011-01-01

    African farming systems are highly heterogeneous: between agroecological and socioeconomic environments, in the wide variability in farmers’ resource endowments and in farm management. This means that single solutions (or ‘silver bullets’) for improving farm productivity do not exist. Yet to date fe

  13. Integrated Water Resources Management, institutions and livelihoods under stress: Bottom-up perspectives from Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabiza, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people in Limpopo river basin depend on rainfed agriculture. Unfortunately the Limpopo is water scarce, and parts of the basin such as the Mzingwane catchment are under stress in terms of agro-ecological and socio-politico-economic conditions. Integrated Water Resources Management (I

  14. Integrated Water Resources Management, institutions and livelihoods under stress: bottom-up perspectives from Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabiza, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people in Limpopo river basin depend on rainfed agriculture. Unfortunately the Limpopo is water scarce, and parts of the basin such as the Mzingwane catchment are under stress in terms of agro-ecological and socio-politico-economic conditions. Integrated Water Resources Management (I

  15. Trade-offs between biomass use and soil cover. The case of rice-based cropping systems in the lake Alaotra region of Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naudin, K.; Scopel, E.; Andriamandroso, A.L.H.; Rakotosolofo, M.; Andriamarosoa Ratsimbazafy, N.R.S.; Rakotozandriny, J.N.; Salgado, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Farmers in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar are currently evaluating a range of conservation agriculture (CA) cropping systems. Most of the expected agroecological functions of CA (weed control, erosion control and water retention) are related to the degree of soil cover. Under farmers’ conditi

  16. Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity yield and N2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kuyper, T.W.; Leeuwis, C.; Abekoe, M.K.; Cobbinah, J.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N-2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent mai

  17. Development Interventions and Agriculture Adaptation: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Transfer in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Cadger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing countries with high exposure to agriculture development interventions. Institutions often facilitate agricultural training projects, with a focus on agroecological practices, such as agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. The structural characteristics of social networks amongst land managers influences decision-making to adopt such adaptive agroecoloigcal practice; however, the extent of knowledge transfer beyond direct project participants is often unknown. Using a social network approach, we chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks (n = 131 in six communities, which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development interventions in Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable; development project-affiliated farmers were embedded in larger networks, had non-affiliated farmers within their networks, were engaged in more diverse agricultural production and reported adopting and adapting agroecological practice more frequently. Such bridging ties that link across distinctive groups in a network can expose network members to new and innovative agroecological practices, such as increasing agrobiodiversity, thus, contributing to livelihood strategies that mitigate environmental and market risk. Furthermore, we show that these knowledge networks were crop-specific where network size varied given the type of crop produced. Such factors, which may influence the rate and extent of agroecological knowledge diffusion, are critical for the effectiveness of land management practices as well as the persistence of agriculture development interventions.

  18. Development trend and enlightenment of overseas agro-ecology%农业生态学的国外发展及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆世明

    2013-01-01

    国内外有关农业生态学的文献持续大幅度上升.国际上,人们深刻认识到传统还原论思维主导的农业科研方法及其影响下的农业方式遇到的严峻危机,认识到农业生态学的生命力正是由于运用了新的思维方式和新的农业方法.目前国外对农业生态学内涵的认识既有“硬农业生态学”和“软农业生态学”之分,也有把农业生态学作为一个学科、一类实践或一个社会运动.农业生态学作为一个实践的做法类似我国的生态农业实践,主要内容包括资源节约型技术、投入替代型技术、农业系统结构调整和食物供应体系关系调整4个层次.农业生态学作为一个社会运动,在以拉丁美洲为代表的发展中国家和以美国为代表的发达国家发展迅速,成为交流农业生态经验,改善农民民生,维护农民权益的重要组织形式.这个运动影响到了政府的政策取向.农业生态学作为一个严格意义上的学科范畴,人们认为需要进一步强化层次上推的方法论研究,以及进行更多定量的多学科综合研究.利用国际上农业生态学的发展态势反观我国的农业生态学发展,可以发现很多优势和不足.论文进一步讨论了对我国农业生态学和生态农业发展的启迪.%Local and international literature related to agro-ecology rapidly grew in recent years. This was recognition of the fact that agricultural research and agro-production practices guided by reductionism was in crisis and that agro-ecology vitality depended on cutting-edge thinking and practice of agriculture. The range of agro-ecology considered in its study was divided into "hard" and "soft" agro-ecology. Agro-ecology was also advanced as not only a discipline of science and practice of agriculture, but also the movement of farmers. As a practice, agro-ecology was closely related to "eco-agriculutre" in China, including four levels of change. Replacement of

  19. A Survey of the Insect Pests and Farmers' Practices in the Cropping of Tomato in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeh, VC.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of some tomato producing areas of Nigeria indicated that the major insects attacking tomato included the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L., the whitefly Bemisia tabacci Gennadius, and various species of aphids, mostly Aphis gossypii Glover. Interviews conducted to assess farmers' practices which contribute to insect damage showed that inappropriate application of insecticides and the use of wrong dosages may have contributed to insect control failures. Intercropping tomato with crops such as cereals tubers and other vegetables reduced infestation in some areas. However, most farmers' practices did not affect insect pest abundance. Insect populations and percentages of infestation were, in most cases, found to be significantly higher in Oyo state (in the rain forest agro-ecological zone than in other surveyed states located in the savannah agro-ecological zones.

  20. Extension field workers' perception of cotton integrated pest management programme in sindh province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted in the Sindh province of Pakistan to assess the performance of Extension Field Worker (EFWs) performed during FAO-EU-ADB funded National Integrated Pest Management Programme (Nat-IPM) for cotton. The basic principle of Nat-IPM programme was to enable farmers to be self sufficient, using practices that are agro-ecological friendly. This study was carried out in four districts of Sindh province (Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Matiari, and Mirpurkhas). The sample size comprised 48 EFWs who participated in Training of Facilitators (ToF) and erecuted FFSs during 2001 and 2004. The results revealed that the EFWs performed effectively to attain the objectives of IPM programme. It appears that EFWs improved farmers' knowledge, skills and behavioral change in attitude towards agro-ecological sound IPM practices through FFS training. (author)

  1. Development of High Yielding, Late Maturing Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two mutants of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) derived from gamma irradiation of Cuba 108 (Mutant 1) and Tainung-1 (Mutant 2), their parents and two landraces were evaluated for maturity period and fiber yield traits in the forest, derived and southern Guinea savannah agroecologies of southwest Nigeria. Mutant 2 was consistently late maturing across locations with an average of 80 days compared to 71 in the parent. Fiber yield and maturity period were highest in forest and lowest in Southern Guinea savannah agro-ecologies due to photoperiod and rainfall differences. Mutant 2 was most stable, and had the highest mean value of 26,158kg/ha for fiber yield followed by 17,611kg/ha in Mutant 1. Mutant 2 is suspected to be photo-insensitive and recommended for equatorial climates. (author)

  2. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  3. Nutritional values of available ruminant feed resources in smallholder dairy farms in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2015-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Rwanda use diversity of resources to cope with endemic feed shortages. However, there is inadequate real farm data to support farmer decisions on choices of options. The main objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional quality of feed types that farmers use in different agro-ecological zones of Rwanda. Samples of feed types were collected from 90 randomly selected households in the low- and mid-high-altitude zones of Rwanda and analysed for proximate composition, contents of metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFd). Rumen fermentation characteristics and efficiency of energy utilisation were examined by determining partitioning factor (PF). Results showed that only five out of 24 feed types were common in both districts. Chemical composition, OMD, ME, NDFd and PF of these feed types differed significantly (P smallholder farms in the selected agro-ecologies of Rwanda. PMID:25921293

  4. Local markets and digital technologies: Among e-commerce and new forms of conviviality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual storefronts, online sales, the enhancement of short and agroecological circuits of production through effective communication policies in social networks, are strategies that many small businesses are now using to value their traditional expertise, paradoxically based on proximity and direct treatment. this article analyzes the role of digital technologies in the re-signification and re-activation of small businesses and traditional markets. the use of digital technologies challenges Internet as an agent of deterritorialization and creation of global culture, in front of the presence of new forms of localization based on the emergence of new forms of conviviality, agroecology and healthy eating.

  5. Functional profiles of soil microbial populations under various climatic conditions and agricultural practices in Burkina-Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgerie, S.; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Sajaloli, B; Yengué, E; Morabito, D.

    2014-01-01

    International audience BIOSOL is a multidisciplinary scientific program (soil science, agronomy, geography) which aims at understanding and promoting agro-ecological practices among peasant communities in Burkina-Faso. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteristics of agricultural soils were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility. Two sites (villages of Sampiéri and Bandougou) with contrasted pedo-climatic conditions were selected.

  6. Clay Mineralogy of Various Marginal Soils in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quang Hai; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Various marginal soils derived from different parent materials were collected from different landforms and agro-ecological regions in Vietnam and were subjected to clay mineral analysis in addition to particle-size analysis. The result showed that the particle-size distribution of the soils had a close relationship with the landform. The clay content was highest for the soils from the meander floodplain and inland valley, followed by the soil from the hill and lowest for the soils from the ...

  7. Le pastoralisme au Sénégal, entre politique « moderne » et gestion des risques par les pasteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Véronique Ancey; Georges Monas

    2005-01-01

    The question of livestock raising in Senegal well illustrates how difficult it is, at times, for policies to take some realities into account. While such policies promptly mobilise recent concepts (such as food sovereignty) or propose modernist network approaches, discourses still often convey ancient clichés on the atavism and irrationality of pastoralists, along with ignorance of local, economic, agro-ecological and societal realities. It is such biased representations that this article put...

  8. Conservation agriculture, a sustainable production alternative for the (sub)tropical highlands : toward an integrated evaluation of the system

    OpenAIRE

    Govaerts, Bram

    2007-01-01

    (Sub)tropical highlands of the world are densely populated and intensively cropped. Agricultural sustainability problems resulting from soil erosion and fertility decline have arisen throughout this agro-ecological zone. Major changes are needed in land, livestock and water management in line with traditional lifestyles and customs to remedy the agricultural system. Can conservation agriculture, based on three basic principles (1) minimal soil movement, (2) retention of rational amounts of cr...

  9. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    OpenAIRE

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Ken E. Giller; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, Birthe K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Mark T. van Wijk

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households ...

  10. Learning Object Annotation for Agricultural Learning Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Ebner, Hannes; Manouselis, Nikos; Palmér, Matthias; Enoksson, Fredrik; Palavitsinis, Nikos; Kastrantas, Kostas; Naeve, Ambjörn

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a Web-based tool that has been developed to facilitate learning object annotation in agricultural learning repositories with IEEE LOM-compliant metadata. More specifically, it presents how an application profile of the IEEE LOM standard has been developed for the description of learning objects on organic agriculture and agroecology. Then, it describes the design and prototype development of the Organic.Edunet repository tool: a Web-based for annotating learning objects ...

  11. The Dagara farmer at home and away: migration, environment and development in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, van, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Will people in drylands be forced to migrate due to climate change and environmental degradation? And what impact does migration have on the environment and development in the migrants' home and destination areas? These are some of the questions this study tries to answer. Based on local case study material among the Dagara people of Northwest Ghana and regional analyses of migration propensities and environmental scarcity, this study shows that structural differences in agro-ecological condi...

  12. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on external inputs and centralized decision-making in the Cuban agricultural model. Low autonomy in farmers’ decision-making (centrally-planned collective farms), scarcity of production inputs and extensiv...

  13. Categorising farming practices to design sustainable land-use management in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Girard-Fourty, Nathalie; Duru, Michel; Hazard, Laurent; Magda, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    In European mountain areas, shrub encroachment resulting from farmland abandonment is most often managed by mechanical operations such as roller chopping or controlled burning, which have proved to be ineffective and unsustainable. Recent agroecological findings highlight the potential impact of grazing on long-term shrub dynamics. We thus explored the potential contribution of livestock farms to the management of shrub encroachment. We studied the diversity of livestock practices and strateg...

  14. Amélioration des systèmes de production mixtes en Afrique soudano-sahélienne. Rôle de l'espèce Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub. (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Camara, A.; Dieng, A; Mergeai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of mixed farming systems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa. Role of the species Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub. A review. Introduction. In Sudano-Sahelian Africa, the traditional farming systems are no longer able to meet the food needs of the population. In order to sustainably improve the food security of small family farms, agro-ecological practices are increasingly being promoted by research and development organizations. Literature. Several studies have shown that agricultural product...

  15. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser, Bernhard; Stolze, Matthias; Oehen,Bernadette; Gessler, Cesare; Weibel, Franco; Bravin, Esther; Kilchenmann, Adeline; Widmer, Albert; Charles, Raffael; Lang, Andreas; Stamm, Christian; Triloff, Peter; Tamm, Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/...

  16. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production.

  17. Logistic modelling of smallholder livestock farmers’ adoption of tree-based fodder technology in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Jera, R.; Ajayi, Olu Clifford

    2008-01-01

    Based on field data collected from 131 small scale dairy farmers that were randomly selected from four agro-ecological zones, this study assessed the potential of adoption of fodder bank technology as a means for improving livestock production and income generation for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. Using a logit modelling approach, it also identified the drivers of adoption of the technology by analysing the influence of household characteristics and ecological factors on farmers’ decisi...

  18. Farmer’s Knowledge and Perception of Diversified Farming Systems in Sub-Humid and Semi-Arid Areas in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Alcade C. Segnon; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Orou G. Gaoue; Adam Ahanchédé

    2015-01-01

    Building on farmer’s agroecological knowledge to design environmental-friendly agricultural systems is crucial given the environmental impact of industrial agriculture. We investigated the drivers of farmers’ knowledge of agrobiodiversity management and analyzed how farmers’ knowledge and their current farming contexts may guide future farming systems in sub-humid (Bassila) and semi-arid (Boukoumbé) areas of Benin. We conducted structured interviews with 180 farmers and used generalized linea...

  19. Market Participation among Poor Rural Households in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Olwande, John; Mathenge, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Kenya’s smallholder agriculture remains a major engine of rural growth and livelihood improvement, yet it is largely semi-subsistence. Therefore, any pathway that can lift large numbers of the rural poor out of poverty will require some form of transformation of smallholder agriculture into a more commercialized production system. This study used a three-year panel household data set collected in 2000, 2004 and 2007 and across nine agroecological zones of Kenya to assess the extent of market ...

  20. Pollution and Siltation of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion by Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    In the western highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with waste from cultivated plots. This study investigated on the characterization and quantification of sediment from plots cultivated in the watershed Méloh; among these sediment we highlighted soil, plant residues, chemical packages and plastic casing used for irrigation. In a natural rocky bottom wells, we performed for a period of three years the collection, differentiation and measurement...

  1. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kpodékon, T. M.; Ogni, C. A.; H. Dassou; Dougnon, T. J.; Boko, C; Koutinhouin, G. B.; Goussanou, J. S. E.; Akoegninou, A.; I. Youssao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth diseas...

  2. Réactualisation du curriculum des agents vétérinaires en Afrique : exemple du Cameroun et approche de la définition d'une méthodologie globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys, E.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactualization of the training curriculum for veterinary auxiliary staff in Africa : the Cameronian example and a tentative definition of a global method. Based on the FAO-UNESCO soil map of Africa, the extent of the various soil types occuring in Cameroon, as well as the importance of major soil fertility constraints in this country, are evaluated with regards to the 4 agroecological regions which are first identified.

  3. Territorial planning that is reflected in ecotourism in the province of Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    Onea, Dragoş

    2011-01-01

    "At the local level to search for potential resources could effectively capitalize. This is in addition to a set of rules that facilitate cooperation with EU institutions, consulting specialists and rural centers. The agro-ecological pattern into province of Córdoba became a real and effective alternative to destructuring the agricultural landscape of the autonomous region of Andalusia. In the case study Alojamiento Rural Yanem Centro Educatión Medioambiental in ecological agro-tourism practi...

  4. Problem Identification and Priority Setting in Agricultural Research: The Case of The Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNLU, Vedat

    1999-01-01

    Since the resources available to research institutes are scarce, and experimentation is the most costly phase of a research program, researchers must make sure that the possible solutions to identified problems have a high chance of success. Consequently, problems should be carefully prioritized for experimentation. Factors limiting increased productivity in crop production in the Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia (EMCA) along with agro-ecological factors, apart from political concern, are a...

  5. Agricultural innovation in Africa : from soil fertility to market integration. A case study from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannin, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In Benin, in response to the declining soil fertility and its effects on food insecurity and natural resources, farmers supported by external agents such as researchers, extension services and NGOs have developed new soil fertility management practices. In this study, we trace the history of the development of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) initiatives in three different agro-ecological zones of Benin and highlight the different development phases and outcomes...

  6. Participatory integrated watershed management in the north-western highlands of Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Kagabo, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was conducted in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of the north-western highlands of Rwanda, namely; Gataraga and Rwerere in the framework of “Agasozi ndatwa”  referred to as PIWM. "Ag...

  7. The importance of crop residue management in maintaining soil quality in zero tillage systems; A comparison between long-term trials in rainfed and irrigated wheat systems

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Verachtert, Els; Limon-Ortega, Agustin; Deckers, Jozef A.; Raes, Dirk; Sayre, Ken D.

    2009-01-01

    CIMMYT is committed to improving livelihoods in developing countries by improving the productivity and profitability of farming systems while sustaining natural resources. This paper focuses on the influence of crop residue management on soil quality in zero till systems and includes results from two long-term trials established in the early 1990’s in different agro-ecological systems in Mexico: (1) a low-input, semi-arid, rainfed system in the rainfed central highlands (2240 masl) with zero ...

  8. Perception of Infestation Problems on Cassava Farms and Preference for Weed Management Practices in Humid Agro- Ecological Zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Agumagu; Olufemi Martins Adesope; Edna Chioma Matthews-Njoku

    2008-01-01

    The problem of weed infestation on cassava farms is a major factor for low crop yield. This problem has caused untold hardship on the small-scale cassava farms where production at the subsistence level and where farmers still manage to produce some quantity for sale. The study examines cassava farmers’ perception of problems of infestation and preference for weed management practices in the humid agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interviews....

  9. Land tenure and differential soil fertility management practices among native and migrant farmers in Wenchi, Ghana: implications for interdisciplinary action research

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Leeuwis, C.; Giller, K.E.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Cobbina, J.; Kuyper, T. W.; Abekoe, M.; Werf, van der, W.

    2004-01-01

    In the past, farmers in the forest-savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana relied on the bush fallow system for maintaining the productivity of their farmland. However, in recent years population growth-induced pressure on land has increased and farmers have developed various other strategies for improving the productivity of their farmlands. Such strategies have been identified in the context of an interdisciplinary action research project and include rotations with cassava (Mani...

  10. Territorial planning that is reflected in ecoturism in the Province of Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGOS ONEA

    2011-01-01

    At the local level to search for potential resources could effectively capitalize. This is in addition to a set of rules that facilitate cooperation with EU institutions, consulting specialists and rural centers. The agro-ecological pattern into province of Córdoba became a real and effective alternative to destructuring the agricultural landscape of the autonomous region of Andalusia. In the case study Alojamiento Rural Yanem Centro Educatión Medioambiental in ecologi...

  11. Food Security through Organic Agriculture : A Global and National Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mrinila; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Dangol, Dharma Raj

    2012-01-01

    Organic farming practices have been spreading gradually in both developed and developing nations as a system following agro-ecological principles, depending on locally available resources, healthy produce or certified-export oriented production. This has raised a question of whether organic farming would be able to feed the world population, especially when food insecurity is expected to intensify further in the future. While there is skepticism that excluding the use of fertilizer and pestic...

  12. Household practices related to disease transmission between animals and humans in rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Osbjer, Kristina; Boqvist, Sofia; Sokerya, Seng; Kannarath, Chheng; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Zoonotic diseases are disproportionately affecting poor societies in low-income countries and pose a growing threat to public health and global food security. Rural Cambodian households may face an increased likelihood of exposure to zoonotic diseases as people there live in close association with livestock. The objectives of the study was to identify practices known to influence zoonosis transmission in rural Cambodian households and relate the practices to agro-ecological region,...

  13. Pratiques et stratégies paysannes en matière de complémentation des ruminants au sein des systèmes d'exploitation mixte agriculture-élevage du plateau central et du nord du Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Nianogo, AJ.; Sawadago, L.; Zoundi, JS.

    2003-01-01

    Farmers' Practices and Strategies for Ruminants' Supplementation in Mixed Crop-livestock Farming Systems in the Central Plateau and North of Burkina Faso. With the purpose to understand the farmers' practices and strategies for ruminants supplementation, mixed crop-livestock farms have been surveyed in three agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso. The results obtained indicated that lactating females' supplementation is almost permanent whatever be the period of the year, but the objectives va...

  14. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Phillipo; Magreth Bushesha; Zebedayo S. K. Mvena

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of...

  15. Labour inputs and financial profitability of conventional and agroforestry-based soil fertility management practices in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olu Clifford; Akinnifesi, Festus K.; Sileshi, G.; Kanjipite, W.

    2009-01-01

    Several agro-ecological practices have been developed to increase the range of soil fertility management options available to farmers, but little information is available on their labour input requirement and profitability relative to conventional practices. This study used a multiple visit cost-route method to estimate labour inputs and financial profitability of agroforestry-based and conventional (with and without fertiliser) soil fertility management practices in eastern Zambia. Results s...

  16. Economic Impact Assessment of IPM CRSP Activities in Bangladesh and Uganda: A GIS Application

    OpenAIRE

    Debass, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assist planners and scientists in assessing the economic implications of the USAID-funded Integrated Pest Management-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) research activities. The study presents a framework and a set of procedures for documenting, evaluating and communicating aggregate economic impacts of IPM technologies within targeted areas and across agro-ecological regions. Performing an economic impact assessment involves consideration of ...

  17. Diversity patterns of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Benin, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. M.; Houngnandan, P.; A. Kane; Sanon, K. B.; Neyra, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of diversity and understanding factors underlying species distribution are fundamental themes in ecology. However, the diversity of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in African tropical agro-ecosystems remains weakly known. This research was carried out to assess the morphological diversity of indigenous AMF species associated with rhizosphere of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) in different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Benin and to examine the effects of soil...

  18. Preliminary analysis of agriculture land for vegetable farming system

    OpenAIRE

    HAYTOVA, Dimka; STEFANOVA, Vera; ARNAUDOVA, Zhulieta; BILEVA, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable sector is one of the important components of Bulgarian agriculture where diversity in vegetable cropping brought by different agro-ecological regions of the country. The main aim of the article is to analyze and evaluate the state of the sector and Bulgarian agriculture land for vegetables crop production with relevance for GIS database. The article suggests that the results in the horticulture sector are far below of biological potential of vegetables and effectively using of lands...

  19. Survey on pigeon pea production systems, utilization and marketing in semi-arid lands of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin J.P.; Le Roi A.; Mergeai G.; Kimani P.; Mwang'ombe A.; Olubayo F; Smith C.; Audi P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the status of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) production in Kenya, two surveys were carried out in Makueni and Mbeere Districts in areas representative of the main agro-ecological pigeonpea producing zone of the country : (Mid-altitude ASAL). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach was chosen as research method and was completed by household interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The main points developed are the presentation of the different farmi...

  20. Effects of Land Use Practices on the Organic Carbon Content, Cation Exchange Capacity and Aggregate Stability of Soils in the Catchment Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Mosayeb Heshmati; Arifin Abdu; Shamshuddin Jusop; Nik M. Majid

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Land use practice leads to changes in the physico-chemical properties of soils, such as Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and Soil Aggregate Stability (SAS) that cause soil erosion. Approach: Merek catchment, Iran suffers from land degradation due to poor land use practice. A study was carried out with the objectives: (i) to determine soil nutrient status in different agro-ecological zones in Merek catchment; and (ii) to evaluate the influence of lan...

  1. Sustainable intensification of pineapple farming in Ghana: Training and complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Wuepper, David; Sauer, Johannes; Kleemann, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable intensification of Ghana's smallholder farming is critical to mitigate rural poverty. Innovations for sustainable intensification include agro-ecological practices, which build up soil fertility, and mulching, which conserves soil moisture. To stimulate the adoption of these innovations, development organizations and business stakeholders provide training for farmers, to demonstrate proper usage and convince the farmers of their profitability. Using unique panel data, we analyze w...

  2. Helping Small-Holder Farmers Deal with Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemu, Segenet

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is a major activity and land use across the developing world; it is vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions. Climate change affects agricultural systems and production in various ways, for example by changing agro-ecological conditions. Changes in the pattern and amount of precipitation, as well as temperature, can directly affect the suitability of cultivable land for agricultural production, food supplies and food utilisation. Climate change can affect food security, depend...

  3. Low Greenhouse Gas Agriculture: Mitigation and Adaptation Potential of Sustainable Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niggli, U.; Fließbach, A.; Hepperly, P.; Scialabba, N.

    2009-01-01

    Is low greenhouse gas emission (GHG) agriculture possible? Is it, in fact, desirable? In seeking answers to these two basic but extremely relevant questions, this study examines current farming practices, and incorporates scientific databases from longterm field experiments as case studies for low GHG agriculture. Further, the study examines the changes that will be needed for low greenhouse gas agriculture systems to become a reality. It also elucidates the adaptive capacity of agro-ecologic...

  4. Conservation agriculture in Lesotho: The drivers of adoption and the role of extension

    OpenAIRE

    Bisangwa, E.; Wilcox, M.D.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marake, Makoala V.; Walker, F.R.; Eash, Neal S.; Park, W M

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts by the Government of Lesotho, non-government organizations (NGOs), and international attention have focused on developing conservation agriculture (CA) practices adapted to the cultural, economic, and agro-ecological conditions. In particular, understanding the influence of the introduction of CA technologies on soil erosion, yields, labor allocation and gender roles is of critical importance for developing sustainable agriculture technologies. This research is a collaborative ...

  5. Investigating rural poverty and marginality in Burkina Faso using remote sensing-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, M.; Stein, A.; Zurita-Milla, R.

    2014-02-01

    Poverty at the national and sub-national level is commonly mapped on the basis of household surveys. Typical poverty metrics like the head count index are not able to identify its underlaying factors, particularly in rural economies based on subsistence agriculture. This paper relates agro-ecological marginality identified from regional and global datasets including remote sensing products like the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall to rural agricultural production and food consumption in Burkina Faso. The objective is to analyze poverty patterns and to generate a fine resolution poverty map at the national scale. We compose a new indicator from a range of welfare indicators quantified from Georeferenced household surveys, indicating a spatially varying set of welfare and poverty states of rural communities. Next, a local spatial regression is used to relate each welfare and poverty state to the agro-ecological marginality. Our results show strong spatial dependency of welfare and poverty states over agro-ecological marginality in heterogeneous regions, indicating that environmental factors affect living conditions in rural communities. The agro-ecological stress and related marginality vary locally between rural communities within each region. About 58% variance in the welfare indicator is explained by the factors of rural agricultural production and 42% is explained by the factor of food consumption. We found that the spatially explicit approach based on multi-temporal remote sensing products effectively summarizes information on poverty and facilitates further interpretation of the newly developed welfare indicator. The proposed method was validated with poverty incidence obtained from national surveys.

  6. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil...... palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production....

  7. Global food security: Challenges and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Rosegrant, M.W.; Cline, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Global food security will remain a worldwide concern for the next 50 years and beyond. Recently, crop yield has fallen in many areas because of declining investments in research and infrastructure, as well as increasing water scarcity. Climate change and HIV/AIDS are also crucial factors affecting food security in many regions. Although agroecological approaches offer some promise for improving yields, food security in developing countries could be substantially improved by increased investme...

  8. Improving Ethiopian Smallholders’ Income and Food Security: An Assessment of Alternative Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Bocqueho, G.; Boere, E.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.

    2015-01-01

    Smallholder farmers dominate food production, but also represent the largest share of people in developing countries experiencing food insecurity. In Ethiopia, agricultural growth now forms the backbone of the country’s long-term plans for economic growth. This study aims to analyze long-term changes to the agricultural sector and its consequences for the evolution of smallholder farmers under various policy scenarios. A farming typology based on the agro-ecological zone, the dominant acti...

  9. Restructuring international food chains: Building sustainable and all-inclusive food chains at the primary stages

    OpenAIRE

    Kambewa, E.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Trijp, van, J.M.P.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van, P.J.A.; Boekel, van, R.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that effective inclusion of small-scale primary producers in international chains is crucial for alleviating poverty in developing countries, few insights exist about how to build sustainable and all-inclusive food chains especially those based on scarce natural resources. In order to address challenges that marketing and development policy and institutions as well as small-scale primary producers in the agro-ecological sector face in promoting sustainable pr...

  10. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Morales-Cayax; Eddi Alejandro Vanegas-Chacón; Francisco Bautista-Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    The target was raised to identify areas for their condition, significance or cultural significance need to be protected, preserved or restored. By performing an agroecological zoning and landscape. The ecological or eco-regionalization consists of defining relatively homogeneous geographic areas based on the physical and biological environment, so as to establish appropriate links with the use and appropriation of land by the society. Terrain, climate and soils: physical characterization of t...

  11. Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability: Resources for Instructors, 2nd Edition. Introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    For farmers, growing quality crops is just one step in running a successful farm—making the farm or market garden economically viable requires another suite of skills, including finding land, planning what crops to grow, marketing the crops, managing income and expenses, and addressing food safety and labor issues.   At the University of California, Santa Cruz Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (CASFS), the Farm & Garden Apprenticeship instructors have put t...

  12. Changes in Production Potential in China in Response to Climate Change from 1960 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Liu; Xi Chen; Xinliang Xu; Yong Wang; Shuang Li; Ying Fu

    2014-01-01

    From the Global Agro-Ecological Zone (GAEZ) model, changes in the three climate factors (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) over the past five decades showed different trends and that production potential was impacted significantly by the geographic heterogeneity of climate change. An increase of approximately 1.58 million tons/decade in production potential correlated with climate change. Regions with increased production potential were located mainly in the Northeast China Pla...

  13. 10-year interdisciplinary monitoring of organic stocklass, vegetable rotations at Warwick-HRI, Kirton, South Lincolnshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, U.; Rayns, F; Sumpton, P

    2006-01-01

    Interdisciplinary monitoring of an organic stockless farming system has been carried out over ten years on a fertile silty clay loam in the main vegetable production area of the UK. The results draw together economic outcomes with agronomy, soil science and agro-ecology. Organic management has been used at the Kirton research site since conversion of a 3.2 ha unit in 1997. There is great variability in crop yields and marketing results but overall a successful ongoing vegetable production sys...

  14. Long-term performance of organic crop rotations in the tropics: First results from a high and a medium potential site in sub-humid Central Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Zundel, Christine; Schneider, Monika; Musyoka, Martha; Muriuki, Anne; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Mucheru-Muna, Monica; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Niggli, Urs

    2009-01-01

    Organic Agriculture is perceived by many stakeholders as a promising approach to increase food security in developing countries. However, only few attempts have been made so far to assess agronomic and economic performance of Organic Agriculture in these regions in a systematic way. The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), together with its partners, is presently establishing long-term comparisons of farming systems in various agro-ecological and socio-economic contexts to study ...

  15. AGRO-ECOLOGIE ET DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Dufumier, Marc

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; In order to meet economy of scale demands made by large seed and agroindustrial companies, many areas of agriculture have recently evolved in ways which are incompatible with sustainable development, both in terms of damage to agroecosystems and by the continued belief in principles of land concentration and underuse. Farming systems based on agroecology can provide an alternative to these agroindustrial and largeestate approaches, while at...

  16. The Potential of Sustainable Agriculture for Climate Change Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Adrian; Niggli, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation in agriculture needs to be based on foru pillars: - Increasing soil fertility - Increasing biodiversity - Providing information and extension services to support sustainable agriculture practices and organic agriculture, agroecology and agroforestry - Geating a level playing field for sustainable agriculture at the gobal level. Organic agriculture is an ideal solution as it responds to the first three pillars. In addition, global policies, and trade and competition i...

  17. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, A.; M. H.A. Husni; C. B. S. Teh; Rafii, M. Y.; S. R. SYED OMAR; Ahmed, O. H.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of ...

  18. Organic farm conventionalisation and farmer practices in China, Brazil and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse, Myles; Høgh Jensen, Henning; Abreu, Lucimar S.; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca de; El-Araby, Ahmed; Hui, Qiao Yu; Sultan, Tursinbek; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Certified organic agriculture stipulates a range of principles and standards, which govern farmer practices. The recent global expansion of organic agriculture has raised new challenges for organic agriculture, particularly whether management practices in organic farms are subject to the forces of conventionalisation. We studied changes in agroecological practices in certified organic farms in China, Brazil and Egypt. The study takes departure in the conventionalisation hypothesis and the ana...

  19. Assessment of Potential Productivity of Tree Species in China, Mongolia and the Former Soviet Union: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; H.T. van Velthuizen; Prieler, S.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the term agro-ecological zones methodology (AEZ) has become widely used for global regional and national assessments of agricultural potentials. The AEZ methodologies and procedures have recently been extended and newly implemented to make use of the latest digital geographical databases, and to cope with the specific characteristics of seasonal temperate and boreal climates. This report presents details of a companion model of AEZ that enables assessments of ...

  20. Amélioration des systèmes de production mixtes en Afrique soudano-sahélienne. Rôle de l’espèce Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub. (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Camara, A; Dieng, A; Mergeai, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In Sudano-Sahelian Africa, the traditional farming systems are no longer able to meet the food needs of the population. In order to sustainably improve the food security of small family farms, agro-ecological practices are increasingly being promoted by research and development organizations. Literature. Several studies have shown that agricultural productivity can be sustainably improved through a better integration of agriculture and livestock activities. One approach currentl...

  1. Kvalita surovin pro výrobu piva

    OpenAIRE

    Souček, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The subject of the thesis "The quality of raw materials for beer production" is a quality brewing ingredients - barley malt, malt, hops, water and brewer's yeast. Individual ingredients are generally characterized. The main part of the thesis deals with the assessment of quality of raw materials according to various criteria such as the genetic basis, agroecological factors, and technological requirements. The paper also discusses the methods of measurement quality.

  2. Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Sadia; Awan Haroon; Khan Niazullah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. Methods A cl...

  3. Improving Technology Perception through Information and Education: A case of Biotechnology in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbenga Emmanuel Adekoya; Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in two states in Nigeria (Edo and Delta) as part of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Activities in the Niger Delta area of the south-western agro-ecological zone part of Nigeria. A workshop was organized for the sole purpose of presenting information on biotechnology as a discipline and as a necessary technology that can be safely adopted by even peasant farmers. Several areas of biotechnology such as biosafety,ethics, environmental and health safety w...

  4. The yield gap of major food crops in family agriculture in the tropics: Assessment and analysis through field surveys and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Affholder, F.; Poeydebat, C.; Corbeels, M; Scopel, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gaps of major food crops are wide under rainfed family agriculture in the tropics. Their magnitude and causes vary substantially across agro-ecological, demographic and market situations. Methods to assess yield gaps should cope with spatio-temporal variability of bio-physical conditions, management practices, and data scarcity under smallholder conditions. Particularly challenging is to determine the most relevant methods for estimating potential (Yp) and water-limited (Yw) yields agai...

  5. You can’t eat your mulch and have it too : cropping system design and tradeoffs around biomass use for Conservation Agriculture in Cameroon and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Naudin, K.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation agriculture is defined by three main principles: minimum soil   disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotations. CA is promoted as a   promising technology for Africa, but to date, only a small area under CA fully   complies with the above three principles. CA has both short and long term   effects on crop productivity and sustainability through the modification of various   agroecological functions. These functions are relat...

  6. Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Velthuizen, Harrij van

    2015-01-01

    This monograph is part of a series of reports that explain how techniques of spatial analysis can be used to investigate poverty and environment links worldwide. It combines rural population distribution data contained in the global rural population database for the year 2000 with methods and results of the "Global agro-ecological assessment for agriculture in the 21st century", in order to estimate the distribution of the world's rural population by agricultural suitability class, land-use c...

  7. REGULATION OF PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF CHICORY PLANTS BY FOLIAR APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    MAREK KOVÁR; IVAN ČERNÝ

    2012-01-01

    In this study were evaluated both the growth and yield potentials of three chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) varieties ('Fredonia Nova', 'Oesia' a 'Maurane') growing in natural agro-ecological conditions from 2006 to 2008. Regulation of the crop productivity by foliar application of biologically active substances (Atonik, Polybor 150, and Biafit Gold) was also studied. Evaluation of growth-production performance of chicory was realized as: leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic potentia...

  8. Vybrané fyzikální parametry hodnocení antropogenního zhutnění půd

    OpenAIRE

    Indrová, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is aimed at evaluation of anthropogenic changes in three selected subtypes of Chernozems. Object of study were -- Luvi-haplic Chernozem (Praha), Luvi-haplic Chernozem (Unčovice) and Calcaric Chernozem (Velešovice). We followed -- aggregates stability, texture, porosity, bulk density, total organic carbon content, soil reaction and buffering capacity. Results showed that studied heavy textured soils had high ability to pedocompaction. Agro-ecological limits were overstepped in ...

  9. Sėjamojo žirnio (Pisum sativum L.) grybinių ligų žalingumas, jų prevencija ir kontrolė

    OpenAIRE

    Česnulevičienė, Rūta

    2012-01-01

    Research objective and experimental tasks. The study was designed to explore the incidence and severity of root and foot rots and ascochyta blight in field pea crops and to identify the measures and practices for the prevention and control of the diseases caused by the pathogens of Ascochyta complex. Experimental tasks: - To identify the susceptibility of various field pea varieties to root and foot rots and ascochyta blight under different agro-ecological conditions. - To establish the effec...

  10. Can on-farm bioenergy production make organic farming more sustainable? - A model for energy balance, nitrogen losses, and green house gas emissions in a 1000 ha energy catchment with organic dairy farming and integrated bioenergy production

    OpenAIRE

    Pugesgaard, S.; T. Dalgaard; U. Jørgensen; Olesen, J.E.; Møller, H; Jensen, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    Can biogas and bioethanol production make organic farming more sustainable? - Results from a model for the fossil energy balance, Nitrogen losses, and greenhouse gas emissions in a 1000 ha energy catchment with organic dairy farming and integrated biogas and bioethanol production. Dalgaard T1, Pugesgaard S1, Jørgensen U1, Olesen JE1, Møller HB1 and Jensen ES2 1) Dept. Agroecology and Environment. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), University of Aarhus. DK-8830 Tjele. Denmark. ...

  11. Economic analysis of small scale organic farming in mid-range alpine context : a case study implemented at la Berthe Farm, Savoie, France

    OpenAIRE

    Barberoux, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    The future of agriculture is an essential issue for the next decades. One of the most sustainable answers to it is Agroecology. Collective farms developing organic small scale agriculture are a promising alternative to industrial agriculture for the young farmers. However, this kind of agriculture has to be economically viable. This thesis presents the economic analysis of small-scale organic vegetable production system in order to give a small contribution to the assessment of this alternati...

  12. Improved evaluation of cover crop species by growth and root factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bodner, G.; Himmelbauer, M.; W. Loiskandl; Kaul, H.-P.

    2010-01-01

    International audience Cover crops are plants that are integrated in the crop rotation between two cash crops. The main objectives of cover cropping are organic matter input, mitigation of nitrate leaching and reduction of soil erosion. These benefits will only be achieved efficiently if the selected cover crop species are adapted to local environmental conditions and appropriate for the defined agro-ecological target. Therefore, a main limitation in cover cropping is the lack of a compreh...

  13. The Effect of Social Capital on Fertilizer Adoption: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Isham

    2002-01-01

    Do the characterisitics of local social structures affect fertilizer adoption among rural households? This paper extends the model of technology adoption of Feder and Slade (1984) to incorporate social capital, and then tests the model with household data from two agro-ecological zones in rural Tanzania. Probit estimates of the model show that the probability of adoption of improved fertilizer in 1994-95 in the Central Plateau region in increasing in land under cultivation, cumulative adoptio...

  14. FINANCIAL AND RISK ANALYSIS OF MAIZE TECHNOLOGY IN ETHIOPIA, BASED ON CERES-MAIZE MODEL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Eric W.; Howard, Julie A.; Kelly, Valerie A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a financial and risk analysis of improved versus traditional maize production technology in Ethiopia, based on yields simulated with the CERES-Maize crop growth model (Schulthess and Ward, 2000). The purpose is to analyze the potential performance of the SG2000/Ministry of Agriculture program technology under less favorable meteorological conditions (rainfall level and distribution), and in areas with lower agroecological potential than those covered by the SG2000/MOA prog...

  15. Proceedings of the XI SEAE CONGRESS (SPANISH SOCIETY FOR ORGANIC FARMING)

    OpenAIRE

    Equipo Técnico , SEAE

    2014-01-01

    Organic production is based on agroecology, a science studying ecological farming systems from three dimensions: transdisciplinary knowledge, interdisciplinary agricultural practices and social movements. Their integration provides a way of generating collective action alternatives to the dominant food system. Since a bit more than a decade, the European civil society, the farmers and organic farmers movements have debated in discussion forums about the future of the agriculture, demanding...

  16. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  17. Européanisation, gouvernance territoriale et crise économique : les nouvelles dynamiques transfrontalières de l’économie sociale et solidaire en Pays basque

    OpenAIRE

    ITÇAINA, Xabier; Errotabehere, Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Basque border area represents a test case for the transformations of territorial governance and the structuring of alternative economic spaces. This paper is based on the qualitative analysis of 26 cross-border projects related to the social and solidarity-based economy (SSE), in distinct sectors (Basque language and culture, agroecology, fishing, media, women entrepreneurship, social integration and social services). The first hypothesis relates to the historica...

  18. Economic and Environmental Concerns in Philippine Upland Coconut Farms: An Analysis of Policy, Farming Systems and Socio-Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelita M. Pabuayon

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the farming and agroforestry systems in upland coconut-based farms and the policy and socio-economic issues in the cutting of coconut trees in the Philippines. In general, there is a lack of focus on the environmental and agro-ecological aspects of coconut-based farming and agroforestry systems (CBF/AFS) R&D and program initiatives. Nevertheless, earlier works provide recommendations that include soil conservation and the planting of perennials and forest ...

  19. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-...

  20. Integrated Water Resources Management, institutions and livelihoods under stress: bottom-up perspectives from Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mabiza, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of people in Limpopo river basin depend on rainfed agriculture. Unfortunately the Limpopo is water scarce, and parts of the basin such as the Mzingwane catchment are under stress in terms of agro-ecological and socio-politico-economic conditions. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has been adopted in the river basin in an attempt to improve water resources management. However, it is not known whether, or how, IWRM has improved practices in water resources management and...

  1. Drivers of household food availability in sub-Saharan Africa based on big data from small farms

    OpenAIRE

    Frelat, Romain; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Giller, K.E.; Herrero, Mario; Douxchamps, Sabine; Djurfeldt, Agnes Andersson; Erenstein, Olaf; Henderson, Ben; Kassie, Menale; Paul, B.K.; Rigolot, Cyrille; Ritzema, Randall S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Asten, van, A.C.; Wijk, van, C.

    2016-01-01

    We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of househol...

  2. Intensive Cultivation and Environment Use among the Matengo in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Masahiko

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the agro-ecological background of an intensive cultivation system called ngolo, which has been practiced for over 100 years among the Matengo people in southern Tanzania. The ngolo system is highly sustainable, as it both conserves soil and water and matures the soil; moreover, the high productivity of this system allows for a steady food supply to the Matengo. The other cropping systems in Matengo agriculture, which are closely related to ngolo, economically support far...

  3. Ecological Organic Agriculture in Africa: Researches done from 2002 to 2012 on Ecological Organic Agriculture in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Saidia, Paul Sabas; Chilagane, Emmanuel Amos; Maro, Janet Fares; Wostry, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A research was carried out to identify research works done from 2002 to 2012 on ecological organic agriculture in Tanzania. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. Ecological organic agriculture draws on agro-ecology that is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to design and manage ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to lo...

  4. Rhizosphere bacterial communities of potato cultivars evaluated through PCR-DGGE profiles Comunidades bacterianas associadas à rizosfera de cultivares de batata avaliadas por perfis de PCR-DGGE

    OpenAIRE

    Enderson Petrônio de Brito Ferreira; André Nepomuceno Dusi; Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier; Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the shifts on the PCR-DGGE profiles of bacterial communities associated to the rhizosphere of potato cultivars, in order to generate baseline information for further studies of environmental risk assessment of genetically modified potato plants. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with five potato cultivars (Achat, Bintje, Agata, Monalisa and Asterix), cultivated in pots containing soil from an integrated system for agroecological production. Th...

  5. Gargalos à Expansão da Produção e Comercialização do Algodão Agroecológico. O Caso de uma Associação de Produtores Familiares no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Zucatto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BOTTLENECKS TO THE EXPANSION OF PRODUCTIONAND COMMERCIALIZATION OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL COTTON:THE FAMILY FARMERS ASSOCIATION IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL CASEAbstractThis study aims to identify bottlenecks to the expansion of production and commercialization ofagro-ecological cotton produced by Family farmers in the Northeast of Brazil associated to the ADEC(Association for Educational and Cultural Development, Taua – Ceará. In conducting the study weobserved a qualitative approach in collecting data through interviews and the Web Pages of organiza-tions involved in this activity. As main results, the study suggests that buyers of Adec agroecologicalcotton are companies that make up the Justa Trama Network and Veja (French company that usesthe product for the production of shoes and clothing with fair trade appeals. There are evidencesthat the scale would constitute a relevant bottleneck for the expansion of production and marketingof this product. The production regularity, in the Adec, is strongly influenced by farmers turnover inagroecological cotton production, as well as climate issues. Already, the lack of formation for floatingcapital would be a major bottleneck for production financing. The price at the time of the data collection,was R$ 25.00 per arroba and watches since 2006. The main contribution of the study highlights theStrategy for Agroecology and Market Group, which is articulated as an innovative element in relationto the form of organization of agroecological cotton production and pricing for the same.

  6. Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro ecological zones of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Analice; Kimanya, Martin; Haesaert, Geert; Tiisekwa, Bendantuguka; Madege, Richard; Degraeve, Szanne; Cyprian, Cypriana; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    A survey was undertaken of a total of 120 farmers, 40 from each of the three studied agro-ecological zones of Tanzania, to determine local post-harvest management practices associated with aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FB) contamination of maize. Data on practices (collected using a structured questionnaire) and maize samples were obtained from each of the 120 farmers. FB and AF contamination in the samples were analysed by HPLC. A total of 45% and 85% of maize samples were positive for AF and FB respectively, with levels ranging from 0.1 to 269 μg kg(-1) for AF and from 49 to 18 273 μg kg(-1) for FBs. Significant differences in contamination level were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. Farmers in the three agro-ecological zones practised similar practices in varying degrees. Drying, sorting and protecting maize against insect infestation are practices that showed significant association with AF or FB contamination of maize. Drying maize on mat/raised platform, sorting (damaged, discoloured and moulded grains) and application of synthetic insecticides during storage are practices that were associated with less contamination of maize with AF and FB. The results can be used to advise on effective post-harvest strategies for prevention of AF and FB contamination of maize in rural Tanzania. PMID:26795400

  7. Characterization of family dairy farm in the north of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rocha Menezes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in the middle region of northern Minas Gerais state is the lowest in the state. However we noticed a considerable growth in recent years. It is important to conduct socioeconomic and generators technicians guiding information for the adoption of policy measures to boost production diagnostics. The aim of this study was to diagnose the production of milk in 30 family dairy farms in Juramento (15 and Montes Claros (15 city, Northern Minas Gerais; by a case study, semi-structured questionnaires that included information about general and sanitary handling, socio-economic characteristics and also surveyed the use of agro-ecological practices in milk production. A systemic approach was used in the application of questionnaires. Out of the 30 properties, 86% have the dairy activity as the main one, followed by 14% of mixed activities. They have low to average technology and most farmers have another source of income in addition to milk production. The absence of agro-ecological practices in the production process was observed in 100% of the properties. It was concluded that milk production in family farms is very widespread, and the main characteristics are of properties with general and sanitary handling problems; the socio-economic characteristics are of families with low to average income and dependent on the milk production to complement it. Regarding the agro-ecological practices, it can be concluded that they were rarely used in the properties surveyed.

  8. Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro ecological zones of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Analice; Kimanya, Martin; Haesaert, Geert; Tiisekwa, Bendantuguka; Madege, Richard; Degraeve, Szanne; Cyprian, Cypriana; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of a total of 120 farmers, 40 from each of the three studied agro-ecological zones of Tanzania, to determine local post-harvest management practices associated with aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FB) contamination of maize. Data on practices (collected using a structured questionnaire) and maize samples were obtained from each of the 120 farmers. FB and AF contamination in the samples were analysed by HPLC. A total of 45% and 85% of maize samples were positive for AF and FB respectively, with levels ranging from 0.1 to 269 μg kg(-1) for AF and from 49 to 18 273 μg kg(-1) for FBs. Significant differences in contamination level were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. Farmers in the three agro-ecological zones practised similar practices in varying degrees. Drying, sorting and protecting maize against insect infestation are practices that showed significant association with AF or FB contamination of maize. Drying maize on mat/raised platform, sorting (damaged, discoloured and moulded grains) and application of synthetic insecticides during storage are practices that were associated with less contamination of maize with AF and FB. The results can be used to advise on effective post-harvest strategies for prevention of AF and FB contamination of maize in rural Tanzania.

  9. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  10. Serum Progesterone and Estradiol-17β Profiles in Nili Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with and without Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi and Faiz-ul-Hassan1*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare serum hormone profiles (progesterone and estradiol-17β in buffaloes with dystocia and unassisted calving in three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy three buffaloes (n=173 with assisted (dystocia and unassisted calving (normal birth were sampled for study. The results showed that the buffaloes suffering with dystocia had significantly higher (P<0.05 mean serum progesterone level compared with those having normal calving. The comparison amongst the agro-ecological zones revealed that serum progesterone level of dystocia cases in buffaloes of northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared with those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone, whereas the latter two did not differ between each other. No difference was observed in serum progesterone levels in normal buffaloes when compared amongst three agro-ecological zones. The serum estradiol-17β profile showed a significant (P<0.05 lower level in buffaloes with dystocia as compared to those with normal calving. Mean serum estradiol-17β level in the buffaloes affected with dystocia in the northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone wherein the latter two did not differ between each other.

  11. Genetic assessment of maize landraces from former Yugoslavia

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    Ignjatović-Micić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 2217 landraces from former Yugoslavia region is maintained at Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje gene bank. All local varieties from the former Yugoslavia are classified into 18 groups. These agroecological groups encompass early introduced flint types grown on small and isolated areas, later introduced dent types that spread on wide areas of crop production and types created through hybridization between these two kernel types. The objective of this research was to study population structure, genetic diversity and relationships of nine flint and nine dent accessions belonging to different agro-ecological groups using phenotypic and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The 18 analyzed landraces displayed great variation for most analyzed traits, but flint landraces were more diverse. Ten SSR probes revealed total of 56 and 62 alleles in flint and dent landraces, respectively. Eight specific alleles (i.e. alleles found only in one landrace or only within flint, i.e. dent landraces were detected with five probes. One specific allele was found in flint and seven alleles in dent landraces. These differences in allele structure point to different origins and possibly different purposes of flint and dent genotypes. Both phenotypic and SSR analyses could distinguish most flint and dent landraces, but not agro-ecological groups. The results revealed a significant genetic heterogeneity indicating that the analyzed landraces could be valuable sources of genetic variability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31028: Exploitation of maize diversity to improve grain quality and drought tolerance

  12. PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS AND FARMERS’ CULTIVAR PREFERENCE CRITERIA OF CULTIVATED YAMS (DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS - D. ROTUNDATA COMPLEX IN TOGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansi A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty (50 villages randomly selected throughout agroecological zones in Togo were surveyed, using participatory approach, to identify and prioritize factors that affect production and farmers’ varietal preference criteria of Guinea yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex. A total of nineteen (19 constraints of varying importance across agro-ecological zones were identified among which the most important were insects’ damages on both leaves and tubers, nematodes attack on tubers, drought, soil poverty and wilting. For the majority (78.94% of the constraints, the use of tolerant cultivars remains the most sustainable, economically profitable and environment preservative solution. Farmers’ cultivar preference criteria identified are many (24 in total. Among them, high productivity, good quality of pounded yam, resistance to drought and adaptability to all types of soils are the most important. A perfect match is noted between enumerated constraints and identified preference criteria. The knowledge of farmers’ selection criteria is of capital importance for breeders and also extension services for eventual yam cultivar exchange between agroecological zones in Togo.

  13. Expanding Red Clover (Trifolium pratense Usage in the Corn–Soy–Wheat Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Wyngaarden

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A common agronomic recommendation is under-seeding red clover to wheat in the corn–soy–wheat rotation. As a leguminous cover crop, red clover boosts agro-ecological resilience and productivity through nitrogen fixation, as well as non-nitrogen-related contributions, such as soil temperature and moisture regulation; reduction of erosion, runoff, and leaching; weed suppression; and interruption of pest and disease cycles. The objective of this paper is to propose a system that extends red clover usage into the corn phase of the corn–soy–wheat rotation as a living mulch. The system incorporates strip-tillage, strip-mowing, as well as banded herbicide and fertilizer application in order to maximize productivity and minimize competition. We analyzed the feasibility of this proposal by examining red clover’s adequacy for the proposed system in comparison with other broadleaf, leguminous cover crops, and assessed potential agro-ecological benefits. We considered logistical components of the proposition, including the use of strip-tillage, the application of precision technology, as well as the opportunity for further technological developments. We found that the proposed system has potential to increase agro-ecological sustainability, resilience, and the overall productivity of this three-year rotation. Thus, this easily-implemented practice should be formally studied.

  14. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  15. Agrobiodiversidad y manejo agroecológico de plagas en fincas de la Agricultura Suburbana en el municipio Camagüey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Rodríguez Saldañas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La agricultura suburbana constituye un enfoque tecnológico novedoso para la producción de alimentos, cuyo objetivo fundamental es contribuir al incremento y la sostenibilidad de la seguridad alimentaria, facilitando la adopción de alternativas Agroecológica en las estrategias de desarrollo agrario municipal mediante un proceso de articulación agroecológica entre todos los componentes del sistema alimentario. Partiendo de estas premisas y como base para la aplicación del manejo agroecológico de plagas teniendo en cuenta la diversidad biológica de las unidades productivas, se evaluó el nivel tecnológico de 24 fincas del municipio Camagüey, mediante un diagnóstico participativo de la biodiversidad, que nos permitió trazar líneas de trabajo para avanzar en esta dirección. En un inicio el grado de complejidad de las fincas clasifico como poco complejo, nivel tecnológico que logro elevarse en el transcurso de un año mediante un proceso de reconversión del agroecosistema, a medianamente complejo con la aplicación de prácticas agroecológicas que diversificaron el hábitat de las mismas. Estos resultados permitieron incrementar los rendimientos en diferentes cultivos al minimizar las afectaciones por plagas, aumentar la relación presa-depredador y proteger el ecosistema con la aceptación por los agricultores de las tecnologías propuestas. Se logró aumentar los beneficios económicos de las familias por el aumento de los rendimientos y una mayor oferta de productos, a la vez que diversificaron el ecosistema y obtuvieron producciones más limpias con una mejora del medioambiente y la salud humana. Agrobiodiversity and agro-ecological pest management in Suburban farms Agriculture in Camagüey municipality ABSTRACT The suburban agriculture is a novel technological approach to food production, whose main objective is to help increase sustainability and food security, facilitating the adoption of agroecological alternatives in

  16. Zoning Rural Area For The Development Of Annual Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One strategy to protect land from degradation is to use the land according to their capability. Zoning of commodities is an effort in that direction and determination of commodities is based on the suitability of land with agronomic needs of crops and farming feasibility analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the development zone of annual crops, based on the analysis of agro-ecological characteristics and agricultural viability. Analysis of land suitability for the cultivation of coffee, vanilla, pepper, cocoa, banana, durian, mango, and melinjo, found that land can be recommended for the development of the annual crops is about 29,230 ha from an area of 54,764 ha. The land was divided into six agro-ecological zones i.e. two zones at area with land slope of 3- 8%, each covering an area of 2,737 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m above sea level (asl, and 12,008 ha at an altitude of 50-300 m asl, the two zone at area with land slope of 8-15%, each covering 6119 ha at an altitude of 25-250 m asl and 1,221 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m asl, and two zones at area with land slope of 16-40% , each covering an area of 1,101 ha at an altitude of 400-700 m asl, and 6,134 ha at an altitude of 400-500 m asl. The soil types found are Typic /Vitrandic Eutrudepts, Typic Hapludands, and Vitrandic Hapludalfs. This study recommends that the banana is a perennial plant with the most potential to be developed and has good economic prospects in almost all agro-ecological zones. Other commodities are also preferred, coffee and vanilla.

  17. Biomass estimation to support pasture management in Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schucknecht, A.; Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Boureima, A.

    2015-04-01

    Livestock plays a central economic role in Niger, but it is highly vulnerable due to the high inter-annual variability of rain and hence pasture production. This study aims to develop an approach for mapping pasture biomass production to support activities of the Niger Ministry of Livestock for effective pasture management. Our approach utilises the observed spatiotemporal variability of biomass production to build a predictive model based on ground and remote sensing data for the period 1998-2012. Measured biomass (63 sites) at the end of the growing season was used for the model parameterisation. The seasonal cumulative Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (CFAPAR), calculated from 10-day image composites of SPOT-VEGETATION FAPAR, was computed as a phenology-tuned proxy of biomass production. A linear regression model was tested aggregating field data at different levels (global, department, agro-ecological zone, and intersection of agro-ecological and department units) and subjected to a cross validation (cv) by leaving one full year out. An increased complexity (i.e. spatial detail) of the model increased the estimation performances indicating the potential relevance of additional and spatially heterogeneous agro-ecological characteristics for the relationship between herbaceous biomass at the end of the season and CFAPAR. The model using the department aggregation yielded the best trade-off between model complexity and predictive power (R2 = 0.55, R2cv = 0.48). The proposed approach can be used to timely produce maps of estimated biomass at the end of the growing season before ground point measurements are made available.

  18. Response of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., to method and rate of cattle kraal manure application at Kadawa and Samaru in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Ahmed Manga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted between June and October 2010 wet season at two different locations. The first was at the Horticultural Research Garden of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR, Samaru in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone and the second experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Irrigation Research Sub-Station (IRS, Kadawa in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone also of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria to evaluate the response of grain amaranth growth and green edible vegetable yield components to three methods of cattle kraal manure application (broadcasting, side banding and spot placement incorporated and five rates of cattle kraal manure application (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1, using the variety ‘Pure branch’. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD and replicated three times. Cattle kraal manure application rates significantly (p > 0.05 increased growth of green edible vegetable yield characters of grain amaranth except stem girth at Samaru. Growth and green edible vegetable yield characters were generally not influenced by methods of cattle kraal manure application except for plant height, number of leaves per plant at 12 WAT at Samaru, and plant fresh weight at 12 WAT at Kadawa and dry weight at 4 and 12 WAT at Samaru and 12 WAT at Kadawa. Application of cattle kraal manure of 10 t ha-1 to Amaranthus cruenthus gave the highest mean values which were comparable to those of 15 and 20 t ha-1 rates for all the characters measured such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights. Thus, the finding suggests that 10 t ha-1 should be recommended to farmers growing Amaranthus in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savanna of Nigerian agro-ecologies.

  19. Effects of Growth Environment and Ulking Rate on Cyanogenic Potential of Cassava Tuerous Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various abiotic factors affect the pattern of growth and accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plants. Five cassava genotypes were planted in a wet and a dry agro-ecological zone and analyzed at 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after planting for tuberous root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential. Cassava plants at Ibadan (the wetter zone) had higher tuberous roots bulking rate and lower cynogenic potential than those planted at Minjibir (the drier zone). Root bulking rate at Ibadan increased from 4 to 6 months after planting, fell to 10 months, and then levelled off thereafter. At Majorana, bulking rate increased from 4 to 6 months, levelling off u pto 8 months after planting, and then falling slightly u pto to 10 months, and rising gradually u pto 12 months after planting. At Minijibir, the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Similarly, at Ibadan the 6-8 months after planting period coincided with drought and the highest root bulking rate but increasing cyanogenic potential. Despite the onset of drought, bulking continued up to 8 months after planting, falling u pto 10 months and levelling off thereafter at both agro-ecological zones. However, whereas cyanogenic potential rose rapidly after 8 months to peak at 10 months, and levelling off up to 12 months at Minjibir, cyanogenic potential levelled of after 8 u pto 12 months at Ibadan. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that root bulking rate and cyanogenic potential were negatively associated, meaning that an increase in root bulking rate would lead to corresponding decrease in it's cyanogenic potential which is highly desirable. This study has demonstrated that whereas the plant age and genotypic effects are not important factors in determining tuberous roots bulking rate and cyanogenic potential of cassava, the agro-ecological zone effect is an important factor in determining them

  20. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultural production. Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification. However, while there are many fallow-season and perennial crops that might be used in such a “bioeconomic” strategy for diversification, most are not yet well adapted and highly-marketable. Efforts are underway to enhance adaptation and marketability of many such crops. Critically, these efforts require a strategic approach that addresses the inherent complexity of these projects. We outline a suitable approach, which we term “sustainable commercialization”: a coordinated innovation process that integrates a new crop into the agriculture of a region, while intentionally addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability challenges via multi-stakeholder governance. This approach centers on a concerted effort to coordinate and govern innovation in three critical areas: germplasm development, multifunctional agroecosystem design and management, and development of end uses, supply chains, and markets. To exemplify the approach, we describe an ongoing effort to commercialize a new fallow-season crop, field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L..

  1. Effect of land-use types on soil enzymatic activities and chemical properties in semi-deciduous forest areas of Central-West Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnety, JT.; Assémien, EFL.; Guéi, AM.; N'Dri, AA.; Djina, Y.; Koné, AW.; Tondoh, JE.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic activities play a key role in the biochemical functioning of soils. As a consequence, they have been proposed as indicators of soil quality. This study was conducted at the Oumé benchmark site (Central-West, Côte d'Ivoire), and aimed at measuring the enzymatic activities involved in the phosphorus (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase), nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase) and carbon (β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase) cycles. Soil from four main agro-ecological...

  2. Research on Novel Pattern of Agricultural Economy based on Accurate Information Management System: A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang; Mengyan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural development in the less developed districts is a big challenge as they are resource poor regions and crops are grown under more risky agro-ecological conditions. In this paper, we conduct research on novel pattern of agricultural economy based on accurate information management system. Agricultural information is the agriculture prenatal, during and aider the information process, mainly to solve the problems in the development of agricultural production. Rural information includes rural economic information, rural management and related information, rural information culture and the rural social service information. Our system modifies the efficiency of managing materials which will largely enhance the economical result for the agricultural activities.

  3. AGRICULTURA CAMPONESA E PRÁTICAS (AGRO)ECOLÓGICAS. ABORDAGEM TERRITORIAL HISTÓRICO-CRÍTICA, RELACIONAL E PLURIDIMENSIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Aurelio Saquet

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo, se pretende demostrar la posibilidad de comprender la agricultura campesina e las prácticas (agro)ecológicas a través de un enfoque territorial histórico-crítico, pluridimensional y relacional. Esta concepción se centra en la relación espacio-tiempo-territorio, en la pluralidad de elementos y procesos efectuados en diferentes niveles escalares. Inicialmente, presentamos nuestro entendimiento de la agroecología y de la agricultura campesina, seguido de una síntesis del abordaj...

  4. EFEITOS DOS SISTEMAS DE CULTIVO E MANEJO DA CAATINGA ATRAVÉS DA ANÁLISE DOS INDICADORES QUIMICOS DE QUALIDADE DO SOLO NA PRODUÇÃO AGRÍCOLA EM APODI, RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANIERE BARBOSA DE LIRA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable management of savanna reduces the devastation of semiarid and aims based agricultural guided by systematic principles of agroecology. In that connection we evaluated the effects of cropping systems and management of savanna through the analysis of chemical indicators of soil quality in agricultural production in Apodi, RN. . The systems were evaluated: 1 - management area of savanna with 5 (five years (MAS5, 2 - management area of savanna with 7 (seven years (MAS7, 3 - conventional system (CSA and 4 - native forest (NF. The chemical analysis revealed that the management of savanna for five to seven years is a beneficial way contributed to conservation of soil.

  5. METHODS OF CALCULATING THE EMISSIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM PIG MANURE WASTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to systemize the data and to develop a methodology for a reliable evaluation of the nitrogen emissions and other ecological pollutants from pig manure wastes in the Republic of Bulgaria. The authors find the suggested methodology to be precise enough and easy to be managed as it combines the use of the available official statistical sources and the possibility of its integration into comparatively popular software products (EXCEL. The methodology could be taught in practical seminars for students and specialists in the area of agroecology.

  6. Navigation as a New Form of Search for Agricultural Learning Resources in Semantic Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Ramiro; Abián, Alberto; Mena, Elena

    Education is essential when it comes to raise public awareness on the environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture and agroecology (OA & AE). Organic.Edunet, an EU funded project, aims at providing a freely-available portal where learning contents on OA & AE can be published and accessed through specialized technologies. This paper describes a novel mechanism for providing semantic capabilities (such as semantic navigational queries) to an arbitrary set of agricultural learning resources, in the context of the Organic.Edunet initiative.

  7. Rancho Grande, Valle Nacional; Oaxaca: el perfil metabólico de una comunidad indígena en México

    OpenAIRE

    López García, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    En su versión más sencilla, la agroecología pretende proporcionar el cúmulo de conocimientos, abarcando tanto las ciencias naturales, sociales y económicas; enfatizando los principios ecológicos que hagan posible una apropiación, transformación y distribución de los recursos naturales para obtener alimentos, así como el flujo total de energía y materiales desde sus fuentes. Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la comunidad indígena chinanteca de Rancho Grande en Valle Nacional, Oaxa...

  8. Organic farming and social capital building in small holder farmer communities in the Rwenzori region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibasiima, Thaddeo; Nalunga, Jane; Vaarst, Mette;

    uniqueness. The approach also promotes whole household participation. The facilitator who basically guides the learning stirs farmers into developing confidence within and among themselves in the organic production processes, using agro-ecological farming methods and practices which are economically...... learning garden and learning involves the growth cycle of the enterprise in question, the FFLG approach considers each farm as being unique and as a special learning entity. The approach therefore, involves farmers rotating from one farm to another to learn and support the particular farm in respect to its...

  9. The relative importance of crop pests in sub-Saharan Africa (NRI Bulletin No. 36)

    OpenAIRE

    Geddes, A.M.W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative economic importance of insect-vectored plant diseases and other pests (harmful organisms) in each farming system of sub-Saharan Africa. The first steps were to divide sub-Saharan Africa into ten agro-ecological zones and list the major and secondary crops in each zone (Fig. 4, fold out map, and Tables 3 to 6). Through study of the literature and consultation with experts in UK and Africa, pests in each zone were then assigned to ranks indicatin...

  10. Sustainable Agriculture and Innovation Adoption in a Tropical Small-Scale Food Production System: The Case of Yam Minisetts in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton L. Beckford

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Grown in Jamaica since the days of slavery, food yams are major staples in local diets and a significant non-traditional export crop. The cultivation system used today is the same as 300 years ago, with alleged unsustainable practices. A new cultivation system called minisett was introduced in 1985 but the adoption rate twenty four years later is extremely low. This paper analyzes the prospects for the widespread adoption of minisett and sustainable yam cultivation and advocates that greater use be made of farmers’ extensive knowledge of the complex agro-ecological, socio-cultural and economic milieu in which they operate.

  11. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog.) COMPONENTS FOR SHELF LIFE STUDY AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE COMPONENTES DO BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog.) PARA ESTUDO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Caliari; Aline Luiz de Mendonça; Aline Medeiros Alves; Raquel de Andrade Cardoso-Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Agroecology, a science that studies productive relations between man and nature, and whose goal is ecological, economic, social, cultural, political, an...

  12. Territorial planning that is reflected in ecoturism in the Province of Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOS ONEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At the local level to search for potential resources could effectively capitalize. This is in addition to a set of rules that facilitate cooperation with EU institutions, consulting specialists and rural centers. The agro-ecological pattern into province of Córdoba became a real and effective alternative to destructuring the agricultural landscape of the autonomous region of Andalusia. In the case study Alojamiento Rural Yanem Centro Educatión Medioambiental in ecological agro-tourism practices relating to accommodation, food and environmental space are applied using ground and green building techniques. Constructions are based on bioclimatic and organic materials are used for this.

  13. Evaluación de la sustentabilidad de un proceso de transición agroecológica en sistemas de producción hortícolas familiares del partido de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Claudia C.; Sarandón, Santiago J.

    2015-01-01

    Según la Agroecología, la sustentabilidad se alcanza a través de un proceso de transición que racionalice la utilización de los recursos e incluya a los agricultores en la generación de tecnologías. Una de las principales dificultades para avanzar en la transición es la falta de metodologías para evaluar si estos procesos están conduciendo a un incremento de la sustentabilidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar, a través del uso de indicadores desarrollados para tal fin, los cambios ope...

  14. Managing technical-institutional design processes: some strategic lessons from environmental co-operatives in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Roep, D.; Ploeg, van der, J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the case of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA is reviewed in terms of coevolving technical and institutional change and the strategic lessons to be learned for a pro-active management of such complex technical-institutional design processes. Facing the many-sided crisis in agriculture the two co-operatives developed a radically different approach. The aim is to re-ground agriculture in local agro-ecological processes following the approach of lowering external inputs...

  15. Economics of a decision-support system for managing the main fungal diseases of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    El Jarroudi, Moussa; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco; Junk, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Lucien; Tychon, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; Bock, Clive; Delfosse, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rusts and Fusarium head blight) of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL). The study was conducted in replicated field experiments located in four agricultural locations (representative of the main agro-ecological regions of the country) over a 10-year period (2003-2012). T...

  16. Instalación de sistemas de silvopastoreo con productores ganaderos de Colonia Gestido (Uruguay)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Sergio; Galván, Guillermo A.

    2012-01-01

    Ubicada al norte de Uruguay la Colonia Gestido ocupa 3000 hectáreas, distribuidas en 55 predios dedicados a cultivos y frutales diversificadas con ganadería y lechería. Enmarcado en una tesis del Doctorado en Agroecología (Colombia), este trabajo define como problema “el pobre desempeño global de estos sistemas productivos” dado entre otros aspectos por una “inadecuada integración animal-vegetal” y “escasa presencia de árboles y arbustos multipropósito”. Para levantar estas res...

  17. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  18. Las memorias y los silencios en la redefinición de lo campesino. La configuración de un modelo alternativo de desarrollo en la región tabacalera de Nayarit, México

    OpenAIRE

    Madera Pacheco, Jesús Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Para el estudio acerca de la redefinición y reproducción de lo campesino, desde la agroecología, es de fundamental importancia considerar las categorías de unidad doméstica, agroescosistema y economía campesina, las cuales constituyen el ámbito inmediato en que las estrategias de reproducción social adoptadas por el campesinado, en un momento y lugar determinado, son desarrolladas. Al mismo tiempo, estas tres categorías constituyen los principales centros de socialización del saber ser y s...

  19. Climate Change and Potato Production in Contrasting South African Agro-Ecosystems 3. Effects on Relative Development Rates of Selected Pathogens and Pests

    OpenAIRE

    Waals, van der, J.H.; K. Krüger; Franke, A. C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A set of daily weather data simulations for 1961 to 2050 were used to calculate past and future trends in pest and disease pressure in potato cropping systems at three agro-ecologically distinct sites in South Africa: the Sandveld, the Eastern Free State and Limpopo. The diseases and pests modelled were late blight, early blight and brown spot, blackleg and soft rot, root-knot nematodes and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (as indicator of Potato virus Y and Potato leaf roll virus). The ...

  20. Mineralogy of dust deposited during the Harmattan season in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Changling; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Awadzi, Theodore W.

    2007-01-01

    In Ghana, a dust-laden Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara in the period November to March. Some of the dust is trapped in the vegetation, in lakes and other inland waters, and a little on the bare land, whereas the rest of the dust is blown further away to the Ivory Coast or out into the Atlantic...... Ocean. In this project, we studied samples of dust and topsoils in various agroecological zones, from the north to the south of Ghana, focussing mainly on the mineralogy of these materials. Some data about grain sizes and morphology of the samples are also presented. Feldspars, together with quartz...

  1. Improving the evidence for ecosystem-based adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah

    2011-11-15

    Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EBA) integrate the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall strategy for helping people adapt to climate change. The body of scientific evidence that indicates how effective they are is in some cases lacking but in other cases is dispersed across a range of related fields, such as natural resource management, disaster risk reduction and agroecology, from which it needs to be synthesised. Without presenting and strengthening this evidence in a consolidated way, EBA cannot secure the policy traction at local, national and international levels that it merits.

  2. Seasonal Dynamics and Distribution of Ticks in Rwanda: Implications for Tick Control Strategy in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Mutandwa; Nshimiyimana Juvenal

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to examine the dynamics and seasonal distribution of tick species in Rwanda in three agro-ecological zones namely high altitude (Gishwati), the mid altitude (Huye) and the lower altitude zones (Nyagatare). Ten cows per zone were identified and used for collecting ticks m onthly on a period covering the short dry season and long rainy season from December 2002 to June 2003. These animals were not treated and remained on pasture land. The results revealed t...

  3. Ecological estimation of the soils good for grape in Ganja-Gazakh zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary agricultural science improved the known adaptive approaches in the past, for it accounting natural peccularities of the concrete region is offered with the assistance of agroecological estimation of soil. Using of collecting materials of the soil ecological parameters of soil cover of the studing territory and applying the system of the private scales of the soil estimation on degree of display of their separate signs, the ecological estimation of the soils good for grape in Ganja-Gazakh zone where the highest ecological markshave been got mountain-grey-brown dark (97 marks) and grey-brown dark (96 marks) soils has been carried out

  4. Asociación de Productores Ecológicos de la Región Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    APERC, APERC

    2013-01-01

    Somos una organización que agrupa a pequeños productores, transformadores y comercializadores de productos ecológicos de las diferentes provincias de la región Cajamarca. La APER Cajamarca es base regional y fundadora de Asociación Nacional de Productores Ecológicos del Perú (ANPE Perú), iniciativa de un conjunto de organizaciones de productores ecológicos organizados con la finalidad de unir esfuerzos en torno a una propuesta de desarrollo nacional basada en la agroecología.

  5. ESCUELAS DE AGROECOLOGIA EN COLOMBIA LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO AGROECOLÓGICO EN MANOS CAMPESINAS

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Osorio, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Durante más de 3 décadas en Colombia, varias ONG´s han impulsado el movimiento ambientalista y agroecológico, desarrollando importantes acciones de formación en el ámbito de la sociedad civil. En este proceso ha sido fundamental el aporte del conocimiento tradicional campesino, indígena y afro colombiano que, unido a los principios de la agroecología, la educación popular y ambientalismo, han permitido importantes procesos de transformación rural en Colombia. Se estudian más de 20 experiencia...

  6. Emergy Analysis of Agro-ecosystem in Poyang Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using emergy analysis theory and methods, we conduct quantitative analysis on the input and output of emergy, and sustainable development of agro-ecological system in Poyang Lake Area. The results show that compared with the national average, the environmental loading ratio is relatively low in this area; the net emergy yield rate is high; the sustainable development ability is strong. Finally according to the results of emergy analysis, corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: develop agriculture based on the existing rich natural resources; increase technological inputs; develop circular agriculture; promote sustainable agricultural development.

  7. Aproximación al trabajo participativo en sistemas de producción orgánica campesina en el Municipio de Fusagasugá

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, Mayerly; Jiménez, María; Escobar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente se ve la gran importancia de implementar e incentivar la agroecología en las prácticas agropecuarias a nivel mundial pues ésta, es una ciencia que permite la conversión de sistemas convencionales de producción a sistemas más diversificados y autosuficientes. Toda esta reflexión e investigación al respecto se ha generado a partir de los resultados ambientales, sociales y económicos que ha dejado la producción convencional en el mundo, que se impulsó desde la revolución verde, y ...

  8. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology. PMID:25058832

  9. La diversidad de los agroecosistemas

    OpenAIRE

    F. X. Sans

    2007-01-01

    La diversidad de los agroecosistemas. El artículo analiza el efecto de la intensificación de las actividades agrícolas sobre el funcionamiento de los agroecosistemas y destaca la necesidad de incorporar las bases científicas y los modelos de gestión de la agroecología que permitan armonizar la producción agraria, la conservación de los recursos naturales y el desarrollo rural. Se discute la importancia de la diversidad en el funcionamiento de los agroecosistemas y la necesidad de ide...

  10. Siltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river tha...

  11. Commercial agriculture and territorial resistance: Analysis of urban-rural relations in the province of Azuay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Rebai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian province of Azuay, agro-ecology seems to signal towards the rebirth of family agriculture in a context of regional migration. Given changes in land usage and the improvement of peasant economies, we envisage a profound mutation in the rural landscape of Azuay. Notwithstanding, in lieu of a true model of territorial rural development, the term territorial resistance is used as weak regional commercial networks do not allow an adequate integration of a majority of peasants, evidencing the need for a more ambitious vision that takes into account the close ties between rural and urban areas, to assist the insertion of poor peasant farmers into commercial agriculture.

  12. NUEVO REGISTRO DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE Atelopus spumarius Cope, 1871 (ANURA: BUFONIDAE) PARA ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Bilbao, Gabriel; Martin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The Atelopus spumarius species, also known as Amazonian Arlequin was registered in the equatorial amazon. Through several censuses carried out in February and August 2011, two records of the Atelopus spumarius species were found at the Fatima Agroecological Research Station (ECAF), in the Pastaza Province. These records allow us to widen the range of distribution from 600 m.a.s.l to 950 m.a.s.l. and confirm the presence of this species, which according to data provided on the International Un...

  13. Promoting Cassava as an Industrial Crop in Ghana: Effects on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Owuraku Sakyi-Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is an important starchy staple crop in Ghana with per capita consumption of 152.9 kg/year. Besides being a staple food crop, cassava can be used as raw material for the production of industrial starch and ethanol. The potential of cassava as an industrial commercial crop has not been exploited to a large extent because of perceptions that cassava depletes soils. Recent finding from field studies in the forest/savannah transitional agroecological zone of Ghana indicates that when integ...

  14. The impact of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty in Zambia:

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; DIAO, Xinshen

    2009-01-01

    "We combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. The hydro-crop model is first used to estimate the impact of climate variability on crop yields over the past three decades and such analysis is done at the crop level for each of Zambia's five agroecological zones, supported by the identification of zonal-level extreme weather events using a drought index a...

  15. 农田镉污染的危害及其修复治理方法%Damage of Cd Pollution in Farmland and Its Restoration Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇

    2015-01-01

    Damage and current situation of Cd pollution in farmland soil were introduced. Two restoration methodshas been applied widely, which were chemical method and agro-ecological restoration method.%文章阐述了土壤中的镉污染的危害、我国农田镉污染的现状及其在农业上应用较广的修复土壤镉污染的两种方法:化学法和农业生态修复法。

  16. The importance of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in rural West African subsistence--suggestion of a cautionary approach to international market export of baobab fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Christine; Prehsler, Sarah; Hartl, Anna; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission recently authorized the import of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp as a novel food. In rural West Africa the multipurpose baobab is used extensively for subsistence. Three hundred traditional uses of the baobab were documented in Benin, Mali, and Senegal across 11 ethnic groups and 4 agroecological zones. Baobab fruits and leaves are consumed throughout the year. The export of baobab fruits could negatively influence livelihoods, including reduced nutritional intake, change of power relations, and access rights. Capacity building and certification could encourage a sustainable and ethical trade of baobab fruits without neglecting baobab use in subsistence.

  17. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model.

  18. Challenges for Crop Production Research in Improving Land Use, Productivity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huub Spiertz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for food, feed, and feedstocks for bioenergy and biofactory plants will increase proportionally due to population growth, prosperity, and bioeconomic growth. Securing food supply and meeting demand for biomass will involve many biological and agro-ecological aspects such as genetic plant improvement, sustainable land use, water-saving irrigation, and integrated nutrient management as well as control of pests, diseases and weeds. It will be necessary to raise biomass production and economic yield per unit of land—not only under optimum growing conditions, but even more under conditions constrained by climate, water availability, and soil quality. Most of the advanced agronomic research by national and international research institutes is dedicated to the major food crops: maize, rice, wheat, and potato. However, research on crops grown as feedstock, for bio-energy and industrial use under conditions with biophysical constraints, is lagging behind. Global and regional assessments of the potential for growing crops are mostly based on model and explorative studies under optimum conditions, or with either water or nitrogen deficiencies. More investments in combined experimental and modeling research are needed to develop and evaluate new crops and cropping systems under a wide range of agro-ecological conditions. An integral assessment of the biophysical production capacity and the impact on resource use, biodiversity and socio-economic factors should be carried out before launching large-scale crop production systems in marginal environments.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL VIABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ADOPTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves de Souto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The agroecology represents a new focus to the study and management of alternative agricultural systems, andhas offered a theoretical framework whose purpose is to analyze the agricultural processes widely, in otherwords, see agriculture from a systemic approach, highlighting the sustainability inherent to the natural cycles andbiological interactions. Alternative practices of agricultural management has been recently adopted by familyfarmers in Lagoa Seca city - PB, aiming to protect the environment from the intense degrading actions of theconventional agriculture, as well as to improve the farmers life quality. This way, this study aims to identify theagroecological practices which have been adopted by the family farmers in different transition stages,highlighting the local experiences which were experienced and its environmental viability to the region,considering the agroecology principles as a steering mechanism and determinant for such analysis. Therefore,this study has been performed through a based questionnaire, observation in loco and the application of a semistructured interview. The obtained data through this research have revealed that the adopted practices byagroecological farmers from Lagoa Seca have provided the soil, water and local biota conservation, ensuring themaintenance in long term of these natural resources to the current and future generations, besides to promote anincrease in the life quality of the farmers and their families.

  20. Procesos agroecológicos, en Ventaquemada Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gracía

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La agroecología se debe entender como la interacción de factorespolíticos, sociales, culturales, económicos, medio ambientales, educativos y tecnológicos, así como de los procesos productivos que trazan el derrotero en el desarrollo de los pueblos. Mientras que la agricultura convencional estableció parámetros diferentesde producción, que alejaron la actividad agropecuaria del concepto de agroecología y la convirtieron en un negocio donde el deterioro de los recursos naturales es consecuencia del proceso productivo. De esta manera el presente trabajo busca identificar y analizar los contextos agroecológicos sucedidos en la vereda Supatá en Ventaquemada – Boyacá, que han influido en las familias. Para esto se establecieron como técnicas y herramientas la consulta dedocumentos estadísticos, talleres participativos, matriz (Dofa, mapeo, mapa de redes, matriz de plan acción, entrevistas semiestructuradas, observación no participante y diarios de campo. Así, se pudo establecer que las actividades agrícolas marcan el comportamiento de las personas, dejando notar que la agricultura de revolución verde, propuesta como proceso agroindustrial, promueve el individualismo a partir del monocultivo.