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Sample records for agro based waste

  1. Biophenols from agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, P; Alam, M Z; Suhani, F

    2008-07-01

    Large quantities of agro-based liquid wastes are produced every year and their disposal is often a problem for industries. In light of that, in this study prudent effort was done to screen the agro-industrial wastes - pineapple waste (PAW) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) for valuable biophenols product. Three different solvents; ethanol, acetone and distilled water were screened in order to enhance the process. All experiments were performed using fixed process conditions of solid to solvent ratio, temperatures, time and agitation speed. Effectiveness of extraction process to produce biophenol was based on high amount with more activity. POME was selected as potential source with biophenol content of 125.42 mg/L GAE. PMID:19025008

  2. Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

    2013-11-01

    Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

  3. Biochemical Methane Potential of Agro Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya Prabhudessai; Anasuya Ganguly; Srikanth Mutnuri

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our work is on anaerobic digestion of locally available agro wastes like coconut oil cake, cashew apple waste, and grass from lawn cuttings. The most productive agro waste, in terms of methane yield, was coconut oil cake and grass. The results showed that the initial volatile solids concentration significantly affected the biogas production. The methane yield from coconut oil cake was found to be 383 ml CH4/g VS and 277 ml CH4/g VS added at 4 and 4.5 g VS/l. In case of grass the...

  4. Bio-synthesis of citric acid from single and co-culture-based fermentation technology using agro-wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Rafaqat Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agro-based materials are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially relevant value-added products. Therefore, in the present study, solid state fermentation (SSF was carried out using agro-based waste materials (apple pomace, peanut shell and a mixture of both apple pomace and peanut shell with 50:50 ratio as carriers/support for SSF to enhance citric acid production from single and co-culture consortia of Aspergillus ornatus and Alternaria alternata. During initial screening trial it was observed that growth media supplemented with apple pomace under SSF process of co-culture consortia presenting the preeminent 0.46 ± 0.42 mg/mL of citric acid. On partial optimization co-culture showed the maximum citric acid yield (2.644 ± 0.99 mg/mL in the presence of arginine as a nutritional ingredient at 30 °C in an apple pomace based medium at 50% moisture content with pH of 5 and substrate concentration (25 g after 48th of solid state fermentation. In conclusion, a suitable addition of fermentative substrate to the SSF medium increased fungal growth, sugar utilization and citric acid production when used in lower concentrations.

  5. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  6. Beneficiary role of grapes residue, an organic waste of agro-based industry causing environmental pollution - a new concept of crop production in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is facing a serious threat of environmental pollution as a result of which our soils, air and water are becoming highly contaminated with the passage of time. Many epidemics have engulfed a number of countries in various diseases causing the loss of hundreds of thousands of human lives. The wastes of agro-based industries are mostly organic in nature, and if not properly handled, usually become nuisance and also the source of food for pathogens and other harmful microorganisms thus the surrounding becomes polluted. It has been reported that grapes residue (also called grapes marc or pressed grapes) was a serious environmental problem Tekirdag city of Turkey. This waste material was thrown out of the factory (Tekil Fabrikasi) after the extraction of grape juices used for different products. With dual objective, a plan was made to remove the waste material from polluted area subsequently managed to use it a source of soilless growing medium for the production horticultural crops through hydroponics system in the unheated greenhouse. The use of grapes residue for crop production is rare and hardly documented in the literature thus the idea is innovative in its nature that may lead to open the vista of new avenues. A trial of bag culture was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of use of grapes marc as a pure growing substrate for the production of lettuce and tomato crops. Quite encouraging results of a number of parameters of both the crops appeared against the soil-mixture (control). The studied characteristics were relating to vegetative, reproductive, yield physical and chemical performances and sensory traits. It is predicted that grapes marc possesses a great potential of organic rooting medium for growth and development of commercial crops, provided the climatic, nutritional and management activities scheduled in view of the kind and nature of crop cultivar to be grown under unheated glass house conditions. (author)

  7. Graphene Oxide Synthesis from Agro Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Somanathan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of graphene oxide (GO synthesis via single-step reforming of sugarcane bagasse agricultural waste by oxidation under muffled atmosphere conditions is reported. The strong and sharp X-ray diffraction peak at 2θ = 11.6° corresponds to an interlayer distance of 0.788 nm (d002 for the AB stacked GOs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED confirm the formation of the GO layer structure and the hexagonal framework. This is a promising method for fast and effective synthesis of GO from sugarcane bagasse intended for a variety of energy and environmental applications.

  8. Usefulness of ANN-based model for copper removal from aqueous solutions using agro industrial waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption properties of locally available lignocelluloses biomaterials as biosorbents for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. Materials are generated from juice production (apricot stones and from the corn milling process (corn cob. Such solid wastes have little or no economic value and very often present a disposal problem. Using batch adsorption techniques the effects of initial Cu(II ions concentration (Ci, amount of biomass (m and volume of metal solution (V, on biosorption efficiency and capacity were studied for both materials, without any pre-treatments. The optimal parameters for both biosorbents were selected depending on a highest sorption capability of biosorbent, in removal of Cu(II. Experimental data were compared with second order polynomial regression models (SOPs and artificial neural networks (ANNs. SOPs showed acceptable coefficients of determination (0.842 - 0.997, while ANNs performed high prediction accuracy (0.980-0.986 in comparison to experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003, TR 31055

  9. Application of agro-wastes for bio-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanian, Haroutioun; Novello, Ottavio; Coelho, Christian; Commereuc, Sophie; Verney, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This work was devoted to study the potential of different agro-wastes as reinforcements for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. Olive pits flour, walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour was used as filler for polylactic acid. Thermal behaviour of the composites was studied to investigate the nucleation effect of the lignocellulosic flour. The effects of filler loading on the mechanical properties, as well as viscoelastic behavior were also studied. The results indicates that these agricultural by-products can be used as filler in production of bio-composites without any further treatment, especially in the case of walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour.

  10. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred. PMID:27336697

  11. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred.

  12. Dissolution of agro-waste in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are abundant of agro-wastes being produced in Malaysia. One of the largely produced agro wastes is the sago hampas. It is known as a strong environmental pollutant due to its cellulosic fibrous material. However, the presence of the starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses in the hampas can be converted into valuable products such as reducing sugars. Hence, this study was performed to investigate the ability of ionic liquids in hydrolysing the ligno celluloses biomass into reducing sugars. Three types of ionic liquids were used, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate (EMIM DEP). The reaction was performed by heating the reaction mixture of sago hampas and ionic liquids at 100 degree Celsius. The concentrations of reducing sugars in the hydrolysates were determined by DNS method. Maximum concentration of reducing sugars were 0.424, 0.299, 0.260 mg/ml for BmimCl, EmimAc and EmimDEP respectively. These concluded that the selected ionic liquids were inefficient in hydrolysing the sago hampas to reducing sugars. (author)

  13. Agro-food Quality and Safety Based on Agro-ecological Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Reflection of the rise of agro-food production costs is analyzed based on the introduction of the quality safety situation of agricultural products in China.Firstly,rise of production costs caused by the demarcation of prohibited areas;secondly,rise of production costs caused by using environment-friendly agricultural inputs;thirdly,rise of production costs caused by quality control;fourthly,rise of production costs caused by product identification.The ecological compensation mechanism which is beneficial to agro-food quality safety is set up according to the principle "the one who is benefited compensates".Firstly,laws and regulations of agricultural production compensation are to be actively perfected.Secondly,experience of developed countries can be borrowed to establish a fiscal transfer payment system of production compensation.Thirdly,ecological agriculture is to be developed to produce products with safety and excellent quality.Since agro-ecological compensation can make up for the costs paid for protecting agro-ecological environment and producing safe agro-products by agro-food producers and is beneficial to motivating producers’ initiative,compensation is made for agricultural producers from compensation objects,compensation scope and compensation mechanism to improve the quality safety level of agricultural products.

  14. DISPOSAL OF AGRO-INDUSTRIALS WASTES AS SOIL AMENDMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mekki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the fertilizing potential of three agro-industrial wastes (Compost (C, Dehydrated Manures (DM and Digestate (D on soil properties, on seeds germination and the plants growth. Results showed that the addition of wastes modified several soil properties as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Water Retention Capacity (WRC and Soil Organic Matter (SOM. Hence, SOM increase from 1.5% in unamended soil to 2, 2.3 and to 3.1% in soils amended with (D, with (DM and with (C respectively. A fast SOM biodegradation was illustrated in presence of compost where we noted a decrease of 20% of initial organic matter content. Besides, wastes improve strongly microbial and respirometric soil activities mainly in presence of DM and D. These same wastes stimulate seeds germination of two standard plants species (Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The growth levels of three cultivated plants species (Wheat (Triticum durum, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa were enhanced in presence of wastes than those irrigated with water.

  15. Organized and optimized composting of agro-waste some important considerations and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load. Emission of gases from land- fills poses yet another environmental challenge. Today, composting offers a promising solution to disposal of agro-waste with minimum harmful impact on environment. Need of the hour is to carry out composting in an organized and controlled manner to derive maximum benefits with minimum undesirable effects and researchers are attempting to compost agro-wastes with these objectives in mind. PMID:25508346

  16. Bio production of Vanillin from Agro-Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes an environmentally friendly vanillin production processes from agro industrial wastes. Ferulic 'acid is a well-known product of cereal. brans and sugarcane bagasse lignin degradation, ferulic acid and cellulose degradation sugars were used as feedstock for the vanillin bio production by Debaryomyces hansenii. The bioconversion of ferulic into vanillin by Debaryomyces hansenii was affected by the type and amount of ferulic acid. Addition of purified ferulic acid (2 g/l) and using of adapted yeast cells. increase the yield of vanillin and decrease the secondary products. Yeast extract (3 g/l) and glucose (20 g/l) proved to be the best component as co-substrates for bio production of vanillin. Variable aeration conditions were tested by simultaneously vanilIin the ratio of medium to vessel volume and the agitation speed. under excess aeration, oxidation of a, significant portion of vanillin to vanillic acid occur, thus reducing the vanillin yield. Increasing the inoculum size up to 1 g/I and using low doses of gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) increase the vanillin production. Under optimum conditions vanillin production from ferulic acid by Debaryomyces attained very high level of 1531 mg/1 with a molar yield of 76.5%

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of agro-food waste mixtures in a fed-batch basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Dolores; Martín-Marroquín, Jesús M; Nieto, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The agro-food industry (including livestock) generates millions of tonnes of waste products. A solution to this sector's waste disposal challenges was explored by a joint treatment model of organic waste products from several industries. An inventory of agro-food industry organic waste streams with high potential for biogas production was carried out in a logistically viable area (Cider Region, Asturias, Spain). Three industries were selected as those with the higher potential for this study: livestock, dairy and beverage. The kinetics of anaerobic degradation and methane production of four mixtures of selected waste streams were investigated. The specific methane production at five different substrate-to-inoculum ratios (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00) showed a slightly decreasing trend at the higher ratios. Some hints of a synergistic effect have been observed in mixtures with higher content in milled apple waste, while antagonistic symptoms were noted in mixtures mainly composed of dairy wastes. The estimation of fluxes of waste and methane potentials in the Cider Region suggests centralised anaerobic digestion as a sustainable solution for the valorisation of livestock and agro-food wastes generated in this area. Sector-specific waste streams (livestock and agro-food industry) could cover up to 12% of regional total energy demand. PMID:26895466

  18. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Potential Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Organic Residues of Agro-Based Industries in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Kailash P. Yadav; Arbindra Timilsina; Rupesh K. Yadawa; Pokhrel, Chandra P.

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of exploring the potential of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic wastes from major agro-based industries in Nepal, four types of major industries using raw materials from agriculture are selected as sources of lignocellulosic residues. They include a sugar industry, a paper industry, a tobacco industry, and a beer industry. Data from secondary/primary sources were used to record organic residues from these industries and estimates were made of potential production o...

  20. Comparison of five agro-industrial waste-based composts as growing media for lettuce: Effect on yield, phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Francielly T; Goufo, Piebiep; Santos, Cátia; Botelho, Donzilia; Fonseca, João; Queirós, Aurea; Costa, Mônica S S M; Trindade, Henrique

    2016-10-15

    Overall phenolic content in plants is on average higher in organic farming, including when renewable resources such as composts are used as soil amendments. In most cases, however, the composting process needs to be optimized to reach the desired outcome. Using composts obtained from chestnut, red and white grapes, olive and broccoli wastes, the relative antioxidative abilities of lettuces cultivated in greenhouse were examined. Results clearly coupled high phenolic levels with high yield in lettuce grown on the chestnut-based compost. A huge accumulation of phenolics was observed with the white grape-based compost, but this coincided with low yield. Three compounds were identified as discriminating factors between treated samples, namely quercetin 3-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-(6″-malonyl)-β-d-glucoside; these are also some of the compounds receiving health claims on lettuce consumption. On a negative note, all composts led to decreased vitamin C levels. Collectively, the data suggest that compost amendments can help add value to lettuce by increasing its antioxidant activity as compared to other organic resources. PMID:27173566

  1. Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Orzua, María C.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Garza, Heliodoro de la; Teixeira, J. A.; Aguilar Gonzalez, Cristobal Noé

    2009-01-01

    Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean residues (Phaseolus...

  2. ROLE OF ALKALINE-TOLERANT FUNGAL CELLULASES IN RELEASE OF TOTAL ANTIOXIDANTS FROM AGRO-WASTES UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnarajan Ravindran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline-tolerant marine-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum was tested for the production of enhanced levels of cellulases and free phenolics under highly alkaline conditions using agro wastes (cotton seed, sugar cane bagasse as substrates under solid state fermentation (SSF processes. In both the agro wastes used, an increase in cellulases (β-endoglucanase, β-Glucosidase, and β-exoglucanase production was observed with increase in pH. This enhanced carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (β-endoglucanase, β-Glucosidase and β-exoglucanase and thereby enriched the total phenolic release from agro-wastes under SSF conditions of higher pH. A linear correlation was observed between released total phenolic contents of agro-wastes and total antioxidant property. The increased antioxidant activity on free radical scavenging was also observed with the increase in pH. Thus, the present study makes it possible to produce nutraceutical ingredients cost-effectively from agricultural wastes.

  3. Application of agro-based biomasses for zinc removal from wastewater - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Mondal, Prejit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2011-07-15

    Zinc remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to its highly toxic and persistent nature. Conventional treatment technologies for the removal of zinc are not economical and further generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption is emerging as a potential alternative to the existing conventional technologies for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mechanisms involved in the biosorption process include chemisorption, complexation, adsorption-complexation on surface and pores, ion exchange, microprecipitation, heavy metal hydroxide condensation onto the bio surface, and surface adsorption. Biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, the initial metal ion concentration, biomass concentration, presence of various competitive metal ions in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. Biosorption using biomass such as agricultural wastes, industrial residues, municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing waste, aquatic plants, animal wastes, etc., is regarded as a cost-effective technique for the treatment of high volume and low concentration complex wastewaters containing zinc metal. Very few reviews are available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of agro based biomasses used for zinc remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. The purpose of this review article is to provide the scattered available information on various aspects of utilization of the agro based biomasses for zinc metal ions removal. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. These biosorbents can be modified using various methods for better efficiency and multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at industrial scale. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on zinc removal from waste water using agro based biomasses in this review. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Optimisation of Environmental Conditions for Enhanced Production of Fungal Exopectinase Using Agro-industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Sabika; Prasuna, R Gyana; Theja, B; Chakradhar, Y M S

    2014-07-01

    Management of household solid waste and agro industrial residues generated from various sources is a serious problem due to huge ever increasing population and pollution. Application of these worthless agro waste materials to generate a commercially valuable product, pectinase enzyme, using locally isolated fungal strain, Aspergillus flavipes, was the main motive of this study. Physiological characterisation and enzyme profile determination were done along with formulation of production media. Fruit skins, rags were used as C source and oil cakes were used for N source. Various combinations of these C and N sources were applied for revised production of pectinase enzyme compared to YEP basal media (29 U/ml). A huge increase in pectinase production of 40 U/ml was obtained with Citrus peel - Sesame oil cake (CS) media. The enzyme had its maximum activity at 500C, 4.5 pH. This was achieved at 45 min in 1.5% substrate concentration. PMID:26563086

  5. Antioxidant potential of extracts from different agro wastes: Stabilization of corn oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shahid Chatha, Shahzad; Rafique Asi, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Sultana, Bushra

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of 80% methanolic extracts of some agro wastes (pomegranate peel, apple peel, banana peel, citrus peel, corncob, wheat husk, wheat bran, rice bran, and rice hull) was assessed. The yields of the extracts varied over a wide range (8.83 to 29.9 g/100g of dry weight). TPC, TFC, total flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin; HPLC method), DPPH. radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation for the extracts varied significantly (P < 0.05) ranging fr...

  6. Input-output analysis of various elements of an energy-agro-waste complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The mass input and output streams of various agricultural and waste treatment processes were quantified and models developed to serve in the engineering analysis of potential waste heat utilization schemes. The unit process models can be integrated into energy-agro-waste complexes, in which waste heat from power plants is used by certain processes and the wastes of some processes are used as inputs to others. The models provide a means of determining the sizing or subsystems, the compatibility of subsystems, and the overall feasibility of an integrated complex. Ten potential complexes were qualitatively discussed and the considerations involved in forming such complexes explained. A mass balance analysis was performed on four integrated complexes demonstrating the engineering value of the analytical models developed.

  7. PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT STRAINS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS USING VARIOUS CELLOLUSIC AGRO-WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Khaliq

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different local strains of Oyster mushroom were evaluated using different cellulosic agro-wastes including cotton waste, paddy straw and wheat straw for mycelial growth, spawn running and  production efficiency of different strains of Pleurotus ostreatsus. Maximum production efficiency of P. Sajur caju was observed (195.9% on wheat straw while minimum production efficiency was recorded (132.1% on paddy straw followed by cotton waste where the production efficiency was 107.9%. P. ostreatus (white strain showed maximum production efficiency (113.7% on wheat straw and minimum (88.8% on cotton waste. While the production efficiency of P. ostreatus (gray strain was almost same on cotton waste and wheat straw but greater than paddy straw (128.3%. The Overall performance of P. Ostreatus (gray strain remained best during its cultivation. 

  8. Design and Implementation of Agro-technical Extension Information System Based on Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Leifeng; Wang, Wensheng; Yang, Yong; Sun,Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    International audience In order to solve the problems of low efficiency and backward methods in the agro-technical extension activities, this paper designed an agro-technical extension information system based on cloud storage technology. This paper studied the key technologies, such as cloud storage service engine, cloud storage management node and cloud storage data node and designed the overall architecture of the agro-technical extension information system based on cloud storage techno...

  9. System for the utilization of agricultural wastes in an agro-industrial settlement-kibbutz as a model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussear, I.; Shelef, G.; Marchaim, U.

    1979-01-01

    The energy potential of agricultural wastes in Israel is described. A scheme for utilizing agricultural, domestic and agro-industrial wastes in a kibbutz is presented. The possibility of supplying the energy needs of a kibbutz of 1000 persons using biogas is considered.

  10. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

    2011-01-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to ...

  11. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL: K2HPO4(0.1, (NH42SO4(0.1, NaCl (0.1, MgSO4(0.1 at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB > corn cob (CC > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB and rice bran (RB > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB > corn cob (CC, respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

  12. Combustion of agro-waste with coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, a review of the studies done on the co-combustion of some agro-waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm is given. The agro-waste used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics were peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry, and olive cake produced as a waste from the olive oil industry. These are typical wastes for a Mediterranean country. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m} H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. Emissions were also monitored from the exhaust. Various combinations of coal and biomass mixtures were tested. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from the biomass quickly volatilizes and mostly burns in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of the biomass increases, combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. Better combustion conditions occur at higher excess air ratios. The results showed that co-combustion with these three proposed biomasses lowers the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions considerably. CO and hydrocarbon emissions are lower at the higher excess air ratios. (orig.)

  13. Energy valorization of agro-industrial wastes and sweet sorghum for the production of gaseous biofuels through anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Δαρειώτη, Μαργαρίτα

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that renewable resources have received great interest from the international community during the last decades and play a crucial role in the current CO2-mitigation policy. In this regard, energy from biomass and waste is seen as one of the most dominant future renewable energy sources. Thus, organic waste i.e. animal wastes, wastewaters, energy crops, agricultural and agro-industrial residues are of specific importance since these sources do not compete with food crops in agricul...

  14. Biosorption of uranium and thorium by agro based biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of low cost sorbent was investigated by evaluating the potential of three different agro based biomass designated biomass 1,11,111 respectively for the biosorption of uranium and thorium. Equilibrium and rate relationship were determined. The initial pH of the metal ion solution effected metal uptake capacity of the biomass and indicated a higher uptake of uranium in relation to thorium. Equilibrium, adsorption capacities was thus determined only for uranium and biomass III showed the highest uptake capacity. Biosorption of uranium was also studied in a packed bed continuous flow column. Metal bound could be eluted with O.2M NaHCO3. Reusability of the column was demonstrated over three cycles indicating the biosorption process for uranium removal is reversible without significant loss of binding efficiency. (author)

  15. Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on date-palm leaves mixed with other agro-wastes in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Bouqellah, Nahla A; Al Kaff, Nadia S

    2014-12-01

    Promoting the use of agricultural waste is one of the newly prepared water and environment friendly agriculture strategies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The objective of this research was to study the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on date palm wastes mixed with other agricultural wastes available in KSA. Four agricultural wastes were mixed with date palm leaves at different ratios, with two supplements and three spawn rates were used. Wheat straw mixed with date palm at ratio of 25 (date palm): 75 (agro-waste) showed the best results in most of the parameters measured. Corn meal was superior over wheat bran as a supplement in all treatments. Parameter values increased with the increase of the spawn rate of P. ostreatus. Treatments with date palm leave wastes contained higher carbohydrates and fibers. No significant differences were found among the fruiting bodies produced on the different agro-wastes studied for the different proximates analyzed. Analyses of metal concentration showed that potassium was the highest in all the treatments tested followed by Na, Mg, Ca, and Zn. This is the first study that reported the success of growing oyster mushroom on date palm leaf wastes mixed with other agro-wastes obtainable in KSA. PMID:25473372

  16. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50ºC and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70ºC for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5-7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity.

  17. BIODEGRADATION OF AGRO-WASTES BY SOME NIGERIAN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi Damilola Adejoye

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Three white-rot fungi: Daedalea elegans, Polyporus giganteus, and Lenzites betulina were screened for their lignin degrading abilities on rice straw, maizecob, sawdust of Terminalia superba, and sugarcane bagasse at different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days. All the fungi demonstrated varying levels of ligninolytic capability with different degrees of lignin degradation in all the fermented substrates. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the mycelia extension of Daedalea elegans grown on the different agro-industrial wastes. D. elegans gave maximum extension of 4.5 cm on sugarcane bagasse. The highest lignin reduction of 92.9% (p<0.05 was recorded in maize cob fermented with Daedalea elegans after 90 days. On the basis of lignocellulosic material degraded, it is concluded that the white-rot fungi offer a better alternative to conventional ways of disposing these waste substances. This paper considers the ability of indigenous white-rot fungi to degrade lignin as a way of using them in effective waste management.

  18. The potential of agro-industrial residues and municipal solid waste for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues and municipal solid wastes with large potentials for anaerobic converstion into biogas and electricity have been identified and quantified. Tanzania is estimated to generate about 615,000 organic matter from coffee, sisal, sugar and cereal residues and households in main towns are estimated to generate about 600,000 tons of organic matter annually. Laboratory scale determinations of methane yields from the residues gave 400 m3 CH4/ton VS of sisal pulp; 400 m3 CH4/ton VS of sisal production wastewater; 400 m3 CH4/ton VS of Robusta coffee solid waste, 350 m3 CH4/ton VS of sugar processing wastewater; 250 m3 CH4/ton VS of sugar filter mat, 450 m3 CH4/ton VS maize bran and 300 m3 CH4/ton VS of mixed household waste. Based on these results the estimated total annual potential electricity production from these residues is 1.4 million MW. The total oil substitution from these residues has been estimated at 0.35 million tonnes crude diesel oil per annum equivalent to 2% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Case studies onthe coffee and sisal processing factories indicate that exploitation of the residues for the production of electricity on site these factories is feasible. Utilization of agro-industrial residues and municipal waste for biogas production has enormous potential for reduction of environmental pollution. The potential substitution of fossil fuel with biogas represents an annual reduction in the net CO2 emission to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 million tonnes. By treating the residues in controlled anaerobic systems it is possible to reduce the methane emission by about 62 million m3, and

  19. The potential of agro-industrial residues and municipal solid waste for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A.K. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Botany Dept., Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country`s big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues and municipal solid wastes with large potentials for anaerobic converstion into biogas and electricity have been identified and quantified. Tanzania is estimated to generate about 615,000 organic matter from coffee, sisal, sugar and cereal residues and households in main towns are estimated to generate about 600,000 tons of organic matter annually. Laboratory scale determinations of methane yields from the residues gave 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal pulp; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal production wastewater; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of Robusta coffee solid waste, 350 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar processing wastewater; 250 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar filter mat, 450 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS maize bran and 300 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of mixed household waste. Based on these results the estimated total annual potential electricity production from these residues is 1.4 million MW. The total oil substitution from these residues has been estimated at 0.35 million tonnes crude diesel oil per annum equivalent to 2% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Case studies onthe coffee and sisal processing factories indicate that exploitation of the residues for the production of electricity on site these factories is feasible. Utilization of agro-industrial residues and municipal waste for biogas production has enormous potential for reduction of environmental pollution. The potential substitution of fossil fuel with biogas represents an annual reduction in the net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 million tonnes. By treating the residues in controlled

  20. Extra-cellular isoamylase production by Rhizopus oryzae in solid-state fermentation of agro wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnita Ghosh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular isoamylase was produced by Rhizopus oryzae PR7 in solid-state fermentations of various agro wastes, among which millet, oat, tapioca, and arum (Colocasia esculenta showed promising results. The highest amount of enzyme production was obtained after 72 h of growth at 28°C. The optimum pH for enzyme production was - 8.0. Among the various additives tested, enzyme production increased with ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and also with cysteine, GSH, and DTT. The enzyme synthesis was reduced in the presence of thiol inhibitors like Cu2+ and pCMB. The surfactants like Tween-40, Tween-80 and Triton X-100 helped in enhancing the enzyme activity. The production could be further increased by using the combinations of substrates. The ability to produce high amount of isoamylase within a relatively very short period and the capability of degrading wastes could make the strain suitable for commercial production of the enzyme.

  1. Characterization of the carbonaceous materials obtained from different agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuncho-Muñoz, A E; Carriazo, J G

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of carbonaceous materials obtained from three types of vegetable wastes provided by agricultural industries. Soft carbonization (280°C) and H3PO4-activation procedures were used to convert the agricultural wastes to carbon powders with high adsorbent capacities. This process is excellent for eliminating and exploiting the huge masses (many tons) of vegetable residues remaining after each harvest every year in several Colombian agro-industries. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption isotherms. XRD and IR verified the formation of carbons, and SEM showed small particles (20-500 µm) with characteristic morphology for each type of residue used and abundant cavities of different sizes. The N2-adsorption analyses showed that the carbons had high adsorption capacities with important surface area values and large pore volumes. The use of the activated carbonaceous materials as adsorbent of azo dyes (allura red and sunset yellow) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The results showed a good adsorption capacity indicating the potentiality of these materials as pollutant adsorbents in food industry wastewaters. These results indicate that these powders can be used as potential adsorbents for different gaseous or liquid pollutants. PMID:25189634

  2. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. El-Tayeb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v to 5 % (v/v decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v. Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w conversion coefficient were obtained.

  3. Production of itaconic acid by Ustilago maydis from agro wastes in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOKULA MD. RAFI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid (IA is one of the hopeful substances within the cluster of organic acids. IA is used in artificial glass, bioactive compounds in pharmacy, medicine, agriculture, for the synthesis of fiber, resin, plastic, rubber, paints, surfactant, ion-exchange resins and lubricant. Most recurrently used microorganism for commercial production of IA is Aspergillus terreus. Some filamentous fungi belonging to Ustilaginales also produce IA. In the present work, an attempt was made to produce IA by Ustilago maydis employing Solid State Fermentation (SSF from various agro wastes like ground nut shells, rice bran, rice husk, orange pulp, ground nut oil cake, orange pulp and sugarcane bagasse as carbon substrates, which were used after pretreatment. 10 g of each substrate was taken in a 500 ml conical flasks separately and supplemented with 20 mL nutrient solution containing glucose, at pH 3. One milliliter inoculum containing 1×107 spores was added and moisture was maintained at 60%. After incubation at 32°C for 5 days, the acid production was estimated by spectrophotometric method and by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, the yield of itaconic acid was promising with all the above substrates, where orange pulp, sugarcane bagasse and rice bran supported higher yields.

  4. Peroxidase of Brazilian Cerrado grass as an alternative for agro industrial waste treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pinheiro Reis Souza Ramalho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination of wastewater continues to be a challenge for society and the scientific community. Despite the availability of various materials for study, enzymes stand out due to their specificity for decomposition and biodegradability for disposal. New sources of enzymes may represent efficient and low-cost alternatives compared to routinely used techniques. In this survey, the peroxidase profile from Echinolaena inflexa fruits was studied for possible applications in the treatment of wastewater. The protein content was found to be 5.33 mg g-1. The optimum reaction conditions were: 50°C, pH 7.5 at 0.1 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer for 15 min. The enzyme was inactivated after 5 min at 94°C and was inhibited when incubated with ascorbic acid at 10 mmol L-1. In tests using phenols and agro industrial waste, the peroxidase was able to oxidase 87.5% of catechol, 67.8% of pyrogallol, 39.1% of resorcinol and still presented 29.1% of the degradation capacity of raw wastewater phenolic compounds. The results showed that the Echinolaena inflexa peroxidase, a new source of enzymes, is a potential alternative to wastewater treatment.

  5. Valorization of agro-industrial wastes towards the production of rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rodrigues, Ana I; de Freitas, Victor; Azevedo, Zélia; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-07-01

    In this work, oil mill wastewater (OMW), a residue generated during olive oil extraction, was evaluated as an inducer of rhamnolipid production. Using a medium containing as sole ingredients corn steep liquor (10%, v/v), sugarcane molasses (10%, w/v) and OMW (25%, v/v), Pseudomonas aeruginosa #112 produced 4.5 and 5.1g of rhamnolipid per liter in flasks and reactor, respectively, with critical micelle concentrations as low as 13mg/l. Furthermore, in the medium supplemented with OMW, a higher proportion of more hydrophobic rhamnolipid congeners was observed comparing with the same medium without OMW. OMW is a hazardous waste which disposal represents a serious environmental problem; therefore, its valorization as a substrate for the production of added-value compounds such as rhamnolipids is of great interest. This is the first report of rhamnolipid production using a mixture of these three agro-industrial by-products, which can be useful for the sustainable production of rhamnolipids. PMID:27092993

  6. Conversion of agro-industrial wastes to chitosan production by Syncephalastrum racemosum UCP 1302

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vieira Leite

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Syncephalastrum racemosum produced biomass and chitosan using agro-industrials wastes (sugar cane bagasse and corn steep liquor as carbon and nitrogen sources. A factorial design was used to determine the best condition for chitosan biomass and production. The mycelial pellet was lyophilized and subjected to chitosan extraction process using alkali acid treatment. The polymer was characterized by vibrational spectroscopy in the infrared region to determine the deacetylation degree of viscosity and molecular weight determination. The results showed values of biomass (32 g.L-1 chitosan yield (23.5 mg.g-1, degree of deacetylation (80%, and molecular weight (7.36 x 10-3g.mol-1. Therefore, the results suggest that organic agroindustrial residues can be used as inexpensive medium to produce  biomass and the biopolymer and shown antifungal potential against pathogenic yeasts. Industrial relevance. The production of chitosan using agroindustrial substrates as alternative and inexpensive medium proves efficient to obtain low molecular weight chitosan. Chitosan produced by Syncephalastrum racemosum is a promising natural biopolymer could be recommended as a powerful, natural and eco-friendly alternative biomedical and biotechnological applications, presenting antimicrobial properties against pathogenic micro-organisms. Keywords. Syncephalastrum racemosum; cane sugar bagasse; corn steep liquor; Chitosan

  7. Antioxidant potential of extracts from different agro wastes: Stabilization of corn oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahid Chatha, Shahzad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 80% methanolic extracts of some agro wastes (pomegranate peel, apple peel, banana peel, citrus peel, corncob, wheat husk, wheat bran, rice bran, and rice hull was assessed. The yields of the extracts varied over a wide range (8.83 to 29.9 g/100g of dry weight. TPC, TFC, total flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin; HPLC method, DPPH. radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation for the extracts varied significantly (P En este studio se determinó el potencial antioxidante de extractos de methanol al 80%, de distintos resíduos de granada, manzana, frutos cítricos, maíz, trigo y arroz. Los rendimientos de los extractos variaron en un amplio rango (8.89 a 29.9 g/100 g de materia seca. La cantidad total de compuestos fenólicos, de flavonoides y de flavonoles, así como la capacidad para secuestrar radicales y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico varió significativamente (P < 0.05. El extracto de piel de granada contenía las cantidades más elevadas de compuestos fenólicos, de flavonoides y de flavonoles y exhibió la capacidad antioxidante más elevada, seguido del de piel de manzana, piel de cítricos, piel de plátano, mazorca de maíz, salvado de trigo, salvado de arroz, cáscara de trigo y cáscara de arroz. Igualmente, se estableció la actividad antioxidante de los extractos usando aceite de maíz como sustrato. Muestras de aceite estabilizadas con los distintos extractos (600 mg/kg fueron sometidas a oxidación acelerada (60 °C en horno durante 30 días con ciclos de calentamiento de 8 h/día y periódicamente se determinaron los siguientes índices: dienos y trienos conjugados, índice de panisidina e índice de peróxidos. Finalmente, se estudiaron las correlaciones entre los resultados de los distintos ensayos y los niveles de compuestos con acción antioxidante, destacando los extractos de pieles de fruta por su mayor contenido en compuestos fen

  8. Sustainable Production of Bio-Combustibles from Pyrolysis of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Volpe; Carmelo D'Anna; Simona Messineo; Roberto Volpe; Antonio Messineo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the sustainability of biomass pyrolysis requires a thorough assessment of the product yields and energy densities. With this purpose, a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor (FBR) was adapted from the standard Gray-King (GK) assay test on coal to conduct fixed bed pyrolysis experiments on agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. The present study provides results on the pyrolysis of two types of biomass: chipped olive tree trimmings (OT) and olive pomace (OP). Solid (char) and...

  9. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bramorski; Soccol, Carlos R.; Pierre Christen; Sergio Revah

    1998-01-01

    Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intens...

  10. Antecedents of Business Level Strategies in Nigerian Agro-Based Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ibidunni Ayodotun Stephen; Ogundana Oyebisi Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on business level strategies of Nigerian agro-based firms. The study made use of survey method over one hundred and ninety-three respondents. Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. The existing relationship stemming from the results revealed that top management factor, organizational system, and departmental connectivity are important antecedent factors that determine...

  11. Effective utilization of distiller's grain soluble-an agro-industrial waste in the feed of cage-reared minor carp Labeo bata in a tropical reservoir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M A; Aftabuddin, Md; Meena, D K; Mishal, P; Gupta, S Das

    2016-08-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of distiller's grain soluble (brewery waste) as a prospective ingredient to substitute expensive and high demand feed component, soybean meal for farming Labeo bata in cages installed in tropical reservoir. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising brewery waste (49.2 % CP) as test diet and soybean meal (44.4 % CP) as reference diet were formulated and extruded to obtain 2-mm floating pellets. The efficacy of the diets was tested in terms of survival (%), live weight gain (%), SGR (%/day), FCR, PER and ANPU and recorded 65 ± 0.2, 96 ± 8.1, 1.9 ± 0.1, 2.5 ± 0.02, 1.4 ± 0.1, 20.3 ± 2.0 and 66 ± 0.6, 112 ± 9.8, 2.2 ± 0.1, 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 20 ± 2.1, respectively, for soybean and brewer's waste-based formulated feed. The analyses of results revealed that survival, growth parameters and biochemical composition of whole body tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) despite complete replacement of soybean meal by brewery waste. However, the cost estimate of diet revealed marked reduction of feed cost of Rs. 9.2/kg (33.8 %) in the test diet as compared to the reference diet. The study suggests that brewery waste could effectively replace soybean meal without effecting survival and growth of the fish. The finding thus may pave a productive way for reducing environmental pressure of disposal of an agro-industrial waste. PMID:27146546

  12. Use of farming and agro-industrial wastes as versatile barriers in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, J; Ruiz, E; Flores, P; Vela, N; Hellín, P; Navarro, S

    2011-03-15

    Increased interest has been recently focused on assessing the influence of the addition of organic wastes related to movement of pesticides in soils of low organic matter (OM) content. This study reports the effect of two different amendments, animal manure (composted sheep manure) and agro-industrial waste (spent coffee grounds) on the mobility of 10 pesticides commonly used for pepper protection on a clay-loam soil (OM = 0.22%). The tested compounds were azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, and triadimenol (fungicides), pirimicarb (insecticide), and propyzamide (herbicide). Breakthrough curves were obtained from disturbed soil columns. Cumulative curves obtained from unamended soil show a leaching of all pesticides although in different proportions (12-65% of the total mass of compound applied), showing triadimenol and pirimicarb the higher leachability. Significant correlation (r = 0.93, psoils, pyrimethanil (soil amended with spent coffee grounds. A decrease in pesticide leaching was observed with the increase in dissolved organic matter (DOM) of leachates. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic wastes in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE AGRO BASED INDIAN PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Panwar; N.Endlay; S.Mishra; R.M.Mathur; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Indian Pulp & Paper Industry is more than a century old industry . The first paper mill was established in the year 1832 and today the number has grown to more than 400 in the organised sector which are located through out the country . In addition there are another 500 pulp & paper mills in the unorganized sector. The Indian pulp & paper industry can be categorised into large, medium and small depending on the scale of operation as indicated in Table -I Most of the large mills established initially were based on woody raw materials.

  14. FRUITY AROMA PRODUCTION BY Ceratocystis fimbriata IN SOLID CULTURES FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentations were carried out to test the efficacy of Ceratocystis fimbriata to grow on different agro-industrial substrates and aroma production. Seven media were prepared using cassava bagasse, apple pomace, amaranth and soya bean. All the media supported fungal growth. While amaranth medium produced pineapple aroma, media containing cassava bagasse, apple pomace and soya bean produced a strong fruity aroma. The aroma production was growth dependent and the maximum aroma intensity was detected a few hours before or after the maximum respirometric activity. Sixteen compounds were separated by gas cromatography of the components present in the headspace and fifteen of them were identified as acid (1, alcohols (6, aldehyde (1, ketones (2 and esters (5.Este estudo explorou a versatilidade de Ceratocystis fimbriata de crescer e produzir aromas naturais sobre substratos de resíduos agro-industriais. Bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã, amaranto e soja em diferentes proporções compuseram os sete meios utilizados, mostrando ser substratos adequados para o crescimento e produção de aroma por este fungo em fermentação no estado sólido. Todos os meios contendo bagaço de mandioca, bagaço de maçã e soja em sua composição proporcionaram um forte aroma frutal, enquanto, o meio de amaranto produziu um agradável aroma de abacaxi. A produção de aroma foi dependente do crescimento, visto que a máxima intensidade do aroma foi detectado poucas horas antes ou depois da atividade respiratória máxima. Foram detectados dezesseis compostos pela cromatografia de gás no headspace das culturas, e quinze deles foram identificados: 1 ácido, 6 alcoois, 1 aldeído, 2 cetonas e 5 ésteres.

  15. Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10

    OpenAIRE

    Embaby, Amira M.; Masoud, Aliaa A; Marey, Heba S.; Shaban, Nadia Z; Ghonaim, Tayssir M

    2014-01-01

    The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introducti...

  16. Sustainable Production of Bio-Combustibles from Pyrolysis of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Volpe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the sustainability of biomass pyrolysis requires a thorough assessment of the product yields and energy densities. With this purpose, a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor (FBR was adapted from the standard Gray-King (GK assay test on coal to conduct fixed bed pyrolysis experiments on agricultural and agro-industrial by-products. The present study provides results on the pyrolysis of two types of biomass: chipped olive tree trimmings (OT and olive pomace (OP. Solid (char and liquid (tar product yields are reported. Mass yields are determined and compared with values obtained in similar works. Results indicate that char yield decreases from 49% (OT-db and 50% (OP-db at 325 °C to 26% (OT db and 30% (OP-db at 650 °C. Tar yield is almost constant (42% at different reaction temperatures for OT, while it decreases slightly from 42% to 35% for OP. Energy density of the products at different peak temperatures is almost constant for OT (1.2, but slightly increases for OP (from a value of 1.3 to a value of 1.4.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF QUOTED AND UNQUOTED AGRO-BASED FIRMS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikan Edet Bassey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of capital structure decision and compared the capital structure of quoted and unquoted agro-based firms in Nigeria. Data collected through a multi- stage random sampling from the financial statements of 28 quoted and 60 unquoted agro-based firms for the period 2005-2010 were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Z-test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression. The result revealed significant differences in capital structure (long term debt and total debt use between quoted and unquoted agro-based firms. Short-term debts constituted a higher proportion of total debts of both sampled groups. The regression result showed that firm size, asset structure andgrowth coefficients had significant positive relationships with both long and short term debt finance for both listed and unlisted agro-based firms respectively. Result further showed that age of firms, educational status of CEO, export status of firms, and gender of firm owners were positive and significantly related to long term debt for both listed and unlisted firms. Also, highly profitable firms depended on internally generated revenue, thereby lending credence to the pecking order theory (POT. Therefore, The study showed that pecking order theory dominated the financing behavior of agro-based firms in Nigeria while the agency cost argument was only relevant for listed agro-based firms. Hence, policies that would enhance the acquisition of tangible assets, encourage exportation, ensure appropriate record keeping and encourage the use of more long term finance in place of short-term finance should be pursued.

  18. NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO EVALUATE COMPOSITION OF AGRO-BASED PARTICLEBOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Maioli Campos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Particleboards can be manufactured from particles of any lignin-cellulosic material that can be combined with an adhesive and consolidated under the action of temperature and pressure. Because the raw materials in the industrial process are continually changing, the particleboard industry requires methods for monitoring the quality of their products. Hence, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the composition of the agro-based particleboards by near infrared spectroscopy. In this study, agro-based particleboards produced with different compositions of Eucalyptus and Pinus wood particles and sugar cane bagasse were evaluated by NIR spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS regression. The PLS models to estimate the Eucalyptus and Pinus particles and sugar cane bagasse contents presented a strong coefficient of determination (0.90, 0.88 and 0.84, respectively, but also high magnitudes of standard errors of cross-validation were observed (ranging from 8.84 to 11.27%. Development work would be required in order to reduce the standard errors and improve predictive model performance to build robust models that could be applied as quality control tool.

  19. Biotechnological valorisation of agro-industrial wastes for the production of cellulases

    OpenAIRE

    DAMATO, GIUSEPPE

    2012-01-01

    This experimental work is embedded in a wider European-funded project named Etoile (FP7/2007-2013, Project n° 222331). The aim of Etoile project was to develop a new integrated process where the two main wastes coming from olive oil traditional three-phase production process, the solid lignocellulosic olive pomace (OP) and the liquid olive oil mill waste water (OOMW), are exploited for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and bioethanol.More specifically, this experimental work was focus...

  20. Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Amira M; Masoud, Aliaa A; Marey, Heba S; Shaban, Nadia Z; Ghonaim, Tayssir M

    2014-01-01

    The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introduction of six raw agro-industrial wastes (orange, lemon, banana, pomegranate, artichoke peel wastes and wheat bran) and other synthetic carbon sources separately into the fermentation broth on PGase productivity was studied through OVAT approach. Orange peel waste as sole raw carbon source in basal medium proved to be the best PGase inducer. It promoted PGase productivity with relative specific activity of 166% comparable with the effect imposed by synthetic citrus pectin as a reference inducer. Three key determinants (orange peel waste, pH of the production medium and incubation temperature) had RSM optimal levels of 1.76% (w/v), 8.0 and 37.8°C, respectively along with maximal PGase level (2.69 μg galacturonic acid. min(-1). mg(-1)) within 48 hrs. Moreover, SHG10 PGase exhibited activity over a wide range of pH (3-11) and an optimal activity at 50°C. Data greatly encourage pilot scale PGase production from B. licheniformis SHG10. PMID:25077057

  1. Antecedents of Business Level Strategies in Nigerian Agro-Based Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidunni Ayodotun Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on business level strategies of Nigerian agro-based firms. The study made use of survey method over one hundred and ninety-three respondents. Pearson’s correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. The existing relationship stemming from the results revealed that top management factor, organizational system, and departmental connectivity are important antecedent factors that determine the success or otherwise of strategic orientation dimensions. The study recommends that the calibre of the top management personnel and the internal cohesion between departments should be considered a critical variable in the adoption of particular orientation.

  2. Characterization of Jamaican agro-industrial wastes. Part I: characterization of amino acids using HPLC: pre-column derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Shaw, Y A; Golden, K D; Pearson, A G M; Porter, R B R

    2009-09-01

    Jamaican agro-industries generate large quantities of wastes, which are either discarded or under-utilized. In order to evaluate the possible utilization of these wastes, it is necessary that the profiles of the major biochemical groups be developed. This paper describes the determination of the amino acid composition of coffee, citrus, and rum distillery wastes using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Acid hydrolysates of the wastes are derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate. They are analyzed as their phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives and determined quantitatively using norleucine as the internal standard. The presence of all the 17 amino acids investigated, nine of which include those essential for animal nutrition, are observed in the samples investigated, suggesting a high quality of protein with implications in the formulation of animal feeds. PMID:19772744

  3. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  4. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF EXO-POLYGALACTURONASE FROM AGRO-BASED PRODUCTS BY ASPERGILLUS SOJAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Oguz Buyukkileci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus sojae has been previously shown to produce exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG in synthetic media, where the potential of the organism to utilize agricultural substrates was not considered so far. In this study, the utilization of agro-based products was taken into account in the enhanced production of exo-PG using an A. sojae mutant by applying statistical design methods. Complex sources (orange peel, wheat bran, and corn meal, simple sugar sources (glucose, maltrin, and sugar beet syrup, and two phosphate salts were screened using D-optimal design method. Orange peel yielded the highest exo-PG activity with all simple sugars and phosphate sources. According to the results of response surface methodology (RSM, the optimum concentrations of orange peel, sugar beet syrup, and (NH42SO4 were found to be 10, 60, and 8 g L-1, respectively. The exo-PG activity under these conditions was 145.4 U m L-1 in shake flask cultures. In bioreactor studies enzyme production was induced at low pH values; thus highest production was obtained under uncontrolled pH conditions, in which the pH dropped to 2.0 in 72 h. As a result high exo-PG could be produced by an A. sojae mutant using a cost-effective medium containing agro-industrial substrates. Another important advantageous outcome was the low optimal pH, which is especially desired in industrial fermentations prone to contamination problems. In fact this highlights the easy adaptation of this fermentation to industrial scales.

  5. Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste and its potential use in endocrine disruptor compound removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovani, Suzimara; Censi, Monique T.; Pedrotti, Sidnei L.; Lima, Éder C.; Cataluña, Renato; Fernandes, Andreia N., E-mail: andreia.fernandes@ufrgs.br

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste. • Characterization by chemical and spectroscopic methods. • Alternative for the treatment of effluents that contain estrogens. • The AC adsorbent was successfully employed as solid phase adsorbent for the preconcentration of E2 and EE2 from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: A new activated carbon (AC) material was prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of coffee grounds, eucalyptus sawdust, calcium hydroxide and soybean oil at 800 °C. This material was used as adsorbent for the removal of the endocrine disruptor compounds 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from aqueous solutions. The carbon material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption curves and point of zero charge (pH{sub PZC}). Variables including the initial pH of the adsorbate solutions, adsorbent masses and contact time were optimized. The optimum range of initial pH for removal of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) was 2.0–11.0. The kinetics of adsorption were investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The Sips isotherm model gave the best fits of the equilibrium data (298 K). The maximum amounts of E2 and EE2 removed at 298 K were 7.584 (E2) and 7.883 mg g{sup −1} (EE2) using the AC as adsorbent. The carbon adsorbent was employed in SPE (solid phase extraction) of E2 and EE2 from aqueous solutions.

  6. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

  7. Assessment of anaerobic co-digestion of agro wastes for biogas recovery: A bench scale application to date palm wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail, Ali Raad Talib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is a technology widely used for treatment of organic waste to enhance biogas recovery. In this study, recycling of date palm wastes (DPWs was examined as a source for biogas production. The effects of inoculum addition, pretreatment of substrate, and temperature on the biogas production were investigated in batch mode digesters. Results revealed that the effect of inoculum addition was more significant than alkaline pretreatment of raw waste materials. The biogas recovery from inoculated DPWs exceeds its production from DPWs without inoculation by approximately 140% at mesophilic conditions. Whereby, the increase of biogas recovery from pretreated DPWs was 52% higher than its production from untreated DPWs at mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic conditions improved the biogas yield by approximately 23%. The kinetic of bio-digestion process was well described by modified Gompertz model and the experimental and predicted values of biogas production were fitted well with correlation coefficient values greater than 0.96 suggesting favorable conditions of the process.

  8. The Use of Ionizing Radiation to Prepare Polymeric Agro-waste Composite for Sandy Soil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super absorbent hydrogel composite (SHC) by radiation induced crosslinking of polyacrylamide (PAAM)/ rice straw (RS) composite and hydrophilic membrane system based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for possible applications in agricultural field of sandy soil was studied. The factors affecting the quick and capacity for retaining irrigated water of swelling behaviour of prepared hydrogel composite through hydrophilic membrane system and increasing foaming/ porosity of the SHC were studied. The mechanism for this is most likely a prevention of irrigated water to pass through sandy particles for a time ranged from 20 to 40 min for the fluid uptake capacity and swelling of the SHC to take and swelling place without almost any loss of irrigated water. Effect of acid/ alkalinity (PH) and salt concentration were investigation.

  9. Re-use of incinerated agro-industrial waste as pozzolanic addition. Comparison with spanish silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the viability of using incinerated agro-industrial waste, ashes C1 and C2, as possible artificial pozzolanic additions in traditional and highperformance concretes and mortars, mainly, and for this reason, a comparative study was likewise conducted with Spanish silica fume (HS. The conclusion drawn from the findings was that the two ashes used could be regarded to be centainly, silicic artificial pozzolanic additions but only C2, which had a higher SiO2 content, could be regarded to be a “microsilica”, however, because its loss on ignition, L.O.I., fell within the acceptable range of variability. In contrast, C1 could not be so regarded because its L.O.I. was too high, despite its higher reactive silica SiO2r- content. For this reason, ash C1 had to be ruled out for any of the proposed uses, even though in terms of chemical and sulfatic characterization it was closer to HS than C2. By contrast, the mechanical strength values of C2 and HS were comparable, making the former initially acceptable for any of such uses. Finally, it has also been justified that, adoption of any method of trial to determine potential resistance to the sulfates of the Portland cements with calcareous filler lacks of sense.Este trabajo ha tenido por objetivo determinar la viabilidad de uso de dos residuos agroindustriales incinerados, cenizas C1 y C2, como posibles adiciones puzolánicas artificiales, para fabricar cementos y/o de sus productos derivados, hormigones y morteros tradicionales y especiales, principalmente; de aquí su estudio comparativo con el humo de sílice español, HS. Y la conclusión que se obtuvo fue que las dos cenizas pueden ser consideradas como adiciones puzolánicas artificiales con carácter químico silícico cierto, pero sólo una, la C2, podría llegar a ser considerada como “microsílice”, porque su pérdida por calcinación se encuentra dentro de su límite permitido. En cambio la C1, no, porque

  10. Les agro-tensioactifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeputte Jacky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail, surfactant molecules offers wetting, solubilizing, detergency and emulsifying properties, interposing themselves between water and water-insoluble substances. Main surfactant applications are washing/cleaning, and cosmetics; these sectors use more than 50% of the total amount of surfactants produced. In recent years a continuous trend towards surfactants based on renewable ressources, the agro-based surfactants, has become apparent. Here is an overview of the market, the regulation, the major renewable raw materials used and the agro-based surfactants developped by oleochemistry. It shows that the use of vegetable fats and oils allows the development of competitive, powerful products, which are both consumer-friendly and environment-friendly.

  11. Role of alkaline-tolerant fungal cellulases in release of total antioxidants from agro-wastes under solid state fermentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G. R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    -wastes and total antioxidant property. The increased antioxidant activity on free radical scavenging was also observed with the increase in pH. Thus, the present study makes it possible to produce nutraceutical ingredients cost-effectively from agricultural wastes....

  12. EBITDA/EBIT and cash flow based ICRs: A comparative approach in the agro-food system in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Iotti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest coverage ratios (ICRs are used to quantify the ability of firms to pay financial debts; ICRs are then considered by banks such as covenants in the financing term sheet, and are used by researchers and the rating agencies to estimate the probability of default of firms. Typically, ICRs calculation is based on profit margins, such as EBITDA and EBIT; EBITDA and EBIT approximate, but do not directly express, cash flows available to pay financial debts. The article aims to evaluate whether there are significant differences in results using ICRs based on EBITDA or EBIT and ICRs based on different definitions of cash flow (CF. The application is made to a sample of firms characterized by high absorption of capital operating in the Italian agro-food sector. The article highlights that there are statistically significant differences using ICRs EBITDA and EBIT based and ICRs based on different CF definitions.

  13. Recommendations for the regionalizing of coffee cultivation in Colombia: a methodological proposal based on agro-climatic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García L, Juan Carlos; Posada-Suárez, Húver; Läderach, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian National Federation of Coffee Growers (FNC) conducted an agro-ecological zoning study based on climate, soil, and terrain of the Colombian coffee-growing regions (CCGR) located in the tropics, between 1° and 11.5° N, in areas of complex topography. To support this study, a climate baseline was constructed at a spatial resolution of 5 km. Twenty-one bioclimatic indicators were drawn from this baseline data and from yield data for different coffee genotypes evaluated under conditions at eight experimental stations (ESs) belonging to the National Center for Coffee Research (CENICAFÉ). Three topographic indicators were obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM). Zoning at a national level resulted in the differentiation of 12 agro-climatic zones. Altitude notably influenced zone differentiation, however other factors such as large air currents, low-pressure atmospheric systems, valleys of the great rivers, and physiography also played an important role. The strategy of zoning according to coffee-growing conditions will enable areas with the greatest potential for the development of coffee cultivation to be identified, criteria for future research to be generated, and the level of technology implementation to be assessed.

  14. Recommendations for the regionalizing of coffee cultivation in Colombia: a methodological proposal based on agro-climatic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García L, Juan Carlos; Posada-Suárez, Húver; Läderach, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian National Federation of Coffee Growers (FNC) conducted an agro-ecological zoning study based on climate, soil, and terrain of the Colombian coffee-growing regions (CCGR) located in the tropics, between 1° and 11.5° N, in areas of complex topography. To support this study, a climate baseline was constructed at a spatial resolution of 5 km. Twenty-one bioclimatic indicators were drawn from this baseline data and from yield data for different coffee genotypes evaluated under conditions at eight experimental stations (ESs) belonging to the National Center for Coffee Research (CENICAFÉ). Three topographic indicators were obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM). Zoning at a national level resulted in the differentiation of 12 agro-climatic zones. Altitude notably influenced zone differentiation, however other factors such as large air currents, low-pressure atmospheric systems, valleys of the great rivers, and physiography also played an important role. The strategy of zoning according to coffee-growing conditions will enable areas with the greatest potential for the development of coffee cultivation to be identified, criteria for future research to be generated, and the level of technology implementation to be assessed. PMID:25436456

  15. Recommendations for the regionalizing of coffee cultivation in Colombia: a methodological proposal based on agro-climatic indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García L

    Full Text Available The Colombian National Federation of Coffee Growers (FNC conducted an agro-ecological zoning study based on climate, soil, and terrain of the Colombian coffee-growing regions (CCGR located in the tropics, between 1° and 11.5° N, in areas of complex topography. To support this study, a climate baseline was constructed at a spatial resolution of 5 km. Twenty-one bioclimatic indicators were drawn from this baseline data and from yield data for different coffee genotypes evaluated under conditions at eight experimental stations (ESs belonging to the National Center for Coffee Research (CENICAFÉ. Three topographic indicators were obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM. Zoning at a national level resulted in the differentiation of 12 agro-climatic zones. Altitude notably influenced zone differentiation, however other factors such as large air currents, low-pressure atmospheric systems, valleys of the great rivers, and physiography also played an important role. The strategy of zoning according to coffee-growing conditions will enable areas with the greatest potential for the development of coffee cultivation to be identified, criteria for future research to be generated, and the level of technology implementation to be assessed.

  16. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM, and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1 and 60 kDa (Lac2. Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct.

  17. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Medina, Sandra C; Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1) of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1) of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  18. Economic Growth and Agro-environmental Fragility——Based on the Provincial Panel Data Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The agro-environmental fragility of 31 provinces and regions (except Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan) of our country during the years 1978-2004 is measured by adopting the method of principal component analysis.With the support of analytical model of panel data,regressive analysis is achieved from the aspects of introducing regional differences,not introducing regional differences,existing industrial differences and not existing industrial differences respectively.The conclusion points out that there are both industrial and regional differences in the economic growth effect on the environmental fragility;these differences are reflected on the industrial or regional development levels.The higher the development level it is,the less the effect it is when the economic growth effect on the environmental fragility is negative,the more when the effect is positive,and it will change from being negative to positive when on the critical point;and vice versa.

  19. The Effects of the Substitution of Wood Fiberwith Agro-based Fiber (Barley Straw on the Properties of Natural Fiber/Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyvärinen Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns and the impending depletion of fossil fuels are driving the development of new bio-based, green products. Natural fibers are used increasingly as a filler or reinforcement in commercial thermoplastics due to their low cost, high specific properties and renewable nature. Agricultural byproducts and wastes are excellent alternative materials to supplement or substitute wood material as a reinforcement in composites.This comparative study focuses on the effects of the substitution of wood fiber with agro-basedfiber (barley straw on the mechanical and physical properties of natural fiber/polypropylene composites. The studied mechanical properties are flexural strength and modulus, Brinell hardness and Charpy impact strength. Water absorption and thickness swelling are studied as physical properties. Generally, the research resultsindicate that almost all the studied properties weakened significantlyas woodwas substituted with barley straw.Ofmechanical properties, the major decrease wasobserved in hardness.However, the use of barley straw slightlyimproved impact strength.The moisture-related properties, water absorption and thickness swelling,which have a great impact on the durability of a composite material, weakened significantly.

  20. Characterization of Jamaican agro-industrial wastes. Part II, fatty acid profiling using HPLC: precolumn derivatization with phenacyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Shaw, Y A; Golden, K D; Pearson, A G M; Porter, R B R

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the determination of fatty acid composition of coffee, citrus and rum distillery wastes using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Lipid extracts of the waste samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and their phenacyl esters are separated on a C8 reversed-phase column by using continuous gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. The presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in quantifiable amounts in the examined wastes, as well as the high percentage recoveries, are clear indications that these wastes have potential value as inexpensive sources of lipids. The HPLC procedures described here could be adopted for further analysis of materials of this nature. PMID:22595260

  1. The industrial applicability of purified cellulase complex indigenously produced by Trichoderma viride through solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial and municipal paper wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irshad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of Trichoderma viride produced high titers of cellulase complex in solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial orange peel waste, which was used as the growth-supporting substrate. When the conditions of the SSF medium containing 15 g orange peel (50% w/w moisture inoculated with 5 mL of inoculum were optimal, the maximum productions of endoglucanase (655 ± 5.5 U/mL, exoglucanase (412 ± 4.3 U/mL, and β-glucosidase (515 ± 3.7 U/mL were recorded after 4 days of incubation at pH 5 and 35 °C. The enzyme with maximum activity (endoglucanase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-100 column gel filtration chromatographic technique. Endoglucanase was 5.5-fold purified with specific activity of 498 U/mg in comparison to the crude enzyme. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The shelf life profile revealed that the enzyme could be stored at room temperature (30 °C for up to 45 days without losing much of its activity.

  2. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  3. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  4. An Investigation into Credit Receipt and Enterprise Performance among Small Scale Agro Based Enterprises in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubon Asuquo Essien,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to analyze credit receipt and enterprise performance by small scale agro based enterprises in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 264 agro based enterprises and 96 agro based enterprises that accessed informal and formal credit respectively. The Heckman model was used to examine the factors affecting amount of informal and formal credit received by the enterprises. Financial ratios such as the current ratio and return on capital employed ratio were used in addition to the t-test to examine the performance of enterprises that borrowed from informal and formal credit markets in the area. Analyses of informal credit amount received reveal that gender, age and social capital are significant for the first hurdle, whereas gender, size, income, guarantor and social capital are significant for the second hurdle. Similarly, gender, education, age, size, and collateral are significant for the first hurdle for formal credit, while the second hurdle reported significant results with age, size, income, collateral and social capital. Formal credit was less accessible than informal credit but enhanced greater performance. Formal credit should be made to be easily accessible and efficiently utilized. This will go a long way in complementing the amnesty programme of the federal government of Nigeria in the region.

  5. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES; FED-BATCH CULTIVATION AND STATISTICAL MEDIA OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Berekaa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus megaterium SW1-2 showed enhanced growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production during cultivation on date palm syrup (DEPS or sugar cane molasses. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic analyses of the polymer accumulated during growth on DEPS revealed specific absorption peaks characteristic for PHB. 1.65 g/L of PHB (56.9% CDW was produced during growth on medium supplemented with 2 g/L of DEPS. Approximately, 36.1% CDW of PHB were recorded during growth on sugar cane molasses. Six runs of different fed-batch cultivation strategies were tested, the optimal run showed approximately 6.87-fold increase. Modified E2 medium was prefered recording 10.11 and 11.34 g/L of total PHB produced for runs 1 and 2, at the end of 96 h incubation period, respectively. Decrease in PHB was recorded during growth on complex medium (run 3 and run 4. In another independent optimization strategy, ten variables were concurrently examined for their significance on PHB production by Plackett-Burman statistical design for the first time. Among variables, DEPS-II and inoculum concentration followed by KH2PO4 and (NH42SO4 were found to be the most significant variables encourage PHB production. Indeed, DEPS-II or Fresh syrup is more significant than commercial syrup DEPS-I (p-value= 0.05. RPM, incubation period have highly negative effect on PHB production. Role of ago-industrial wastes, especially DEPS, in enhancement of PHB production was closely discussed.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression strength and calorific value. The results were compared to those of beech and pine briquettes obtained under similar conditions. Based on the experimental results, mathematical correlations between density and compression strength and density and calorific value were investigated.

  7. An Agro-Climatological Early Warning Tool Based on the Google Earth Engine to Support Regional Food Security Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsfeld, M. F.; Daudert, B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Hegewisch, K.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Peterson, P.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Verdin, J. P.; Williams, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) focuses on food insecurity in developing nations and provides objective, evidence based analysis to help government decision-makers and relief agencies plan for and respond to humanitarian emergencies. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a platform provided by Google Inc. to support scientific research and analysis of environmental data in their cloud environment. The intent is to allow scientists and independent researchers to mine massive collections of environmental data and leverage Google's vast computational resources to detect changes and monitor the Earth's surface and climate. GEE hosts an enormous amount of satellite imagery and climate archives, one of which is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset (CHIRPS). The CHIRPS dataset is land based, quasi-global (latitude 50N-50S), 0.05 degree resolution, and has a relatively long term period of record (1981-present). CHIRPS is on a continuous monthly feed into the GEE as new data fields are generated each month. This precipitation dataset is a key input for FEWS NET monitoring and forecasting efforts. FEWS NET intends to leverage the GEE in order to provide analysts and scientists with flexible, interactive tools to aid in their monitoring and research efforts. These scientists often work in bandwidth limited regions, so lightweight Internet tools and services that bypass the need for downloading massive datasets to analyze them, are preferred for their work. The GEE provides just this type of service. We present a tool designed specifically for FEWS NET scientists to be utilized interactively for investigating and monitoring for agro-climatological issues. We are able to utilize the enormous GEE computing power to generate on-the-fly statistics to calculate precipitation anomalies, z-scores, percentiles and band ratios, and allow the user to interactively select custom areas for statistical time series comparisons and predictions.

  8. Evaluations on the potential productivity of winter wheat based on agro-ecological zone in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Li, Q.; Du, X.; Zhao, L.; Lu, Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J.

    2015-04-01

    Wheat is the most widely grown crop globally and an essential source of calories in human diets. Maintaining and increasing global wheat production is therefore strongly linked to food security. In this paper, the evaluation model of winter wheat potential productivity was proposed based on agro-ecological zone and the historical winter wheat yield data in recent 30 years (1983-2011) obtained from FAO. And the potential productions of winter wheat in the world were investigated. The results showed that the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in Western Europe was highest and it was more than 7500 kg/hm2. The realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in North China Plain were also higher, which was about 6000 kg/hm2. However, the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in the United States which is the main winter wheat producing country were not high, only about 3000 kg/hm2. In addition to these regions which were the main winter wheat producing areas, the realistic potential productivity in other regions of the world were very low and mainly less than 1500 kg/hm2, like in southwest region of Russia. The gaps between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were biggest, and the percentages of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were more than 40%. In Russia, the gap between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat was lowest and the percentage of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Russia was only 10%.

  9. Earth Observation Based Assessment of the Water Production and Water Consumption of Nile Basin Agro-Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim G.M. Bastiaanssen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition for water resources requires a better understanding of flows, fluxes, stocks, and the services and benefits related to water consumption. This paper explains how public domain Earth Observation data based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Second Generation Meteosat (MSG, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM and various altimeter measurements can be used to estimate net water production (rainfall (P > evapotranspiration (ET and net water consumption (ET > P of Nile Basin agro-ecosystems. Rainfall data from TRMM and the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS-NET RainFall Estimates (RFE products were used in conjunction with actual evapotranspiration from the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop and ETLook models. Water flows laterally between net water production and net water consumption areas as a result of runoff and withdrawals. This lateral flow between the 15 sub-basins of the Nile was estimated, and partitioned into stream flow and non-stream flow using the discharge data. A series of essential water metrics necessary for successful integrated water management are explained and computed. Net water withdrawal estimates (natural and humanly instigated were assumed to be the difference between net rainfall (Pnet and actual evapotranspiration (ET and some first estimates of withdrawals—without flow meters—are provided. Groundwater-dependent ecosystems withdraw large volumes of groundwater, which exceed water withdrawals for the irrigation sector. There is a strong need for the development of more open-access Earth Observation databases, especially for information related to actual ET. The fluxes, flows and storage changes presented form the basis for a global framework to describe monthly and annual water accounts in ungauged river basins.

  10. Dietas para pollos en ceba a base de subproductos de la agro-industria local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutberto Solano S;R. Rámirez;

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló utilizando como fuente de nutrientes subproductos locales de la agroindustria en sustitución de alimentos convencionales, se prepararon tres raciones en las que se incluyeron diferentes niveles (10; 15 y 20% de levadura Saccharomyces secada al sol con bagacillo de caña de azúcar (LBS y de polvo de arroz (20; 15 y 10 %, se completaron con levadura Torula, cabecilla de arroz, azúcar y harina de subproductos de la pesca. Para estudiar el efecto sobre el comportamiento productivo las dietas y un testigo de pienso comercial fueron ofertadas a cuatro grupos de animales en crecimiento con 21 días de nacidos y peso promedio de 405±10 g, distribuidos en un diseño completamente aleatorizado. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias significativas (p<0.05 en el peso vivo final de los pollos (1962; 1524; 1594 y 1504 g a favor de la dieta testigo, sin embargo entre los grupos alimentados con dietas a base de subproductos agroindustriales no hubo diferencias estadísticas, los rendimiento de canal se comportaron en todos los casos de manera semejante (67.02; 66.81; 69.89 y 65.32 %.With the purpose of using local agroindustrial by-products of the sugar cane and rice as source of nutrients on replacement concentrate for feeding broilers, were prepared three ration with different levels of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixing with sugar cane bagasse pith and dried on sun ligth (10; 15 and 20% and of the rice polishing (20; 15 and 10% the rations were completed with broken rice, crude sugar, of by-products fishing meal and Torula yeast. The diets and a control base on commercial concentrate were offered to four groups of growing broilers with 21 days of age on a totally randomized design to know the effect of the diets on the productive behavior of the animals. The results showed significant differences (p <0.05 in the final live weight of the chickens (1962; 1524; 1594 and 1504 g in favor of the control diet, however among

  11. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  12. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Gaspar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1 analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2 analysis of the training provision and the training organizations; (3 analysis of market trends; (4 definition of a training strategy; and (5 adjustment and development of training strategies for the agro-food sector. This last activity comprised the development of training curricula, suitable for the food sector as a whole and adjusted for the specific needs of some traditional industries, in order to promote the development and competitiveness of the agro-food industry in Portugal. Such training curricula aimed to promote the uptake of innovative technologies and methodologies, increase the ability of agro-food industries to invest and take risks, and enable adoption of European Community standards for production and marketing. Gaps in training supply were identified and the training provision was updated according to the needs of the agro-food companies. It was determined that companies need and demand knowledge and innovation to increase their competitive position for internationalization purposes. It was possible to define a training strategy based on market-orientation for agro-food differentiation.

  13. Agro-fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first contributions of this collective report are presenting the French first generation agro-fuel industry, its production, its usages, and its public incentives. Then, several authors comment the impacts of these first-generation agro-fuels on the environment: debate on the contribution of the nitrogen monoxide to the greenhouse gas emission assessment, question of the compatibility of the foreseen agro-fuel development with the French commitment of stopping the biodiversity erosion by 2010, contributions of engineering and chemical sciences to the assessment of agro-fuel environmental impact, methodology of assessment of energy, greenhouse emissions, and atmospheric pollutants related to first-generation agro-fuels. Land use by agro-fuels in France by 2015 is the next topic (impacts on agricultural land, relationship between breeding and agro-fuels). Some authors describe the global context: possible global interactions between agro-fuels and environment, sustainable certification of agro-fuels, analysis of the reasons for a world food crisis. The last contributions are dealing with second-generation agro-fuels: state of the art and perspectives, role in sustainable energy development

  14. Towards an agro-ecological village at the Flora Community : reducing greenhouse gas emissions through organic based farming and energy self reliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Mulkins, L. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada); Amongo, L.; Yap, E. [MASIPAG, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Mendoza, T. [Univ. of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). Dept of Agronomy

    2000-07-01

    A former haciendero owned sugarcane plantation in Negros Occidental, Philippines was transformed into a diversified, self-reliant, agro-ecological village, and its transition is documented in this paper. In 1995, through the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, the Philippine Government awarded 87 hectares of land to 76 hacienda workers. Community organizing, farm planning, training in organic farming, and loan support from a number of social welfare agencies were all areas where the community received assistance. The sugarcane production has been reduced at Flora since the land transition, and the community diversified into the growing of organic rice, corn and vegetables. Through its transition into an agro-ecological village, the Flora community has become more self-reliant in the areas of food and energy. Most individual farms and communally farmed areas have adopted organic based farming practices. The main products sold off the farm are sugarcane and high value vegetables. The MASIPAG rice farming system is being adhered to in the production of rice, the community's staple food. Nitrogen fixed during straw decomposition and the use of azolla, a nitrogen-fixing plant, represent some of the sources of nitrogen for the rice production. Other nutrient sources used are the mudpress from sugarcane processing and rice hull ash. To encourage nitrogen fixation and soil carbon accumulation from cane litter, a system of continuous trash farming was implemented for the production of sugarcane. In excess of 140 water buffaloes (carabaos) are employed for tillage and on-farm hauling, which minimizes the requirements for fossil fuels. Liquid propane gas (LPG), kerosene and wood fuel use in home cooking are being minimized by the efficient rice hull cookers. The local environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emissions are minimized, and the Flora community largely meets its requirements in terms of food security, on-farm energy and income. refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  15. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamics investigation on adsorption of divalent copper using agro-waste biomaterials, Musa acuminata, Casuarina equisetifolia L. and Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP, sorghum stem powder (SSP and banana stem powder (BSP were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the efficiency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-first and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich, chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.

  16. Utilization of agro-industrial wastes in citric acid fermentation with different techniques%农产品加工副产物在柠檬酸不同发酵类型中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璇; 钱莹; 段钢

    2012-01-01

    柠檬酸作为大宗发酵有机酸之一,被大量应用于食品、制药、洗涤等行业.农产品加工副产物作为原料应用于柠檬酸发酵由于具有成本低,可再生和环境友好等特点,受到了极大的关注.该文总结了近20年关于廉价废弃原料在柠檬酸不同发酵形式中应用的报道,为新型原料的开发提供了一定的理论基础.%As an important bulk chemical, citric acid is widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cleaning industries. The utilization of inexpensive agro-industrial wastes and their by-products is receiving more attention due to its low cost, renewability and environmental benefits. This paper reviewed the studies in recent 20 years, which used novel and economical substrates in citric acid fermentation with different techniques. This provides a new perspective to develop new processes for citric acid production.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND EFFICIENCY OF CAPITAL EMPLOYED IN AGRO-ALLIED FIRMS IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nsikan E Bassey; C.J. Arene; B.C. OKPUKPARA

    2014-01-01

    The study examines and compares the capital structure and efficiency of capital employed between listed and unlisted agro-based firms in Nigeria. Data collected from 88 agro-based firms using random sampling technique for the period 2005-2010 were analysed using Z-test, Capital Structure Ratio (CSR) and Return on Capital Employed Ratio (ROCE) analysis as well as descriptive statistics. The result revealed significant differences between the capital structure of listed and listed agro-based fi...

  18. Efficacy of Agricultural Wastes in the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium- A Review.

    OpenAIRE

    N Muthulakshmi Andal; S. Charulatha

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent Chromium is a major pollutant released during several industrial operations. It is also reported as one of the metals known to be carcinogenic and has an adverse potential to modify the DNA transcription process. The removal of hexavalent chromium has been studied by various authors employing adsorbents developed from waste agro by-products to assess their adsorption characteristics. This paper focuses on the comparison of some agro based products in the removal of Cr(VI) ions. An ...

  19. The cellulases and their application in degrading agro-industrial waste Las celulasas y su aplicación en la degradación de desechos agroindustriales

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz Wolfgang H.

    2002-01-01

    A huge amount of lignocellulosic biomass is available which can be used to produce storable energy and basic material for the chemical industry. Its use is especially beneficial for a country's economy if it is waste material, which can be obtained at almost no cost and which presents an environmental burden. However, the polysaccharides present in biomass are difficult to degrade due to their heterogeneity and crystalline structure. This article addresses the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulos...

  20. Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Anwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of bio-sourced lignocellulosic biomass. Agro-industrial biomass comprised on lignocellulosic waste is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant and provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. In this background green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the solid agricultural wastes particularly lignocellulosic materials into liquid bio based energy-fuels. In fact, major advances have already been achieved to competitively position cellulosic ethanol with corn ethanol. The present summarized review work begins with an overview on the physico-chemical features and composition of agro-industrial biomass. The information is also given on the multi-step processing technologies of agro-industrial biomass to fuel ethanol followed by a brief summary of future considerations.

  1. Analysis on agro-products quality and safety supervision based on game theory%基于博弈论的农产品质量安全监管分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗泰; 何忠伟

    2011-01-01

    运用博弈理论分析农产品质量安全监管问题.研究表明,经济利益(收入、成本和罚款)预期是决定生产经营者和监管者策略选择的重要因素.因此,要保证农产品质量安全,应该降低两者从事农产品质量安全活动的成本;加大对生产经营者制售伪劣农产品的处罚力度,杜绝其机会主义行为;加大对监管者消极监管的处罚力度,增加其作为的压力.%The paper analyzes the regulation of the quality and safety of Agro-products based on game theory. The study shows that the expectation of economic benefits (income, cost and penalty) is the key factor for strategy selection of producers, business operators and supervisions. Therefore, in order to ensure the quality and safety of agro-products, it is important to reduce the costs of producers, business operators and supervisions when they adopt activities that raising the quality and safety of Agro-products,intensify punishment on producing and selling of inferior quality Agro-products to curb opportunism behaviors of producers and business operators as well as intensify punishment on passive supervision to put efficiency pressure on supervisors.

  2. What does the future hold for semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystems? - Exploring cellular automata and agent-based trajectories of future land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nainggolan, D.; Termansen, M.; Fleskens, L.; Hubacek, K.; Reed, M.S.; Vente, de J.; Boix-Fayos, C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring how land use and the management of agro-ecosystems may evolve in the future is important for advancing scientific understanding and for informing policy makers and land managers of ways to respond and adapt sustainably to future change. In this paper, we investigate the future land-use tra

  3. CELLULASES PRODUCTION UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING AGRO WASTE AS A SUBSTRATE AND ITS APPLICATION IN SACCHARIFICATION BY TRAMETES HIRSUTA NCIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaumik R. Dave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and energy crisis are the biggest constraint all over the world which has focused lights on need of utilizing renewable resources to meet the future demand. A promising strategy is efficient utilization of lignocellulosic waste and fermentation of the resulting sugars for production of desired metabolites or biofuel. Production of all the cellulase enzymes on wheat bran and different parameters regulating it like pH, moisture ratio (substrate: liquid, temperature and inoculum size has been optimized which found to be 4.5, 1:3, 30°C and 108 spores respectively. Salient feature of partially purified enzyme with stability in the range of 30-50°C under acidic pH range was found to be prominent for industrial applications, moreover in this study, Trametes hirsuta, an efficient cellulase producer, was observed to be an effective species for saccharification of wheat straw to enhance the sugar yield. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw with 15 FPU of cellulase from the species showed 73% yield in 20 hrs. It may prove to be a suitable choice for the industrial saccharification of lignocellulosic biomasses.

  4. Las celulasas y su aplicación en la degradación de desechos agroindustriales The cellulases and their application in degrading agro-industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Wolfgang H.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Una cantidad de biomasa lignocelulósica está disponible y puede ser usada para producir energía almacenable, material básico de la industria química. Su uso es especialmente benéfico para un país, si esta biomasa hace parte de material de desecho que pude ser obtenido casi sin ningún costo y está presente en la carga ambiental. A pesar de esto, los polisacáridos presentes en ese tipo de biomasas son difíciles de degradar debido a su heterogeneidad y a su estructura cristalina. Este artículo está dirigido a la hidrólisis enzimática de la celulosa realizada por microorganismos que la degradan, las bacterias anaeróbicas. Se explican las dificultades para la digestión de la celulosa, así como las estrategias usadas por hidrolasas y complejos enzima ticos que permiten una degradación eficiente. La especificidad química de todas estas enzimas es idéntica, pero el modo de acción de cada uno de sus componentes es diferente. Sólo cuando se combinan con módulos de unión, se realiza una hidrólisis lenta pero eficiente. La variación de las estructuras modulares entre cada familia son un ejemplo de la diversificación evolutiva de la actividad enzimática. Se analiza un modelo para la hidrólisis de la celulosa en bruto (como está presente en la naturaleza; sin embargo, no se han realizado muchas investigaciones para explicar y describir el proceso a nivel molecular ni para optimizar la hidrólisis de la celulosa en el ámbito industrial. A huge amount of lignocellulosic biomass is available which can be used to produce storable energy and basic material for the chemical industry. Its use is especially beneficial for a country's economy if it is waste material, which can be obtained at almost no cost and which presents an environmental burden. However, the polysaccharides present in biomass are difficult to degrade due to their heterogeneity and crystalline structure. This article addresses the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

  5. Earth observation based assessment of the water production and water consumption of Nile basin agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Karimi, P.; Rebelo, L.M.; Duan, Z.; Senay, G.; Muttuwatte, L.; Smakhtin, V.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing competition for water resources requires a better understanding of flows, fluxes, stocks, and the services and benefits related to water consumption. This paper explains how public domain Earth Observation data based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Second Gen

  6. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with...

  7. ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND EFFICIENCY OF CAPITAL EMPLOYED IN AGRO-ALLIED FIRMS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikan E. BASSEY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examines and compares the capital structure and efficiency of capital employed between listed and unlisted agro-based firms in Nigeria. Data collected from 88 agro-based firms using random sampling technique for the period 2005-2010 were analysed using Z-test, Capital Structure Ratio (CSR and Return on Capital Employed Ratio (ROCE analysis as well as descriptive statistics. The result revealed significant differences between the capital structure of listed and listed agro-based firms. Listed agro-based firms recorded the highest debt to equity ratio than their unlisted counterpart. Short term debts also constituted a greater percentage of the total debt ratios of both sample groups. Unlisted agro firms were more efficient than listed firms in terms of return on capital employed. Accordingly, series of recommendations have also been offered.

  8. Utilization of Agro-Residual Ligno-Cellulosic Substances by Using Solid State Fermentation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hayder Kh. Q.; Zulkali, M.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Agro-residual wastes contain many usable substrates of high value such as carbohydrates and fi bers. Direct disposal of these wastes as burning or landfill will cause serious environmental problems. Thus, designing new methods for exploitation and treatment of these wastes to produce useful products with great economic advantages are substantial. Solid state fermentation (SSF) has become an attractive method in recent years due to its features of using these wastes directly as raw materials o...

  9. Agro-industrial waste: a low cost adsorbent for effective removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide in batch and packed bed modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Sunil K; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-08-01

    The present work describes the aqueous phase removal of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid herbicide by rice husk ash (RHA) using batch and packed bed adsorption techniques. The effects of dosage, initial concentration, time, pH, temperature, and particle size of adsorbent in batch compared with effects of influent concentration, flow rate, and bed height in packed bed were studied. The particle size effect reveals that the removal is dependent on chemical composition (silica and carbon content) together with BET surface area of RHA. The aptness of Langmuir isotherm to batch data indicates the favorable adsorption whereas that of Temkin isotherm informs the heterogeneous nature of RHA. The kinetics of adsorption follows the pseudo-second order and Elovich models while thermodynamics of process indicates the exothermic adsorption. Among the models applied in packed bed study, the deactivation kinetic, Yoon-Nelson and bed depth service time (BDST) models are suitable to explain the packed bed adsorption. The adsorption capacity of RHA in packed bed study is found greater than that in batch. The adsorption capacity of RHA determined by the BDST model is 3019 mg/L for 90 % saturation of bed. The adsorption capacity of RHA based on weight is ∼2.3 times and that based on surface area is ∼55.55 times greater than that of granular activated carbon. PMID:27151241

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) ON THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF AGRO-BASED FOOD INDUSTRIES IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ayinde; Agbonlahor, M.U.; Mafimisebi, Taiwo Ejiola; Adebayo, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Information Communication technologies (ICTs) as a management tool has gained widespread significance in recent years and the stock of management advantages provided by ICT cuts across disciplines and sectors. Management experts see this globalization of management options as the “super production and marketing input” needed by firms to boost their competitive edge. This paper assesses the adoption and use of ICTs on the economic performance of Agro-industries (ABFIs) in South-West...

  11. Analysis on safety condition of agro_product quality in production base of Huizhou City%惠州市生产基地农产品质量安全状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯会胜; 李碧兰; 黄子敬

    2014-01-01

    With the raPid develoPment of social economy,consumers has Paid more and more attention on the quality and safety of agro_Products,it has become the hot sPot of the society. Huizhou formed its integrated monitoring system of quality and safety of agro_Products,and established testing centers of the City,county and townshiP. SuPervision and Testing Center of Agricultural products Quality and Safety of Huizhou directly suPervise the quality of agro_Products from Production bases with a certain scale,and the testing centers of the county and townshiP suPervise other agro_Product bases by raPid detection method. If some samPles are Positive,they will be sent uP to the city. Thus,the risks of the quality and safety of the Produc_tion base are basically controlled. The monitoring results in 2011—2013 showed that,no state_forbidden Pesticides in the Products from Production bases,such as MethamidoPhos,has been detected out,the qualified rate ofβ_stimulant in Pig urine samPles was more than 99. 67%,in lever samPles was 100%,the qualified rate of the residues of sulfonamide and quinolo_nes in chicken meat and egg samPles from chicken farm was 100%,the qualified rate of melamine in milk samPles from cat_tle farm was 100%.%2011~2013年惠州市农产品质检中心对广东省惠州市生产基地果蔬及其畜禽产品质量安全状况进行监测,结果表明:3年来生产基地的蔬果样品未出现甲胺磷等国家禁止生产、销售和使用的农药;养猪场猪尿样品β—兴奋剂监测合格率在99.67%以上、猪肝样品β—兴奋剂合格率达到100%,养鸡场中鸡肉、鸡蛋样品的磺胺及喹诺酮药物残留合格率均达100%,奶牛场中牛奶样品的三聚氰胺合格率达100%。

  12. Development of bioplastics from agro-wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Maria João; Moura, I. (Iaci); M. de OLIVEIRA; Machado, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    During centuries synthetic polymers have been used in a variety of applications in the everyday of human life. They became essential due to its versatility, durability and low cost [1]. However, due to their excessive use, several drawbacks as its resistance to the decomposition, toxicity after incineration and accumulation in the environment induce negative ecological impact in landfills and water contamination [2]. Moreover, plastics production implies the use of...

  13. Dongtan Modern Agro-park Landscape Evaluation and Landscape Mode Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Sheng-quan

    2007-01-01

    Agro-park landscape is an important and special type of rural landscape, the multi-funcitons of modern agro-park are agricultural high-tech demonstration, rural landscape tourism, ecology eduacation et al.In order to clarify how to reserch agro-park landscape and design landscape modes in Dongtan modern agro-park, the landscape patterns, ecological maker, and environmental color were investigated firstly, then, the agro-park landscape evaluation method was established, finally, the landscape evaluation and landscape mode design were studied.The Dongtan modern agro-park lanscape evaluation indexes include three levels, namely, rule layer B( 3 items), and index layer C( 9 items), index layer D(26 items), the value of landscape comprehensive evaluation is 0.51 based on the comprehensive evaluation model.The landscape design modes of the Dongtan modern agro-park include landscape structure design mode-spacial increasing form in growth ring style, landscape element combination mode design and environmental color mode design.This research has established a significant foundation for further lanscape detail design and landcape management of a Dongtan modern agro-park.

  14. 基于SWOT分析的新疆特色农产品营销对策探析%Marketing Countermeasures of Characteristic Agro-products of Xinjiang Based on the SWOT Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程燕

    2012-01-01

    依托新疆特有的农业生产资源,发展优势特色农产品,开展特色农产品的营销是实现特色优势资源转换,传统农业向现代农业转型和提高农民收入的重要途径.利用SWOT分析对新疆特色农产品营销环境的优势、劣势、机遇和威胁进行了分析.综合各种有利和不利的因素,提出了新疆应抓住中央援疆机遇和区位优势开拓国内外市场,加强品牌建设、文化营销和绿色营销,加强农业信息建设,提高农产品精深加工能力,提高农产品质量和安全,加强标准准化生产和三品认证等对策建议.%Depended on specific agricultural production resources of Xinjiang, producing characteristic agro-products and marketing them was the most significant way to realize the conversion of special advantage resources, turning traditional agriculture into modem agriculture and increasing peasant income. Based on the SWOT analysis, the paper analysed the strengths, the weaknesses, the opportunities and the threats of the marketing environment of characteristic agro-products of Xinjiang. The favorable and unfavorable factors taken together, the paper put forward countermeasures such as Xinjiang should seize the opportunity of Aid to Xinjiang and location advantages to open up domestic and international market, strengthen the brand construction, cultural marketing and green marketing, enhance the construction of information, improve enterprises' ability of agro-products processing, improve the quality and safety of agro-products and strengthen the standardized production and the authentication etc.

  15. Radioactive waste data base through the net: A tool to improve the development of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the duties in Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy (CCHEN) is the timely reply to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Net enable waste management data base (NEWMDB) in the waste management field. This duty is carried out by the Radioactive Waste Management Section. CCHEN has complete this data base from about one decade ago. Through the time, the data base has changed according to new available information technologies, to the point that the access using the international net is a need today. The NEWMDB objective is to exchange information and knowledge between member states related to radioactive waste management situation and to conform a world inventory of radioactive waste. The Chilean experience got from the NEWMDB first data collection cycle (1999-2000) is presented here, and recommendations to be considered for incorporation in the domestic waste management system are exposed. In so doing, the data base answer should be easy to do and totally understood by everyone whose job is waste management around the world, in the context of the glossary, criteria and conventions on this data base is supported. The composition of the NEWMDB considers a General Frame which indicates the way in which the waste management is enfaced in the country, regulations, authorities, policies, infrastructure; a Waste Classification matrix which give the equivalence between proper country waste classification and that recommended by IAEA; Waste Data which give the quantities and situation of waste in the different steps of the management such as: conditioned waste, unconditioned stored waste, etc. Finally, the Sustainable Development for radioactive waste management Indicators (SDI) for the safety and environmental radioactive waste management are estimated (Au)

  16. Spatially-Distributed Stream Flow and Nutrient Dynamics Simulations Using the Component-Based AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, J. C.; David, O.; Heathman, G. C.; Smith, D. R.; Green, T. R.; Krause, P.; Kipka, H.; Fink, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cedar Creek watershed (CCW) in northeastern Indiana, USA was selected for application of the OMS3-based AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) model. AgES-W performance for stream flow and N loading was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (ENS) and percent bias (PBIAS) model evaluation statistics. Comparisons of daily and average monthly simulated and observed stream flow and N loads for the 1997-2005 simulation period resulted in PBIAS and ENS values that were similar or better than those reported in the literature for SWAT stream flow and N loading predictions at a similar scale. The results show that the AgES-W model was able to reproduce the hydrological and N dynamics of the CCW with sufficient quality, and should serve as a foundation upon which to better quantify additional water quality indicators (e.g., sediment transport and P dynamics) at the watershed scale.

  17. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  18. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  19. Agro-fuels: southern impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  20. Study on How to Develop Agro-tourism Based on Mallow's Hierarchy of Human Needs Theory%基于马斯洛需要层次理论的休闲农业开发探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范水生; 朱朝枝

    2011-01-01

    休闲农业的设计与运作根据马斯洛需要层次需求理论,满足人们由生理、安全到自我实现的需求,可以为人们提供丰富的休闲产品与休闲体验.笔者提出用"功能涵盖性"的原则界定"休闲农业"概念,并在分析休闲农业的多功能特性与产业本质的基础上,运用马斯洛需要层次需求理论,从管理者、经营者2个方面提出了休闲农业开发的思路.%According to Mallow' s hierarchy of human needs theory, agro-tourism is to satisfy people' s physiological needs, security needs, and self-actualization needs. The author comes up with the ‘functional umbrella' principle and provides the definition of ‘agro-tourism'. Based on Mallow' s hierarchy of human needs theory and analysis of the multifunctional and industrial nature of ago-tourism, the author puts forward some ideas to develop ago-tourism as a manager and an operator from the perspective of mangers and operators.

  1. Agro-fuels, a cartography of stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a dashboard of the main issues regarding agro-fuels. Nine sheets propose basic information and data on these issues: 1- agro-fuel production and consumption in the world (ethanol, vegetable oils, perspective for demand in the transport sector), 2- energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions (energy assessments and greenhouse effect of agro-fuels, discrepancies of results between first-generation European agro-fuels, case of agro-fuels produced in Southern countries), 3- needed surfaces in Europe (land use and cultivable areas for agro-fuel production in Europe and in France, competition between food and energy crops), 4- deforestation in the South (relationship between agriculture, deforestation and agro-fuels, between deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions), 5- impacts on biodiversity (use of pesticides and fertilizers, large scale cultivations and single-crop farming, cultivation of fallow land and permanent meadows, deforestation in the South, relationship between agro-fuels and GMOs), 6- impacts on water, soil and air (water quality and availability, soil erosion, compaction and fertility loss, air quality), 7- food-related and social stakes (issue of food security, social impacts of agro-fuel production with pressure on family agriculture and issues of land property), 8- public supports and economic efficiency (public promotion of agro-fuels, agro-fuel and oil prices, assessment of the 'avoided' CO2 ton), and 9- perspectives for second-generation agro-fuels (definitions and processes, benefits with respect to first-generation fuels, possible impacts on the environment, barriers to their development)

  2. Cultivation of Flammulina velutipes mushroom using various agro-residues as a fruiting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraishah Harith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of different agro-residues as a carbon source in the fruiting substrates of Flammulina velutipes mushroom and the effect of supplementation with the nitrogen sources spent brewer's yeast and rice bran. The following fruiting substrates were evaluated: rubber wood sawdust (SD, paddy straw (PS, palm empty fruit bunches (EFB, and palm-pressed fiber (PPF. Cultivation was done on each agro-residue, based on formulations consisting of two substrates at the ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. Mycelial growth rate and basidiocarp yield were evaluated. The best fruiting substrates were PS+EFB (25:75, PS+PPF (50:50, and PPF (100, with biological efficiency of 185.09±36.98, 150.89±50.35, and 129.06±14.51%, respectively. No significant effects of supplementation with rice bran and spent yeast were observed on mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency. The cultivation of F. velutipes on oil palm wastes does not require additional nitrogen sources.

  3. Agro-ecological compensation standard based on emergy analysis in Yongding River basin%基于能值分析的永定河流域农业生态补偿标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 高婷; 闫丽娟; 张爱静; 阮本清

    2013-01-01

      实施农业生态补偿是消除当前农业生产中的负面影响,保证环境友好型农业生产顺利进行的前提.针对当前的农业生态补偿标准计算中,价值受时空动态变化影响较大、投入成本难以准确计量的弊端,借助能值与价值之间的可转化性,给出基于农业可持续发展的生态补偿标准计算体系.选择永定河官厅水库以上流域为研究区,从可更新资源(R)、不可更新资源(N)、物质投入(M)、服务成本(S)的能值计算出发,计算得出永定河流域的农业生产的总能值为3.80×1016 Sej/hm2,其中可更新的能值为1.59×1016 Sej/hm2,不可更新能值2.21×1016 Sej/hm2.研究区农业生产的环境可持续指数(ESI)为0.1056,流域农业处于严重不可持续状态,应实施农业生态补偿进行调整.借鉴能值与生态服务价值之间的可转化性,为实现流域农业生产的可持续,下游区域政府或受益部门应对上游农业水土流失防护补偿约4亿元.该文研究结果的应用表明,基于能值的农业生态补偿标准计算方法具有一定的适用性.%The aim of agro-ecological compensation is to eliminate the negative effects during agricultural production, and promote the strategy implementation of environment-friendly agriculture. At present, agro-ecological compensation standard is greatly affected by the temporal and spatial variation of value, and the inaccuracy of input cost calculation result. Emergy is an important advanced technology in calculation of material inputs and efficiency of agricultural ecological protection quality. The paper gave the study method of agro-ecological compensation standard based on the conversion between emergy and value, as well as the process to calculate agro-ecological protection cost and benefit. On the basis of defining the components within the system, and allowing the identification of inputs and output of agricultural production, the annual emergy flows

  4. Agro-ecological engineering in China: a way towards sustainableagriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable development, as a "hot topic", concerns not only economic development but also environmental protection. Agriculture, the base of other economic activities, has faced many difficulties that include over-growth population, land decrease, end land degradation and so on. Therefore, how to increase the food supply, to meet the over-growth population demands, is the main taskall over the world at present, especially in the developing countries, such as China, but we also must protect agricultural environment for medinm- and long-term development simultaneously. Hence, sustainable development in agriculture is the most important estate that we must concern. Its sustainable development determines the sustainability of other economic development to a great extent. Despite Chinese government has paid much attention to develop agricultural production and obtained great successions, there are also many shortcomings in Chinese agriculture. Therefore, China must seek new approaches for its development end environmental protection that suit local conditions and are based on local resources. Agro-ecological engineering, the application of ecological engineering in agriculture, is very thriving in China in recent decades. In this paper, the ecological, economic and social benefits of agro-ecological engineering are analyzed. The principles are discussed. The results indicated that agro-ecological engineering can meet the farmer's short-, medium- and long-term benefits. In the meanwhile, it also concerns not only economic benefits but ecological and social benefits. Therefore, agro-ecological engineering is a way that leads to sustainable agriculture in the future in China.

  5. 流域农业土地生态价值内涵及应用分析%Agro-ecosystem value connotation based on watershed land use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 杜霞; 彭文启; 董飞

    2015-01-01

    农业生态系统服务价值与其他产品生产密切相关。生态系统作为生产输入会提供服务价值,而其通常被看作购置性投入的替代品,利于成本降低。农业生态系统保护与粮食产量增加存在动态均衡,两者具有“下跌”关系。农业生产者为实现土地利用层面的利润最大化,对生态系统服务的更大依赖将导致农田产量削减。通过构建农业生态系统生产函数模型,合理确定替代条件和产出结果,量化研究种植土地保留数量与提供生态系统服务土地数量的分配比例。以永定河上游流域为典型区,借助用于生产的土地产量弹性计算,流域每增加1%的生态系统服务用地,对应农作物产量将缩减2.7%。虽对农业生态价值“下跌”影响从微级视角给出量化分析模型,但对生产中生态保护政策影响的研究仍需深化。%The service value of agro-ecosystem is closely related with other product production. The ecosystem can provide service value, which is usually considered as the substitute of purchasing input, in order to benefit the cost reduction. There is dynamic equilibrium between agricultural ecosystem protection and grain output increase, and they have the"falling"relation. In order to maximize profits at the level of land utilization, higher dependence of agricultural producers on ecosystem service will reduce farmland output. In this paper, the production function model of agricultural ecosystem is built so as to reasonably determine the alternative conditions and output results, and quantitative research of allocation proportion between the land reserved and the land providing ecosystem service is conducted. Taking the upstream of Yongding River basin as the study region, the calculation is conducted by means of the elasticity in land yield for production. If the land providing the ecosystem service in the river basin is increased by 1%, the corresponding crop

  6. Re-skilling the social practices: open source and life-towards a commons-based peer production in agro-biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Guido; Ruivenkamp, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by the thinking of authors such as Andrew Feenberg, Tim Ingold and Richard Sennett, this article sets forth substantial criticism of the 'social uprooting of technology' paradigm, which deterministically considers modern technology an autonomous entity, independent and indifferent to the social world (practices, skills, experiences, cultures, etc.). In particular, the authors' focus on demonstrating that the philosophy,methodology and experience linked to open source technological development represent an emblematic case of re-encapsulation of the technical code within social relations (reskilling practices). Open source is discussed as a practice, albeit not unique, of community empowerment aimed at the participated and shared rehabilitation of technological production ex-ante. Furthermore, the article discusses the application of open source processes in the agro-biotechnological field, showing how they may support a more democratic endogenous development, capable of binding technological innovation to the objectives of social (reducing inequalities) and environmental sustainability to a greater degree. PMID:23096772

  7. Performance-based waste acceptance criteria preliminary baseline assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) strategy for the management of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed wastes has focused on the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP repository is designated to receive DOE defense wastes that meet the established criteria for acceptance. As a national strategy [DOE, 1993], DOE does not intend to treat candidate wastes unless treatment or processing are necessary to meet the safety, health, and regulatory criteria for transport and disposal at WIPP. The WIPP WAC has evolved over the past 10 years to include criteria and requirements in support of the Waste Characterization program and other related compliance programs. In aggregate, the final health, safety and regulatory criteria for the waste will be documented in the Disposal WAC. This document serves two purposes. First, it familiarizes regulators and stakeholders with the concept of performance based waste acceptance criteria as an augmentation within a final Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. Second, the document preliminarily identifies certain waste characteristics that appear important to the performance assessment process for WIPP; therefore, these could become component characteristics in the Performance Based Waste Acceptance Criteria (PBWAC). Identification of the final PBWAC will be accomplished through iterative runs of the System Prioritization Method (SPM). These iterations will serve to more clearly isolate and identify those waste characteristics that directly and predominately impact on the performance assessment

  8. Mechanical properties of trays based on starch of native plant species and fiber of agroindustrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural fibers derived from agro-industrial waste in density, weight and mechanical properties of the termoprensadas foams made of starch native species, such as sweet potatoes, oca and arracacha. The thermoforming process was carried out at a temperature of 145 ° C and a pressure of 60 bar. The baking time was 10-15 min depending on water content in the mixture. The trays were characterized by their density, weight, impact test, deflection tests, colorimetry, hardness, and fracturability values. The trays prepared by thermopressure based on sweet potato starch-bagasse fiber from sugar cane at 15%, and arracacha starch -peladilla asparagus fiber at 30% had higher values in flexural strength versus those made with other types of starches and fibers, including blank tests. Generally, the hardness of the trays is favored with increasing fiber, however fracturability decreases or does not improve the integrity of the polymeric matrix. The results shown in this study allow the preparation of biodegradable trays for various industrial applications.

  9. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  10. Properties of Agro-Industrial Aerated Concrete as Potential Thermal Insulation for Building

    OpenAIRE

    Aminudin Eeydzah; Md Din Mohd Fadhil; Hussin Mohd Warid; Abdullah Abd Halid; Iwao Kenzo; Ichikawa Yo

    2016-01-01

    The present paper is aiming to provide an actual state of the development of non autoclaved Agro-Industrial aerated concrete by using multiple ashes as improvement of thermal behavior for building. The feasibility of Agro-Industrial wastes as lightweight concrete by utilizing the Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) as binder replacement and bottom ash as fine aggregate was investigated in this paper. Portland cement, bottom ash, aluminum powder and lime (Ca(OH)2) were used in this study. The POFA was us...

  11. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report

  12. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  13. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction

  14. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction.

  15. Governing of Agro-Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (combining Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences), and suggest a framework for analysis of mechanisms of governance of agro-ecosystem services. Firstly, we present a new approach for analysis and improvement of governance of agro-ecosystem services. It takes into account the role of specific institutional environment (formal and informal rules, distribution of ...

  16. Mechanical properties of trays based on starch of native plant species and fiber of agroindustrial wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Espina; J.P. Cruz-Tirado; Raúl Siche

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural fibers derived from agro-industrial waste in density, weight and mechanical properties of the termoprensadas foams made of starch native species, such as sweet potatoes, oca and arracacha. The thermoforming process was carried out at a temperature of 145 ° C and a pressure of 60 bar. The baking time was 10-15 min depending on water content in the mixture. The trays were characterized by their density, weight, impact test, deflection ...

  17. Agro-climatic Division of Rana chensinensis in Fushun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on data collected by 3 basic weather stations in Fushun City and 47 automatic weather stations in the whole region,we selected indexes suitable for agro-climatic division of Rana chensinensis,and carried out a study on agro-climatic division of Rana chensinensis in this region.Annual active accumulated temperature ≥10 ℃ and precipitation during April and September are used as basic calculation factors,and we use climatic aridity to make climatic division of Rana chensinensis in Fushun City.According to relevant indexes,we divide Fushun City into 3 regions,namely most appropriate,appropriate and general regions.Finally,countermeasures and suggestions are put forward for providing reference for agricultural production.

  18. Researches on Risk Evaluation of Green Agro-product Closed Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Closed supply chain is a superior form of management model of chain supply and an effective means of improving the modernization of agro-product circulation. Based on the research results of the current literatures on supply chain risk and agro-product supply chain, related subjects of the agro-product closed supply chain involving production, management and consumption are studied and analyzed and the primary risking factors in the supply chain system are classified as environmental risk, system risk, information risk, management risk and quality risk. Risk of agro-product closed supply chain is evaluated by using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and the values are acquired. The result shows that risk of agro-product closed supply chain is moderate with relatively high risk, which basically accords with the present actual situations. It can be seen from the index weights of various levels that the key first-level indices influencing the risks are system risk, information risk, quality and safety risk and the key second-level are the coordinating and controlling ability of core enterprises, the implementation of information traceability and the construction of quality safety system. Therefore, risk of agro-product closed supply chain should be reduced by taking prevention and controlling measures mainly from these aspects.

  19. Driving Forces and Development Strategies of China’s Agro-tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling’en; WANG; Shengkui; CHENG; Qingwen; MIN; Lu; HE

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, agro-tourism has sprung up all over the country, and has gradually become a new form of agricultural business and a new force of tourism development. The development of agro-tourism plays an important role in enriching the agricultural industry forms, increasing farmers’ income, promoting the optimization and upgrading of rural industrial structure, and expanding the field of the tourism section. This paper firstly introduces domestic and foreign agro-tourism development and current research situations. Then it analyses the development background of China’s agro-tourism from the perspective of market demand, urbanization and transformation of rural economic structure. Based on analysis, it summarizes models of driving force of China’s agro-tourism: regional traffic driven, city driven, scenic spot driven, and monopolistic resource-driven. According to these four driving force types, development strategies are put forward: Characteristic product development for regional traffic driven model; in-depth theme development for city driven model; interactive development for scenic spot driven model; brand development for resource driven model; priority development for integrated driven model. It is expected to provide reference and guidance for healthy and sustainable development of China’s agro-tourism.

  20. Waste minimization for land-based drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, N.E. (Amoco Production Co. (US))

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses engineering variables that should be addressed to minimize waste-toxicity and generation while drilling land-based wells. Proper balance of these variables provides both operational and environmental benefits.

  1. Toward Sustainable Practice of Market-Based Waste Management System Case Study in Sragen Regency, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Harno; Dote, Yutaka; Sekito, Tomoo; Maryati, Sri

    2013-01-01

    Markets are the second largest generator of municipal solid waste after households. Research aims to measure the average daily waste generation, to determine waste composition, to measure the efficacy of market-based waste management, to identify the factors influencing market waste generation, to explain the parameters of market waste generation, and to make policy recommendations toward sustainable practice of a market-based waste management system in Sragen Regency has been conducted at Ge...

  2. Biogas systems for sisal and other agro-industrial residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology, Taastrup (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Most of the East-African agro-industries are generating very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, Sugar, Coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In other 3. world countries, Palm oil and Cassava (Tapioca starch) processing are main producers of organic waste products. Moreover, large quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The following pages give examples of setups and system designs of anaerobic treatment systems for some of the residues mentioned above. When considering anaerobic treatment of sisal residues, which constitutes the main agro-industrial biomass resource in Tanzania, two major issues should be considered: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; And optionally, potential methods for pre-treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield. The sisal liquid residues are degraded very fast and efficiently in UASB systems. At COD loading rates less than 11 kg COD/m{sup 3} x day, the reduction in organic matter is more than 90% and methane yields obtained are between 373 and 377 ml CH{sub 4}/g COD reduced. The treatment of sisal solid residues in CSTR systems has been examined both at mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic temperatures (55 deg. C.). (EG)

  3. Management and hazardous waste characterization in Central for Isotop and Radiation Application based on potential dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separating and storing hazardous waste have been done based on the physical, chemical, and based on potential dangers due to safety hazardous waste temporary storage warehouse. From the results of data collection in 2014 found that the most dominant hazardous waste is organic liquid waste which reaches 61 %, followed by inorganic liquid waste 33 % while organic solid waste and inorganic solid waste has a small portion. When viewed from potential danger, flammable liquid waste has the greatest volume percentage it is 47 % and is followed by a corrosive liquid waste 26 %, while the liquid waste that has not been identified is quite large, which is 9 %. From the highest hazard potential data, hazardous waste storage warehouse is required to have good air circulation and waste storage shelf protected from direct solar heat. Cooperation of lab workers and researchers are also indispensable in providing identification of each waste generated to facilitate the subsequent waste management. (author)

  4. Developing Technological Capabilities in Agro-Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how Gh...... broader implications for developing new agro-industries in Ghana as well as other African countries.......This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how...... Ghanaian exporters developed technological capabilities initially and the incentives and disincentives to building on those capabilities. The article argues that at the heart of the industry's crisis was an inability to further develop technological capabilities. The crisis had systemic features that have...

  5. Properties of Agro-Industrial Aerated Concrete as Potential Thermal Insulation for Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Eeydzah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is aiming to provide an actual state of the development of non autoclaved Agro-Industrial aerated concrete by using multiple ashes as improvement of thermal behavior for building. The feasibility of Agro-Industrial wastes as lightweight concrete by utilizing the Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA as binder replacement and bottom ash as fine aggregate was investigated in this paper. Portland cement, bottom ash, aluminum powder and lime (Ca(OH2 were used in this study. The POFA was used to replace Portland cement and Hydrated Lime at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight and aluminum powder was added at 0.75% dry weight in order to form bubbles. The compressive strength, water absorption, porosity and the thermal conductivity test were carried out after the concrete were water cured for 7 days and later being exposed to the air and water until 28days. The results show that the 20% replacements give the optimum strength of 7.143MPa and 30% give the best thermal conductivity with 0.48W/mK. Hence, this study aim, was to develop an agro-industrial aerated concrete good in insulation but having an optimum strength. Hence, it has been found that the more the percentage of POFA is added the lower the thermal conductivity since the pore structure is increasing and by the optimization done, 30% replacement has been chosen as the best mix design for Agro-Industrial Aerated Concrete.

  6. Stabilization/solidification of an alkyd paint waste by carbonation of waste-lime based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, R; Galán, B; Coz, A; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R

    2010-05-15

    The application of solvent-based paints by spraying in paint booths is extensively used in a wide range of industrial activities for the surface treatment of a vast array of products. The wastes generated as overspray represent an important environmental and managerial problem mainly due to the hazardous characteristics of the organic solvent, rendering it necessary to appropriately manage this waste. In this paper a solidification/stabilization (S/S) process based on accelerated carbonation was investigated as an immobilization pre-treatment prior to the disposal, via landfill, of an alkyd solvent-based paint waste coming from the automotive industry; the purpose of this S/S process was to immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment. Different formulations of paint waste with lime, lime-coal fly-ash and lime-Portland cement were carbonated to study the effect of the water/solid ratio and carbonation time on the characteristics of the final product. To assess the efficiency of the studied S/S process, metals, anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed in the leachates obtained from a battery of compliance and characterization leaching tests. Regarding the carbonation of paint waste-lime formulations, a mathematical expression has been proposed to predict the results of the leachability of DOC from carbonated mixtures working at water/solid ratios from 0.2 to 0.6. However, lower DOC concentrations in leachates (400mg/kg DOC in L/S=10 batch leaching test) were obtained when carbonation of paint waste-lime-fly-ash mixtures was used at 10h carbonation and water to solid ratio of 0.2. The flammability characteristics, the total contents of contaminants and the contaminant release rate in compliance leaching tests provide evidence for a final product suitable for deposition in non-hazardous landfills. The characterization of this carbonated sample using a dynamic column leaching test shows a high stabilization of metals, partial

  7. Emergy Analysis of Agro-ecosystem in Poyang Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using emergy analysis theory and methods, we conduct quantitative analysis on the input and output of emergy, and sustainable development of agro-ecological system in Poyang Lake Area. The results show that compared with the national average, the environmental loading ratio is relatively low in this area; the net emergy yield rate is high; the sustainable development ability is strong. Finally according to the results of emergy analysis, corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: develop agriculture based on the existing rich natural resources; increase technological inputs; develop circular agriculture; promote sustainable agricultural development.

  8. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  9. Based on CVM Agro-ecological Compensation in Upstream of Erhai Lake Basin%基于 CVM 意愿调查的洱海流域上游农业生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施翠仙; 郭先华; 祖艳群; 陈建军; 李元

    2014-01-01

    Farmers are the core stakeholders of agro-ecological compensation. Their cognition and participation willingness in agro-ecologi-cal compensation greatly influence the efficiency and sustainability of agro -ecological compensation. In this study, contingent valuation method(CVM)was used to collect information including farmersˊ cognition level of eco-environment and agro-ecological compensation and willingness to accept(WTA)agro-ecological compensation in Eryuan County in the upstream of Erhai lake basin. Agro-ecological compen-sation criteria for adjusting agricultural industry structure were also estimated. Total 350 questionnaires were sent out and valid 305 re-ceived. About 70% of farmers showed correct understanding of ecological environment and high cognition level of agro-ecological compen-sation. More than half of farmers who participated in projects of agro-ecological compensation were satisfied with agro-ecological compensa-tion in 2007-2009, while 42.77% farmers were dissatisfied due to low compensation standards and inequities in agro-ecological compen-sation. Farmers preferred policy compensation and technology compensation. Total amount of the compensation for the whole county should be 3.248 0×108 Yuan(RMB)per year. Of four agricultural structure adjustment modes in Eryuan County, 71.15% farmers chose non-zero WTA. Farmersˊ education level, cognition and participating willingness of agro-ecological compensation showed positive effects on the pref-erence of agro-ecological compensation modes, while family income had a negative effect. This study suggests that raising farmersˊ cognition of agro-ecological compensation and performing pilot scale trials of agro-ecological compensation are essential for sustainability of agro-e-cological compensation.%农民是农业生态补偿的主要利益相关者,其对生态补偿的认知态度和参与意愿直接影响生态补偿项目的实施效果和可持续性。以洱海流域上游水源地洱源

  10. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Braide; I. A. Kanu; S.U. Oranusi; S. A. Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark) and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk) was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total re...

  11. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V.; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-08-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed.

  12. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste: The case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Gradus, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has no effect on the waste collected in surrounding municipalities (waste tourism). However, unit-based pricing may lead to illegal dumping. While empirical evidence is scarce, a social cost-benefit a...

  13. Community-Based Solid Waste Management: A Training Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…

  14. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as "Agro-Industrial Ecology", is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. PMID:26599147

  15. The value of producing food, energy, and ecosystem services within an agro-ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John Roy; Constanza, Robert; Sandhu, Harpinder;

    2009-01-01

    and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-ecosystem that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-ecosystems can provide a significantly increased net crop, energy, and nonmarketed ES compared...... with conventional agriculture, and require markedly less fossil-based inputs. Extrapolated to the European scale, the value of nonmarket ES from the CFE system exceeds current European farm subsidy payments. Such integrated food and bioenergy systems can thus provide environmental value for money for European Union...

  16. Greenhouse gas balances and new business opportunities for biomass-based transportation fuels and agro biomass; Liikenteen biopolttoaineiden ja peltoenergian kasvihuonekaasutaseet ja uudet liiketoimintakonseptit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuula Maekinen, T.; Soimakallio, S.; Paappanen, T. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Pahkala, K. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Mikkola, H. [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Vihti (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    The aim of the project was to assess greenhouse gas balances and greenhouse gas reduction costs for biomass-based fuels used in transportation and combined heat and power production (CHP). New business opportunities were identified, and business plans for commercialisation of the most cost-effective technologies through research, development and demonstration were presented. Both the commercial technologies and the technologies under development were assessed. The main options were barley-based ethanol, biodiesel (RME), forest residue and reed canary grass-derived synthetic fuels, and forestry residues and reed canary grass as a fuel for CHP production. The whole utilisation chain from the fuel production to the end se was evaluated. The results indicated that e.g. the production and use of barley- based ethanol or rape seed-based biodiesel does not necessarily reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but can on the contrary increase the greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil-based reference fuels. However, absolute emissions can be reduced by optimising cultivation and production chains, e.g. by utilisation straw in energy production. The second generation biofuels produced using forestry residues or reed canary grass as a raw material seems to be significantly more favourable in reducing greenhouse gases cost- effectively. (orig.)

  17. Properties of lightweight cement-based composites containing waste polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Improvement of buildings thermal stability represents an increasingly important trend of the construction industry. This work aims to study the possible use of two types of waste polypropylene (PP) for the development of lightweight cement-based composites with enhanced thermal insulation function. Crushed PP waste originating from the PP tubes production is used for the partial replacement of silica sand by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mass%, whereas a reference mixture without plastic waste is studied as well. First, basic physical and thermal properties of granular PP random copolymer (PPR) and glass fiber reinforced PP (PPGF) aggregate are studied. For the developed composite mixtures, basic physical, mechanical, heat transport and storage properties are accessed. The obtained results show that the composites with incorporated PP aggregate exhibit an improved thermal insulation properties and acceptable mechanical resistivity. This new composite materials with enhanced thermal insulation function are found to be promising materials for buildings subsoil or floor structures.

  18. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies

  19. Agro-designing: sustainability-driven, vision-oriented, problem preventing and knowledge-based methodology for improving farming systems sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko; Goewie, Eric

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT While classical research focuses to problem solving, design is a problem- prevention methodology, and is suitable for multi- and and interdisciplinary research teams with the vision of how to improve the agricultural sustainability. Since organic agriculture is based on the holistic approach and is also problem-prevention oriented in that it refrains from certain inputs and practices, design is an interesting methodology that could be applied more often in organic agriculture. ...

  20. Influence of intra-event-based flood regime on sediment flow behavior from a typical agro-catchment of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-Tao; Li, Zhan-Bin; Wang, He; Xiao, Jun-Bo

    2016-07-01

    The pluvial erosion process is significantly affected by tempo-spatial patterns of flood flows. However, despite their importance, only a few studies have investigated the sediment flow behavior that is driven by different flood regimes. The study aims to investigate the effect of intra-event-based flood regimes on the dynamics of sediment exports at Tuanshangou catchment, a typical agricultural catchment (unmanaged) in the hilly loess region on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Measurements of 193 flood events and 158 sediment-producing events were collected from Tuanshangou station between 1961 and 1969. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering approach, discriminant analysis and One-Way ANOVA were used to classify the flood events in terms of their event-based flood characteristics, including flood duration, peak discharge, and event flood runoff depth. The 193 flood events were classified into five regimes, and the mean statistical features of each regime significantly differed. Regime A includes flood events with the shortest duration (76 min), minimum flood crest (0.045 m s-1), least runoff depth (0.2 mm), and highest frequency. Regime B includes flood events with a medium duration (274 min), medium flood crest (0.206 m s-1), and minor runoff depth (0.7 mm). Regime C includes flood events with the longest duration (822 min), medium flood crest (0.236 m s-1), and medium runoff depth (1.7 mm). Regime D includes flood events with a medium duration (239 min), large flood crest (4.21 m s-1), and large runoff depth (10 mm). Regime E includes flood events with a medium duration (304 min), maximum flood crest (8.62 m s-1), and largest runoff depth (25.9 mm). The sediment yield by different flood regimes is ranked as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime B > Regime C > Regime A. In terms of event-based average and maximum suspended sediment concentration, these regimes are ordered as follows: Regime E > Regime D > Regime C > Regime B > Regime A. Regimes D and E

  1. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina.

  2. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina. PMID:26348151

  3. The potential of solidified molasses-based blocks for the correction of multinutritional deficiencies in buffaloes and other ruminants fed low-quality agro-industrial byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main principles for formulating diets for ruminant animals in developing countries are outlined and examples provided of the successful application of these principles for feeding buffaloes and cattle in India, Philippines and Australia. It is concluded that the provision of a continuous supply of urea in the form of solidified feed blocks to increase the intake and digestibility of roughage-based diets is a management tool that could be used by small farmers in developing countries to improve weight gains and milk yields. Since such blocks can be easily supplemented with macro- and micro-elements needed by ruminants, they could also be useful for correcting multi-nutritional deficiencies. (author)

  4. An integrated modeling framework of socio-economic, biophysical, and hydrological processes in Midwest landscapes: Remote sensing data, agro-hydrological model, and agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Deng

    Intensive human-environment interactions are taking place in Midwestern agricultural systems. An integrated modeling framework is suitable for predicting dynamics of key variables of the socio-economic, biophysical, hydrological processes as well as exploring the potential transitions of system states in response to changes of the driving factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to address issues concerning the interacting processes and consequent changes in land use, water balance, and water quality using an integrated modeling framework. This dissertation is composed of three studies in the same agricultural watershed, the Clear Creek watershed in East-Central Iowa. In the first study, a parsimonious hydrologic model, the Threshold-Exceedance-Lagrangian Model (TELM), is further developed into RS-TELM (Remote Sensing TELM) to integrate remote sensing vegetation data for estimating evapotranspiration. The goodness of fit of RS-TELM is comparable to a well-calibrated SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and even slightly superior in capturing intra-seasonal variability of stream flow. The integration of RS LAI (Leaf Area Index) data improves the model's performance especially over the agriculture dominated landscapes. The input of rainfall datasets with spatially explicit information plays a critical role in increasing the model's goodness of fit. In the second study, an agent-based model is developed to simulate farmers' decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. The comparison between simulated crop land percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields (yield drag). The simulation results given alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed show that, farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form

  5. Phenolic compounds recovered from agro-food by-products using membrane technologies: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñoz, Roberto; Yáñez-Fernández, Jorge; Fíla, Vlastimil

    2016-12-15

    Typically, the various agro-food by-products of the food industry are treated by standard membrane processes, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, in order to prepare them for final disposal. Recently, however, new membrane technologies have been developed. The recovery, separation and fractionation of high-added-value compounds, such as phenolic compounds from food processing waste, are major current research challenges. The goal of this paper is to provide a critical review of the main agro-food by-products treated by membrane technologies for the recovery of nutraceuticals. State-of-the-art of developments in the field are described. Particular attention is paid to experimental results reported for the recovery of polyphenols and their derivatives of different molecular weight. The literature data are analyzed and discussed in relation to separation processes, molecule properties, membrane characteristics and other interesting phenomena that occur during their recovery. PMID:27451244

  6. Equipment for biomass. Dryers. Drying, crushing, aggregating of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse, les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill, 28 - Serville (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French society Promill has developed complete units for the drying, crushing and aggregating of agro-industrial products (beet roots, agricultural wastes, lucerne, maize, etc.). Drying is conducted in a three-pass drum, using any type of fuel (fuel oil, gas, electric power, coal), and ensuring a thermal yield of 680 kCal/kg and ash emission rates complying with French and European legislation. Granulation is conducted with vapour addition, with a granulate flowrate reaching 15 T/h. Crushing is carried out in a hammer mill

  7. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling fluid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico may use oil-based drilling fluids to mitigate drilling problems. The result is the generation of a significant quantity of oily cuttings and mud. The transportation of this waste for onshore disposal is a concern from a standpoint of both personnel safety and potential environmental impact. A process for preparing a slurry of this waste and the subsequent disposal of the slurry through annular pumping has been put into use by ARCO Oil and Gas Company. The disposal technique has been approved by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The slurried waste is displaced down a casing annulus into a permeable zone at a depth below the surface casing setting depth. The annular disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. This disposal technique negates the need for cuttings storage on the platform, transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore surface disposal. The paper describes the environmental and safety concerns with onshore disposal, the benefits of annular disposal, and the equipment and process used for the preparation and pumping of the slurry

  8. Modelling Integrated Wastewater Treatment Plant for Agro Industry Zone in Banyuasin, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmawaty Hasmawaty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP design for Tanjung Api-Api (TAA agro-industrial area, South Sumatra, Indonesia, using Environmentally Sensitive Investment System (ESIS. This article is based on empirical research that conducted in Banyuasin District, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Our result show that wastewater discharge (Q release into river at E5 has reachton/day and contain 87.16 mg/l TSS. This number does not exceed200 mg/l, TSS threshold for industry area, which regulated by South Sumatra Province through Regulation of the Governor of South Sumatera 18/2005 on Liquid Waste Quality Standard (LWQS. It also produced BOD (100 mg/l lower than LQWS standard (200 mg/l. Sludge dewatering generate 724,48mg/l/day TSS which can be converted into value-added product. Our WWTP design for TAA area can protect wetland ecosystems in South Sumatra Province. We also give recommendation for TAA multi-stakeholder and propose several topics for further research.

  9. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Mironchuk V. A.; Sholin Y. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides and justifies the most preferred principle of innovative activity in agro-industrial complex - the development of multilevel model based on marketing concept of spheres and its approaches to managing innovation. The concept aims to create a competitive scientific and technical production, demand in the market through active marketing of the scientific-technical and innovation industry

  10. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchuk V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides and justifies the most preferred principle of innovative activity in agro-industrial complex - the development of multilevel model based on marketing concept of spheres and its approaches to managing innovation. The concept aims to create a competitive scientific and technical production, demand in the market through active marketing of the scientific-technical and innovation industry

  11. Elaboration, analyse et modélisation mécanique numérique d’agro-composites à base de fibres courtes d’alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Abbassi Fatima-ezzahra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans la présente étude, récemment réalisée au Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, de l’Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, nous proposons de valoriser la plante végétale d’Alfa, sous forme de fibres courtes en vue de renforcer par extrusion dans une première étape, puis par injection, des matrices polymères, en l’occurrence le Polypropylène (PP. Une première étape consiste à élaborer, par traitement chimique et extraction, la fibre courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de composés composites à base de matrice PP. L’objectif sera de développer par la suite une démarche Essai-Calcul, confrontant une caractérisation mécanique d’agrocomposites PP-Alfa injectés à deux types de modélisation comportementale, l’une micromécanique basée sur le modèle de Mori-Tanaka, et l’autre numérique utilisant une approche originale basée sur une technique dite de fibre projetée.

  12. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro D. Gaspar; Rita Pinheiro; Cláudia Domingues; Celestino Almeida; Teresa Paiva; Pereira, Carlos D.; Manuela Vaz-Velho

    2015-01-01

    Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1) analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2) anal...

  13. CONSUMER'S PERCEPTIONS ABOUT ETHICS IN AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS' MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Istudor Nicolae; Turek Adrian

    2008-01-01

    The research shows whether tools and instruments used for agro-food products’ marketing are moral or not. Studies on agro-food products’ marketing are available; however , none of these focuses on the ethical approach of marketing activities of agro-food compa- nies. In answering this question, a piece of qua- litative research is carried out on customers, focusing on their perceptions whether marketing is moral or not. The respondents were chosen among clients of hypermarkets, having a backg...

  14. Development of Polymeric Waste Forms for the Encapsulation of Toxic Wastes Using an Emulsion-Encapsulation Based Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.; Quach, A.; Birnie, D. P.; Saez, A. E.; Ela, W. P.; Zeliniski, B. J. J.; Xia, G.; Smith, H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed technologies in vitrification, cement, and polymeric materials manufactured using flammable organic solvents have been used to encapsulate solid wastes, including low-level radioactive materials, but are impractical for high salt-content waste streams (Maio, 1998). In this work, we investigate an emulsification process for producing an aqueous-based polymeric waste form as a preliminary step towards fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic polyceram matrices. The material developed incorporates epoxy resin and polystyrene-butadiene (PSB) latex to produce a waste form that is non-flammable, light weight, of relatively low cost, and that can be loaded to a relatively high weight content of waste materials. Sodium nitrate was used as a model for the salt waste. Small-scale samples were manufactured and analyzed using leach tests designed to measure the diffusion coefficient and leachability index for the fastest diffusing species in the waste form, the salt ions. The microstructure and composition of the samples were probed using SEM/EDS techniques. The results show that some portion of the salt migrates towards the exterior surfaces of the waste forms during the curing process. A portion of the salt in the interior of the sample is contained in polymer corpuscles or sacs. These sacs are embedded in a polymer matrix phase that contains fine, well-dispersed salt crystals. The diffusion behavior observed in sections of the waste forms indicates that samples prepared using this emulsion process meet or exceed the leachability criteria suggested for low level radioactivity waste forms.

  15. Silica based gel as a potential waste form for high level waste from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the feasibility of safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste as synthetic clay, or material that would react with ground water to form clay, experiments have been carried out to determine the hydrothermal crystallisation and leaching behaviour of silica based gels fired at 900 deg C. Crystallisation rates at a pressure of 500 bars and at temperatures below 400 deg C are negligible and this more or less precludes pre-disposal production of synthetic clay on the scale required. Leaching experiments suggest that the leach rates of Cs from gels by distilled water are higher than those of boro-silicate glasses and SYNROC at the lower temperatures that would be preferred for geological storage. However, amounts of bulk dissolution of gels may be lower than those of boro-silicate glasses. The initial leaching behaviour of gels might be considerably improved by hot compaction at 900 to 1000 deg C. Consideration of likely waste form dissolution behaviour in a repository environment suggests that gels of appropriate composition might perform as well as, or better than, boro-silicate glasses. A novel hypothetical plant is described that could produce the gel waste form on the scale required on a more or less continuous basis. (author)

  16. Practical Model of Cement Based Grout Mix Design, for Use into Low Level Radiation Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cement based grouts, as functional performance composite materials, are widely used for both immobilisation and encapsulation as well as for stabilization in the field of inorganic waste management. Also, to ensure that low level radioactive waste (LLW are contained for storage and ultimate disposal, they are encapsulated or immobilized in monolithic waste forms, with cement –based grouts.

  17. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter's mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps

  18. Immobilization of radioactive waste in cement based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical studies of hydrated cement systems are described. The behaviour of slag-based cement is described with a view to predicting their long term pH, Esub(n) and mineralogical balance. Modelling studies which enable the prediction at long ages of cement composites are advanced and a base model of the CaO-SiO2-H2O system presented. The behaviour of U and I in cements is explored. The tolerance of cement systems for a wide range of miscellaneous waste stream components and environmental hazards is described. The redox potential in cements is effectively lowered by irradiation. (author)

  19. The Cook Agronomy Farm LTAR: Knowledge Intensive Precision Agro-ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drowning in data and starving for knowledge, agricultural decision makers require evidence-based information to enlighten sustainable intensification. The agro-ecological footprint of the Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) site is embedded within 9.4 million ha of diverse land uses primarily cropland (2.9 million ha) and rangeland (5.3 million ha) that span a wide annual precipitation gradient (150 mm through 1400 mm) with diverse social and natural capital (see Figure). Sustainable intensification hinges on the development and adoption of precision agro-ecological practices that rely on meaningful spatio-temporal data relevant to land use decisions at within-field to regional scales. Specifically, the CAF LTAR will provide the scientific foundation (socio-economical and bio-physical) for enhancing decision support for precision and conservation agriculture and synergistic cropping system intensification and diversification. Long- and short-term perspectives that recognize and assess trade-offs in ecosystem services inherent in any land use decision will be considered so as to promote the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. Presented will be current and future CAF LTAR research efforts required for the development of sustainable agricultural systems including cropping system cycles and flows of nutrients, water, carbon, greenhouse gases and other biotic and abiotic factors. Evaluation criteria and metrics associated with long-term agro-ecosystem provisioning, supporting, and regulating services will be emphasized.

  20. USE AND USE INTENSITY OF SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKING SYSTEMS BY NIGERIAN AGRO-ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Omotoso AJAYI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-entrepreneurs are key to the Nigerian economy as they constitute the majority of the work force, providing food and employment opportunities for more than 60% of the largest black nation on earth. Nigeria’s social media networking system which is the largest in Africa has got its usefulness in many conventional and contemporary applications in the recent times. Social media has become the fastest, cheapest and unrestricted communication and marketing tool of this jet age. This study therefore focused on the use and use intensity of social media networking systems by Nigerian agro-entrepreneurs. The study made use of mainly primary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between June and September, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three hundred and sixty (360 respondents across the three (3 highly ICT compliant states (Lagos, Ondo and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression model. The results of the regression model indicate that education, availability of power supply and customer base of the agro-entrepreneurs positively influenced use intensity of social media by the agro-entrepreneurs while age and cost of access data negatively influenced their use intensity of social media.

  1. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  2. Integrating recycling, renewable energy and agriculture for commercial waste to wealth businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling organic material to produce renewable energy and organic fertilizer is an attractive business model in waste to wealth business proposition. Azed Bina Sdn Bhd has developed an integrated recycling facility to recycle solid organic materials into energy and organic fertilizer, a project partially funded by MOSTI TechnoFund in 2008. The novel and innovative aspect is the water disassociation technology which separates the water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas economically using thermal heat from the burning of biomass which is a waste material. This system is modular, scalable, economical and environmental friendly. It has many applications in the field of, Environment and Solid Waste Management - recycling organic waste into energy and organic fertilizer rather than disposal at the landfill, hence preserving our environment. Green technology - economical biogas production consists of 50% hydrogen gas which is a clean and renewable energy source. The biogas has many applications in the food industry, manufacturing industry and agriculture sector. Agro-based industry - production of clean heat energy is useful for the drying of agriculture crops. Agriculture Sector - production of ash can be used to produce organic fertilizer by incorporating effective microbes. Reduce the dependence on chemical fertilizer which is bad for the environment Rural Development - developing rural area by integrating small scale industries, agro based industry, agriculture and rural area. The company commercial applications of recycling organic materials to produce energy for companies such as laundry business, agro based food drying and waste management recycling. The next project is to provide chilled water using organic waste. (author)

  3. Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical input

  4. Measuring the accuracy of agro-environmental in dicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makowski, D.; Tichit, M.; Guichard, L.; Keulen, van H.; Beaudoin, N.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous agro-environmental indicators have been developed by agronomists and ecologists during the last 20 years to assess the environmental impact of farmers’ practices, and to monitor effects of agro-environmental policies. The objectives of this paper were (i) to measure the accuracy of a wide r

  5. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has

  6. Agro ecological zonification of the Huila Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agro ecological zonification of the Huila department, defines and it quantifies reas according to environmental factors as climate, geomorphology, material parental and soil. In this work it is presented the astronomical localization, the geographical location and the detailed description of each one of the agro ecological reas that conforms the department. This zonification allowed through the delimitation of the different earth classes and of the quantification of the same ones, to extract fundamental information for the knowledge of the geography of the department and for the planning of the agricultural and forest production in national form. According to the study 28.3 percent of the lands corresponds to the warm thermal soil, 40.0 percent to the half soil, 23.2 percent to the cold and 8.5 percent to the very cold one and nival. As for the counties of humidity 60.1 percent presents humid climatic conditions and 13 percent it receives excessive humidity; the rest of the department presents dry conditions. In the event of making possible the agriculture supplementary watering is required. The mainly agricultural reas has an extension of 839.350 there is equivalent to 42.2 percent of the department. The lands of cattle vocation have a rea 95.900 there is that they represent 4.8 percent of the same one. The forest areas have a covering of 1.053.750 there is that they constitute 53 percent of the department

  7. Agro ecological zonification of the Putumayo Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agro ecological zonification of the Putumayo Area, defines and it quantifies reas according to environmental factors as climate, material parental and soil. In this work it is presented the astronomical localization, the geographical location and the detailed description of each of the agro ecological reas, that conform the Department. This zonification allowed through the delimitation of the different earth classes and of the quantification of the same ones, to extract fundamental information for the knowledge of the geography and for the planning of the agricultural and forest production in rational form. According to the study 85.8 percent of the lands corresponds to the warm thermal soil, 5.7 percent to the half soil, 7.2 percent to the cold and 1.3 percent to the very cold one and nival. As for the counties of humidity 91.6 percent presents humid climatic conditions and 8.4 percent it receives excessive humidity. The vocation of the lands of the Putumayo is however predominant forestall, some reas has possibilities of agricultural exploitation maintaining the vegetable covering. The reas of agricultural vocation has an extension of 43.250 there is equivalent to 1.7 percent of the department the forest areas have an extension of 2.445.250 there is. 27.4 percent presents an agricultural possibility and 30.7 percent they are areas of protection y/o reforestation

  8. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  9. Design of Waste Shredder Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof. S.Nithyananth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional agro-waste disposal is a traditional and oldest method of waste disposal in which agriculture wastes are dumped as it is to degrade in a particular place for decomposing. As the wastes are dumped as such, it takes more time to degrade and it causes environmental pollution. The waste shredder machine aims to reduce the agro waste and convert it into useful nourishing fertilizer. It decreases the man work making the farm neat and clean. Also it reduces the heap amount of pollution, disease causing agro-wastes and produces a better fertilizer with vermin compost. The waste shredder machine is an attachment as like a ploughing attachment. In the shredder attachment input power and rigid support is provided by a KAMCO Tera-trac 4W tractor by means of PTO (power take off shaft and three point linkage. PTO shaft of the tractor acts as a basic power input and the three point linkage provide a rigid support to the machine. Various kinds of blades are used for chipping and powdering operations like sawing blades, rotatory blades, and triangular shape blades. The blades are mounted on the shaft. The power is transmitted to another shaft by means of pulley and belt. For designing waste shredder machine, Creo parametric 1.0 software is used.

  10. Fundamental Science-Based Simulation of Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-10-04

    This report presents a hierarchical multiscale modeling scheme based on two-way information exchange. To account for all essential phenomena in waste forms over geological time scales, the models have to span length scales from nanometer to kilometer and time scales from picoseconds to millenia. A single model cannot cover this wide range and a multi-scale approach that integrates a number of different at-scale models is called for. The approach outlined here involves integration of quantum mechanical calculations, classical molecular dynamics simulations, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field methods at the mesoscale, and continuum models. The ultimate aim is to provide science-based input in the form of constitutive equations to integrated codes. The atomistic component of this scheme is demonstrated in the promising waste form xenotime. Density functional theory calculations have yielded valuable information about defect formation energies. This data can be used to develop interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage. Potentials developed in the present work show a good match for the equilibrium lattice constants, elastic constants and thermal expansion of xenotime. In novel waste forms, such as xenotime, a considerable amount of data needed to validate the models is not available. Integration of multiscale modeling with experimental work is essential to generate missing data needed to validate the modeling scheme and the individual models. Density functional theory can also be used to fill knowledge gaps. Key challenges lie in the areas of uncertainty quantification, verification and validation, which must be performed at each level of the multiscale model and across scales. The approach used to exchange information between different levels must also be rigorously validated. The outlook for multiscale modeling of wasteforms is quite promising.

  11. Development of A Web based GIS Waste Disposal Management System for Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo P. Idowu; Emmanuel R. Adagunodo; Esimai, Olapeju A; Tosin C. Olapade

    2012-01-01

    Waste management has to do with handling of solid refuse from their sources of generation through storage, collection, transportation, recovery and treatment processes to disposal This research developed a web based GIS waste disposal management system, with aim of achieving an effective waste management system and a spatial view of waste collection locations in any local government area in Nigeria. The system was developed using Extensive Hypertext Markup Language and Cascading Style Sheet (...

  12. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization.

  13. Agro biomass by-products to multifunctional ingredients, chemicals and fillers - AgroBio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willfoer, S.; Manelius, R. (Aabo Akademi University, Turku (Finland), Lab. of Wood and Paper Chemistry), e-mail: swillfor@abo.fi, e-mail: rmanelius@abo.fi; Faulds, C; Sibakov, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: craig.faulds@vtt.fi, e-mail: juhani.sibakov@vtt.fi

    2011-11-15

    The AgroBio project started in August 2010 and now initial tests and analyses have been performed. At the moment, larger raw material amounts are collected so that proper materials tests can be done. The main objective of the project is to develop cost-effective and sustainable technologies to produce tailor- made filler particles from agricultural by-products. More specific scientific and technological goals of the project are to: Acquire by-products and to study the demand of their pre-processing (WP1), Develop the technology for agro by-product conversion and tailoring to desired filler particles by chemical and enzymatic means, and to characterize the produced filler particles (WP2 and WP3), Evaluate the behaviour of filler particles in selected industrial processes and their market potential (WP4), Estimate the economical and business feasibility of the concept and compare it with the currently used filler materials (WP 5). To date, the agro-industrial by-products have been mainly characterized and the first trials on particle size reduction and their food and paper applications have been tested. Additionally, a first round of feasibility interviews have been conducted with participating companies. (orig.)

  14. Edible agro-products quality and safety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhe-min; SU Nian-si; DONG Xiao-xia; YANG Yan-tao; WANG Yu-ting; XIAO Hong-li

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring an acceptable level of edible agro-products quality and safety is necessary to provide adequate protection for con-sumers. It is the ifrst time that we analyzed the edible agro-products quality and safety issues in the supply chain, including production, processing, circulation, and consumption. The results indicate that the agro-products quality and safety levels improves steadily, and the supervision system and standardization system are both enhanced signiifcantly, however, certain chalenges stil remain in each stage of the supply chain and the entire supervision process. Finaly, ifve recommendations regarding four aspects (production, processing, circulation, and consumption) are concluded.

  15. Põlva Agro omanikud teenisid 200 miljonit / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    2007. aastal toimus OÜ Põlva Agro enamusosaluse kokkuost Jaak Hinrikuse poolt, nüüdseks on ettevõte müüdud Leedu Agrowill Groupile. Vt. samas: Agrowill: suuri muutusi plaanis ei ole; Jaak Hinrikus: ostsime kokku, et säilitada kontrolli. Lisa: Agrowill Group; Põlva Agro. Diagrammid: Põlva Agro kasvatab kiirelt kasumlikkust; Agrowilli aktsia on kallinenud pärast börsiletulekut täpselt poole võrra. Tabel: Tähtsamad majandusnäitajad

  16. El agua, el TLC y el agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sampedro Torres

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de absoluta actualidad se refiere al tratamiento que el poder ejecutivo viene dando al tema del agro y los recursos de los cuales depende. Ya en prensa el tema de tierras, corrupción y violencia ha sido registrado en relación con el gobierno del presidente Uribe y el Incoder. Ahora se trata de examinar de qué manera el Incoder desmonta el manejo y propiedad de los distritos de adecuación de tierras de los cuales depende la actividad agropecuaria sin que para tal expropiación del recurso agua se requiera acudir a las instancias de un

  17. El agua, el TLC y el agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Suárez Mejía

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de absoluta actualidad se re- fiere al tratamiento que el poder ejecutivo viene dando al tema del agro y los recursos de los cuales depende. Ya en prensa el tema de tierras, corrupción y violencia ha sido registrado en relación con el gobierno del presidente Uribe y el Incoder. Ahora se trata de examinar de qué manera el Incoder desmonta el manejo y propiedad de los distritos de adecuación de tierras de los cuales depende la actividad agropecuaria sin que para tal expropiación del recurso agua se requiera acudir a las instancias de un TLC. La hipertrofia de las posiciones contra el TLC ha permitido sin lugar a dudas que desde el derecho interno mientras se negocia se adelanten las normas que permiten las inversiones que interesan al espacio de la “integración comercial”

  18. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types  preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained  in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.Keywords: agro-forestry, preferences, adoption, NPV

  19. Towards a Gendered Agro-Commodity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primrose Nakazibwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commodity or value chains are the dominant means to channel agro-food products from cultivators to consumers. Direct open markets are either non-existent or insignificant . These chains are also the main mechanisms for integrating underprivileged groups into the world economy. Why do global value chains generate sorrow for many and joy for a few, and why are these outcomes heavily gender biased? To look for answers this article critically reviews the post-2000 and earlier gender literature by proponents and opponents of the mainstream value chain approach. The purpose is to provide a methodological contribution on the integration of gender into the commodity chain approach. Most studies have fo cused on the economic effects of chain dynamics on women in agricultural product and labor markets. Some have extended this reasoning with social and cultural effects. Despite these advances, analytical gaps still exist as most existing research has concentrated on the agricultural nodes of modern, high value chains and lacks a gendered conceptual foundation. Scarce attention has been given to traditional staple crops, non-agricultural nodes, and feed back effects of gender relations on the chain. Our results indicate that an appropriate GCC approach should also consider the gendered impacts of the interaction between the governance structure and the institutiona l embeddedness, as well as the consequences of intra-household division of resources and labor in all stages of the chain. These two conceptual complements will be needed to explain the opportunities and constraints to improve gender equity in traditional and modern agro-commodity chains.

  20. Investigations on cementitious composites based on rubber particle waste additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Laun Nacif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The amount of waste rubber has gradually increased over recent years because of over-growing use of rubber products. The disposal of waste rubber has caused serious environmental problems. The incorporation of recycled materials into cementitious composites is a feasible alternative that has gained ground in civil construction. The performance of such materials is much affected not only by the rubber addition, but also the particle size which has been controversially reported in the literature. In order to investigate the single effect of rubber particles into cement based materials, rubber cementitious composites were prepared with no silica particle additions. A full factorial design has been conducted to assess the influence of the rubber particle size (0.84/0.58 mm and 0.28/0.18 mm; mass fraction used (5, 15 and 30%; and water/cement ratio (0.35 and 0.50 on the physic-mechanical properties of the composites. The materials were characterized through apparent density, porosity, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and microstructural analysis. The interactions of rubber particle size, rubber fraction and water/cement ratio affected significantly the density and compressive strength of the composites. The apparent porosity was influenced mainly by the rubber particle size. The flexural strength was affected by the main factors and the modulus of elasticity was affected by the interaction factors rubber particle size and fraction, and rubber fraction and w/c ratio.

  1. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  2. Una propuesta para desarrollar turismo rural en los municipios de Zacatecas, México: las rutas agro-culturales

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia González-Ávila

    2011-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential of the municipalities of Zacatecas to develop tourism Agro-Cultural Tour (RAC) based on a number of resources through the Evaluation Index Agro-Cultural Tour (IERAC) resulting in the he Pepper Route (R1); Corn Route (R2); Cattle Route (R3); Dairy Route (R4), and Fruit Route (R5);, where the municipalities with the greatest potential for this type of tourism are: Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Jerez and Sombrerete while are in the opposite case of Pinos, and Concepcion...

  3. COMPETITION AMONG FOREIGN AND CHINESE AGRO-FOOD ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Anning; Joyce A. CACHO

    1999-01-01

    Based on various case studies, this article examines the interaction of foreign investors and local operators in globalization in the agro-food market in China. The study found that to break the limitation of the high-end market and to position mainly in the middle market were critical for international brands to succeed. Asian companies approached the China market as an insider because of cultural proximity. The latter, plus focused management and effective technology, made their operations ...

  4. Evaluation and Mapping of The Use of Technology in The Pulp And Paper Agro Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Nurendah

    2015-01-01

    The execution and the implementation of the revitalization program and the growth of pulp and paper agro industry require evaluation activities. For that, we need a study that will provide evaluation and mapping of the implementation of policies and programs so that the analysis, assessment and weighting can be more transparent and measurable. The main objective of this activity is, there are an evaluation and mapping policy as well as output-based programs to the use of technology in the pul...

  5. Overview on Technology of Degrading and Eliminating Mycotoxins in Agro-products and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; LI; Xiulan; SUN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the perspective of risk control,this article introduces related technology of eliminating mycotoxins in agricultural products and the current situation of application,including traditional physical,chemical and biological methods as well as the contemporary situation of relatively advanced technology at home and abroad,which provides reference for the policy-making and technology application of mycotoxin control in agro-products in China.

  6. Pollution of Solid Waste to Agricultural Environment and Preventive Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi; YAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated the pollution and hazards caused by different kinds of agricultural solid wastes to the agro-ecological environment from the aspects of the types of solid wastes and the way they are produced. Besides,it came up with some countermeasures for preventing and controlling solid waste pollution and hazards.

  7. Pollution of Solid Waste to Agricultural Environment and Preventive Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Shi

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated the pollution and hazards caused by different kinds of agricultural solid wastes to the agro-ecological environment from the aspects of the types of solid wastes and the way they are produced. Besides, it came up with some countermeasures for preventing and controlling solid waste pollution and hazards.

  8. Comportamento térmico e caracterização morfológica das fibras de mesocarpo e caroço do açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Thermogravimetric evaluation of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart. agro industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A agroindústria do açaí gera uma grande quantidade de resíduos, constituída de caroços e fibras, o que é um grave problema ambiental e de saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar as fibras do mesocarpo e o caroço do fruto do açaí para sua utilização em materiais compósitos. As amostras foram caracterizadas usando análise por termogravimetria (TG/DTG em atmosferas inerte e oxidativa, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia óptica. As fibras apresentaram boa estabilidade térmica até 230 ºC e um processo de degradação em atmosfera inerte em três etapas. Em atmosfera oxidativa, as fibras apresentaram menor estabilidade térmica e uma mudança no processo de degradação de três para quatro etapas. os resultados da análise térmica do caroço mostraram um comportamento térmico similar ao da fibra. A microscopia mostrou que as fibras presentes no fruto do açaí recobrem o caroço e possuem morfologia irregular com a presença de células do parênquima na sua superfície. O comportamento térmico das fibras do açaí é semelhante ao de outras fibras vegetais já utilizadas industrialmente na área de compósitos poliméricos, o que abre novas e promissoras áreas para sua utilização.The açaí fruit agro industry produces a large amount of waste, mainly seeds and fibers, which is a serious environmental and public health problem. The aim of this work is to study the mesocarp fibers and the açaí fruit seed to use in composite materials. The samples have been characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG in inert and thermo-oxidative atmospheres, scanning electron and optical microscopy. The fibers have shown good stability until 230ºC and a threedegradation step process in inert atmosphere. In oxidative atmosphere, the fibers presented a decrease in thermal stability and a change in the decomposition process from three to four steps. For the seeds, a similar behavior was observed

  9. Convention Theory in the Anglophone Agro-Food Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    and consumption. In this article, I examine convention theory applications in the Anglophone literature on agro-food studies through the review of 51 relevant contributions. I highlight how CT has helped explain different modes of organization and coordination of agro-food operations in different places, and how...... it has provided new venues of approaching quality - in view of understanding how exchange of agro-food products takes place and with what social and power dynamics. I trace two main analytical streams of this literature: one focussing on agro-food adaptations of the 'worlds of production' framework...... (Salais and Storper, 1992; Storper and Salais, 1997); and another applying the 'orders of worth' approach of Boltanski and Thevenot (1991[2006]) and further elaborations of 'quality conventions'. After tracing broad trajectories and the significance of new developments in this literature, I highlight its...

  10. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  11. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  12. Stabilization and solidification of metal-laden wastes by compaction and magnesium phosphate-based binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A J; Pagilla, K R; Wagh, A S

    2000-09-01

    Bench-scale and full-scale investigations of waste stabilization and volume reduction were conducted using spiked soil and ash wastes containing heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Hg. The waste streams were stabilized and solidified using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) binder, and then compacted by either uniaxial or harmonic press for volume reduction. The physical properties of the final waste forms were determined by measuring volume reduction, density, porosity, and compressive strength. The leachability of heavy metals in the final waste forms was determined by a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and a 90-day immersion test (ANS 16.1). The structural composition and nature of waste forms were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. CBPC binder and compaction can achieve 80-wt% waste loading and 39-47% reduction in waste volume. Compressive strength of final waste forms ranged from 1500 to 2000 psi. TCLP testing of waste forms showed that all heavy metals except Hg passed the TCLP limits using the phosphate-based binder. When Na2S was added to the binder, the waste forms also passed TCLP limits for Hg. Long-term leachability resistance of the final waste forms was achieved for all metals in both soil and ash wastes, and the leachability index was approximately 14. XRD patterns of waste forms indicated vermiculite in the ash waste was chemically incorporated into the CBPC matrix. SEM showed that waste forms are layered when compacted by uniaxial press and are homogeneous when compacted by harmonic press. PMID:11055158

  13. AGRO-TOURISM - ACTIVE ROLE IN RURAL DEVELOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe PRIBEANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural space satisfies through its components a wide range of motivations: rest and leisure, knowledge, culture, sport, outdoor or balneary cure, hunting and fishing, providing for agro- tourism a large area of coverage of the leisure opportunities. Through this agro-tourism is a means of full capitalization of the rural areas with their agricultural, natural, touristic, human and even technical-economic potential.

  14. Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Glin, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical inputs, corporate concentration, and standardization of products for mass consumption (Goodman et al. 1987; Raynolds et al. 2007). This prompted a rapid agricultural development, which contributed to ov...

  15. Information and communication infrastructure development and agro-food trade

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan BOJNEC; Fertő, Imre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an adapted gravity trade model to measure the influence of communication infrastructure development on agro-foodtrade. The adapted gravity trade model presents associations of bilateral agro-food trade between OECD countries with traditional gravity equation variables and particularly with variables of the information and communication infrastructure development. Using the adapted gravity trade model we find a positive association between the informatio...

  16. Communication costs and agro-food trade in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan BOJNEC; Fertő, Imre

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the effects of communication costs for agro-food trade in OECD countries between 1995 and 2003 using gravity model. We find that the link between the communication costs and agro-food trade flows in developed countries is significantly stronger for agricultural than for food products. The improved communication services reduce trade transaction costs. The estimations also confirmed importance of the economy size, level of development in importer countries, and trade distanc...

  17. Developing Mechanism of Rubber-tea-chicken Agro-forestry Model in Tropical Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingyan; Miao Zewei; Wang Zhaoqian

    2012-01-01

    As a typical tropical agro-forestry ecosystem in Wenchang, Hainan Province, China, rational mechanisms of the rubber-tea-chicken eco-agricultural model were studied with the Solow technological level index, stability indicator, harmonizing coefficient, grey corretation coefficient and production dominance. This study focused on rational hierarchical structure, the limiting factors and optimal strategies of the model development based on model structure, resource conditions and external market demands. Results showed that rational mechanism of the rubber-tea-chicken ecosystem model mainly included technological contributions, leverage function of dominance component (livestock husbandry), stability of the model structure and harmony of its components, the model dominant product's market demand and government's supporting policies. The contributions of fund, technology, information and talent resources played an important role in improving sustainability and productivity of the agro-forestry model.

  18. Radioactive waste management profiles. Compilation of data from the waste management data base. No. 2, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This current report is a summary and compilation of of the data received during the 1991 biennial update which covers the period of January 1991 through March 1993. This Profile report is divided into two main parts. One part describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States in response to the IAEA's 1991 WMDB Questionnaire. This report also contains data of Member States that did nor report to the Questionnaire

  19. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ladanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles; thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments.

  20. 陕西秦巴山地生态格局与农业资源持续利用模式研究%A study on agro-resources sustainable use based on mountainous eco-pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦随; 方创琳

    2001-01-01

    Mountainous eco-environment is an important basis of generating natural agro-resource,some environmental factors such as soil, vegetation,hydrology and climate are the composing part of agricultural resources. Their match and constitution can reflect the different patterns and spatial heterogeneity of eco-environment. In this paper taking Qin-Ba mountain of Shanxi Province as an example, the authors point out that has reliability to reveal the environmental structure,function and distribution laws of agricultural resources by using RS and GIS to evaluate qualitatively land ecotype and divide different ecotype zone. The agricultural resources involve agricultural environmental resources,economical product and social labor resources. The environmental resources , which can be regarded as basis of generating the economical resources,are related compactly with regional eco-environment and abided by the zonal principle of mountain land. The economical resources, which are the physical form of the environmental resources, are related directly with appointed agricultural action and abided by eco-economy theory. The social labor resources, whose effect shows dualism, are regarded as the main-body and ligament that integrate above two kinds of resources. The essence of agro-resources sustainable use is to combine the sustainability of environmental resources system with sustainable increase of agro-products to meet the demand of getting rid of poverty and realizing sustainable development of society and economy by giving play to the positive actions of labors in mountainous area.%山地是具有一定高度和坡度的特殊生态环境综合体。受自然分异规律与人类经济活动的双重干预和影响,产生了生态环境类型的垂直分异及其层带组合格局。通过土地生态类型格局分析,可以揭示土地生态环境类型结构与功能的异质性和有序性,从而为全面认识土地类型群体的生态属性及其演替规律提

  1. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  2. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2006-01-01

    MSW showed large influence on the environmental impacts. A range of benefits, mainly related to improved soil quality from long-term application of the processed organic waste, could not be generally quantified with respect to the chosen life cycle assessment impact categories and were therefore...... and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  3. Agrodiversity v.2: An educational simulation tool to address some challenges for sustaining functional agrodiversity in agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; Garcia-Barrios, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Functional agrodiversity can be useful and even essential for, i.e., the long-term sustainability of agriculture. However, still many aspects of this concept are not well understood. The interplay between species in diverse agro-ecosystems is based on processes as, i.e., competition, facilitation, a

  4. Making agro-biodiversity work : results of an on-line stakeholder dialogue (OSD) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, R.; Röling, N.; Visser, B.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is made of the perception of 'agrobiodiversity' by 45 individuals being directly or indirectly involved in the Dutch agro-food chain. The analysis is based on an on-line stakeholder dialogue (OSD) entitled 'Vision on Agrobiodiversity' and 25 personal interviews. The OSD was held between

  5. WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION OF SOY-BASED INK AT A SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) project quantifies and compares wastes generated from the use of soy-based and petroleum-based inks in sheet-fed offset printing. Data were collected in a full-scale print run on a Miller TP104 Plus 6-color press in Ju...

  6. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. PMID:26969286

  7. Evaluation of FTIR-based analytical methods for the analysis of Hanford Site waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling and chemical characterization of mixed high-level waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site is currently in progress. Waste tank safety concerns have provided impetus to analyze this waste. A major safety issue is the possibility of significant concentrations of fuel (ferrocyanide and/or organic compounds) in contact with oxidizers (nitrates and nitrites) that under dry conditions and elevated temperatures could undergo rapid exothermic reactions. To maintain the tanks in a safe condition, data are needed on the moisture and fuel concentrations in the waste. Because of the highly radioactive nature of the waste, non-radioactive waste simulants mimicking actual waste are used to provide an initial basis for identifying realistic waste tank safety concerns. Emphasis has been placed on the use of new or existing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-based systems with potential for field or tank deployment to perform in situ remote waste characterization. Three FTIR-based analytical methods have been evaluated. These include (1) fiber optics, (2) modular transfer optics using light guides equipped with non-contact sampling peripherals, and (3) photoacoustic spectroscopy. The attributes of each method for analysis of actual radioactive waste are discussed

  8. Prospective for remediation and purification of wastes from Xikuangshan mine by using Si-based substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saihua, Liu; Xionghui, Ji; Yunhe, Xie; Jiang, John; Bocharnikova, Elena; Matichenkov, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal mining includes several procedures producing water and solid wastes. These wastes may have high content of heavy metals and other pollutants. Usually, traditional technologies for purification of solid and liquid wastes are expensive and require a lot of special constructions. Recent investigations have shown that some Si-rich substances enable to regulate the mobility of pollutants in soil and water and enhance the plant resistance to its toxicity. Based on these findings, new way for purification of waste-waters and detoxification of pollutants can be elaborated. Laboratory test was conducted with contaminated solid and liquid wastes from Xikuangshan mine. In column and incubation tests, the contents and mobility of the following pollutants were evaluated in Si-treated and untreated samples: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni and Zn. The investigations have shown that the Si-rich substances can be used for filtration of contaminated waste-water. The concentrations of soluble pollutants were reduced by 5-10 times and more. The incubation tests with solid wastes and Si-rich compounds have demonstrated that some Si-based substances reduced the contaminant mobility by 2-4 times. The efficiency of tested substances depended on their solubility on Si. The data has demonstrated that some types of local materials including industrial wastes can be used for purification of waste-waters and detoxification of solid wastes. PMID:26921568

  9. Radioactive waste management integrated data base: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this indexed bibliography is to organize and collect the literature references on waste generation and treatment, characteristics, inventories, and costs. The references were captured into a searchable information file, and the information file was sorted, indexed, and printed for this bibliography. A completion of approximately 1100 references to nuclear waste management, the first of a series, is completed. Each reference is categorized by waste origin (commercial, defense, institutional, and foreign) and by subject area: (1) high-level wastes, (2) low-level wastes, (3) TRU wastes, (4) airborne wastes, (5) remedial action (formerly utilized sites, surplus facilities, and mill tailings), (6) isolation, (7) transportation, (8) spent fuel, (9) fuel cycle centers, and (10) a general category that covers nonspecific wastes. Five indexes are provided to assist the user in locating documents of interest: author, author affiliation (corporate authority), subject category, keyword, and permuted title. Machine (computer) searches of these indexes can be made specifying multiple constraints if so desired. This bibliography will be periodically updated as new information becomes available. In addition to being used in searches for specific data, the information file can also be used for resource document collection, names and addresses of contacts, and identification of potential sources of data

  10. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described.

  11. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described

  12. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrei, M. [AECL Research, Pinnawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  13. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  14. Agro ecological zonification of the Tolima Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agro ecological zonification of the Tolima Department defines and quantifies reas, according to environmental factors as climate, geomorphology, material parental and soil. In this work it is presented the astronomical localization, the geographical location and the detailed description of each one of the reas that conform the department. This zonification allowed through the delimitation of the different earth classes and of the quantification of the same ones, to extract fundamental information for the knowledge of the geography of the department and for the planning of the agricultural and forest production in rational form. According to the study 43.6 percent of the lands corresponds to the warm thermal soil, 23.6 percent to the half soil, the 18.6 to the cold and 14.2 percent to the very cold one and nival. As for the counties of humidity 44.2 percent presents humid climatic conditions and 16 percent it receives excessive humidity; the rest of the department presents dry conditions. In the event of making possible the agriculture supplementary watering is required. The mainly agricultural reas have an extension of 892.675 there is equivalent to 37.8 percent of the department. The lands of cattle vocation have a rea 235.425 there is corresponding to 10 percent of the same one. The forest areas have a covering of 1.228.100 there is that it constitutes 52.2 percent of the department

  15. Evaluation and Mapping of The Use of Technology in The Pulp And Paper Agro Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nurendah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The execution and the implementation of the revitalization program and the growth of pulp and paper agro industry require evaluation activities. For that, we need a study that will provide evaluation and mapping of the implementation of policies and programs so that the analysis, assessment and weighting can be more transparent and measurable. The main objective of this activity is, there are an evaluation and mapping policy as well as output-based programs to the use of technology in the pulp and paper agro industry in 2010-2012 and the functioning of the evaluation program results and policies as a policy formulation and program for 2015-2019. Generally, the data analysis methods used are Descriptive Analysis Method, Assessment Technology, Counting Technology Index, Technology Mapping: Importance Performance Analysis, Benchmarking,  SWOT Analysis, RIA (Regulatory Impact Analysis. The technology used in the pulp and paper agro industries in Indonesia has generally been good in the downstream sector. The results of the overall analysis show that the type of technology used is still dominant with ‘semi-mechanical technology’. The status of the use of technology in pulp industry is good, while the status  of the use of technology in paper industry is very good.

  16. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM.

  17. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions

  18. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  19. Synthesis of alumina based on industrial waste material

    OpenAIRE

    López-Andrés, Sol; Fillali, Laila; Jiménez, José Antonio; Tayibi, Hanan; Padilla, Isabel; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    A hazardous waste generated in slag milling process by the aluminium industry was used as a raw material for the synthesis of alumina, α-Al2O3. This waste is considered as hazardous material in the European legislation due to the release of toxic gases (hydrogen, ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulphide) in the presence of water. The process developed in this work allows to obtaining 1 ton of alumina from 4 tons of hazardous waste and generates an inert solid residue consisting principally of s...

  20. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Newark, DE (United States); Whang, J.M. [DuPont Specialty Chemicals, Deepwater, NJ (United States); McDevitt, M.F. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  1. Meteorological risks are drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Vanwindekens, Frédéric; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Frutos de Cachorro, Julia; Buysse, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves and rain storms are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. The research hypothesis of the MERINOVA project is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management which is being tested using a chain of risk approach. The project comprises of five major parts that reflect the chain of risks: the hazard, its impact on different agro-ecosystems, vulnerability, risk management and risk communication. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual maxima of meteorological variables based on a location-, scale- and shape-parameter that determine the center of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels has yielded maps of temperature extremes, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was determined using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenological models, a soil water balance, crop growth and environmental models. 20-year return values for frost, heat stress, drought, waterlogging and field access during different crop stages were related to arable yields. The spatial extent of vulnerability is developed on different layers of spatial information that include inter alia meteorology, soil-landscapes, crop cover and management. The level of vulnerability and resilience of an agro-ecosystem is also determined by risk management. The types of agricultural risk and their relative importance differ across sectors and farm types as elucidated by questionnaires and focus groups. Risk types are distinguished according to production, market, institutional, financial and liability risks. A portfolio of potential strategies was identified at farm, market and policy level. In conclusion, MERINOVA

  2. INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to consideration of questions of agro-industrial integration. Agro-industrial complex is a difficult dynamic system, including different branches of a national economy. In this work, the scheme of agro-enterprise functioning is submitted. The scheme was constructed with use of so-called “black box” model. The agro-enterprise significantly differs from the enterprises of other branches by a number of signs of. It is connected with the fact that agricultural production is characterized by high degree of uncertainty. Tasks of the uncertainty analysis, and, as a result, different risks of the agroenterprises are actual. Development of the effective mechanism of risk management is also an important task. In this article, the features of risk classification in agroindustrial complex, including the specific risks, are considered. The agroenterprises actively use integration mechanisms for decrease of possible consequences of a risk event. There are vertical and horizontal integration. Structures of the integrated agro-industrial production systems, which construct taking into account vertical and horizontal communications, are considered in this article. The most effective is vertically matrix integration in which the diversification mechanism of business is considered. The feasibility of the risk assessment with due regard for integration communications is proved

  3. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Uyen Nguyen; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed. PMID:19285384

  4. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Uyen Nguyen; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-06-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum-based oil wastes through composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmann, H; Ewnetu, W

    1998-01-01

    Composting of horse manure was used as a means of degradation of two oil wastes, oil sludge from petrol stations and petroleum residues from a refinery. Paraffin oil was chosen as a reference. Oil wastes decomposed to 78-93% during 4.5 months of composting. The degradation of the waste oils was higher than that of the reference paraffin oil and no difference was found between the two types of oil wastes concerning their decomposition. At the end of the experiment, most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons had been degraded except pyrene, chrysene and dibenz(ah)anthracene. Gaseous losses of oil compounds through volatilisation from composts were found not to be significant.

  6. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  7. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  8. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.

  9. Natural decay and half-life: Two bases for the radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can environmental protection imperatives and technical requirements be reconciled in radioactive waste disposal? In France, two kind of facilities illustrate how radioactive waste disposal can merge scientific, regulatory and political concerns, based on the natural decay property of radioactive material. Andra's near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived waste are operated for one generation (30 years) and monitored for ten generations (300 years), with the radioactivity of the waste declining to naturally-occurring levels through the process of radioactive decay by the end of that time. The waste to be disposed of in such facilities contains nuclides with half-life below 30 years and is said time-degradable at human scale. The challenges are different for long-lived waste, which are also time-degradable, but not at human scale. Risk assessments for disposal of such waste, relatively straightforward for the first few thousand years, must also demonstrate that levels decline to naturally-occurring levels, even though this may occur in tens of thousands of years, when it is predicted that climatic change, new glacial activity, and a drop in sea level will occur, and when civilizations will no doubt have changed as well. This demonstration of very long-term safety is an express requirement for radioactive waste disposal. The paper briefly describes the criteria used in the French regulation to determine what waste can be accepted for near-surface disposal and the recent significant steps taken to resume field work for the siting of underground laboratories and possible, much later, a repository for waste non acceptable for near-surface disposal. The conclusion focuses in demonstrating how a consistent National or International Waste Management Program based on clear ethical, societal, scientific and technological choices has to be prepared and presented to the Authorities and to the Public, allowing the waste management Organization to gain the necessary

  10. Modelling Agro-Met Station Observations Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses the development of a nonlinear data-fitting technique based on genetic algorithm (GA for the prediction of routine weather parameters using observations from Agro-Met Stations (AMS. The algorithm produces the equations that best describe the temporal evolutions of daily minimum and maximum near-surface (at 2.5-meter height air temperature and relative humidity and daily averaged wind speed (at 10-meter height at selected AMS locations. These enable the forecasts of these weather parameters, which could have possible use in crop forecast models. The forecast equations developed in the present study use only the past observations of the above-mentioned parameters. This approach, unlike other prediction methods, provides explicit analytical forecast equation for each parameter. The predictions up to 3 days in advance have been validated using independent datasets, unknown to the training algorithm, with impressive results. The power of the algorithm has also been demonstrated by its superiority over persistence forecast used as a benchmark.

  11. Mapping and identification of cassava mosaic geminivirus DNA-A and DNA-B genome sequences for efficient siRNA expression and RNAi based virus resistance by transient agro-infiltration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Yadav, Jitender S; Fauquet, Claude M

    2016-02-01

    Geminiviruses are among the most serious pathogens of many economically important crop plants and RNA interference (RNAi) is an important strategy for their control. Although any fragment of a viral genome can be used to generate a double stranded (ds) RNA trigger, the precursor for generation of siRNAs, the exact sequence and size requirements for efficient gene silencing and virus resistance have so far not been investigated. Previous efforts to control geminiviruses by gene silencing mostly targeted AC1, the gene encoding replication-associated protein. In this study we made RNAi constructs for all the genes of both the genomic components (DNA-A and DNA-B) of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV-CM), one of the most devastating geminiviruses causing cassava mosaic disease (CMD) in Africa. Using transient agro-infiltration studies, RNAi constructs were evaluated for their ability to trigger gene silencing against the invading virus and protection against it. The results show that the selection of the DNA target sequence is an important determinant for the amount of siRNA produced and the extent of resistance. The ACMV genes AC1, AC2, AC4 from DNA-A and BC1 from DNA-B were effective targets for RNAi-mediated resistance and their siRNA expression was higher compared to other RNAi constructs. The RNAi construct targeting AC2, the suppressor of gene silencing of ACMV-CM gave highest level of resistance in the transient studies. This is the first report of targeting DNA-B to confer resistance to a bipartite geminivirus infection. PMID:26581664

  12. Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride

  13. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

  14. Investigation into the supramolecular properties of fibres regenerated from cotton based waste garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, L V; Carr, C M; Rigout, M

    2016-06-25

    This paper investigated the supramolecular properties and accessibility of fibres regenerated from cotton-based waste garments and compared to typical lyocell fibres. The supramolecular and accessibility properties of the cotton-based waste garments fibres regenerated from three sources (waste denim garments, easy care finished cotton fabrics and a blend of cotton-based waste garment with wood pulp) were analysed and compared to the lyocell fibres. The Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) analyses indicated that the fibres from cotton waste garments had supramolecular properties similar to the typical lyocell fibres. The exception was spun from the cotton pulp reclaimed from easy care treated cotton fabrics and maybe related to increased amorphous cellulose content in its structure. The fibre's accessibility by reagents behaviour correlated well with the supramolecular properties. The results indicate that the waste garment purification process may affect the properties of the pulp and hence the supramolecular properties of the resultant fibres. Further research on the purification and regeneration of fibres from waste garments may lead to the use of cotton waste garments as an alternative feedstock source to the lyocell process. PMID:27083802

  15. Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottle, Troy A; Bilec, Melissa M; Brown, Nicholas R; Landis, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed bins) and 23% contamination rates at the third game.

  16. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed

  17. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottle, Troy A., E-mail: troy.hottle@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 370 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States); Bilec, Melissa M., E-mail: mbilec@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 153 Benedum Hall, 3700 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261-3949 (United States); Brown, Nicholas R., E-mail: nick.brown@asu.edu [Arizona State University, University Sustainability Practices, 1130 East University Drive, Suite 206, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Landis, Amy E., E-mail: amy.landis@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 375 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  18. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Agro-industrial Compound Eco-industrial Park%基于Agent的农工复合型生态产业园的建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义乔; 刘晶茹; 王效华

    2015-01-01

    农工复合型生态产业园是集农业和工业为一体的社会-经济-自然复合区域产业共生系统。构建了一个“企业+农户”的小层面农工复合生态工业园,运用基于Agent的建模方法,建立了农工复合型生态产业园产品和废物交换框架模型,通过系统仿真研究了园区经济效益、环境效益和社会效益,从系统仿真角度探讨产业共生行为对农工复合产业生态系统发展演变的影响和作用。仿真结果表明,园区总产值、总利润和园区内共生交易额均随周期的变化保持增长直至平稳,当共生企业加入园区时增幅明显;园区中废物利用率在共生企业加入后迅速增长,农药和化肥使用量逐渐减少,有机肥使用量增加;园区带动生态化种植农户比例的增加表明越来越多的农户选择生态化种植道路。%An agro⁃industrial compound eco⁃industrial park is a society⁃economy⁃nature symbiotic system integrating agri⁃culture and industry. A small⁃scale "enterprise and peasant household" agro⁃industrial compound eco⁃industrial park with a product⁃waste exchanging framework model is built up, using the Agent⁃based modeling method. Its economic, environ⁃mental and social benefits are analyzed through systematic simulation,and impacts and effects of the agro⁃industrial symbio⁃sis on development and evolution of the agro⁃industrial compound ecosystem discussed in depth from the viewpoint of sys⁃tem simulation. Results of the simulation show that total output, total profit and symbiotic turnover of the park all display a stably rising trend along with cyclic changes and the increase is getting more obvious when symbiotic enterprises join in. The waste recycling rate in the park grows rapidly,the pesticide and chemical fertilizer application rates reduce gradually, and the organic manure application rate increases. Development of the park brings about a high

  19. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  20. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  1. Summary report on the development of a cement-based formula to immobilize Hanford facility waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends a cement-based grout formula to immobilize Hanford Facility Waste in the Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). Supporting data confirming compliance with all TGF performance criteria are presented. 9 refs., 24 figs., 50 tabs

  2. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  3. AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN ARGES RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Diaconu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lotic ecosystems, part of the Natural Capital, is one of the key factors functioning of socio - economic development andtheir support. An important role in their sustainable development, is the retention and recycling of nutrients, especiallyN, P and their compounds. The nutrients in lotic and lentic ecosystems are either due to natural biochemical processesor by human impact of pollution or broadcast process and characterize the ecological status of water bodies and thuscan determine the quality of services provided. A special importance have agro-ecosystems, particularly multifunctionallivestock farms. Pathways by which pollutants (especially nutrients and pesticides, and other pollutants to reach bodiesof water are different (surface drainage, percolation, etc..To ensure sustainable development of water resources is necessary for agricultural development to take place in termsof minimizing waste streams and not affect the production and support of NC.

  4. Plant genetic resources for the sustainability of agro-industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrieving, characterization and conservation of agro-biodiversity ' are the European Union's priority objectives in the context of the strategies to preserve the genetic resources deemed essential for sustainable development, for the support of the community and to encourage a balanced economic growth. A holistic, integrated strategy can create the most propitious conditions to retrieve, maintain, and use in a sustainable way and according to models of circular economy and continuous innovation, the potential of plant systems (also by-products and wastes) for the development of new sectors of economic and social interest through innovative processes with a low environmental impact, according with the European strategy to 2020 which gives priority to the development of the bio-economy.

  5. The MERINOVA project: MEteorological RIsks as drivers of environmental inNOvation in Agro-ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de vijver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2014-05-01

    Devastating weather-related events have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves and rain storms are projected to increase both in frequency and magnitude with climate change. Since more than half of the Belgian territory is managed by the agricultural sector, extreme events may have significant impacts on agro-ecosystem services and pose severe limitations to sustainable agricultural land management. The research hypothesis of the MERINOVA project is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management. The major objectives are to characterise extreme meteorological events, assess the impact on Belgian agro-ecosystems, characterise their vulnerability and resilience to these events, and explore innovative adaptation options to agricultural risk management. The project comprises of five major parts that reflect the chain of risks: the hazard, its impact on different agro-ecosystems, vulnerability, risk management and risk communication. Impacts developed from physically based models not only provide information on the state of the damage at any given time, but also assist in understanding the links between different factors causing damage and determining bio-physical vulnerability. Socio-economic impacts enlarge the basis for vulnerability mapping, risk management and adaptation options. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by more limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers. The main findings of each of these project building blocks will be communicated. MERINOVA provides for a robust and flexible framework by demonstrating its performance across Belgian agro-ecosystems, and by ensuring its relevance to policy makers and practitioners. A strong expert and end-user network is established to help disseminating and exploiting project results to meet user needs. The

  6. Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance Analysis in a CI Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Cleetus; Shijo Thomas; Soney Varghese

    2013-01-01

    The present work involves the synthesis of a petroleum-based fuel by the catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics. Catalytic pyrolysis involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating them in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In the present study different oil samples are produced using different catalysts under different reaction conditions from waste plastics. The synthesized oil samples are subjected to a parametric study based on the oil yield, selectivit...

  7. Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Data Base user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The Greater-than-Class-C Low-level Waste (GTCC LLW) Data Base characterizes GTCC LLW using low, base, and high cases for three different scenarios: unpackaged, packaged, and concentration averages. The GTCC LLW Data Base can be used to project future volumes and radionuclide activities. This manual provides instructions for users of the GTCC LLW Data Base.

  8. Bioenergy from agro-industrial residues in the East African region. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Tanzania has recently developed a comprehensive environmental policy which has put high priority on several specific environmental issues. One of the issues is the quality of waste water. A special priority is given to the pollution from the sisal industry. The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and waterways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. Generally, these residues are regarded as having no or very little value and the different disposal methods are mainly a matter of getting rid of the waste. The generation of residues are very often concentrated on few large units, which makes the exploitation of these resources feasible in large scale biogas systems. Typically the units will have a potential of a daily methane generation of 1,000-20,000 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}, equivalent to a potential electricity production of 0.2-3.2 MW. The future utilization of these resources for production of valuable products is described in this report. This report consists of 3 volumes. This summary report including the main objectives and findings from the different project report: Mapping and Quantification of Organic Agro-Industrial Residues in East Africa; Biogas - Bioenergy Potential in East Africa, Seminar Proceedings, Siler Sands, Dar es Salaam 22-23 September 1997; Bioenergy from Sisal residues - Experimental results and Capacity Building Activities. (EG)

  9. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected

  10. CEE6880 - Soil-based Hazardous Waste Management, Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Engineering management of hazardous wastes present in the vadose zone, including extraction, containment, and biological, chemical, and physical destruction technologies. Aspects include engineering characterization, problem definition, treatment, and monitoring. Analysis and design emphasized through problems, examinations, and report writing. Technical Requirements: A PC is required to run the Fugacity Calculator.

  11. Diffusion-based leaching models for glassy waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most scenarios for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes assume burial under conditions in which only a limited quantity of groundwater will contact the waste form. In order to model these conditions, it is necessary to describe the release of species from a waste form matrix in contact with a limited volume of leachant in which the concentration of released species is not zero and is itself a function of release rate. Eight leaching models are presented that include the cases of a dissolving and a nondissolving matrix, finite, infinite, and replenished leachant volumes, and a matrix covered by a surface layer with different properties. The equations that describe these models assume a linear concentration profile of the diffusing species within the waste form and apply Fick's first law to obtain the leach rate. In three cases a direct comparison is possible between the solutions of these equations and solutions obtained by use of the diffusion equation derived from Fick's second law. Good agreement is found. The equations given are convenient for use with programmable calculators

  12. Integrated Data Base for 1992: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1991. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal

  13. Pyrochlore based glass-ceramics for the immobilization of actinide-rich nuclear wastes: From concept to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Thorogood, G.; Vance, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrochlore based glass-ceramics have been developed, from concept to reality, for the immobilization of actinide-rich nuclear wastes. Compared with zirconolite based glass-ceramics, they are less sensitive to the processing redox conditions and can double actinide waste loadings thus decreasing volumes of the consolidated waste forms, and subsequently reducing the interim storage and disposal costs. More importantly, they provide an alternative flexible system to tackle radioactive wastes arising from the advanced nuclear reactors.

  14. Screening of waste for use in clay-based bricks in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2014-01-01

    of hazardous waste, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes and minetailings from Greenland, were investigated in order to determine their potential suitability for incorporationin the production of clay-based bricks. Furthermore, the MSWI fly ash was subjected to two remediation techniques......Clay-based ceramics, such as bricks, are heterogeneous materials, which can incorporate raw materials ofwide ranging compositions, without impairing their technical properties (Dondi et al., 1997a,b). Due to thisability, bricks have become a popular material in waste management research worldwide...... and several studies have demonstrated that clay-based bricks and tiles can successfully accommodate waste types,such as incineration ashes, mine tailings and dredged harbour sediments (Zhang et al., 2011; Roy et al.,2007; Mezencevova et al., 2012). In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact...

  15. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties

  16. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties.

  17. An incentive-based source separation model for sustainable municipal solid waste management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanying; Zhou, Chuanbin; Lan, Yajun; Jin, Jiasheng; Cao, Aixin

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management (MSWM) is most important and challenging in large urban communities. Sound community-based waste management systems normally include waste reduction and material recycling elements, often entailing the separation of recyclable materials by the residents. To increase the efficiency of source separation and recycling, an incentive-based source separation model was designed and this model was tested in 76 households in Guiyang, a city of almost three million people in southwest China. This model embraced the concepts of rewarding households for sorting organic waste, government funds for waste reduction, and introducing small recycling enterprises for promoting source separation. Results show that after one year of operation, the waste reduction rate was 87.3%, and the comprehensive net benefit under the incentive-based source separation model increased by 18.3 CNY tonne(-1) (2.4 Euros tonne(-1)), compared to that under the normal model. The stakeholder analysis (SA) shows that the centralized MSW disposal enterprises had minimum interest and may oppose the start-up of a new recycling system, while small recycling enterprises had a primary interest in promoting the incentive-based source separation model, but they had the least ability to make any change to the current recycling system. The strategies for promoting this incentive-based source separation model are also discussed in this study. PMID:25819930

  18. Agro-ecological characterization of inland valleys in West Arica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Windmeijer, P.N.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual issues related to inland valleys, their morphology, hydrology and agro-ecosystems are discussed, as well as a method for their step-wise characterization at different levels of detail. A definition of inland valleys is given, including the description of the main landscape elements (uplan

  19. Innovative Agro-food Technologies Implementation through Instructional Communication Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research represents the valorization of the dissemination the design framework of an interdisciplinary area of research, validated through SPAS European FP6 project and a national BIOSIG- PN2 and has as objective to channel communication on target market, through personalized solution of instructional communication mechanisms. The main objective of the national research grant being the implementation of innovative biotechnology on agro-food market, in order to improve the fish diet’s benefits, the prospects must be provided with valuable explicit information. This paper is about the commitment to embedding the actual consumer experience from PN2 fish market research and agro-food agents’ capitalization knowledge behavior from SPAS virtual platform, through designing the adequate communication framework, in order to support and accelerate the implementation of the innovation biotechnology, through improving the target market experience. The projected solution is mainly concerning to offer adequate solutions to insure against current consumers fragilities, but we also underline the vulnerabilities of the whole agro food value chain, in terms of communication strategy, which is lacking of adequate common interest coordination. The current research solution is regarding the rising awareness about the translation from consumer preferences to perceived detriment by integrating previous validated solution of agro food market analysis.

  20. Genetic diversity analysis for agro-morphological and seed quality traits in rapeseed (brassica campestris l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred fourteen accessions of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan using cluster and principal component analyses during 2005 and 2006. Cluster analysis based on fifteen agro-morphological and six seed quality traits, divided 114 accessions into six and five clusters during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first seven and five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.09% and 66.08% of the variability amongst accessions during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Nine important characters contributed positively to first two PCs during both the years 2005 and 2006. (author)

  1. Soil monitoring in agro-ecosystems of high mountain zone in Quindio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Were evaluated soil characteristics in 4 common agro-ecosystems of high mountain zone of Quindio department, soil forest exhibit better indicators that others systems. Low macro porosity and hydraulic conductivity were consequences more important of cattle ranching systems. In pinus plantations were registered lower value of organic matter, pH, interchanging bases, gravimetric moisture and microbial activity CO2. As a result of pinus establishment on pasture ground increase drainable porosity and hydraulic conductivity. In granadilla cultivation were lower organism diversity and structural stability

  2. Long-Term Emission Factors for Land Application of Treated Organic Municipal Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    The agro-ecosystem model Daisy was used to explore the long-term fate of nitrogen (N) after land application of compost and digestate (based on source separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW)). The cumulative crop N yield response and emissions for mineral fertilizer (MF), anaerobically...... digested organic waste (MSW-D), and composted organic waste (MSW-C) were derived by fitting a linear mixed model to the outcomes of the simulations. The non-linearity of crop N yield responses and emission responses to increasing N fertilizer application was addressed by dividing these responses into high...... and low crop response conditions. The crop N yield response and five emission pathways (NO3− leaching to groundwater, NO3− and NH4+ loss to surface water, and NH3 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere) were quantified as environmental inventory factors, which were calculated for both high and low response...

  3. Immobilization of radioactive waste in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobermorite and xonotlite, two synthetic calcium silicate hydrates, improve the Cs retention of cement matrices for Cs, when incorporated at the 6 to 10% level. A kinetic and mechanistic scheme is presented for the reaction of fine grained, Cs-loaded clinoptilolite with cement. The Magnox waste form reacts quickly with cement, leading to an exchange of carbonate between waste form and cement components. Carbonation of cements leads to a marked improvement in their physical properties of Cs retentivity. Diffusion models are presented for cement systems whose variable parameters can readily be derived from experimental measurements. Predictions about scaled-up behaviour of large immobilized masses are applied to extrapolation of laboratory scale results to full-size masses. (author)

  4. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  5. Safety optimization in waste management based on risk analysis using fuzzy-logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk analysis is the basis for site selection of repositories for low and medium radioactive waste and for optimization of a selected waste disposal system from a safety point of view. It comprises the processing of subjective expert judgment data and the identification of events which are major risk contributors according to the authors. The method of risk analysis is based on probability theory and elements of fuzzy set theory and involves uncertainty analysis and the structured use of expert judgment data. The risk analysis methodology and its application to waste management systems are explained in detail

  6. Development of PAN-based absorbers for treating waste problems at U.S. DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Watson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) can be used to bind together very small particles of absorbers into porous aggregates that can be used conveniently in packed columns. While binding the small particles together, the PAN allows substantial diffusion and even flow through the aggregates to give high effective mass transfer rates. Although PAN has been used or proposed for several applications, its capabilities for use with the US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes have not been determined. This paper summaries studies at the Czech Technical University on the stability of PAN-based absorbers under the radiation, chemical, and physical conditions needed for DOE wastes and assessments of their potential performance with selected US wastes.

  7. Rational energy use and waste minization goals based on the use of production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Companies normally generate rich sets of data, related to production, waste, energy and environmental parameters. These numbers have a great potential to be used as rational means to establish goals for continuous improvement, waste minimization, energy use production and environmental pollution control. However this is not the case, in general, because people in charge lack knowledge on how to use the data for this purpose. It is common that fixed goals are set without real bases with any relationship to production levels or energy and waste real data. This paper shows how to use data for monitoring process and targeting goals for waste minimization and specific energy use reduction. It is based on the experience of the author on applying this practice to more than 20 industrial cases

  8. Efficiency Effects of Unit-based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Gradus, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in Environmental and Resource Economics . Much attention has been paid to the influence of the institutional form of waste collection on costs. We extend this literature in three directions by including the unit-based pricing system. First, we show that unit-based pricing systems are more important from a cost-minimizing point of view than the institutional mode of waste collection. In particular, the bag-based and frequency-based pricing systems are...

  9. Una propuesta para desarrollar turismo rural en los municipios de Zacatecas, México: las rutas agro-culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia González-Ávila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the potential of the municipalities of Zacatecas to develop tourism Agro-Cultural Tour (RAC based on a number of resources through the Evaluation Index Agro-Cultural Tour (IERAC resulting in the he Pepper Route (R1; Corn Route (R2; Cattle Route (R3; Dairy Route (R4, and Fruit Route (R5;, where the municipalities with the greatest potential for this type of tourism are: Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Jerez and Sombrerete while are in the opposite case of Pinos, and Concepcion del Oro Moyahua Thus, this proposal to assess the potential of a site to develop tourism RAC based on a series of resources and can be applied in different regions of Mexico or other countries.

  10. Una propuesta para desarrollar turismo rural en los municipios de Zacatecas, México: las rutas agro-culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia González-Ávila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo evaluó el potencial de los municipios de Zacatecas para desarrollar turismo de Rutas Agro-Culturales (RAC en base a una serie de recursos mediante el Índice del Evaluación de Rutas Agro-Culturales (IERAC; dando por resultado la Ruta del chile (R1; Ruta del maíz (R2; Ruta ganadera (R3; Ruta láctea (R4 y Ruta frutal (R5, donde los municipios con mayor potencial para éste tipo de turismo son: Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Jerez y Sombrerete mientras que en el caso contrario están de Pinos, Moyahua y Concepción del Oro. Así, ésta propuesta permite evaluar el potencial de un sitio para desarrollar turismo RAC en base a una serie de recursos y puede ser aplicado en diferentes regiones de México u otros países.

  11. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  12. Integrated data base report - 1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions

  13. Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal

  14. Development of A Web based GIS Waste Disposal Management System for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo P. Idowu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste management has to do with handling of solid refuse from their sources of generation through storage, collection, transportation, recovery and treatment processes to disposal This research developed a web based GIS waste disposal management system, with aim of achieving an effective waste management system and a spatial view of waste collection locations in any local government area in Nigeria. The system was developed using Extensive Hypertext Markup Language and Cascading Style Sheet (XHTML/CSS, and Asynchronous Java Scripting with XML (AJAX and the software packages used for the development of the application are Adobe Dreamweaver and Adobe Fireworks, MySQL, Apache Server and PHP scripting. With this waste management system, the locations of all the waste collection tanks in any location will be, monitored, managed and maintained. The use of this system will ease the job of the waste management unit of the local government areas in Nigeria in achieving a clean environment and mitigate the spread of epidemic in a way to ensure safety of all and sundry.

  15. Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Chaumartin, F.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to pedo-climatic conditions and crop management. The biophysical crop model CERES-EGC is designed to predict the productivity and GWP of agro-ecosystems at the plot-scale. Here we applied a Bayesian calibration to its both sub-models of N2O emissions and CO2 fluxes to deal with parameterization and uncertainty analysis. The N2O emission module of CERES-EGC was calibrated against chamber measurements from 7 arable sites in France and the CO2 flux module was calibrated against eddy-covariance measurements from 3 sites in Europe. Measurements from the various sites were assimilated in the posterior probability density functions for the different parameters, using a Bayesian calibration method based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over entire crop rotations of 3 European experimental sites of the NitroEurope-IP network. Indirect GHG emissions arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming potential. The model would be extrapolated from plot- to regional-scale, with the ultimate goal of generating spatialized GHG inventories. Differentiating the emissions in space would thus make it possible to target critical zones in mitigation scenarios at regional scale.

  16. Managerial Accounting as a Conceptual Basis of Integrated Management System in Small Businesses (Kazakhstan's Agro-Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandugash M. Tokenova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article consideres the modern scientific approaches to the integration of management systems, interpretation of the concepts of managerial accounting and understanding of management and accounting in small businesses. The article presents the main results of the analysis of Kazakhstan's agro-industrial sector problems, ways of their solution, based on international experience and the characteristics of Kazakhstan's small business entity. There is presented the authors' vision of ways to enhance the competitiveness of small farms.

  17. Stakeholder Analysis for Sharing Agro-environment Issues Towards Concerted Action: A Case Study on Diffuse Nitrate Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Paolo Roggero; Giovanna Seddaiu; Marco Toderi

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing need for participatory approaches to support the development of sustainable farming systems, based on the active involvement of stakeholders in the definition of research objectives and priorities. This paper reports the experience of a team of agronomy researchers involved in the SLIM project (http://slim.open.ac.uk), around a case study of nitrate pollution. The agro-ecosystem analysis included biophysical processes at microcatchment scale and the stakeholders’...

  18. Smart Waste Collection System Based on Location Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Jensen, Michael; Andreasen, Morten Henius;

    2015-01-01

    Cities around the world are on the run to become smarter. Some of these have seen an opportunity on deploying dedicated municipal access networks to support all types of city management and maintenance services requiring a data connection. This paper practically demonstrates how Internet of Things...... embedded with sensors, which can read, collect, and transmit trash volume data over the Internet. This data put into a spatio-temporal context and processed by graph theory optimization algorithms can be used to dynamically and efficiently manage waste collection strategies. Experiments are carried out...

  19. Optimal waste heat recovery Rankine based for heavy duty applications

    OpenAIRE

    Grelet, Vincent; Reiche, Thomas; Guillaume, Ludovic; Lemort, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Even in nowadays engines which can reach 45% of efficiency a high amount of energy is released as heat to the ambient. The increase in oil prices compels manufacturers to focus on new solutions to improve fuel efficiency of truck powertrain such as Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS). Over last few years a lot of studies have proven that there are a lot of hurdles (cooling margin, expansion machines, …) for a perfect match of such a system on a vehicle. The objective of this study is to define...

  20. Hazardous waste: Siting of storage facility at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report provides information on whether the hazardous waste storage facility at Kelly Air Force Base meets Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, state, and Air Force siting requirements; on whether the Air Force or the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office selected the best site available to protect the public and to preserve good public relations with the community; on whether the Air Force, Kelly Air Force Base, or the Defense Logistics Agency adjusted siting standards as a result of the adverse publicity the hazardous waste facility has generated; and on whether Kelly Air Force Base is revising its hazardous waste management organization so that it is similar to the organizations at Tinker and McClellan Air Force Bases.

  1. A risk-based decision-aiding tool for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-CART (the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program Cost Analysis and Risk Tool) is being developed to aid in low-risk, cost-effective, timely management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and can therefore be used in management of mixed waste. N-CART provides evaluation of multiple alternatives and presents the consequences of proposed waste management activities in a clear and concise format. N-CART's decision-aiding analyses include comparisons and sensitivity analyses of multiple alternatives and allows the user to perform quick turn-around open-quotes what ifclose quotes studies to investigate various scenarios. Uncertainties in data (such as cost and schedule of various activities) are represented as distributions. N-CART centralizes documentation of the bases of program alternatives and program decisions, thereby supporting responses to stakeholders concerns. The initial N-CART design considers regulatory requirements, costs, and schedules for alternative courses of action. The final design will include risks (public health, occupational, economic, scheduling), economic benefits, and the impacts of secondary waste generation. An optimization tool is being incorporated that allows the user to specify the relative importance of cost, time risks, and other bases for decisions. The N-CART prototype can be used to compare the costs and schedules of disposal alternatives for mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) and greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) waste, as well as spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and related scrap material

  2. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root

  3. Modeling and validation of directional reflectance for heterogeneous agro-forestry scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelu, Z.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.; Huete, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a common natural phenomenon but is seldom considered in current radiative transfer models for predicting the surface reflectance. This paper developed an explicit analytical Radiative Transfer model for heterogeneous Agro-Forestry scenarios (RTAF) by dividing the scenario into non-boundary regions and boundary regions. The scattering contribution of the non-boundary regions that are treated as homogeneous canopies can be estimated from the SAILH model, whereas that of the boundary regions with lengths, widths, canopy heights, and orientations of the field patches, is calculated based on the bidirectional gap probability by considering the interactions and mutual shadowing effects among different patches. The hot spot factor is extended for heterogeneous scenarios, the Hapke model for soil anisotropy is incorporated, and the contributions of the direct and diffuse radiation are separately calculated. The multi-angular airborne observations and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model simulations were used for validating and evaluating the RTAF model over an agro-forestry scenario in Heihe River Basin, China. It indicates that the RTAF model can accurately simulate the hemispherical-directional reflectance factors (HDRFs) of the heterogeneous agro-forestry scenario, with an RMSE of 0.0016 and 0.0179 in the red and near-infrared (NIR) bands, respectively. The RTAF model was compared with two widely used models, the dominant cover type (DCT) model and the spectral linear mixture (SLM) model, which either neglected the interactions and mutual shadowing effects between the shelterbets and crops, or did not account for the contribution of the shelterbets. Results suggest that the boundary effect can significantly influence the angular distribution of the HDRFs, and consequently enlarged the HDRF variations between the backward and forward directions in the principle plane. The RTAF model reduced the maximum relative error from 25

  4. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  5. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Pingting Liu; Zhiyu Huang; Hao Deng; Rongsha Wang; Shuixiang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by am...

  6. Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutavchi, Viacheslav

    2012-11-01

    aspects of SWM were analysed as case studies. A shift of viewpoints within the field of waste management is presented. This shift is in accordance with the prevailing concept of sustainable development, as commonly understood. It is concluded that in the practical SWM context, the findings of the study point at the possibilities to modify the common CBA- and FCA-based methods by WAMED, COSTBUSTER, and EUROPE. Therefore, it can be said that estimations in a SWM scheme can be carried out by using certain economic model, if properly modified in a logical and plausible way. New principles for cost allocation to SWM residual products are presented in the current work. They imply strong industrial cost saving incentives through promoting the introduction of new and improved processing technologies for rest-waste. Such incentives then strongly promote investments that are likely to improve both the environment and the corporate profitability. Thereby, the occurrence of non-commercialised, and hence not utilized, wastes is reduced. This improves the short term corporate economy through saving raw materials such as solid waste fuel, spending less time for administrating waste flows, and less wear and tear of the plant machinery. Additional environmental advantages which affect the balance sheets in a favourable way are related to the long-term business economy and extended environmental goodwill. This is due to the recently introduced way of considering solid waste as regular goods in financial terms - the equality principle. If waste is seen as goods, and not wasted in landfills, the environment will improve. This, in turn, leads to an improved quality of life.

  7. Efficiency Effects of Unit-based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Much attention has been paid to the influence of the institutional form of waste collection on costs. We extend this literature in three directions by including the unit-based pricing system. First, we show that unit-based pricing systems are more important from a cost-

  8. Division of Agro technology and Biosciences: Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In presenter speech, he outlined several topics regarding development of Agro technology and Biosciences Division from 31 years ago. This division started with Unit Sains Hidupan Liar under PUSPATI in 1981 and change their names to Program Isotop dan Sinaran dalam Biologi dan Pertanian under Nuclear Technology Unit (UTN) (1983). In 1990 their premise change to MINT-Tech Park. This program responsible for conducting research in agro technology using nuclear technology. Several achievements achieved by this division since established. They also succeed in mutating banana namely Novaria banana (1994), Tongkat Ali rice (1990), ground nut (2003), orchids, organic fertilizer and foliage in 2000. The vision of this division are to promote and enhance innovation and applications in nuclear technology to achieve security in food productivity, safety and quality and ecological awareness for economics competitiveness and vibrancy in agrobioindustry and community development. (author)

  9. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Gungor, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Kocaman, Suheyla, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  10. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  11. Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihanipour, Azam; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and beta-glucosidase for 24 h followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in 4 days, resulted in 0.140-0.145 g ethanol/g textiles, which was 25-26% of the corresponding theoretical yield. A pretreatment with concentrated phosphoric acid prior to the hydrolysis improved ethanol production from the textiles up to 66% of the theoretical yield. However, the best results obtained from alkali pretreatment of the materials by NaOH. The alkaline pretreatment of cotton fibers were carried out with 0-20% NaOH at 0 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 100 degrees C, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis up to 4 days. In general, higher concentration of NaOH resulted in a better yield of the hydrolysis, whereas temperature had a reverse effect and better results were obtained at lower temperature. The best conditions for the alkali pretreatment of the cotton were obtained in this study at 12% NaOH and 0 degrees C and 3 h. In this condition, the materials with 3% solid content were enzymatically hydrolyzed at 85.1% of the theoretical yield in 24 h and 99.1% in 4 days. The alkali pretreatment of the waste textiles at these conditions and subsequent SSF resulted in 0.48 g ethanol/g pretreated textiles used.

  12. Agro-manufactured Export Prices, Wages and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2008-01-01

    This article estimates the impacts of world agricultural trade liberalization on wages and unemployment in Argentina in the presence of individual labor supply responses and adjustment costs in labor demand. After a 10% increase in agro-manufactured export prices, I find that: (a) the employment probability would increase by 1.36 percentage points, matched by a decline in the unemployment probability of 0.75 percentage points and an increase in labor market participation of 0.61 percentage po...

  13. Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Papaïx, Julien; Burdon, Jeremy J; Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Remnant areas hosting natural vegetation in agricultural landscapes can impact the disease epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of crop pathogens. However, the potential consequences for crop diseases of the composition, the spatial configuration and the persistence time of the agro-ecological interface – the area where crops and remnant vegetation are in contact – have been poorly studied. Here, we develop a demographic–genetic simulation model to study how the spatial and temporal distrib...

  14. Development of Financial Security of Agro-Industrial Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Kryukova

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 'financial security' has been covered in the article. The theoretical basis of agro-industrial factories financial security development has been considered. In particular, the author has done an overview of different methodological approaches to determining the content of financial security and its components. The indicators of financial security of enterprise have been defined. Summing up the methodological aspects of providing business financial security the author proposes t...

  15. Competitive factors of the agro-food e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Bodini, Antonella; Zanoli, Raffaele

    2009-01-01

    In the new economy Small and Medium Enterprises face new challenges in their Business-to-Consumers transactions, such as the use of new Information and Communication Technologies. Electronic commerce may represent a competitive strategy to make enterprises of the agro-food sector more visible to consumers, if usability is adequately taken into account. The main barrier to the development of successful e-commerce business is represented by websites not meeting basic accessibility and usability...

  16. Plant Genetic Resources for sustainability of agro industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery, the characterization and conservation of agro biodiversity are priority objectives of the European Union as part of strategies to preserve resources Genetic considered fundamental for sustainable development, community support, to encourage a balanced economic growth. ENEA has been involved for several years in the development of methodologies aimed at enhancing Local germplasm that can be of aid for the cultivation choices, for innovation of traditional production systems and for better use of the final product.

  17. Stakeholder Analysis for Sharing Agro-environment Issues Towards Concerted Action: A Case Study on Diffuse Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Seddaiu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing need for participatory approaches to support the development of sustainable farming systems, based on the active involvement of stakeholders in the definition of research objectives and priorities. This paper reports the experience of a team of agronomy researchers involved in the SLIM project (http://slim.open.ac.uk, around a case study of nitrate pollution. The agro-ecosystem analysis included biophysical processes at microcatchment scale and the stakeholders’ perceptions, interests and practices related to the nitrate issue (stakeholders analysis. The conceptual SLIM framework model supported new interactions among stakeholders, that were facilitated by researchers, using dialogical tools to enable them to use scientific data and to integrate their own knowledge on the farming system. The agro-environment policies, based on compulsory prescriptions, revealed weak assumptions and insufficient integration of scientific knowledge. The stakeholder analysis contributed to the identification of priorities both for scientific research and agro-environment policies. Researchers provided the site-specific scientific knowledge, in a way that enabled stakeholders to identify the relationships between agricultural practices, landscape values and the nitrate pollution issue and to elaborate shared strategies to develop concerted actions. New spaces for interaction between researchers and stakeholders should be created to face complex agro-environment issues at catchment scale, such as the nitrate pollution of groundwater. The implication for agronomy research is that the experiments should be designed to produce suitable results to facilitate participatory sessions and that it is worthwhile to invest in specific skills of communication science and group dynamics management within the agronomy researchers’ community, in order to integrate agronomy knowledge into high quality participatory processes.

  18. Stakeholder Analysis for Sharing Agro-environment Issues Towards Concerted Action: A Case Study on Diffuse Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toderi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing need for participatory approaches to support the development of sustainable farming systems, based on the active involvement of stakeholders in the definition of research objectives and priorities. This paper reports the experience of a team of agronomy researchers involved in the SLIM project (http://slim.open.ac.uk, around a case study of nitrate pollution. The agro-ecosystem analysis included biophysical processes at microcatchment scale and the stakeholders’ perceptions, interests and practices related to the nitrate issue (stakeholders analysis. The conceptual SLIM framework model supported new interactions among stakeholders, that were facilitated by researchers, using dialogical tools to enable them to use scientific data and to integrate their own knowledge on the farming system. The agro-environment policies, based on compulsory prescriptions, revealed weak assumptions and insufficient integration of scientific knowledge. The stakeholder analysis contributed to the identification of priorities both for scientific research and agro-environment policies. Researchers provided the site-specific scientific knowledge, in a way that enabled stakeholders to identify the relationships between agricultural practices, landscape values and the nitrate pollution issue and to elaborate shared strategies to develop concerted actions. New spaces for interaction between researchers and stakeholders should be created to face complex agro-environment issues at catchment scale, such as the nitrate pollution of groundwater. The implication for agronomy research is that the experiments should be designed to produce suitable results to facilitate participatory sessions and that it is worthwhile to invest in specific skills of communication science and group dynamics management within the agronomy researchers’ community, in order to integrate agronomy knowledge into high quality participatory processes.

  19. Driving force and development strategies of agro-tourism in China%驱动因素视角的我国农业旅游发展模式与策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灵恩; 何露; 成升魁; 闵庆文

    2012-01-01

    agro-tourism research and development in China for a more comprehensive knowledge about this sector. Foreign scholars have done so lot on the theory and empiricism of agro-tourism, community participation of women, diversification of operations, role of multi-functional agriculture and agro-heritage in tourism, impact of climate change on agro-tourism, sustainable development of agro-tourism, etc. Domestic scholars have focused mainly on empirical analysis of the concept of agro-tourism, state of development and countermeasures of agro-tourism, impacts of agro-tourism and festive tourism. This paper also analyzed the development of China's agro-tourism from the perspective of market demand, urbanization and rural economic restructuring. It discussed the driving forces of tourism demand, tourism development, accelerated urbanization, "re-turn-to-nature" drive, rural economic restructuring, agriculture, and tourism breakthrough achievement. Based on analysis of developments in China's agro-tourism, four driving forces were identified. The nation-wide tourism was driven by regional transportation, city development, scenic spot and resource monopoly. It was clear that the more driving factors there were, the more beneficial was the development of agro-tourism. The paper emphasized that under the concept of market economy, the development of agro-tourism always required a variety of external conditions for the jointly promotion of agro-tourism. Also with changing internal and external conditions, the driven factors for agro-tourism development changed. In conclusion therefore, development strategies were presented as the driving force of China's agro-tourism industry. Traffic-driven strategy and characteristics of product and urban development influenced strategic in-depth theme development of hot spot tourism sites. Link-driven development and unique-resource driven strategies were the brands of development for integrated mode of agro-tourism development. The development

  20. Information literacy training in AgroParisTech food studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Grimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AgroParisTech professors and librarians in Food Science and Technology have developed information literacy instruction to help students find and use relevant information. The course trains students to develop information literacy competencies: to identify the information needed and define its nature and extent; to access the information with efficiency because they select and use methods, resources and retrieval systems most appropriate to the topic; to evaluate the used methods, information, and sources; to search, access and use information ethically and legally; to read, use and write bibliographic references.AgroParisTech trains two kinds of students. For Higher Education students (engineering students, the training takes place at their arrival in AgroParisTech, including courses and practical classes: role and management of information in organizations; information on plagiarism; resources in environment, food science and technology; use of relevant tools and methods for searching in databases; reference writing.For students attending a Master of Science, the training prepares them to produce a literature review. The curriculum includes: information about scientific integrity, plagiarism; information needed for a researcher; critical reading of a journal article; how to manage a literature review: resources used, information search with databases, full text access; reference writing.The students will use these information literacy skills along their studies as well as in their future jobs.

  1. Agro-fuels: southern impacts; Agrocarburants: impacts au Sud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duterme, B.

    2011-07-01

    At a time of controversies about global warming, agro-fuels production is often presented as a future solution for automotive fuels and as a new way of development for southern countries. However, in Asia, South America and Africa, it very often takes the form of huge mono-culture areas of sugar cane, palm oil and soy bean in the hands of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. The consequences of these land, social and environmental impacts in Southern countries is an increase of disequilibria and a threat for the diet of local populations by changing the appropriation of lands. Deforestation, private monopolization of lands, concentration of profits, soils and water pollution, biodiversity impoverishment, exploitation of vulnerable manpower, populations migration, violation of human rights are today the consequences of mass production of agro-fuels in Southern countries. To what conditions a fair re-appropriation and a sustainable development of agro-fuels production and consumption is foreseeable? The solutions require a re-shaping of economical and agricultural politics. The book gathers testimonies and analyses from specialists who have evaluated locally the consequences of these energy choices. (J.S.)

  2. Empirical Analysis on the Impacts of Technical Barrier to Trade on Chinese Agro-products Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In view of the impacts on Chinese agro-products export caused by various technical barriers to trade,the academic circles analyzed them from the costs and quantity of exported agro-products.On the basis of the status quo of Chinese agro-products,the gravity model is introduced to analyze the impacts on Chinese agro-product export caused by technical barriers to trade.The results show that as long as the quality of Chinese agro-products can achieve the standard set by developed countries,for one thing,the health of Chinese consumers can be ensured,for another thing,the export of Chinese agro-products will be more smooth,which can provide reference for our government to make decisions and solve trade dispute.

  3. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  4. A Fifty-Year Sustainability Assessment of Italian Agro-Forest Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Recanatesi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As cropland management and land use shifted towards more intensive practices, global land degradation increased drastically. Understanding relationships between ecological and socioeconomic drivers of soil and landscape degradation within these landscapes in economically dynamic contexts such as the Mediterranean region, requires multi-target and multi-scalar approaches covering long-term periods. This study provides an original approach for identifying desertification risk drivers and sustainable land management strategies within Italian agro-forest districts. An Environmental Sensitivity Area (ESA approach, based on four thematic indicators (climate, soil, vegetation and land-use and a composite index of desertification risk (ESAI, was used to evaluate changes in soil vulnerability and landscape degradation between the years 1960 and 2010. A multivariate model was developed to identify the most relevant drivers causing changes in land susceptibility at the district scale. Larger districts, and those with a higher proportion of their total surface area classified as agro-forest, had a significantly lower increase in land susceptibility to degradation during the 50 years when compared with the remaining districts. We conclude that preserving economic viability and ecological connectivity of traditional, extensive agricultural systems is a key measure to mitigate the desertification risk in the Mediterranean region.

  5. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Egid B. Mubofu

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and me...

  6. X-ray diffraction of slag-based sodium salt waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    The attached report documents sample preparation and x-ray diffraction results for a series of cement and blended cement matrices prepared with either water or a 4.4 M Na salt solution. The objective of the study was to provide initial phase characterization for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership reference case cementitious salt waste form. This information can be used to: 1) generate a base line for the evolution of the waste form as a function of time and conditions, 2) potentially to design new binders based on mineralogy of the binder, 3) understand and predict anion and cation leaching behavior of contaminants of concern, and 4) predict performance of the waste forms for which phase solubility and thermodynamic data are available.

  7. Valuation of linkages between climate change, biodiversity and productivity of European agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Palatnik, Ruslana Rachel; Nunes, Paulo Augusto Lourenço Dias

    2010-01-01

    It is clear that climate change involves changes in temperature and precipitation and therefore directly affects land productivity. However, this is not the only channel for climatic change to affect agro-systems. Biodiversity is subject to climatic fluctuations and in turn may alter land productivity too. Firstly, biodiversity is an input into agro-ecosystems. Secondly, biodiversity supports the functioning of these systems (e.g. the balancing of the nutrient cycle). Thirdly, agro-systems al...

  8. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.;

    2014-01-01

    -funded research project AMIGA − Assessing and monitoring Impacts of Genetically modified plants on Agro-ecosystems − aims to address this issue, by providing a framework that establishes protection goals and baselines for European agro-ecosystems, improves knowledge on the potential long term environmental...... focuses on ecological studies in different EU regions, the sustainability of GM crops is estimated by analysing the functional components of the agro-ecosystems and specific experimental protocols are being developed for this scope....

  9. Driving Forces and Development Strategies of China’s Agro-tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ling'en; Cheng, Shengkui; Min, Qingwen; He, Lu

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, agro-tourism has sprung up all over the country, and has gradually become a new form of agricultural business and a new force of tourism development. The development of agro-tourism plays an important role in enriching the agricultural industry forms, increasing farmers’ income, promoting the optimization and upgrading of rural industrial structure, and expanding the field of the tourism section. This paper firstly introduces domestic and foreign agro-tourism development an...

  10. Using Matching Estimators to Evaluate the Effect of Unit-Based Pricing on Municipal Solid Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Christopher; Halstead, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The delivery of municipal services for the collection, transfer, and disposal of household solid waste is often provided by local governmental units; typically at the town or city level. Unit-based pricing, also known as pay-as-you-throw (PAYT), is a residential solid waste collection program requiring households to pay a fee per bag of trash disposed. Unit-based pricing represents a significant departure from the historical practice of financing solid waste service from property tax revenues...

  11. Landfill area estimation based on integrated waste disposal options and solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Younes, Mohammed Y

    2016-09-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. The collection of accurate waste data records is challenging in developing countries. Solid waste generation is usually correlated with economic, demographic and social factors. However, these factors are not constant due to population and economic growth. The objective of this research is to minimize the land requirements for solid waste disposal for implementation of the Malaysian vision of waste disposal options. This goal has been previously achieved by integrating the solid waste forecasting model, waste composition and the Malaysian vision. The modified adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) was employed to develop a solid waste prediction model and search for the optimum input factors. The performance of the model was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The model validation results are as follows: RMSE for training=0.2678, RMSE for testing=3.9860 and R(2)=0.99. Implementation of the Malaysian vision for waste disposal options can minimize the land requirements for waste disposal by up to 43%.

  12. Landfill area estimation based on integrated waste disposal options and solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Younes, Mohammed Y

    2016-09-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. The collection of accurate waste data records is challenging in developing countries. Solid waste generation is usually correlated with economic, demographic and social factors. However, these factors are not constant due to population and economic growth. The objective of this research is to minimize the land requirements for solid waste disposal for implementation of the Malaysian vision of waste disposal options. This goal has been previously achieved by integrating the solid waste forecasting model, waste composition and the Malaysian vision. The modified adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) was employed to develop a solid waste prediction model and search for the optimum input factors. The performance of the model was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The model validation results are as follows: RMSE for training=0.2678, RMSE for testing=3.9860 and R(2)=0.99. Implementation of the Malaysian vision for waste disposal options can minimize the land requirements for waste disposal by up to 43%. PMID:26522806

  13. Design of ceramic microstructures based on waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rekecki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive changes in ceramic raw materials during firing processes are a complex area. This is partly due to the large number of raw material characteristics, primarily mineral composition, and partly to the relatively inadequate particle distribution in the unfired clay body. The most important starting point is always the optimal raw material composition which should give appropriate physical and mechanical characteristics to the final products after firing processes and should provide an efficient and economical production. The paper analyzes the influence of some additives (fly ashes and waste glass materials on the development of the ceramic roofing tile microstructure during the thermal treatment. The analyzed raw material mixtures were: the standard raw material mixture (from Kanjiza, Northern part of Serbia and the modified one, i.e. the mixture of the standard raw material and corresponding additive. The silica phase obtained during the thermal collapse of the clay minerals in the presence of the glass additive bounded better CaO and MgO components released from the carbonates. The crystalline phases like plagioclases were performed in a considerable quantity and the products with new physical characteristics were formed.

  14. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  15. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  16. Cellulose-based films prepared directly from waste newspapers via an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guangmei; Wan, Jiqiang; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Lili; Wu, Jin; He, Jiasong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-20

    Waste newspapers, composed of cellulose (>60wt%), lignin (∼15wt%), hemicellulose (∼10wt%) and other additives, are one kind of low-cost, easily collected and abundant resources. In order to get value-added products from this waste, in this work an attempt was made to directly convert waste newspapers into cellulose-based films by employing an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) as a solvent. Most of the organic substances in this waste were dissolved quickly in AmimCl under mild conditions, and then coagulated and dried. Although containing lignin, hemicellulose and inorganic additives, the regenerated cellulose-based films were smooth, compact and semi-transparent, and exhibited good mechanical properties. If the newspaper/AmimCl solution was filtered to remove undissolved inorganic substances, the regenerated films became transparent and had a tensile strength of 80MPa. Thus, this work provides a new, simple and highly efficient way to achieve a high-valued utilization of waste newspapers for packaging and wrapping. PMID:27474561

  17. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  18. AN ALTERNATIVE HOST MATRIX BASED ON IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES FOR THE VITRIFICATION OF SPECIALIZED WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As mentioned above, the overall goal of this research project was to collect the scientific information essential to develop iron phosphate glass based nuclear wasteforms. The specific objectives of the project were: (1) Investigate the structure of binary iron phosphate glasses and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand atomic arrangements and nature of the bonding. Establish structure-property relationships. Determine the compositions and melting conditions which optimize the critical properties of the base glass. (2) Understand the structure of iron phosphate wasteforms and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Investigate how the waste elements are bonded and coordinated within the glass structure. Establish structure-property relationships for the waste glasses. Determine the compositions and melting atmosphere for which the critical properties of the waste forms would be optimum. (3) Determine the role(s) played by the valence states of iron ions and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand the different roles of iron(II) and iron(III) ions in determining the critical properties of the base glass and the waste forms. Investigate how the iron valence and its significance depend on the composition and melting atmosphere. (4) Investigate glass forming and crystallization processes of the iron phosphate glasses and their waste forms: Understand the dependence of the glass forming and crystallization characteristics on overall glass composition and valence states of iron ions. Identify the products of devitrification and investigate the critical properties of these crystalline compounds which may adversely affect the chemical and physical properties of the waste forms

  19. A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy for waste repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy, compatible with DOE's present natural phenomena hazards mitigation and ''graded approach'' philosophy, has been proposed for high level nuclear waste repository facilities. The rationale, evolution, and the desirable features of this method have been described. Why and how the method should and can be applied to the design of a repository facility are also discussed

  20. Weight-based pricing in the collection of household waste : the Oostzaan case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linderhof, V.; Kooreman, P.; Allers, M.A.; Wiersma, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the effects of weight-based pricing in the collection of household waste. Using a comprehensive panel data set on all households in a Dutch municipality we estimate short-run as well as long-run price effects for the amounts of both compostable and non-re

  1. ASHES AS AN AGENT FOR CEMENT-LIME BASED SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF THE HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lyčkova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the common treatment methods for the hazardous waste is the cement and cement-lime based solidification/stabilization (S/S. This article deals with the possibility of currently used recipe modification using fluidized bed heating plant ashes as an agent.

  2. Impedance spectroscopy of composites based on waste polymeric materials for electrical engineering purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, V. I.; Zubko, D. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed a high-sensitivity capacitance transducer and a method for measuring the complex of electrical indices of composites based on waste polymeric materials in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical properties of composites depending on the electric field frequency and the content and type of the filler have been investigated.

  3. ASHES AS AN AGENT FOR CEMENT-LIME BASED SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF THE HAZARDOUS WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Lyčkova; Vladimir Huda

    2008-01-01

    One of the common treatment methods for the hazardous waste is the cement and cement-lime based solidification/stabilization (S/S). This article deals with the possibility of currently used recipe modification using fluidized bed heating plant ashes as an agent.

  4. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  5. Integrated data base report--1995: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information in this report summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data base for inventories, projections, and characteristics of domestic spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. This report is updated annually to keep abreast of continual waste inventory and projection changes in both the government and commercial sectors. Baseline information is provided for DOE program planning purposes and to support DOE program decisions. Although the primary purpose of this document is to provide background information for program planning within the DOE community, it has also been found useful by state and local governments, the academic community, and some private citizens

  6. Environmental aspects, strategies and waste logistic system based on the example of metallurgical company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Gajdzik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the key elements of environmental management system in metallurgical companies. This companies in use the Cleaner Production Strategy. All modern strategies are based on dynamic environmental model. Production processes still create waste and pollution although a significant amount is now recycled. For example in metallurgical companies located in the Polish market about 80% of solid waste is recycled. The minimization or complete removal of damages caused by metallurgical production are a necessary and important aspect of maintaining a competitive edge.

  7. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  8. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production from waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Mohd Ali, M. D.; Morad, N. A.; Tamunaidu, P.

    2016-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a group of biopolymers that are extensively researched for such purpose due to the biocompatibility with mammal tissue and similar properties with conventional plastic. However, commercialization of PHA is impended by its high total production cost, which half of it are from the cost of pure carbon source feedstock. Thus, cheap and sustainable feedstocks are preferred where waste materials from various industries are looked into. This paper will highlight recent studies done on PHA production by utilizing crop and agro waste material and review its potential as alternative feedstock.

  9. New polymeric formulation for control of biomphalaria Alexandria based on pharmaceutical waste gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years, important new areas of application for plastics have emerged in medicine such as devices for the controlled release of drugs. The increases in the use of plastic materials in all sectors of industry have led to a continuous increase in the generation of plastic wastes. Recycling allow the waste to be reintroduced into the consumption cycle. Pharmaceutical companies which manufacture soft gels with different shapes, sizes and colors based mainly on gelatin formulations produce huge amount of gelatin waste. Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in our country. We now report the utilization of gelatin scrap by incorporating them in biodegradable films containing the molluscicide niclosamide for control of Biomphalaria Alexandrina snails. The preparation of the gelatin films will be described. The release of niclosamide from the prepared blends was investigated. The prepared formulations proved to be useful compared with free niclosamide

  10. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. PMID:27117291

  11. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT, researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  12. IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Insung; Park, Sunghoi; Lee, Beomseok; Lee, Jaekeun; Jeong, Daebeom; Park, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  13. Waste management under multiple complexities: inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Guo H; Lv, Ying; Li, Gongchen

    2012-06-01

    To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP's advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP's solutions demonstrate its effectiveness for providing more satisfactory interval solutions than IPFP3. Following its first application to waste management, the IPFP can be potentially applied to other environmental problems under multiple complexities. PMID:22370050

  14. GIS-based approach for optimised collection of household waste in Mostaganem city (Western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli, I S; Abdelmalek, F; Djelloul, A; Mesghouni, K; Addou, A

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes an optimisation of municipal solid waste collection in terms of collection cost and polluting emissions (carbon oxides, carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter). This method is based on a simultaneous optimisation of the vehicles routing (distance and time travelled) and the routing system for household wastes collection based on the existing network of containers, the capacity of vehicles and the quantities generated in every collecting point. The process of vehicle routing optimisation involves a geographical information system. This optimisation has enabled a reduction of travelled distances, collection time, fuel consumption and polluting emissions. Pertinent parameters affecting the fuel consumption have been utilised, such as the state of the road, the vehicles speed in the different paths, the vehicles load and collection frequencies. Several scenarios have been proposed. The results show the importance of the construction of a waste transfer station that can reduce the cost of household waste collection and emissions of waste transfer pollutants. Among the proposed five scenarios, we have noticed that the fourth scenario (by constructing a waste transfer centre) was the most performing. So, the routes of optimised travelled distance of the new circuits have been reduced by 71.81%. The fuel consumption has been reduced by 72.05% and the total cost of the collection has been reduced by 46.8%. For the polluting emissions, the reduction has been by 60.2% for carbon oxides, by 67.9% for carbon dioxides, by 74.2% for nitrogen oxides and by 65% for particulate matter.

  15. GIS-based approach for optimised collection of household waste in Mostaganem city (Western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli, I S; Abdelmalek, F; Djelloul, A; Mesghouni, K; Addou, A

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes an optimisation of municipal solid waste collection in terms of collection cost and polluting emissions (carbon oxides, carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter). This method is based on a simultaneous optimisation of the vehicles routing (distance and time travelled) and the routing system for household wastes collection based on the existing network of containers, the capacity of vehicles and the quantities generated in every collecting point. The process of vehicle routing optimisation involves a geographical information system. This optimisation has enabled a reduction of travelled distances, collection time, fuel consumption and polluting emissions. Pertinent parameters affecting the fuel consumption have been utilised, such as the state of the road, the vehicles speed in the different paths, the vehicles load and collection frequencies. Several scenarios have been proposed. The results show the importance of the construction of a waste transfer station that can reduce the cost of household waste collection and emissions of waste transfer pollutants. Among the proposed five scenarios, we have noticed that the fourth scenario (by constructing a waste transfer centre) was the most performing. So, the routes of optimised travelled distance of the new circuits have been reduced by 71.81%. The fuel consumption has been reduced by 72.05% and the total cost of the collection has been reduced by 46.8%. For the polluting emissions, the reduction has been by 60.2% for carbon oxides, by 67.9% for carbon dioxides, by 74.2% for nitrogen oxides and by 65% for particulate matter. PMID:26951341

  16. AGRO-ECOLOGIE ET DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Dufumier, Marc

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; In order to meet economy of scale demands made by large seed and agroindustrial companies, many areas of agriculture have recently evolved in ways which are incompatible with sustainable development, both in terms of damage to agroecosystems and by the continued belief in principles of land concentration and underuse. Farming systems based on agroecology can provide an alternative to these agroindustrial and largeestate approaches, while at...

  17. Automated waste canister docking and emplacement using a sensor-based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensor-based intelligent control system is described that utilizes a multiple degree-of-freedom robotic system for the automated remote manipulation and precision docking of large payloads such as waste canisters. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing are used to control the automated precision docking of a large object with a passive target cavity. Real-time sensor processing and model-based analysis are used to control payload position to a precision of ± 0.5 millimeter

  18. Rheological behavior of composites based on carbon fibers recycled from aircraft waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marcaníková, Lucie; Hausnerová, Berenika; Kitano, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Rheological investigation of composite materials prepared from the recycled aircraft waste materials based on thermoset (epoxy/resin) matrix and long carbon fibers (CF) is presented with the aim of their utilization in consumer industry applications. The carbon fibers recovered via thermal process of pyrolysis were cut into about 150 pm length and melt mixed with thermoplastic matrices based on polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA) and various modifiers - ethylene-ethyl acrylate-maleic anhy...

  19. Investigation of the application of an enzyme-based biodegradability test method to a municipal solid waste biodrying process

    OpenAIRE

    Wagland, Stuart Thomas; Godley, Andrew R.; Tyrrel, Sean F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study to evaluate the recently developed enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) through its repeated application to a waste treatment process. A single waste treatment facility, involving a biodrying process, has been monitored using three different methods to assess the biodegradable content of the organic waste fractions. These test methods were the anaerobic BMc, aerobic DR4 and the EHT, which is a method based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic ...

  20. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa; Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa; Débora Brand; Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40%) with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; ...

  1. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakoğlu, A; Güçlü, G

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 degrees C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins.

  2. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty’s 1–9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1–0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness. PMID:27618082

  3. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty's 1-9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1-0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  4. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyong Qian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS, where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty’s 1–9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1–0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  5. Social media as a new playing field for the governance of agro-food sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, T.M.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.

    2016-01-01

    Social media bring various stakeholders of the agro-food system together into a new playing field. This article reveals the dynamics of this playing field and the ways in which this can influence the governance of agro-food sustainability. We delineate three pathways that highlight the ways in wh

  6. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; WU; Zichen; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers,to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection.This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technological reserve,failure to bring into play expected compensation effect due to scant attention,and failure to set up perfect input mechanism due to insufficient financing channel.In line with these problems,it came up with feasible policy recommendations,including strictly implementing top frame design for agro-ecological compensation and giving impetus to standardized and institutionalized work,building pilot demonstration area for agro-ecological compensation,setting up diversified agro-ecological compensation approaches,establishing long-term security mechanism for agro-ecological compensation,and strengthening propaganda and education of agro-ecological compensation.It is expected to provide reference for establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province,and also provide system guarantee for promoting ecological progress and agricultural modernization in Jiangsu Province.

  7. Swedbank tüürib Väätsa Agro pankrotti? / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    Kevadel kinnitas Pärnu maakohus hoolimata Swedbanki vastuseisust Väätsa Agro saneerimiskava, mis tegi Swedbankis piimatööstuse suuromaniku. Pank osalust ei soovinud ning tal õnnestus ringkonnakohtu määrusega saneerimiskava peatada. Väätsa Agro pöördus riigikohtusse

  8. A data base approach for prediction of deforestation-induced mass wasting events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A major topic of concern in timber management is determining the impact of clear-cutting on slope stability. Deforestation treatments on steep mountain slopes have often resulted in a high frequency of major mass wasting events. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a potentially useful tool for predicting the location of mass wasting sites. With a raster-based GIS, digitally encoded maps of slide hazard parameters can be overlayed and modeled to produce new maps depicting high probability slide areas. The present investigation has the objective to examine the raster-based information system as a tool for predicting the location of the clear-cut mountain slopes which are most likely to experience shallow soil debris avalanches. A literature overview is conducted, taking into account vegetation, roads, precipitation, soil type, slope-angle and aspect, and models predicting mass soil movements. Attention is given to a data base approach and aspects of slide prediction.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

    1995-01-01

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

  10. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation: Appendix 3A, ORIGEN2 decay tables for immobilized high-level waste, Appendix 3B, Interim high-level waste forms, Appendix 3C, User's guide to the high-level waste PC data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this report, and the information contained in the associated computerized data bases, is to establish the DOE/OCRWM reference characteristics of the radioactive waste materials that may be accepted by DOE for emplacement in he mined geologic disposal system. This report provides relevant technical data for use by DOE and its supporting contractors and is not intended to be a policy document. This document is backed up by five PC-compatible data bases, written in a user-oriented, menu-driven format, which were developed for this purpose. The data bases are the LWR Assemblies Data Base; the LWR Radiological Data Base; the LWR Quantities Data Base; the LWR NFA Hardware Data Base; and the High-Level Waste Data Base. The above data bases may be ordered using the included form. Volume 6 contains decay tables for immobilized high-level waste, information on interim high-level waste forms, and a user's guide to the high-level waste PC data base.

  11. Transport of nitrate from a large cement based waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A finite-element model is used to calculate the time-dependent transport of nitrate from a cement-based (saltstone) monolith with and without a clay cap. Model predictions agree well with data from two lysimeter field experiments begun in 1984. The clay cap effectively reduces the flux of nitrate from the monolith. Predictions for a landfill monolith design show a peak concentration occurring within 25 years; however, the drinking water guideline is exceeded for 1200 years. Alternate designs and various restrictive liners are being considered

  12. Effect of microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) method on quality properties of agro-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microwave-vacuum drying is an accepted drying method for agro-products, which is nonetheless still relatively unknown to some. This paper attempted to give an overview of the most important aspects of microwaves-vacuum drying (MVD) and their relevance to agro-products processing. Some advantages on microwave-vacuum drying properties were discussed to provide a better insight into the reasons for the use of microwaves. Also the effects of the MVD on the quality of several agro-products and reasonable processing parameters were given, which develop the guidance to the application of MVD on the agro-products dehydration. As a potential drying technology, MVD will be broadly utilized for the other agro-products processing.

  13. The Economic Rationality and Institutional Driving Force of Edible Agro-products Enterprises Adopting ISO9000 Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-jing; WU Xiu-min; CHEN Hong-yue

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the economic rationality and institutional driving force of edible agro-products enterprises adopting ISO9000 standards,and built the theoretical analysis framework of enterprises adopting ISO9000 standards.The results indicated that the enterprises adopted ISO9000 standards form a variety of promoting product quality and safety business strategy options based on the considerations that getting economic efficiency and the access to resources.Based on the results,some recommendations were given for stimulating enterprises to adopt ISO9000 standards.

  14. Accroître la production de la biomasse dans les terroirs d'agro-éleveurs: cas des systèmes de culture à base de céréales au Nord Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nchoutnji, I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving Biomass Production in Crops-livestocks Farmers'Villages: Case of Cereals Based Production Systems in Northern Cameroon. In Northern Cameroon, production systems are mainly characterized by sole cropping with reduced quantities of mineral fertilizer. The quantities of biomass produced are then not sufficient to meet the demand. That is why a study was carried out to enhance quantities of biomass produced taking into account maize grains yield and farmers' access to mineral fertilizers. In three villages of Northern Cameroon (Ourolabo III; Laindé Karewa and Israël, 12 producers associated maize with Mucuna pruriens and 12 did with Brachiaria ruziziensis. Modalities were: T1 (association with recommended dose of fertilizer: 83N 24P 14K / ha, T2 (association with reduced dose of fertilizer: 60N 24P 14K / ha, T3 (maize sole cropping with recommended dose of fertilizer and T4 (maize sole cropping with reduced dose of fertilizer. Variance analysis was done with the SAS program and Student- Newman-Keuls test permitted to separate the means. Maize association with M. pruriens didn't show any significant difference (P> 0.05 for maize grains yield. Highly significant differences (P< 0.0001 were observed for biomasses production, but not (P> 0.05 between T2 and T1, nor between T4 and T3. Maize association with B. ruziziensis showed significant differences (P< 0.05 between treatments for maize grains yield. Differences were highly significant (P< 0.0001 between treatments for biomass production and crop association yielded higher (P< 0.0001 than sole cropping. When maize was associated with a leguminous crop (M. pruriens, its grains yield did not drop despite the dose of fertilizer used. On the contrary, with a gramineous crop (B. ruziziensis, the yield drop with a reduced dose of fertilizer. In sole cropping, the dose of fertilizer did not affect maize grains yield nor biomass production.

  15. Advances in Nitrogen Denitrification and N2O Emission in Agro-ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-shu; DING Hong; QIN Sheng-jin

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification and denitrification are two key links of nitrogen flow cycle in soil. N2O and N2, generated from biochemical process of nitrogen, can cause not only the nitrogen losses and reduction of nitrogen use efficiency, but also the boosted concentration of greenhouse gases,severely endangering the environment. Accordingly, nitrification-denitrification has been more and more concerned from whether an agricultural view, or an environmental one. Referring to the related literatures published at home and abroad in recent years, we overviewed the denitrification-caused N loss and N2O emission in various agro-ecosystems, and based on which we put forward countermeasures to reduce the denitrification-caused N loss and N2O emission and its research prospects in the future.

  16. The Role of Chemistry in the AgroEnvironmental Engineering Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Arce, Augusto

    2010-05-01

    The basic sciences in general and chemistry in particular play an important role in the training of students in the new degree of Agro-Environmental Engineering. A redefinition of the objectives at higher education, which is the process of European Convergence, implies a profound change in the approach to the traditional teaching. The schema change: teaching content, matter is the centre and technical training to teach to learn, the student is the centre and to comprehensive training, assumes that students should acquire not only the specific knowledge of its specialty, but also numerous capabilities and skills. This work is a study of the various subjects based in chemistry, their contents, teaching methodologies, specific and transversal competences that provide and interrelationships with other subjects of this degree.

  17. Estimating methane emissions from landfills based on rainfall, ambient temperature, and waste composition: The CLEEN model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjekar, Richa V; Bhatt, Arpita; Altouqui, Said; Jangikhatoonabad, Neda; Durai, Vennila; Sattler, Melanie L; Hossain, M D Sahadat; Chen, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Accurately estimating landfill methane emissions is important for quantifying a landfill's greenhouse gas emissions and power generation potential. Current models, including LandGEM and IPCC, often greatly simplify treatment of factors like rainfall and ambient temperature, which can substantially impact gas production. The newly developed Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model aims to improve landfill methane generation estimates, but still require inputs that are fairly easy to obtain: waste composition, annual rainfall, and ambient temperature. To develop the model, methane generation was measured from 27 laboratory scale landfill reactors, with varying waste compositions (ranging from 0% to 100%); average rainfall rates of 2, 6, and 12 mm/day; and temperatures of 20, 30, and 37°C, according to a statistical experimental design. Refuse components considered were the major biodegradable wastes, food, paper, yard/wood, and textile, as well as inert inorganic waste. Based on the data collected, a multiple linear regression equation (R(2)=0.75) was developed to predict first-order methane generation rate constant values k as functions of waste composition, annual rainfall, and temperature. Because, laboratory methane generation rates exceed field rates, a second scale-up regression equation for k was developed using actual gas-recovery data from 11 landfills in high-income countries with conventional operation. The Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model was developed by incorporating both regression equations into the first-order decay based model for estimating methane generation rates from landfills. CLEEN model values were compared to actual field data from 6 US landfills, and to estimates from LandGEM and IPCC. For 4 of the 6 cases, CLEEN model estimates were the closest to actual.

  18. Estimating methane emissions from landfills based on rainfall, ambient temperature, and waste composition: The CLEEN model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjekar, Richa V; Bhatt, Arpita; Altouqui, Said; Jangikhatoonabad, Neda; Durai, Vennila; Sattler, Melanie L; Hossain, M D Sahadat; Chen, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Accurately estimating landfill methane emissions is important for quantifying a landfill's greenhouse gas emissions and power generation potential. Current models, including LandGEM and IPCC, often greatly simplify treatment of factors like rainfall and ambient temperature, which can substantially impact gas production. The newly developed Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model aims to improve landfill methane generation estimates, but still require inputs that are fairly easy to obtain: waste composition, annual rainfall, and ambient temperature. To develop the model, methane generation was measured from 27 laboratory scale landfill reactors, with varying waste compositions (ranging from 0% to 100%); average rainfall rates of 2, 6, and 12 mm/day; and temperatures of 20, 30, and 37°C, according to a statistical experimental design. Refuse components considered were the major biodegradable wastes, food, paper, yard/wood, and textile, as well as inert inorganic waste. Based on the data collected, a multiple linear regression equation (R(2)=0.75) was developed to predict first-order methane generation rate constant values k as functions of waste composition, annual rainfall, and temperature. Because, laboratory methane generation rates exceed field rates, a second scale-up regression equation for k was developed using actual gas-recovery data from 11 landfills in high-income countries with conventional operation. The Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model was developed by incorporating both regression equations into the first-order decay based model for estimating methane generation rates from landfills. CLEEN model values were compared to actual field data from 6 US landfills, and to estimates from LandGEM and IPCC. For 4 of the 6 cases, CLEEN model estimates were the closest to actual. PMID:26346020

  19. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moyano, Laura T.; Bonneau, Julien P.; Sánchez-Palacios, José T.; Tohme, Joseph; Johnson, Alexander A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS) genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2) transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of eight mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles, and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM) was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 μg Fe g-1 and 40 μg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 μg Fe g-1 and 56 μg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica background, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  20. Preparations of PAN-based adsorbers for separation of cesium and cobalt from radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilchi, A. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Laboratories, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365/8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: anilchi@aeoi.org.ir; Atashi, H. [Sistan and Baluchestan University, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javid, A.H. [Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saberi, R. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Laboratories, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365/8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Ion-exchange adsorbers are widely used for radioisotope separation, as well as for the removal of hazardous fission products from aqueous waste prior to discharge to the environment. Inorganic exchangers are of particular interest because of their resistance to radiolytic damage and selectivity for specific fission products. Composite inorganic-organic adsorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified by using binding organic material, polyacrylonitrile, for preparation of larger size particles with higher granular strength. At the same time, kinetics of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite adsorbers are not influenced by the binding polymer. The contents of active component in composite adsorber were varied over a very broad range of 5-95% of the dry weight of the composite adsorber, and tested for separation and concentration of various stimulated wastes. Three different inorganic sorbents, granular hexacyanoferrate-based ion exchanger, were developed for the removal of Cs and Co ions from waste solutions containing different complexing agents as detergents. Radiation and thermal stability studies show that these adsorbents can be used for medium-active waste treatment.

  1. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  2. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  3. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO(2) - based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-04-01

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO(2)-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:19896819

  4. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  5. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH−) are involved into diffusion process

  6. Development of a computerized data base for low-level waste leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized data base (db) of low-level waste (LLW) leaching data is being compiled by Brookhaven National Laboratory under contract to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Although this db is being compiled as part of an effort to develop accelerated leach test procedures for LLW forms, other involved in LLW management may find it useful. The db is implemented on an IBM PC XT and is self-contained in that its data manipulation and analysis programs are not proprietary (i.e., need not be purchased). The db includes data from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program plus selected literature data, which have been selected based on criteria that include completeness of the experimental description and elucidation of leaching mechanisms. 6 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  7. Alternative TRUEX-Based Pretreatment Processing of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-09-27

    The goals of this study were to demonstrate a selective complexant for separating mercury from the transuranic (TRU) elements in the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process and to demonstrate alternative stripping methods to eliminate phosphorus-containing, actinide stripping agents during TRUEX processing. The work described in this report provides the basis for implementing an improved TRUEX-based flowsheet for processing INEEL sodium-bearing waste using only minor modifications to the current Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) flowsheet design.

  8. Performance benefits of telerobotics and teleoperation - enhancements for an arm-based tank waste retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates telerobotic and teleoperational arm-based retrieval systems that require advanced robotic controls. These systems will be deployed in waste retrieval activities in Hanford's Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The report assumes that arm-based, retrieval systems will combine a teleoperational arm and control system enhanced by a number of advanced and telerobotic controls. The report describes many possible enhancements, spanning the full range of the control spectrum with the potential for technical maturation. The enhancements considered present a variety of choices and factors including: the enhancements to be included in the actual control system, safety, detailed task analyses, human factors, cost-benefit ratios, and availability and maturity of technology. Because the actual system will be designed by an offsite vendor, the procurement specifications must have the flexibility to allow bidders to propose a broad range of ideas, yet build in enough restrictions to filter out infeasible and undesirable approaches. At the same time they must allow selection of a technically promising proposal. Based on a preliminary analysis of the waste retrieval task, and considering factors such as operator limitations and the current state of robotics technology, the authors recommend a set of enhancements that will (1) allow the system to complete its waste retrieval mission, and (2) enable future upgrades in response to changing mission needs and technological advances

  9. Performance benefits of telerobotics and teleoperation - enhancements for an arm-based tank waste retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horschel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibbons, P.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates telerobotic and teleoperational arm-based retrieval systems that require advanced robotic controls. These systems will be deployed in waste retrieval activities in Hanford`s Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The report assumes that arm-based, retrieval systems will combine a teleoperational arm and control system enhanced by a number of advanced and telerobotic controls. The report describes many possible enhancements, spanning the full range of the control spectrum with the potential for technical maturation. The enhancements considered present a variety of choices and factors including: the enhancements to be included in the actual control system, safety, detailed task analyses, human factors, cost-benefit ratios, and availability and maturity of technology. Because the actual system will be designed by an offsite vendor, the procurement specifications must have the flexibility to allow bidders to propose a broad range of ideas, yet build in enough restrictions to filter out infeasible and undesirable approaches. At the same time they must allow selection of a technically promising proposal. Based on a preliminary analysis of the waste retrieval task, and considering factors such as operator limitations and the current state of robotics technology, the authors recommend a set of enhancements that will (1) allow the system to complete its waste retrieval mission, and (2) enable future upgrades in response to changing mission needs and technological advances.

  10. Characterization of Chromium Waste Form Based on Biocementation by Microbacterium sp. GM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Limei; Li, Dongwei; Yin, Yajie; Li, Dou; Xu, Guojing; Zhao, Ziqiang; Li, Shan

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrated a biocementation technology for chromium slag by strain GM-1, a calcifying ureolytic bacterium identified as Microbacterium, based on microbially induced calcium carbonate. The characterization of Microbacterium sp. GM-1 was assessed to know the growth curve in different concentrations of Cr(VI). Microbacterium sp. GM-1 was tolerant to a concentration of 120 mg/L Cr(VI). Chromium waste forms were prepared using chromium, sand, soil and bacterial culture. There we had three quality ratios (8:2:1; 8:1:1; 8:2:0.5) of material (chromium, sand and soil, respectively). Bacterial and control chromium waste forms were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analyzer. All bacterial forms (8:2:1; 8:1:1; 8:2:0.5 J) showed sharp weight loss near the decomposition temperature of calcium carbonate between 600 and 700 °C. It indicated that the efficient bacterial strain GM-1 had induced calcium carbonate precipitate during bioremediation process. A five step Cr(VI) sequential extraction was performed to evaluate its distribution pattern in chromium waste forms. The percentage of Cr(VI) was found to significantly be decreased in the exchangeable fraction of chromium waste forms and subsequently, that was markedly increased in carbonated fraction after biocementation by GM-1. Further, compressive strength test and leaching test were carried out. The results showed that chromium waste forms after biocementation had higher compressive strength and lower leaching toxicity. Additionally, the samples made of 8:1:1 (m/m/m) chromium + sand + soil were found to develop the highest compressive strength and stand the lowest concentration of Cr(VI) released into the environment. PMID:27407300

  11. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal

  12. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences and Technologies – Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c.a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Gregorio, Fabrizio [Department of Environmental, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences and Technologies – Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal.

  13. Improving Agricultural Productivity in Tonga through Ensuring Data Availability and Enhancing Agro-meteorological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The project was first conceived in the Global Framework for Climate Services Regional Consultation in the Cook Islands in March 2014. In this meeting, key officials from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Forests, and Fisheries and the Tonga Meteorological Services had a meeting with the APEC Climate Center scientists with the idea to collaborate on a joint project. The project evolved to include the following components: assessment of users' needs and capacities, development of an agricultural database, research on the core relationships between agriculture and climate through modeling and field trials, and the development and delivery of agro-meteorological services. Envisioned outputs include a 2-7 day warning for pests and diseases, a suite of tools supporting decisions on planting dates and crop varieties, and other advisory services derived from seasonal climate forecasts. As one of the climate adaptation projects under its Pacific Island portfolio, the project will deliver urgent information services for Tongan agricultural growers and exporters. The project comes into greater importance and urgency, as the 2014 drought event resulted in the destruction of 80% of squash in Tonga, a main export crop from which the country derives foreign exchange earnings. Since 2014, some of the project achievements include the first agro-met data collection in Tonga, the development of an agricultural DB management system that houses archived agriculture data, and key meetings with stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives and design with the interests of the Tongan government and other stakeholders. In addition, rigorous scientific research through modeling and field trials has been conducted to address the twin goals of supporting Tonga's economy as well as food security. Based on the findings from the research, tools will be developed to translate the science into knowledge that supports decisions on the farm scale.

  14. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  15. Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance Analysis in a CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cleetus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves the synthesis of a petroleum-based fuel by the catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics. Catalytic pyrolysis involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating them in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In the present study different oil samples are produced using different catalysts under different reaction conditions from waste plastics. The synthesized oil samples are subjected to a parametric study based on the oil yield, selectivity of the oil, fuel properties, and reaction temperature. Depending on the results from the above study, an optimization of the catalyst and reaction conditions was done. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the selected optimized sample was done to find out its chemical composition. Finally, performance analysis of the selected oil sample was carried out on a compression ignition (CI engine. Polythene bags are selected as the source of waste plastics. The catalysts used for the study include silica, alumina, Y zeolite, barium carbonate, zeolite, and their combinations. The pyrolysis reaction was carried at polymer to catalyst ratio of 10 : 1. The reaction temperature ranges between 400°C and 550°C. The inert atmosphere for the pyrolysis was provided by using nitrogen as a carrier gas.

  16. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the ''hottest'' (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates for WAXFIX/paraffin do not indicate any immediate problems with the use of WAXFIX for grouting beryllium or other wastes in the SDA

  17. The Optimum Mesophilic Temperature of Batch Process Biogas Production from Animal-based Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osita Obineche Obiukwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD and Poultry Droppings (PD were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process.

  18. Batch anaerobic digestion of synthetic military base food waste and cardboard mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Caitlin M; Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Jerke, Amber C; Bang, Sookie S; Stone, James J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2016-09-01

    Austere US military bases typically dispose of solid wastes, including large fractions of food waste (FW) and corrugated cardboard (CCB), by open dumping, landfilling, or burning. Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers an opportunity to reduce pollution and recover useful energy. This study aimed to evaluate the rates and yields of AD for FW-CCB mixtures. Batch AD was analyzed at substrate concentrations of 1-50g total chemical oxygen demand (COD)L(-1) using response surface methodology. At low concentrations, higher proportions of FW were correlated with faster specific methanogenic activities and greater final methane yields; however, concentrations of FW ⩾18.75gCODL(-1) caused inhibition. Digestion of mixtures with ⩾75% CCB occurred slowly but achieved methane yields >70%. Greater shifts in microbial communities were observed at higher substrate concentrations. Statistical models of methane yield and specific methanogenic activity indicated that FW and CCB exhibited no considerable interactions as substrates for AD. PMID:27323241

  19. Value-based performance measures for Hanford Tank Waste Remedition System (TWRS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and preparation for disposal of high-level waste currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Richland. The TWRS program has adopted a logical approach to decision making that is based on systems engineering and decision analysis (Westinghouse Hanford Company, 1995). This approach involves the explicit consideration of stakeholder values and an evaluation of the TWRS alternatives in terms of these values. Such evaluations need to be consistent across decisions. Thus, an effort was undertaken to develop a consistent, quantifiable set of measures that can be used by TVVRS to assess alternatives against the stakeholder values. The measures developed also met two additional requirements: 1) the number of measure should be relatively small; and 2) performance with respect to the measures should be relatively easy to estimate.

  20. STUDY ON ALGORITHM OF SENSOR MANAGEMENT BASED ON FUNCTIONS OF EFFICIENCY AND WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sensor management plays an important role in data fusion system, and this paper presents an algorithm of sensor management that can be used in target detection, identification and tracking. First, the basic concept, rule, range and function of sensor management are introduced. Then, the quantifying problems of target priority and sensor (or combination)-target pairing in multisensor management are discussed and the efficiency and waste functions are established based on the functions of target priority and sensor-target pairing. On this basis, a distribution algorithm of multisensor resources is given, which is optimized by the principle of maximum synthesis efficiency in the multisensor system and constrained by sensor maximum tracking power and what target must be scanned. In addition, the waste measure of sensor resources is introduced to improve the algorithm. Finally, a tactical task that includes three sensors and ten targets is set, and the simulation results show that the algorithm is feasible and effective.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of composite materials of different compositions based on waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Burdonov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of mineral filler on the polymer composite material based on waste products of heat and power engineering - fly ash. This type of waste products has never been used for the production of polymer-mineral composites. Depending on the type of ash, its chemical composition and its quantity in the material, we can adjust the properties of the resulting composites. The use of fly ash as a filler will not only make a product less expensive, but it also will reduce development pressure on the environment and improve the physical and mechanical properties of the material. The article shows research results of the ash chemical composition as well as the properties of the resulting materials on its basis. According to the research conclusions there is a prospect for using this material in the construction industry.

  2. Spent fuel and radioactive waste: an integrated data base of inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program provides official US Department of Energy (DOE) data on spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. This information is provided through the cooperative efforts of the IDB Program and DOE lead offices, lead sites, major programs, and generator sites. The program is entering its fifth year, and major accomplishments are summarized in three broad areas: (1) the annual inventory report, including ORIGEN2 applications and a Quality Assurance (QA) plan; (2) the summary data file and direct user access; and (3) data processing methodology and support to other programs. Plans for future work in these areas are outlined briefly, including increased utilization of personal computers. Some examples of spent fuel data are given in terms of projected quantities for two growth scenarios, burnup and age profile of the existing inventory, and the approximate specific thermal power relative to high-level waste (HLW) from various sources. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Potential biological applications of bio-based anacardic acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fatma B; Mubofu, Egid B

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30-35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  4. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma B. Hamad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut shells (CNS, which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported.

  5. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  6. From the Food Sovereignty Ensuring Strategy to the Strategy of Improving the Agro-Food Complex Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Ivanovich Altukhov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the globalization of national economies, the current situation in macroeconomics and, as a result, the need to improve the quality of life of the population it is necessary to clearly outline and resolve the following three strategic tasks of the country’s agro-food complex: ensuring the country’s food sovereignty based on import substitution; improving the farm products competitiveness; ensuring high level standard of living at the rural area based on the social-economic development of the territories. The analysis of the government policy documents and concepts of developing the agricultural sector of economy has revealed the following. The state-run program for the farming sector development and regulation of the farmers’ market, agricultural raw materials and food in 2013–2020 is the main functioning tool, a primary factor of accelerated agro-food import substitution, and a foundation for the new national agricultural policy. At the same time, the program does not answer the question, how one can really improve the competitiveness of the domestic farm products. It does not outline the tasks and mechanisms to raise the standard of living for the rural population. The article considers the necessity to increase the agrofood sector competitiveness as a prospective strategic direction in the government export policy. It clarifies the key factors of the influence on the competitiveness of the domestic farm products, namely: at the macroeconomic level — equivalence of cross-sector exchange, subsidizing and credit financing of the agro-food sector; at the sectoral level — territorial and sectoral specialization in agricultural production and system of profit distribution between the producers, processors and retailers of the farm products. The article outlines the possible ways of employment assistance for the rural population being released as a result of improving the competitiveness of the agricultural production

  7. The quality and quantity of waste collected in a pipeline-based waste collection system : case Jätkäsaari and case Kalasatama

    OpenAIRE

    Harju, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The European Union guides Finland and other member states towards a more resource-efficient Europe where recycling is optimized. A lot of the community waste has been mixed waste that has ended up in landfills. The EU Waste legislation, which has been implemented into the Finnish waste legislation in 2012, subjects all activities that produce waste to the following waste management hierarchy: The first priority is to avoid generating any waste and, if waste is generated, it must be pr...

  8. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  9. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  10. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  11. Advances of nanotechnology in agro-environmental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the world population and the demand for food, new agricultural practices have been developed to improve food production through the use of more effective pesticides and fertilisers. These technologies can lead to an uncontrolled release of undesired substances into the environment, with the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater. Today, nanotechnology represents a promising approach to improve agricultural production and remediate polluted sites. This paper reviews the recent applications of nanotechnologies in agro-environmental studies with particular attention to the fate of nanomaterials once introduced in water and soil, to the advantages of their use and their possible toxicology. Findings show that the use of nanomaterials can improve the quality of the environment and help detect and remediate polluted sites. Only a small number of nanomaterials demonstrated potential toxic effects. These are discussed in detail.

  12. Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.

    2007-04-01

    Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for -250 kg CO2-C eq ha-1 yr-1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.

  13. Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lehuger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG contributing to the global warming potential (GWP of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha−1 yr−1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina was a net sink of GHG for –250 kg CO2-C eq ha−1 yr−1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.

  14. Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs

  15. Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs.

  16. Integrated Data Base for 1992: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payton, M. L.; Williams, J. T.; Tolbert-Smith, M.; Klein, J. A.

    1992-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1991. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  17. Investigation of potential of agro-industrial residues for ethanol production by using Candida tropicalis and Zymomonas mobilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patle, Sonali

    India is becoming more susceptible regarding energy security with increasing world prices of crude oil and increasing dependence on imports. Based on experiments by the Indian Institute of Petroleum, a 10% ethanol blend with gasoline is being considered for use in vehicles in at least one state and it will be mandatory for all oil companies to blend petrol with 10% ethanol from October 2008. In view of the above, the Government has already started supply of 5% ethanol blended petrol from 2003 in nine states and four contiguous Union Territories. Currently, fuel ethanol is produced mainly from molasses, corn, wheat and sugar beets. The production cost of ethanol from these agro-feedstocks is more than twice the price of gasoline. The high feedstock cost poses a major obstacle to large scale implementation of ethanol as a transportation fuel. Molasses could be in short supply due to the implementation of 10% blending norm. A reduction in import duty for industrial alcohol from7.5% to 5% has been suggested. The use of lignocellulosic energy crops, and particularly low cost biomass residues, offers excellent perspectives for application of ethanol in transportation fuels (Ridder, 2000). These materials will increase the ethanol production capacity and reduce the production cost to a competitive level. There is a huge demand (500 million litres) of ethanol to meet the 5% blending in India. With the present infrastructure, only 90 million litres of ethanol was produced till November 2006 and could reach up to 140 million litres (around) till October 2007. Bioethanol from these materials provides a highly cost effective option for CO2 emission reduction in the transportation sector. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the potential of biomass as feedstock for ethanol production. The dedicated energy crops would require thorough support as well as planning efforts such as assessing resources, availability and utilization. Furthermore, applied research is

  18. Development of a computerized data base for low-level waste leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized data base of low-level waste (LLW) leaching data is being compiled by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Although this data base is being compiled as part of an effort to develop accelerated leach test procedures for LLW forms, others involved in LLW management may find it useful. The data base is implemented on an IBM PC XT and is self-contained in that its data manipulation and analysis programs are not proprietary (i.e., need not be purchased). The data base includes data from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program plus selected literature data, which have been selected based on criteria that include completeness of the experimental description and elucidation of leaching mechanisms

  19. Evolution of cement based materials in a repository for radioactive waste and their chemical barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina; Bohnert, Elke [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-07-01

    The use of cementitious materials in nuclear waste management is quite widespread. It covers the solidification of low/intermediate-level liquid as well as solid wastes (e.g. laboratory wastes) and serves as shielding. For both high-level and intermediate-low level activity repositories, cement/concrete likewise plays an important role. It is used as construction material for underground and surface disposals, but more importantly it serves as barrier or sealing material. For the requirements of waste conditioning, special cement mixtures have been developed. These include special mixtures for the solidification of evaporator concentrates, borate binding additives and for spilling solid wastes. In recent years, low-pH cements were strongly discussed especially for repository applications, e.g. (Celine CAU DIT COUMES 2008; Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). Examples for relevant systems are Calcium Silicate Cements (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based) or Calcium Aluminates Cements (CAC). Low-pH pore solutions are achieved by reduction of the portlandite content by partial substitution of OPC by mineral admixtures with high silica content. The blends follow the pozzolanic reaction consuming Ca(OH){sub 2}. Potential admixtures are silica fume (SF) and fly ashes (FA). In these mixtures, super plasticizers are required, consisting of polycarboxilate or naphthalene formaldehyde as well as various accelerating admixtures (Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). The pH regime of concrete/cement materials may stabilize radionuclides in solution. Newly formed alteration products retain or release radionuclides. An important degradation product of celluloses in cement is iso-saccharin acid. According to Glaus 2004 (Glaus and van Loon 2004), it reacts with radionuclides forming dissolved complexes. Apart from potentially impacting radionuclide solubility limitations, concrete additives, radionuclides or other strong complexants compete for surface sites for sorbing onto cement phases. In

  20. Efficacy of Agricultural Wastes in the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium- A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Muthulakshmi Andal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent Chromium is a major pollutant released during several industrial operations. It is also reported as one of the metals known to be carcinogenic and has an adverse potential to modify the DNA transcription process. The removal of hexavalent chromium has been studied by various authors employing adsorbents developed from waste agro by-products to assess their adsorption characteristics. This paper focuses on the comparison of some agro based products in the removal of Cr(VI ions. An extensive list of agricultural based products such as Coconut Coir, Prunus amygdalus, Cissus quadrangularis, Soapnut Acacia, Justicia adhatoda, Bhringraj, Aerva lanata, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tephrosia purpurea, Solanum nigrum, Datura metel, Cleome viscose, Asparagus racemosus for the removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions and the discharged effluents from industries are reviewed in this work. As chemically modified adsorbents exhibit higher adsorption capacity, a number of chemicals have been utilized for the required modifications of the adsorbent materials in the research articles. The results declared by the authors have been compared and summarized for further probe into the extensive utilization of the employed materials.

  1. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  2. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive regulatory performance test program, using an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The testing has shown that the relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen that was used has been able to meet all performance requirements. Using a 53-mm Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of ASTM D312, type III, air-blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, was used. The mixed liquid waste contained approximately 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, 40, 50, and 60 wt % salt. Performance test results include the 90-day American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements

  3. Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Galiano, Y; Fernández Pereira, C; Vale, J

    2011-01-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn or Ba by means of geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolin, metakaolin and ground blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of MSWI waste with these kinds of geopolymeric materials and class F coal fly ash used as silica and alumina source have been processed to study the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. To this end, the effects of curing conditions and composition have been tested. S/S solids are submitted to compressive strength and leaching tests to assess the results obtained and to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. Compressive strength values in the range 1-9 MPa were easily obtained at 7 and 28 days. Concentrations of the metals leached from S/S products were strongly pH dependent, showing that the leachate pH was the most important variable for the immobilization of metals. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classical Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished.

  4. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  5. Evaluation of FTIR-based analytical methods for the analysis of simulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three FTIR-based analytical methods that have potential to characterize simulated waste tank materials have been evaluated. These include: (1) fiber optics, (2) modular transfer optic using light guides equipped with non-contact sampling peripherals, and (3) photoacoustic spectroscopy. Pertinent instrumentation and experimental procedures for each method are described. The results show that the near-infrared (NIR) region of the infrared spectrum is the region of choice for the measurement of moisture in waste simulants. Differentiation of the NIR spectrum, as a preprocessing steps, will improve the analytical result. Preliminary data indicate that prominent combination bands of water and the first overtone band of the ferrocyanide stretching vibration may be utilized to measure water and ferrocyanide species simultaneously. Both near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra must be collected, however, to measure ferrocyanide species unambiguously and accurately. For ease of sample handling and the potential for field or waste tank deployment, the FTIR-Fiber Optic method is preferred over the other two methods. Modular transfer optic using light guides and photoacoustic spectroscopy may be used as backup systems and for the validation of the fiber optic data

  6. Enhancing biohydrogen production through sewage supplementation of composite vegetable based market waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of domestic sewage supplementation as co-substrate with composite vegetable based market waste was studied during the process of fermentative hydrogen (H2) production. Significant improvement in H2 production and substrate degradation were noticed upon supplementing the waste with domestic sewage. Maximum H2 production (cummulative) was observed at 5.2 kg COD/m3 with pulp operation and 4.8 kg COD/m3 with non-pulp operation accounting for improvement of 51 and 55% respectively after sewage upplementation. Substrate degradation was also found to improve with respect to both carbohydrates [8% (with pulp); 5% (non-pulp)] and chemical oxygen demand [COD, 12% (with pulp); 13% (non-pulp)] after adding domestic sewage. Specific H2 yield improved especially at lower concentrations. Supplementation of waste with co-substrate helps to maintain good buffering microenvironment supports fermentation process and in addition provides micro-nutrients, organic matter and microbial biomass. Variation in the outlet pH was less in supplementation experiments compared to normal operation. (author)

  7. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bo-Feng; LIU Jian-Guo; GAO Qing-Xian; NIE Xiao-Qin; CAO Dong; LIU Lan-Cui; ZHOU Ying; ZHANG Zhan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The methane (CH4) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China in 2007 were estimated based on database of the three-dimensional emission factors matrix and point sources, by an IPCC recommended FOD (first-order decay) model. The location, capacity and age of landfills constitute the three dimensions of the emission factors matrix, which were obtained by laboratory analysis and in situ investigation. Key parameters such as waste composition, degradable organic carbon ratio, CH4 correction factor, oxidation factor and recovery rate, were carefully analyzed in terms of these three dimensions. The point sources database consists of 2,107 MSW landfills in cities and towns of China in 2007. The results show that the CH4 emissions from MSW landfills were 1.186 Mt in 2007. Compared with the CH4 emissions of 2.20 Mt in 2005, the significant discrepancy mainly comes from statistical data of landfills, e.g., number of landfills and amount of waste disposed in landfills. CH4 emissions were lower than 700 t for most of the landfills, whereas there were 279 landfills with emissions larger than 1,000 t, and only 10 landfills with emissions larger than 10,000 t. Jiangsu province ranks the largest emitter with 98,700 t while Tibet is the smallest emitter with 2,100 t. In general, the emissions from eastern provinces, such as Jiangsu, Guangdong and Zhejiang, were larger than those from western provinces, such as Ningxia, Tibet and Qinghai.

  8. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  9. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingting Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA, as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%.

  10. Experimental and computational investigation of a MEMS-based boiler for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A microboiler with capillary channels for low temperature energy harvesting. • Complete thermodynamic analysis is completed. • The boiler is designed for minimum thermal losses. • Capability of capillary channels to pump at various pressure is investigated. - Abstract: Thermodynamically limited processes make waste heat abundant in availability. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) steam powered micro system designed to scavenge waste heat from various sources (transportation, industries or solar) is presented. The key boiler component is fabricated and characterized in this work. The system design has been inspired by the various efforts implemented in development of micro heat recovery devices and engines. The complete system consists of three individual micro components (1) boiler, (2) free piston expander and (3) superheater. Specifically, design, fabrication techniques, test setup and results of the miniaturized boiler are presented in this paper. A key design feature of the boiler is the inclusion of capillary channels for fluid flow from the surrounding reservoirs to the heated area. The pressurized steam is created by the boiler as a result of phase transformation of the working fluid. This pressurized steam can be utilized to drive another MEMS device (PZT membranes, turbines, thermoelectric, etc.) to generate power. In this upgraded boiler design, radial capillary channels and a thin film glass steamdome were considered to improve the operating efficiency. These inclusions enhanced capillary flow, energy absorption via phase change, mass flow rate and operating pressure. The power inputs of 1.8 W and 2.7 W were selected to simulate and characterize the boiler performance based on real-world waste heat source temperatures. For these power inputs, the maximum power absorption efficiency demonstrated by the boiler via phase change of the working fluid was approximately 88%. The peak operating pressure demonstrated by the boiler was 8.5 k

  11. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe3O4) and haematite (Fe2O3). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  12. Research on base rock mechanic characteristics of caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been considered that underground space is mechanically stable as compared with on the ground, and superior for storing radioactive waste for long period. However, in order to utilize underground space for the place of radioactive waste disposal, its long term stability such as the aseismatic ability of base rocks must be ensured, and for this purpose, it is necessary to grasp the mechanical characteristics of the base rocks around caverns, and to advance the technology for measuring and evaluating minute deformation and earth pressure change. In this research, the study on the fracture mechanics characteristics of base rocks and the development of the technology for measuring long terms stress change of base rocks were carried out. In this research, what degree the memory of past stress is maintained by rocks was presumed by measuring AE and strain when stress was applied to rock test pieces. The rocks tested were tuff, sandstone and granite. The experimental method and the experimental results of the prestress by AE method and DRA are reported. (K.I.)

  13. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m(-1) at a low dosage as 0.100 g L(-1) of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  14. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  15. Hidrogeologic and geophysical studies into Agro school Melo UTU Cerro Largo province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical University UTU of Uruguay requested and Hidrogeologic study with the aim to analyze the factibility to discover underground stream waters which supply groundwaters into agro school Ing Agr. Alcides E Pintos Melo, Cerro Largo province.

  16. Põlvamaa ettevõtluse Mastimänd on Põlva Agro / Mati Määrits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Määrits, Mati, 1958-

    2006-01-01

    Põlvamaa Mastimänd 2005 tiitli sai piimatootmisega tegelev Põlva Agro parimate toodangunäitajate, innovaatilisuse ning investeeringute eest. Põlvamaa ettevõtluse Tõusev Täht 2005 on AS Nordic Foods ja parim õpilasfirma Pitseto

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  18. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 篊, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  19. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei; Li Guona

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ºC, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  20. Risk-based decision-making regarding mixed waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an efficient approach that has been developed for making rational and defensible decisions among a variety of options (e.g., remedial actions, engineered barriers designs/operational controls, inventory limitations, site investigations and research) for mixed-waste disposal systems, which consist of multiple interacting sites (active, inactive and/or future) with multiple pathways. Such decisions are based on maximizing the satisfaction of identified objectives (including the reliability vis a vis specified criteria), explicitly considering tradeoffs among objectives as well as uncertainties in the consequences of any option

  1. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  2. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base

  3. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  4. Constructed wetlands in the treatment of agro-industrial wastewater: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana Mar-Yam; Akratos Christos S.; Vayenas Dimitrios V.; Pavlou Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, constructed wetlands are becoming more prevalent in wastewater treatment all over the world. Their range of applications is no longer limited to municipal wastewater but has expanded to the treatment of heavily polluted wastewaters such as agro-industrial effluents. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the application of constructed wetlands in treating a variety of agro-industrial wastewat...

  5. Design and Character of Architecture of the Agro-Tourism Site in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nur Latif, Dr., M.Hum.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-tourism and other types of tourism industries require serious management of planning and regulation in order to maintain sustainable growth. There has been a tendency of the operator to diversify the recreational activities in dealing with agro-tourism sites by way of building various architectural forms at the tourism sites without taking appropriate measures of regional factor, the types of tourism, and the land use of the site into consideration. This thesis aims to study ...

  6. The growth and performance of the Belarusian agro-food industry in 2004-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Shpak, Alexander; Pilipuk, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of agro-food industry growth in Belarus, which is one of the key industries in the economy. Such an analysis allowed us to understand the main forces of relatively successful development. We pointed out that state owned companies in the Belarusian agro- food industry operate as de facto strongly integrated corporate groups which ensures reliable supply of raw materials. In addition, we looked at the government directed lending programs which, through allocation...

  7. Models of Agro-industrialisation in China: the Case of the Cattle and Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Scott A.

    1999-01-01

    The term translated literally as ‘agro-industrialisation’ is used both frequently and loosely by Chinese officials and academics to refer to a range of targets including agricultural integration and commercialisation. Support for the agro-industrialisation process has shifted agricultural policy to the extent that it now heralds the third wave of reform of the Chinese rural economy since 1978. This paper draws on a literature review of Chinese material and on extensive fieldwork material to d...

  8. Organic certification, agro-ecological practices and return on investment: Farm level evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kleemann, Linda; Abdulai, Awudu

    2012-01-01

    The recent empirical literature on economic sustainability of certified export crops shows that certification standards that enhance yields are important for improving farm revenues and farmer welfare. However, limited evidence exists on the impact of organic certification on the adoption of agro-ecological practices. In this study, we use unique farm-level data from Ghana to examine the impact of organic certification on the use of agro-ecological practices to improve environmental condition...

  9. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Tse Hung; Michel Torrijos; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Rajinikanth Rajagopal; Joseph V. Thanikal

    2013-01-01

    This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; op...

  10. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdi Evizal; Tohari Tohari; Irfan D. Prijambada; Jaka Widada; Donny Widianto

    2009-01-01

    Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), namely sun coffee (without shade trees), coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina ...

  11. Hierarchical levels in agro-ecosystems: selective case studies on water and nitrogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridder, de, N.

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this thesisToday, agronomic research faces the triple challenge to develop knowledge and insight to manage agro-ecosystems which are inherently sustainable, to diminish the undesirable side effects and to meet the increasing demand of food of a still growing world population, without claiming all the available land. Sound management of agro-ecosystems is not solely a matter of the individual farmer, nor of only field and farm level. Local, national and international policy leve...

  12. Discussions and Recommendations about Establishing Agro-ecological Compensation Mechanism in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Zichen

    2014-01-01

    Establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism is the objective requirement for protecting agricultural ecological environment on the prerequisite of stabilizing and benefiting farmers, to realize protection in the process of development and promote development through protection. This study analyzed existing problems in the practice of establishing agro-ecological compensation mechanism in Jiangsu Province, including failure to form systematic compensation system due to limited technolo...

  13. Adverse effects of lindane in a maize agro-ecosystem in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of lindane, at commercial rates of application, on invertebrate fauna, soil microbial activity, earthworm populations, crop damage and yields in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied and compared with unsprayed control plots of maize using a pitfall trap, D-Vac suction, litter bag, the earthworm formalin expulsion and crop assessment methods. The findings of the study generally portrayed lindane as having very few effects on the maize agro-ecosystem. (author). 5 refs, 9 tabs

  14. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kpera, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin Gnanki Nathalie KPERA Agro-pastoral dams (APDs) – water reservoirs constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development – have been constructed all over Benin. These APDs face several conflicts (farmers versus herders, council vers...

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRO-ECONOMIC SYSTEM: ESSENCE, TERMS AND CONCEPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyagina, L.

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual apparatus and terminological special features in the question of the sustainable development of the agro-economic of systems are examined. The ways of transition to the sustainable development are revealed: planning and organizing of development of the agro-economic systems; improvement of social and economic conditions of villagers; development of self-government; production diversification; accelerated development of alternative activities and others.

  16. Results of routine testing of organic food for agro-chemical residues

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Ming; Matthews, Dave

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Consumers expect organic foods to be free of agro-chemical residues. Organix Brands plc. routinely test organic food ingredients for agrochemical residues using independent test laboratories. In the past year 243 batches of ingredients were tested and low levels of agro-chemical residues were found in 21% of samples. These residues can arise in organic food through environmental contamination, processing contamination or ev...

  17. On the operationalization of a spatially explicit evaluation of the complexity of land use trajectories in semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainggolan, Doan

    of the interacting effects of various types of drivers. The thesis highlights conceptual and practical challenges in undertaking an integrated evaluation of land use change complexity. Future policy making should consider the various factors that are jointly shaping agricultural land use trajectories.......This thesis aims to unpack the complexity of trajectories of land use change in semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystems – illustrated using findings from the Torrealvilla catchment in south-eastern Spain. The research looks at multiple dimensions of land use change and addresses the past, present...... for further expansion of irrigated farming, the agent-based scenario analysis indicates the opposite. Overall the thesis confirms that land use changes in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are indeed complex entailing multiple, contrasting, and perhaps competing trajectories and are the manifestation...

  18. Risk-Based Analysis of Drilling Waste Handling Operations. Bayesian Network, Cost-effectiveness, and Operational Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, Yonas Zewdu

    2016-01-01

    The papers of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper I. Ayele YZ, Barabadi A, Barabady J.: A methodology for identification of a suitable drilling waste handling system in the Arctic region. (Manuscript). Paper II. Ayele YZ, Barabady J, Droguett EL.: Dynamic Bayesian network based risk assessment for Arctic offshore drilling waste handling practices. (Manuscript). Published version available in Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering 138(5), 051302 (Jun 17, 2016) ...

  19. Bases for an environmental liability management system: application to a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis aims the establishment of conceptual bases for the development of Environmental Liability Management System - instruments designed to provide financial and managerial coverage to financial liabilities arising from activities that impact the environment. The document analyses the theories that link the evolution of economic thought and environment, as a means of establish the necessary framework for the development of up-to-date environmental policy instruments. From these concepts and from the analysis of environmental liability system being implemented in several countries, the bases for environmental liability systems development are drawn. Finally, a study is carried out on the application of these bases for the development of an environmental liability management system for a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  20. Integrated data base for 1993: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Storch, S.N.; Ashline, R.C. [and others

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent fuel; also, commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1992. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU), waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) LLW. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year (CY) 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal.

  1. Overview of some waste materials and emissions from the Dutch oil and natural gas exploitation: Base year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the results of an investigation on the most relevant wastes and emissions of the Dutch oil and gas industry are presented. The results apply to the year 1990 except in a few cases in which less recent data had to be translated to the selected base year. Many of the presented data are derived from information from the State Inspectorate of Mines. Information on causes, sources, quantities, composition and disposal of drilling wastes, produced water, mercury containing wastes and emissions to air is given. In addition a global treatise on natural radioactivity in wastes (produced waters) and emissions to air is presented. The results for drilling wastes and produced water are considered to be accurate, except for the data on the discharge to sea of drilling mud additives and production chemicals for which no accurate measurements are available. Less accurate are the results on mercury containing wastes and emissions to air. On the subject of natural radioactivity in wastes and emissions it should be stressed that the presented data are only estimations. It is expected that many of the uncertainties and inaccuracies will be resolved in the target group consultations between the Dutch government and the oil and gas industry. It should be noted that the figures presented in the tables are condensed data and should only be considered in relation to their background, which is discussed in chapter four. 35 tabs., 7 appendices, 118 refs

  2. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARBON STEELS' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LOCALIZED CORROSION TO THE PH OF NITRATE BASED NUCLEAR WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER KD

    2010-01-14

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  3. Spore production of Beauveria bassiana from agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Stutz Dalla Santa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to produce Beauveria bassiana by Solid-State Fermentation using agro-industrial residues and optimizing the cultivation conditions. Refused potatoes, coffee husks and sugar-cane bagasse were tested. The blend of refused potatoes and sugar-cane bagasse (60-40% with particle size in the range of 0.8-2 mm was used in the fermentation experiments. In Erlenmeyer flasks the best spore production was achieved with the following conditions: incubation temperature 26º C; initial pH 6.0; inoculum concentration 10(7 spores.g-1.dw and initial moisture 75%. In the column type reactor using forced aeration under the optimized conditions, the maximum production (1.07x10(10spores.g-1.dw was obtained at the 10th day of fermentation. The respirometric analyses of the fermentation showed a strong correlation between fungal growth and spore production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir Beauveria bassiana por fermentação no estado sólido em resíduos agro-industriais e otimizar as condições de cultivo. Batata-refugo, polpa de café e bagaço de cana de açúcar foram testados. A mistura de batata-refugo e de bagaço de cana de açúcar (60:40%, com granulometria de 2 a 0,8 mm foi escolhida como melhor substrato/suporte. Em frascos de Erlenmeyer a produção de esporos foi maior com as seguintes condições: pH 6,0; temperatura de incubação de 26º C; taxa de inóculo de 10(7 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca; e umidade inicial de 75%. Em bioreator do tipo coluna com aeração forçada, as condições otimizadas possibilitaram uma produção máxima de esporos no 10º dia de fermentação, obtendo-se 1,07x10(10 esporos.g-1 de matéria seca. A análise respirométrica desta fermentação permitiu correlacionar o desenvolvimento do fungo com a produção de esporos.

  4. Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Most of the challenges in designing land use policies that address sustainability issues are inherent to the concept of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). Researchers, farmers and mainly policy makers need to evaluate the impact of new and existing policies for soil protection. In Europe, farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally-friendly farming techniques that undergone legal obligations. On the other hand, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and income foregone resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environment contracts. In this context we prospect scenarios on soil erosion variations in a detailed case study after the application of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). The study area is located in the South part of Sicily. In a district area of 11,588 ha, 35.5 % is devoted to vineyard cultivation, 32.2 % is arable land and only 11.1 % cultivated to olive grow. 2416 ha are urbanized areas and other less important crops. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in soil organic carbon stocks after AEM adoption, following criteria based on Conteh (1999) also applied in several research studies. For the purpose of comparison, the members of a paired site were selected to be similar with respect to the type of soil, slope, elevation, and drainage, but not to AEM. The comparisons were made between adjacent patches of land with different AEM, and a known history of land use and management. 100 paired sites (two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot (600 soil samples). The rainfall erosivity (R) factor (Mj mm ha-1 hour-1 year-1) was estimated with the formula specifically proposed for Sicily by Ferro and coauthors in 1999. The soil erodibility factor (K, in tons hour MJ-1 mm-1) was mapped on the base of soil texture and soil organic

  5. Stakeholder-based SWOT analysis for successful municipal solid waste management in Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P K; Kulshreshtha, K; Mohanty, C S; Pushpangadan, P; Singh, A

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation is a case study of Lucknow, the main metropolis in Northern India, which succumbs to a major problem of municipal solid waste and its management. A qualitative investigation using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT) has been successfully implemented through this community participation study. This qualitative investigation emphasizes the limited capabilities of the municipal corporation's resources to provide proper facilitation of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services without community participation in Lucknow city. The SWOT analysis was performed to formulate strategic action plans for MSWM in order to mobilize and utilize the community resources on the one hand and municipal corporation's resources on the other. It has allowed the introduction of a participatory approach for better collaboration between the community and municipal corporation in Lucknow (India). With this stakeholder-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting the possible "threats" into "opportunities" and changing the "weaknesses" into "strengths" regarding a community-based MSWM programme. By this investigation, concrete strategic action plans were developed for both the community and municipal corporation to improve MSWM in Lucknow.

  6. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at Williams Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Force initiated a contract to develop and prepare detailed work plans for the removal of five concrete cylinders and associated field activities at site RW-11 at Williams AFB. Cylinders were believed to contain low-level radioactive waste including radium-luminous painted dials and radium-bearing parts. Although the general location of the cylinders was known, the exact configuration and contents of the cylinders was unknown. Plans included site preparation, excavation, monitoring, packaging, disposal, closure, and health and safety. The Health and Safety Plan was developed based on the premise that Radium 226 was the primary isotope of concern. The primary health hazard for workers and the public associated with site excavation was inhalation of airborne radioactive dust. Contingency plans were prepared in the event any radiation activity was detected above background levels or other radioactive isotopes were detected at the site. Criteria used to determine whether the site posed a threat to human health or the environment was based on an action level of 10 millirem Total Effective Dose Equivalent. Williams AFB is a closed installation that was placed on the Superfund National Priorities List. This paper discusses the plans what were developed to remove the buried waste, the execution of the plans, and closure of the site RW-11

  7. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  8. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH{sup −}) are involved into diffusion process.

  9. Stakeholder-based SWOT analysis for successful municipal solid waste management in Lucknow, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation is a case study of Lucknow, the main metropolis in Northern India, which succumbs to a major problem of municipal solid waste and its management. A qualitative investigation using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT) has been successfully implemented through this community participation study. This qualitative investigation emphasizes the limited capabilities of the municipal corporation's resources to provide proper facilitation of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services without community participation in Lucknow city. The SWOT analysis was performed to formulate strategic action plans for MSWM in order to mobilize and utilize the community resources on the one hand and municipal corporation's resources on the other. It has allowed the introduction of a participatory approach for better collaboration between the community and municipal corporation in Lucknow (India). With this stakeholder-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting the possible 'threats' into 'opportunities' and changing the 'weaknesses' into 'strengths' regarding a community-based MSWM programme. By this investigation, concrete strategic action plans were developed for both the community and municipal corporation to improve MSWM in Lucknow

  10. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  11. Agarwood Waste as A New Fluid Loss Control Agent in Water-based Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinda Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Agarwood has been used widely in various ways, including traditional medicine and art. The usage of agarwood has grown broader in modern times include in therapeutic medicines and perfumery. In this paper the agarwood waste has been explored to be used as a fluid loss control agent to control fluid loss without affecting the drilling fluid rheological properties which are density, pH, viscosity, yield point and gel strength. Agarwood waste was used as an additive in the drilling fluid system due to its unique characteristic. Rheological and filtration measurements were performed on the formulated water-based drilling fluid. Formulations of a base solution of fresh water, sodium hydroxide, bentonite, barite, and xanthan gum were presented. The performance of the agarwood waste as the fluid loss control agent was compared with based fluid formulation and water-based drilling fluid with treating with conventional fluid loss control agent (starch. The filtrate volume of drilling fluid with agarwood waste was about 13 ml while for drilling fluid with conventional fluid loss control agent, starch gave 12 ml of filtrate volume after undergoing filtration test by using LPLT filter press. The performance of drilling fluid with agarwood was efficient as drilling fluid with starch. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  12. Disposal of agro-industrial by-products by organic cultivation of the culinary and medicinal mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akavia, E; Beharav, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E

    2009-05-01

    Organic mushroom cultivation is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. At the core of the organic philosophy lies a ban on the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, in addition to such tenets as animal welfare, energy efficiency, and social justice. Hypsizygus marmoreus (HM) is a highly praised cultivated culinary and medicinal mushroom. The objective of this paper was to assess the suitability of different spawn media and then the potential of various cultivation substrates to support HM mushroom production compatible with organic standards. This objective was met through the setup of a low-cost cultivation infrastructure. First, seven types of spawn media were tested; then we tested 24 substrates made from organic by-products for their biological efficiency (BE) with strain HM 830, using the liquid inoculation method. The best substrate in terms of BE was corn cob with bran and olive press cake, with a BE of 85.6%. The BE of the same composition but without olive press cake was only 67.5%. The next best substrates were cotton straw combinations with a BE of 31.5-53%. The spent mushroom substrate provides a good method for the disposal of solid waste. The guidance provided in this research complies with organic mushroom cultivation standards and can be used to produce certified organic mushrooms. In addition, it allows responsible and beneficial disposal of a large amount of solid agro-industrial waste.

  13. STATISTICAL ANALISYS OF EVOLUTIONS OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF AGRO-TOURISTIC BOARDING HOUSES IN 2000 - 2012 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Manuela GOGONEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the communist period in Romania international tourism was very strictly controlled. The domestic tourism, however, was developed to some extent in the years 70, but will have a decline in the 80s as a result of state control over the quota of fuel that can access an individual. The overwhelming majority of places to accommodate were offered by hotels, motels and campgrounds. After the fall of communism and the transition to the free movement of persons and gradually to a market economy began to emerge and develop tourist pensions. At the same time, reducing the working week, increased leisure time of individuals, has accelerated the development of tourism and increasing demand for overnight places. On the other hand, the concentration of population in urban centers has developed, in individuals, the need to escape in nature, in the countryside, on weekends or holidays, which have led to the development of rural tourism and agro-tourism. Based on these considerations, this paper captures the development of rural tourism demand and supply of accommodation places in agro-touristic boarding houses, in the period 2000-2012.

  14. Potential applications of artificial intelligence in computer-based management systems for mixed waste incinerator facility operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conversion and Recovery Act (RCRA). Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. This presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. This paper describes mixed waste incinerator facility performance-oriented tasks that could be assisted by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the requirements for AI tools that would implement these algorithms in a computer-based system. 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Development of a pyrolysis waste recovery model with designs, test plans, and applications for space-based habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Bobby J.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive literature searches revealed the numerous advantages of using pyrolysis as a means of recovering usable resources from inedible plant biomass, paper, plastics, other polymers, and human waste. A possible design of a pyrolysis reactor with test plans and applications for use on a space-based habitat are proposed. The proposed system will accommodate the wastes generated by a four-person crew while requiring solar energy as the only power source. Waste materials will be collected and stored during the 15-day lunar darkness periods. Resource recovery will occur during the daylight periods. Usable gases such as methane and hydrogen and a solid char will be produced while reducing the mass and volume of the waste to almost infinitely small levels. The system will be operated economically, safely, and in a non-polluting manner.

  16. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  17. Potential applications of artificial intelligence in computer-based management systems for mixed waste incinerator facility operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A.L.; Singh, S.P.N.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE/OR) operates a mixed waste incinerator facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, designed for the thermal treatment of incinerable liquid, sludge, and solid waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conversion and Recovery Act (RCRA). Operation of the TSCA Incinerator is highly constrained as a result of the regulatory, institutional, technical, and resource availability requirements. This presents an opportunity for applying computer technology as a technical resource for mixed waste incinerator operation to facilitate promoting and sustaining a continuous performance improvement process while demonstrating compliance. This paper describes mixed waste incinerator facility performance-oriented tasks that could be assisted by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the requirements for AI tools that would implement these algorithms in a computer-based system. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Multi-Stage Control of Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags Based on Time Temperature Transformation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a significant method and a basic idea of waste heat recovery from high temperature slags based on Time Temperature Transformation (TTT curves. Three samples with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.05 and different levels of Al2O3 were designed and isothermal experiments were performed using a Single Hot Thermocouple Technique (SHTT. The TTT curves established through SHTT experiments described well the variation of slag properties during isothermal processes. In this study, we propose a multi-stage control method for waste heat recovery from high temperature slags, in which the whole temperature range from 1500 °C to 25 °C was divided into three regions, i.e., Liquid region, Crystallization region and Solid region, based on the TTT curves. Accordingly, we put forward an industrial prototype plant for the purpose of waste heat recovery and the potential of waste heat recovery was then calculated. The multi-stage control method provided not only a significant prototype, but also a basic idea to simultaneously extract high quality waste heat and obtain glassy phases on high temperature slags, which may fill the gap between slag properties and practical waste heat recovery processes.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O. Oruko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess the effectiveness of tannery based solid wastes management, by identifying and analyzing the concentration levels of sodium chlorides,sulphide, chromium ions and total phenols as selected pollutants along the tanning stages, in Nairobi river, borehole water, and soils around the dump site inside the tannery. Experimental (laboratory analysis design was used.Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing data resulting in means and tables. The means concentration of total Chrome was 2633.38mg/L,Sodium chloride 609.93mg/L, Sulphide 129.77mg/L, total Phenols 10.91mg/L in the soil sampled around the composite dump site.. In Nairobi river water the means of Sodium chloride was 317.48mg/L, Sulphide 24.00mg/L, total Phenol 3.97mg/L and total Chrome Nil, While means concentration in borehole water, had Sodium chloride detected at 354.73mg/L, Sulphide 6.67mg/L, total Phenol 0.03mg/L and total Chrome as Nil, indicating heavily contaminated ecosystems above the discharge set limits of National Environmental Management Authority and Nairobi city water and sewerage company.

  20. Radioactive waste management: a bibliography for the integrated data base program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second in a series of literature references compiled on waste generation and treatment, characteristics, inventories, and costs. Documents were collected, abstracted, and indexed into a searchable information file, which was then sorted, indexed, and printed for this bibliography. This volume contains over 200 references to nuclear waste management, the majority of which are 1979-1980 publications. Each reference is categorized by waste origin (commercial, government, institutional, and foreign) and by subject area: (1) high-level waste, (2) low-level waste, (3) transuranic (TRU) waste, (4) airborne waste, (5) Remedial Action Program (formerly utilized sites, surplus facilities, and mill tailings), (6) isolation, (7) transportation, (8) spent fuel, (9) fuel cycle centers, and (10) general, nonspecific waste. Six indexes are provided to assist the user in locating documents of interest: author, author affiliation (corporate authority), subject category, publication descrdissipated across two- fatigue stren obtained

  1. A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Rahimi, Mohammad; Gorski, Christopher A; Logan, Bruce

    2016-04-21

    Large amounts of low-grade waste heat (temperatures electricity in battery systems. To improve reactor efficiency, a compact, ammonia-based flow battery (AFB) was developed and tested at different solution concentrations, flow rates, cell pairs, and circuit connections. The AFB achieved a maximum power density of 45 W m(-2) (15 kW m(-3) ) and an energy density of 1260 Wh manolyte (-3) , with a thermal energy efficiency of 0.7 % (5 % relative to the Carnot efficiency). The power and energy densities of the AFB were greater than those previously reported for thermoelectrochemical and salinity-gradient technologies, and the voltage or current could be increased using stacked cells. These results demonstrated that an ammonia-based flow battery is a promising technology to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity. PMID:26990485

  2. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater....... A sediment-type MFC based on two pieces of bioelectrodes was employed as a novel in situ applicable approach for nitrate/nitrite removal, as well as electricity production from eutrophic lakes. The nitrogen removal and power generation were limited by the DO level in the water and acetate level injected......, additional electron donor or risk of bacteria discharge. Such a new system may offer a promising avenue for drinking water treatment and energy recovery....

  3. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  4. Moisture transport properties of cement-based materials for engineered barriers in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the multiphase modeling of moisture transport process in pore structure of cement-based materials used as engineered barriers in radioactive waste disposal. The emphasis is put on the fundamental relationship of moisture isotherm and the related hysteresis phenomenon. A typical cement-based material is retained for study and its properties for moisture transport were measured. The pore structure was characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and gravimetry method. The moisture isotherm was measured in laboratory by humidity equilibrium method and the predicted isotherm from MIP pore structure is confronted with the measured isotherm. Afterwards, a numerical scheme is set up for the multiphase transport model and the model is applied to the moisture transport process of engineered barriers exposed to natural drying and drying-wetting cycles. It is observed that the ratio between drying and wetting periods has strong influence on the depth of surface convection zone. (authors)

  5. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics. PMID:26931657

  6. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics.

  7. Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaïx, Julien; Burdon, Jeremy J; Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    Remnant areas hosting natural vegetation in agricultural landscapes can impact the disease epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of crop pathogens. However, the potential consequences for crop diseases of the composition, the spatial configuration and the persistence time of the agro-ecological interface - the area where crops and remnant vegetation are in contact - have been poorly studied. Here, we develop a demographic-genetic simulation model to study how the spatial and temporal distribution of remnant wild vegetation patches embedded in an agricultural landscape can drive the emergence of a crop pathogen and its subsequent specialization on the crop host. We found that landscape structures that promoted larger pathogen populations on the wild host facilitated the emergence of a crop pathogen, but such landscape structures also reduced the potential for the pathogen population to adapt to the crop. In addition, the evolutionary trajectory of the pathogen population was determined by interactions between the factors describing the landscape structure and those describing the pathogen life histories. Our study contributes to a better understanding of how the shift of land-use patterns in agricultural landscapes might influence crop diseases to provide predictive tools to evaluate management practices. PMID:25926883

  8. Agro-ecosystem Emergy Evolution and Trend in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-lin; LI Ming-jie; HOU Mao-zhang; LI Sha; LONG Yu-zi; WANG Mao-xi

    2012-01-01

    Using the emergy analysis method,we conduct trend analysis of changes in the total emergy,input and output structure,various emergy indicators of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province during the period 1999-2008.The results show that during the study period,total emergy input basically remained stable,but the emergy input structure was constantly optimized,of which the input of non-renewable industrial assistant emergy increased by 38.4%,from 4.00E +22 sej to 5.53E +22 sej,and the input of renewable organic emergy declined from 1.32E +23 sej to 1.20E + 23 sej;total emergy yield and yield efficiency of this system were promoted dramatically,and in 2008,the total emergy yield reached 1.69E +23 sej,increasing by 23.8% as against that in 1999,the net emergy yield ratio rose from 0.79 to 0.96;since the environmental loading ratio also tended to rise constantly,from 1.12 to 1.79,the sustainability index of this system also experienced the slow downward trend,from 0.71 to 0.54,always less than 1,indicating that the agriculture in Hunan Province is the high consumption-driven ecosystem in general,with obvious features of extensive development.

  9. Net Zero Fort Carson: Integrating Energy, Water, and Waste Strategies to Lower the Environmental Impact of a Military Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military bases resemble small cities and face similar sustainability challenges. As pilot studies in the U.S. Army Net Zero program, 17 locations are moving to 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases target net z...

  10. Evaluation of an agro--ecosystem model using cosmicray neutron soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin David

    The properties of the land surface affect the interaction of the surface and the atmosphere. The partitioning of absorbed shortwave radiation into emitted radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and soil heat flux is determined by the presence of soil moisture. When the land surface is dry, there will be higher sensible heat flux, emitted radiation and soil heat flux. However, when liquid water is present, latent energy will be used to change the phase of water from solid to liquid and liquid to gas. This latent heat flux moves water and energy to a different part of the atmosphere. A contributing factor to soil moisture available for latent heat flux is the water table. With a shallow water table (harvest date, fertilizer application, and tile drainage. Therefore, land surface models, like Agro--IBIS, need to be simulated and evaluated at the field--scale. Agro--IBIS is an agroecosystem model that is able to incorporate changes in vegetation growth as well as management practices, which in turn impact soil moisture available for latent heat flux. Agro--IBIS has been updated with the soil physics of HYDRUS--1D in order to accurately simulate the impact of the water table. In measuring soil moisture, a consistent challenge is the representative scale of the instrument, which is often a point. A newer method of obtaining soil moisture over the field--scale is using a cosmic--ray neutron detector, which is sensitive to a diameter of 700 m and to a depth of ˜ 20 cm. I used soil moisture observed by the cosmic--ray neutron detector in an agricultural field to evaluate estimates made with the Agro--IBIS model over a growing season of maize and a growing season of soybean. Because of the large area observed by the cosmic-ray neutron detector, a soil texture sensitivity analysis was performed using Agro--IBIS to determine the texture that would produce the best hydraulic properties and therefore the best estimate of soil moisture. The maize year results show Agro

  11. Biomass equipments. Dryers. Drying, crushing, agglomeration of agro-industrial products; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les secheurs, sechage, broyage, agglomeration de produits agro-industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, O. [Promill (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the French Promill Company activity in the design and manufacturing of complete drying-crushing-agglomerating units for agro-industrial products (pulp of beet, lucerne, etc..). The paper focusses on the thermal and mechanical efficiency of the high temperature dryer and on the pulp granulating squeezer. (J.S.)

  12. Involvement in Agro-tourism Activities among Fishermen Community in Two Selected Desa Wawasan Nelayan Villages in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahazan Muhammad; Azimi Hamzah; Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril; Jeffrey Lawrence D Silva; Sulaiman Md Yassin; Bahaman Abu Samah; Neda Tiraieyari

    2012-01-01

    The agro-tourism activity in Desa Wawasan Nelayan is a new product of agro-tourism in Malaysia organized by Fisheries Development Authority of Malaysia. Local community involvement is important to the success of this agro-tourism programme. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the level of involvement of Desa Wawasan Nelayan community in agro-tourism activities. The data of this study is obtained from a survey of two Desa Wawasan Nelayan villages. A total of 220respondents were ...

  13. Hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms based on sewage microorganisms and their application in hydrocarbon removal in liquid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-07-01

    Attempts to establish hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms that could be applied in waste-hydrocarbon removal are still very rare. In this work, biofilms containing hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were successfully established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for 1 month. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in the biofilms revealed the occurrence of the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, Bosea, and Ancylobacter. Biofilms established in oil-containing effluent contained more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria than those established in oil-free effluent, and both biofilms had dramatically different bacterial composition. Culture-independent analysis of the bacterial flora revealed a bacterial community structure totally different from that determined by the culture-dependent method. In microcosm experiments, these biofilms, when used as inocula, removed between 20% and 65% crude oil, n-hexadecane, and phenanthrene from the surrounding effluent in 2 weeks, depending on the biofilm type, the hydrocarbon identity, and the culture conditions. More of the hydrocarbons were removed by biofilms established in oil-containing effluent than by those established in oil-free effluent, and by cultures incubated in the light than by those incubated in the dark. Meanwhile, the bacterial numbers and diversities were enhanced in the biofilms that had been previously used in hydrocarbon bioremediation. These novel findings pave a new way for biofilm-based hydrocarbon bioremediation, both in sewage effluent and in other liquid wastes.

  14. Value and Wastes in Manufacturing. An Overview and a New Perspective Based on Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simboli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last century, the evolution of manufacturing was characterized by several innovations, concerning technologies, processes, but also entire production systems, with radical changes in strategies, product design, and management of organizations. Cost, time, and quality are the pillars on which was based the industrial competitiveness during that era. In the most recent years, a renewed interest in environmental issues and socio-ethical values has gradually promoted the transition towards the so-called low impact economies. Producers are then required to pursue a more rational and eco-efficient use of resources and reduce production wastes to survive; also the concept of value chain has been often associated with the terms environmental/green or sustainable. Various studies have been carried out to encourage companies in including the environment in their strategic and operational decisions making. Industrial Ecology (IE represents the latest and most ambitious attempt to reach this goal; however, a great deal of work remains to be done to achieve this goal. As a result, enhancing companies to integrate efficiency and sustainable practices still has a long way to go. This study presents an overview on the evolutionary dynamics of manufacturing in the industrial age, and offers a discussion about the potential synergies in integrating IE approaches and tools in Lean Manufacturing, by introducing the environmental load as a further type of Muda; the systematic actions to reduce this waste can build up the basis for improving competitiveness through the eco-efficiency.

  15. Abundance of polymers degrading microorganisms in a sea-based solid waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, T; Sugano, W; Ike, M; Kawagoshi, Y; Fukunaga, I; Fujita, M

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the degradability of plastics in solid waste disposal landfill sites, microbial populations capable of degrading five kinds of plastic-constituting polymers, poly epsilon-caprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and cellulose acetate (CA), in a sea-based solid waste disposal site were investigated. Enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic polymers-degrading microorganisms (PDMs) was performed against to total 8 leachate samples, which were seasonally collected from the facultative pretreatment pond and the aerated lagoon. Both aerobic and anaerobic PDMs for natural polymers, PHB and CA, were found in all of the samples, while those for chemically-synthesized polymers, PCL, PLA and PEG, could not be always detected. In most cases, the ratios of the PHB- and CA-degraders to the heterotrophic bacterial population were more than 0.1%. On the other hand, the ratios of PCL-, PLA- and PEG-degraders were often much lower. These data indicate that the plastics degradation potential is commonly present in the studied disposal site, and that the degradation potential for plastics composed of chemically-synthesized polymers is inferior to that of natural polymers. Population sizes of the PDMs correlated to those of heterotrophic bacteria, and the counts of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and PDMs in the aerated lagoon tended to be higher than those of anaerobic ones, indicating that the aeration of the leachate resulted in the activation of growth of whole aerobic microbial community including the PDMs. PMID:10957959

  16. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, V R; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process. PMID:18060759

  17. Thermal Properties of Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams Based on Poly(ethylene terephthalate Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena VITKAUSKIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PU-PIR foams synthesized from PET-waste-derived aromatic polyester polyols (APP was studied using thermogravimetric analysis, Cone calorimeter and burning tests. The effect of chemical structure of the APP containing fragments of glycerol, adipic acid, poly(propylene glycol or hexanediol on thermal stability and flame resistance of the PU-PIR foams was elucidated. PU-PIR foams prepared from APP containing fragments of glycerol and/or adipic acid had higher thermal stability and lower weight loss at 330 °C. The foams based on APP derived from industrial PET waste were characterized by relatively low heat release and low smoke production. The presence of the fragments of the functional additives glycerol and/or adipic acid in the structure of APP used for production of PU-PIR foams, marginally decreased the heat release and slightly increased the smoke production.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.588

  18. Demonstration of a risk-based approach to high-level waste repository evaluation, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project develops and applies a probability-based methodology to assess the performance of high-level nuclear waste repositories. The particular method is an extension of the methodology demonstrated previously under Phase 1 of this project. Under the current application, aqueous and gaseous pathways for release of radionuclides are considered, as are possible releases induced by inadvertent human intrusion and by volcanic occurrences. Individual experts in the relevant scientific and engineering fields designate the inputs (and their uncertainties) for the analysis. These inputs are aggregated using the logic tree format so that calculations of levels of release for thirteen radionuclides can be made for all possible combinations of assumed input valves. The probability distribution of releases reflects the uncertainties in inputs designated by the expert in each field. The methodology is applied to proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The application indicates that, for high levels of possible release, the largest quantities of nuclides will escape the repository by aqueous pathways. Gaseous release of 14C may occur but will be important relative to releases by aqueous pathways only at lower levels of total release. Volcanic disturbances, earthquakes, and inadvertent human intrusion do not led to large releases. Sensitivity studies for aqueous pathways indicate that critical factors affecting large release are amount of groundwater infiltration, solubilities of radioelements and dissolution rate of the waste matrix, lateral diversion of the groundwater flow around the repository, characteristics of the engineered barrier system, and coupling between fracture and matrix flow

  19. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200 °C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ∼93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200 °C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 × 103 kg/m3 and contained ∼39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  20. Extract useful knowledge from agro-hydrological simulations data for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel-odoux, C.; Bouadi, T.; Cordier, M.; Quiniou, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, models have been developed and used to test the effect of scenarios and help stakeholders in decision making. Agro-hydrological models have guided agricultural water management by testing the effect of landscape structure and farming system changes on water quantity and quality. Such models generate a large amount of data but few are stored and are often not customized for stakeholders, so that a great amount of information is lost from the simulation process or not transformed in a usable format. A first approach, already published (Trepos et al., 2012), has been developed to identify object oriented tree patterns, that represent surface flow and pollutant pathways from plot to plot, involved in water pollution by herbicides. A simulation model (Gascuel-odoux et al., 2009) predicted herbicide transfer rate, defined as the proportion of applied herbicide that reaches water courses. The predictions were used as a set of learning examples for symbolic learning techniques to induce rules based on qualitative and quantitative attributes and explain two extreme classes in transfer rate. Two automatic symbolic learning techniques were used: the inductive logic programming approach to induce spatial tree patterns, and an attribute-value method to induce aggregated attributes of the trees. A visualization interface allows the users to identify rules explaining contamination and mitigation measures improving the current situation. A second approach has been recently developed to analyse directly the simulated data (Bouadi et al, submitted). A data warehouse called N-catch has been built to store and manage simulation data from the agro-hydrological model TNT2 (Beaujouan et al., 2002). 44 output key simulated variables are stored per plot and at a daily time step on a 50 squared km area, i.e, 8 GB of storage size. After identifying the set of multileveled dimensions integrating hierarchical structures and relationships among related dimension levels, N