Znaor, Darko; Karoglan Todorović, Sonja
In the period 2002-2004, the Netherlands Government's Pin-Matra programme funded an international project aiming to support the introduction of an agri-environment programme (AE) in Croatia. The project resulted in proposals for national and pilot agri-environment programmes. The project addressed key actors working on agri-environmental issues in Croatia, such as government representatives, scientists, farmers, environmental and nature conservation NGOs. An AE Programme has been operatin...
Urbano López de Meneses, Beatriz
AGRI PROJECT-BASED LEARNING tiene por objeto acompañar al alumno en la realización del Trabajo Final de Grado (TFG) mediante la implementación de la metodología del aprendizaje basado en proyectos (PBL) desde las asignaturas. El desarrollo de la metodología ha incluido acciones en tres líneas de actuación; por un parte la inclusión de la metodología PBL en una asignatura para avanzar en el propio TFG del alumno, por otra la organización de seminarios y jornadas sobre instrumentos necesarios ...
Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris
This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and tensions between…
Higgins, Vaughan; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris
This paper examines the role of certification in alternative agri-food networks (AAFNs), which are "in the process" of building markets for their produce outside conventional supply chains. Drawing upon recent writing on "embeddedness", we argue that certification provides an important focus for exploring the relationship and…
Mauchline, Alice L.; Mortimer, Simon R.; Park, Julian R.;
The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi...... approach to AES evaluation proved efficient in different environments and administrative contexts. The approach proved to be appropriate for environmental evaluation of complex agri-environment systems and can complement any evaluation conducted under the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework...
Full Text Available This paper incorporates the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics in a comprehensive framework for analyzing risk management in the agri-food sector. First, it specifies the diverse types of agri-food risks (natural, technical, behavioral, economic, policy, etc. and the modes of their management (market, private, public, and hybrid. Second, it defines the efficiency of risk management and identifies the factors (personal, institutional, dimensional, technological, and natural of governance choice. Next, it presents stages in the analysis of risk management and the improvement of public intervention in the governance of risk. Finally, it identifies the contemporary opportunities and challenges for risk governance in the agri-food chain.
Hajkowicz, Stefan; Collins, Kerry; Cattaneo, Andrea
Agri-environment programs aim to secure environmental and social stewardship services through payments to farmers. A critical component of many agri-environment programs is an agri-environment index (AEI) used to quantify benefits and target investments. An AEI will typically comprise multiple indicators, which are weighted and combined using a utility function, to measure the benefit of investment options (e.g., projects, farms, regions). This article presents a review of AEIs with 11 case studies from agri-environment programs in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. We identify a generic procedure used to define AEIs and explore the implications of alternative methodological approaches. We conclude that AEIs have become an extremely important policy instrument and make suggestions for their improvement.
Bhupinder Singh SekhonInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery m...
Gaitán Cremaschi, D.
Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and can guide sustainability improvements. The overall objective of this thesis was to perform integrated assessments of relative sustainability performance of (stages of) agri-food supply chains using ...
The paper deals with agri-environmental indicators, examines farm inputs, on the basis of statistical data of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Szabo, Pomazi 2002) and the Eurostat (2004). The examined indicators are placed in the agricultural DPSIR model. The paper presents how the use of farm inputs changed in Hungary from 1980-2000. Farm inputs are related to the inputs of the EU-15, the study demonstrates that today they are below the EU- 15 average. Area ...
Celli, Fabrizio; Malapela, Thembani; Wegner, Karna; Subirats, Imma; Kokoliou, Elena; Keizer, Johannes
AGRIS is the International System for Agricultural Science and Technology. It is supported by a large community of data providers, partners and users. AGRIS is a database that aggregates bibliographic data, and through this core data, related content across online information systems is retrieved by taking advantage of Semantic Web capabilities. AGRIS is a global public good and its vision is to be a responsive service to its user needs by facilitating contributions and feedback regarding the AGRIS core knowledgebase, AGRIS's future and its continuous development. Periodic AGRIS e-consultations, partner meetings and user feedback are assimilated to the development of the AGRIS application and content coverage. This paper outlines the current AGRIS technical set-up, its network of partners, data providers and users as well as how AGRIS's responsiveness to clients' needs inspires the continuous technical development of the application. The paper concludes by providing a use case of how the AGRIS stakeholder input and the subsequent AGRIS e-consultation results influence the development of the AGRIS application, knowledgebase and service delivery.
Pavlis, Evangelos S.; Terkenli, Theano S.; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard;
This paper investigates the personal and property characteristics of landowners who use EU Rural Development agri-environmental schemes (AES), as well as their motives for participation or non-participation in such schemes. The study is based on a questionnaire survey with landowners, in selected...
Gaitán Cremaschi, D.
Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and c
Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Wubben, E.F.M.
This book brings together a rich collection of papers on management and organization in agri-food chains and networks. Producers, processors, traders and retailers of agricultural and food products operate in an economic and institutional environment that is increasingly dominated by global developm
Winchester, N.; Rau, M.L.; Goetz, C.; Larue, B.; Otsuki, T.; Shutes, K.; Wieck, C.; Burnquist, H.L.; Pinto de Souza, M.J.; Nunes de Faria, R.
We estimate the impact of regulatory heterogeneity on agri-food trade using a gravity analysis that relies on detailed data on non-tariff measures (NTMs) collected by the NTM-Impact project. The data cover a broad range of import requirements for agricultural and food products for the EU and nine of
Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.
budget and, in accordance with perceived product value, consumers pay prices that makes up the profit of all previous agri-food chain participants. Hence, understanding consumer behaviour is critical to making the right managerial and marketing decisions, including strategic choices with respect to risk...
Oenema, O.; Amon, B.; van Beek, C.
The purpose of this document is to summarize the results of Tasks 1 to 7 of DireDate for the Final Seminar in Luxembourg on 28 March 2011. The general objective of DireDate is “to create a framework for setting up a sustainable system for collecting a set of data from farmers and other sources...... from the annual surveys of the annual Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and sales data of market organization. Evidently, this proposal has the lowest farm data collection burden, but may face some loss of accuracy. Finally, the 28 AEIs capture the main agri-environmental interactions...... of key AEIs; - using key AEIs as source for EU agri-environmental policy reporting; - setting up an institutional and organizational structure for embedding the estimation of AEIs in formal protocols and guidance documents; and - adopting the proposal for common and harmonized data collection...
The analysis of the relationship between food and health in a context of innovation, safety and welfare is carried out considering the view of agri-food economists. Relationships and meanings are addressed defining by the scope of observation and choices. We adopt a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the scientific contributions of Italian economists (publications, conferences, etc.) in this field. In particular we have examined the contributions published in some of the main Italian jo...
This paper firstly introduced theoretical background of the Activity-Based Costing(ABC). Then,it analyzed necessity,extension resistance and difficulty of ABC approach in agri-scientific research institutions. Finally,it came up with some recommendations for scientifically learning and steadily promoting ABC method in agri-scientific research field.
Kalogeras, N.; Baourakis, G.; Zopounidis, C.; Dijk, van G.
Food economists and financial researchers have long been preoccupied by the issue of evaluating the performance of agri-food firms. As the financial restructuring of the agri-business sector during the past two decades or so reflects sweeping changes that have occurred worldwide, questions have aris
Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.
Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link
Kleijn, D.; Berendse, F.; Smit, R.; Gilissen, N.; Smit, J.; Brak, B.; Groeneveld, R.A.
Agri-environment schemes are an instrument used by western European countries to counteract the negative effects of contemporary agriculture on biodiversity, but not much is known about their effectiveness. We investigated the ecological effects of Dutch agri-environment schemes aimed at promoting b
Full Text Available Problem statement: The government of Malaysia has established several agencies within the Ministry of Agriculture and agri-based Industry such as the Farmers Organization Authority to provide technical and motivational training to individual members involved in farming practices to become agri-entrepreneurs. Approach: The objectives of the study are to identify and determine the entrepreneurial work culture as perceived by Farmers Organization Authority members. Members of Farmers Organization Authority were interviewed via a structured questionnaire. The factor analysis determines 6 latent factors that were realized by the Farmers Organization Authority members as being important for promoting an entrepreneurial work culture and therefore should be enhanced and re-inculcated among the Farmers Organization Authority farming community. Results: These factors translate into the community having to become more innovative, responsible and accountable, profit oriented, visionary, better at performing their study practices in a more systematic way and finally to become more self confident. Conclusion/Recommendation: Efforts should be intensified to encourage Farmers Organization Authority members with training to focus not on modern technologies only, but on enhancing the entrepreneurial work culture and fundamental changes in attitude towards treating farming as a business. Formal entrepreneurship training should be instituted to all Farmers Organization Authority members who are interested in taking a loan in enhancing their farming activities. This conditionality can be implemented to ensure that the loan is being spent accordingly and the development of agri-entrepreneurship skills can be enhanced.
Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh
Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have
Full Text Available In agri-food engineering many complex problems arise in plant and process design. Specifically the designer has to deal with fluid dynamics, thermal or mechanical problems, often characterized by physics coupling, non-linearity, irregular geometry, anisotropy and in definitive rather high complexity. In recent years, the ever growing availability of computational power at low cost, made these problems more often approached with numerical simulation techniques. Mainly in terms of finite elements and finite volumes. In this paper the fundamentals of numerical methods are briefly recalled and a discussion about their possibility of application in the food and agricultural engineering is developed.
Chen, Kevin Z.; Duan, Yufeng
Asia is the second largest market for the Canadian agri-food exports after the United States market. The competition in Asia has become more intensive in recent years as the agri-food sector in developed nations such as Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States has increasingly relied on exports for growth because of their own slow-growing domestic food consumption. How did the performance of Canadian agri-food exports to Asia measure up to the performances of its main competitors? Thi...
Full Text Available There are few English publications on various impacts of Fukushima nuclear disaster on agri-food secor in Japan. This paper fills the gap and presents results of a study on implications of Fukushima nuclear disaster for Japanese agri-food chains. Firsly, immediate and short-term radiation effects, and effects on nearby population, safety regulation and inspection system, markets and consumer’s behavior, agrarian and food products, health, and economic impacts on farming and agri-businesses, are assessed. Next, overall shorter and longer-term impacts on agriculture, food industries, and consumers in Fukushima region, neighboring regions, and other parts of Japan are estimated.
Full Text Available In the European Union a significant number of regulations aimed at agricultural and food sector thus creating the legal framework regarding the mode of production, pricing, distribution and communication in relation to agri-food products. Specificity agri-food marketing communication at EU level resulting in most of the measures taken with regard to ensuring consumer protection, food safety and security, some of them, in force in early 2012, referring to the labeling, presentation and advertising of agri-food products, sponsorship and distinctive signs of quality are shown in this paper.
Full Text Available Bhupinder Singh SekhonInstitute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PCTE Group of Institutes, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1 nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2 the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3 nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4 plant disease diagnostics; 5 animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6 postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is
Full Text Available The agricultural education covers all levels of formal education but focuses mostly on the higher ones as well as the vocational education and training. Online courses play an important role in the educational context and compared to traditional courses they eliminate the location and time restrictions and allow a self-paced attendance of a curriculum. At the same time, the existence of online courses raised the need for the design and implementation of the appropriate platforms which may be used for the organization and deployment of online courses. This paper presents the case of agriMoodle, a course management platform based on the widely used Moodle platform, which provides a number of enhancements in the form of modules or widgets specialized for the agricultural domain. These modules aim to enhance the user experience and the functionalities of a standard Moodle installation.
Assaghir, Zainab; Girardin, Philippe; Napoli, Amedeo
Les indicateurs développés et utilisés en agronomie sont généralement calculés à partir de données et d'informations entachées d'imperfections. Dans cet article, on présente le calcul d'un indicateur agri-environnemental-fondé sur un système de règles de décision-en utilisant une méthode de fusion de la théorie des possibilités au sein de la notion de sous-ensemble maximaux cohérents et une arithmétique sur des intervalles pour calculer les bornes de l'indicateur. La modélisation de données e...
Stonehouse, D. P.
The agri-food industry is concerned with maximizing global food output while preventing environmental damage. Agricultural education focuses on multidisciplinary, holistic, and integrative approaches that enhance student capabilities to address this complex issue. (SK)
Keywords: Business process models; Supply chain management; Information systems; Reference information models; Market orientation; Mass customisation; Configuration; Coordination; Control; SCOR; Pot plants; Fruit industry Abstract The increasing volatility and diversity of demand urge agri-food
Improved methodological approaches to environmental management that take into account environmental marketing goals at all stages of product life cycle and can solve complex problems in the area of ecological-economic security of agri-food markets.
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves otsustas annetada 15. oktoobril 2011 Afganistanis lahinguülesande täitmisel langenud kapral Agris Hutrofile postuumselt mõõkadega Kotkaristi kuldristi teenetemärgi. Riigipea tegi ka sissekande kaitseministeeriumis avatud kaastunderaamatusse
Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong
Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.
BIANCA VENUS L. RECIO
Full Text Available – The study was to identify the profile of the agri-tourism sites in the selected municipalities in the 4th district of Batangas. Specifically, it determines the status and prospects of agri-tourism in the selected municipalities in the 4th district of Batangas in terms of Socio-Economic and Environmental Aspects; and have proposed an action plan to promote the agri-tourism as a destination. The researchers have conducted the study to see how the agri-tourism benefits the community in terms of their economy and environmental aspects. This study have provided more awareness to the community about the Agri-tourism in the place. In addition this research educates people to be more vigilant enough on giving importance on the Agri-tourism we have in Batangas. Results showed that the three major agri-tourism farms in the fourth district of Batangas were Vilela’s Farm, British Farm and Moca Farm. Agri-tourism in Batangas has socio-economic effects to the residents of the fourth district of Batangas. Agri-tourism has no environmental effect as assessed by the residents of Batangas.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to identify the changes in bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China, as well as to assess – in mutual relations – ex post competitive advantages of major groups of agri-food products in 2008–2015. The research is based on data from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat. The analysis covered the value, trade balance, shares in total trade and commodity structure of trade in agri-food products between the EU and China. Selected indices of revealed comparative advantage (XRCA, MRCA, RTA, Coverage Ratios (CR, Specialization Indicators (SI, and the indices of Intra-Industry Trade (IIT were calculated for major product groups of the Combined Nomenclature. It was proved that bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China has increased signifi cantly in 2008–2015, and the EU transformed from an importer to a net exporter. Despite the intensifi cation of mutual trade, the importance of China in the EU export of agri-food products remained relatively small. The structure of bilateral trade in agri-food products between the EU and China is consistent with the distribution of comparative advantages obtained by exporters and it is shaped under assumptions of the theory of similarity of preferences, the theory of product diff erentiation of the Armington type, and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson theorem of resources abundance. It can be considered that the Chinese agri-food sector is still in the stage of a factor-driven economy, while the agriculture and food industry in the EU countries has reached the stage of an innovation-driven economy.
Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Kooten, van O.
Due to globalization and internationalization of agri-food production, the arena of competition and competitive advantage is moving from individual firms operating on spot markets towards supply chains and networks. Therefore, coordination between firms within the chain becomes more important. Topic
In recent years, landscape and its management has become a focus of policies and academic conceptualisation. Landscape is understood as a concept of interconnected natural and human systems. Its management must take into account the dynamic interdependencies and diverging interests of various stakeholders at different levels. Bridging organisations can provide an arena for trust-building, conflict resolution, learning and collaboration between relevant stakeholders. This paper draws on two strands of literature - landscape governance and co-management of social-ecological systems - to investigate the contributions of agri-environmental collaboratives (AEC) to sustainable landscape management. Based on data from 41 interviews with key informants and AEC members in Germany and the Netherlands, six fields of contributions were identified: policy implementation and service provision; coordination and mediation; awareness raising and behaviour change; care for 'everyday' landscapes; maintenance and protection of landscapes (including species and habitats); and income generation and economic benefits. Some of the contributions evolve around the specific role of AEC as bridging organisations, but other contributions such as economic benefits emerge beyond this analytical lens. The paper therefore emphasises holistic, bottom up assessment of AEC contributions and argues that governments should support such organisations through i) funding for facilitators and ii) funding for impact monitoring and data management.
Full Text Available In this paper we present the result of a Magnetotelluric (MT investigation carried out across the High Agri Valley (HAV, southern Italy. Several MT soundings were carried out in order to obtain a ~15 km long 2-D resistivity model with an investigation depth of ~10 km. The main aim was to provide valuable data on the geological and structural setting of the HAV. The MT model was compared with pre-existing geological, geophysical and seismic data. The MT model can be schematized as a superposition of three stack lateral varying layers with different thickness and resistivity values: a surficial low-medium resistivity layer, associated to the Quaternary deposits and to the allochthonous units, and a deeper high resistivity layer, related to the Apulia Platform, separated by a thin layer connected to the mélange zone and to the Pliocene terrigenous marine deposits. Sharp lateral resistivity variations are interpreted as faults that, on the basis of accurate focal mechanism computations, display normal-faulting kinematics.
Full Text Available Orientation: The NAMPO Harvest Day is the largest festival of its kind in the southern hemisphere. To sustain the festival’s success, it is important to assess which ‘festivalscape’ f actors influence visitors’ loyalty.Research purpose: What combination of ‘festivalscape’ factors contributes to the loyalty ofvisitors to an agri-festival in South Africa?Motivation for the research: Agri-tourism is a relatively new concept and limited research has been done; thus this research makes a contribution to the current literature base on thetopic.Research approach and method: A probability sampling method was used during NAMPO Harvest Day 2014 to distribute 422 questionnaires by means of stratified sample. Factor analysis was performed to identify the ‘festivalscape’ factors that influence loyalty, after which structural equation modelling was applied to identify the relationships between thefactors and loyalty.Main findings: Nine loyalty factors were identified. The analysis revealed a direct positive relationship between loyalty and lifestyle, escape and socialisation as well as loyalty and agricultural exposure and education.Practical implications and contribution: This research gives valuable insights into the ‘festivalscape’ factors that influence loyalty to an agri-festival in South Africa. Loyalty amongst visitors can be created through the management of a variety of factors. The findings from this research can be used by similar agri-festivals in the country to create loyalty amongst visitors as well as to give exposure to the agri-sector.
Prima Dania Wike Agustin
Full Text Available Maintaining collaboration among the entire stages in the agri-food supply chain to achieve sustainability is complex. All the stakeholders involved in the activities have to prioritize their financial benefits without putting aside social development and environmental responsibilities. Some scholars have paid attention to this topic. The objective of this paper is to review current research on sustainable supply chain and collaboration model in agri-food industry. Sustainability aspects that consist of economic, environment, and social and the model of sustainable supply chain in agri-food industry are analyzed. Moreover, collaboration in sustainable agri-food supply chain management is also studied thoroughly from vertical and horizontal perspectives. The result shows that there are few studies focusing on the integrated collaboration to achieve sustainable supply chain system. Additionally, not all sustainable aspects are covered thoroughly. The scholars pays more attention to economic and environmental aspects than social aspects. Furthermore, some studies only focus on one type of collaboration in sustainable agri-food supply chain. Often, these studies do not even consider all elements in the triple bottom line.
Du, Zhou; Zhou, Xin; Ling, Yi; Zhang, Zhenhai; Su, Zhen
Gene Ontology (GO), the de facto standard in gene functionality description, is used widely in functional annotation and enrichment analysis. Here, we introduce agriGO, an integrated web-based GO analysis toolkit for the agricultural community, using the advantages of our previous GO enrichment tool (EasyGO), to meet analysis demands from new technologies and research objectives. EasyGO is valuable for its proficiency, and has proved useful in uncovering biological knowledge in massive data sets from high-throughput experiments. For agriGO, the system architecture and website interface were redesigned to improve performance and accessibility. The supported organisms and gene identifiers were substantially expanded (including 38 agricultural species composed of 274 data types). The requirement on user input is more flexible, in that user-defined reference and annotation are accepted. Moreover, a new analysis approach using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis strategy and customizable features is provided. Four tools, SEA (Singular enrichment analysis), PAGE (Parametric Analysis of Gene set Enrichment), BLAST4ID (Transfer IDs by BLAST) and SEACOMPARE (Cross comparison of SEA), are integrated as a toolkit to meet different demands. We also provide a cross-comparison service so that different data sets can be compared and explored in a visualized way. Lastly, agriGO functions as a GO data repository with search and download functions; agriGO is publicly accessible at http://bioinfo.cau.edu.cn/agriGO/.
Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and…
Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and emerging…
Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, C.N.; Verloop, C.M.; Beulens, A.J.M.
Agri-food enterprises operate in a complex and dynamic environment. To meet increasing demands of consumers, government and business partners, enterprises continuously have to work on innovations of products, processes and ways of cooperation in agri-food supply chain networks (AFSCN). Hence, a deve
Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.
Full Text Available By means of quantitative and qualitative research the doctoral dissertation has attained methodical insights into competences and usage levels of new technologies for marketing purposes in agri-businesses in the Republic of Croatia. The results and observations provided in the thesis indicate that swift action is required in order to improve the current situation and prepare farmers for forthcoming changes. In biotechnical sciences there is a need for continuous updating, research and control of interdependent processes and complex relations, which in turn creates a need for a unified system of knowledge dissemination. In order to manage a set of information arising from such processes, it is necessary to have a system that will allow us to store and transfer the acquired knowledge in a safe and simple way in real time, ensuring completeness of information. In today’s world, the key role in this process is to be played by information and communication technologies (ICT encompassing the use of computers and communication technologies, as well as technologies for information management and transfer. Together with other ICT, the Internet is a resource that can bridge the gap between professionals of different expertise on one hand and people living in rural areas and farmers on the other, as it provides a platform for interaction and dialogue. Furthermore, ICT can foster new cooperation and networking through inter-sectoral contacts between government institutions, different support agencies and farmers. The efforts to implement ICT in the agricultural sector are held back by a range of limiting factors, such as: the necessity to reconstruct the sector itself, required investments in new communication systems and adjunct platforms, low levels of computer literacy among farmers, insufficient infrastructure, etc. Taking all this into account, it is obvious that the Internet and modern technologies can be drivers of positive change in agriculture
Full Text Available This study used a synthetic evaluation method to assess agri-environmental externalities at the regional level in Finland. The article developed a relative measure that made it possible to rank the 15 regions studied for seven agri-environmental indicators, which were based on the preferences of the evaluators. The results indicated significant differences in the provision of public goods between the regions. The provision of public goods tended to increase over the 10-year study period. The results were robust with respect to changes in preferences.
Kleijn, D.; Berendse, F.; Smit, R.; Gilissen, N.
Roughly 20␘f the European Union's farmland is under some form of agri-environment scheme to counteract the negative impacts of modern agriculture on the environment. The associated costs represent about 4ø1.7 billion euros) of the European Union's total expenditure on the Common Agricultural Policy
Woodhill, A.J.; Guijt, W.J.; Wegner, L.; Blomne Sopov, M.
Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a
Miralles, Isabel; Dentoni, Domenico; Pascucci, Stefano
Despite the proliferation of sharing economy initiatives in agri-food systems, the recent literature has still not unravelled what sharing exactly entails from an organizational standpoint. In light of this knowledge gap, this study aims to understand which resources are shared, and how, in a het
Het doel van dit proefschrift is om inzicht te verkrijgen in het optimale gebruik van deskundigen binnen het agri-food domein voor bestuur en beleidsvorming. Na een systematische review van relevante gepubliceerde literatuur, werd vastgesteld dat de Delphi methode geschikt bleek voor het verkrijgen
Dijk, van W.F.A.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Berendse, F.; Snoo, de G.R.
The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers’ motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more ecolog
Lockie, Stewart; Higgins, Vaughan
In the last 15 years, agri-environmental programmes in Australia have been underpinned by a neoliberal regime of governing which seeks to foster participation and "bottom-up" change at the regional level at the same time as encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurial and improve their productivity and environmental performance without government…
Tuzon Troy P.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the acceptability of the residents of Barangay Casile, Cabuyao, Laguna, Philippines in transforming their locality into an eco-agri tourism site. A total of 241 residents participated in the data collection using a survey questionnaire and interviews. Barangay Casile is an agricultural area and is also noted for its natural heritage such as the Matang Tubig River and Falls and the Marcos Twin Tower. Because of this, the local government unit of Cabuyao City plans to develop the area as a nature- based tourism destination specifically as an eco-agri tourism site. The survey revealed that the respondents agreed on the proposition of transforming their area into agri-tourism site. Cultural acceptability ranks the highest which means that the locals are open on the possible effects on their culture that the development could bring them. Economic and social acceptability were also ranked high because of the income they could get from the influx of tourists. Environmental acceptability is the least agreeable because most of the respondents were environment sensitive and are concerned with the changes to the natural façade of their area. It can be concluded that agri-tourism development involving local residents provides control over the development and management of the project.
Poppe, Krijn J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, Cor; Verwaart, Tim
Agri-food chains will be changed in the coming years by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Technological trends and economic analysis suggest that ICT will be a major driver for innovation. Satellites and sensors make precision agriculture possible. More and more data are being generate
Andrés Felipe Ruiz Moreno
Full Text Available Supply Chain Integration (SCI has been broadly taken into account due to its strategic importance; however, there are a few agri food supply chain studies. The purpose of this paper is to review the SCI focused on the external integration mechanisms impact on agri food supply chain performance. The results shows that external integration mechanisms most used have been information sharing and joint decision making, while efficiency has been frequently used as a performance indicators. The review identifies the need to assess several external integration mechanisms simultaneously on Supply Chain performance emphasizes on the importance to research in joint decision making mechanism, such as Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI and Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR. For performance measurement, it is needed to include at least one indicator for each category (Efficiency, Flexibility, Responsiveness and Food Quality of the Agri Food Supply Chain performance framework described, whereas for measuring Agri Food logistics performance is required further research on modes (process management and means (resources logistics.
Goetz, S.J.; Brouwer, F.M.
Significant advances have occurred in recent years in Europe and in North America in addressing agri-environmental policies. Land use issues tend to be more pressing in Europe than in the US as a whole because of different spatial exigencies. Because these advances have taken place within individual
Knop, E.; Kleijn, D.; Herzog, F.; Schmid, B.
1. Increasing concern over the loss of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes was one of the reasons for the introduction of agri-environment schemes in Europe. These schemes compensate farmers financially for any loss of income associated with measures aimed to benefit biodiversity. Nevertheless,
Perrot, N.; Vries, de Hugo; Lutton, Evelyne; Mil, van H.G.J.; Donner, Mechthild; Tonda, Alberto; Martin, Sophie; Alvarez, Isabel; Bourgine, Paul; Linden, van der E.; Axelos, M.A.V.
Background: Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry in Europe and potentially a major contributor to the global warming. Sustainability issues in this context pose a huge challenge for several reasons: the variety of considered scales, the number of disciplines involved, the u
Kleijn, D.; Sutherland, W.J.
1. Increasing concern over the environmental impact of agriculture in Europe has led to the introduction of agri-environment schemes. These schemes compensate farmers financially for any loss of income associated with measures that aim to benefit the environment or biodiversity. There are currently
This document is the result of the "DireDate project"'s tasks 4 and 5. The DireDate project focused on analysing the direct and indirect data needs linked to the farms, with the objective of setting up an efficient and sustainable data collection for agri-environmental indicators and policy reportin
Lans, Thomas; Wesselink, Renate; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin
This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepreneurial competencies will become of increasing…
Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Verwaart, T.
In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural
In this study we describe the optimal designation of agri-environmental policy as a bilevel optimization problem and propose an integrated solution method using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The problem is characterized by a single leader, the agency, that establishes a policy with the goal of optimiz...
Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer
This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.
Unay Gailhard, Ilkay; Bavorová, Miroslava; Pirscher, Frauke
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of interpersonal communication on the adoption of agri-environmental measures (AEM) by organic farmers in Germany. Methodology: The study used the logit model to predict the probability of adoption behaviour, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) was conducted to analyse the question of…
Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Haverkamp, D.J.
This paper presents the results of a survey that included 492 companies in the Dutch agri-food sector with respect to the influence of stakeholder groups on the companies' level of environmental management system (EMS) implementation. It is concluded that primary stakeholders (government, clients) a
Lans, T.; Wesselink, R.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.
This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepren
Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wolfert, J.
Agri-food companies increasingly participate in demand-driven supply chains that are able to adapt flexibly to changes in the marketplace. The objective of this presentation is to discuss a process modelling framework, which enhances the interoperability and agility of information systems as require
Hansen, Henning Otte
Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - when changes in one price cause another price downstream to change - is an important issue for farmers, markets and the economy as an efficient market price setting is crucial for all market players. However, there are numerous examples of price t...
Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Omta, S.W.F.
This explorative study of network orchestration processes conducted by innovation brokers addresses new issues in bridging small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and research institutes in innovation networks. The study includes four in-depth case studies in the agri-food sector from different co
Lockie, Stewart; Higgins, Vaughan
In the last 15 years, agri-environmental programmes in Australia have been underpinned by a neoliberal regime of governing which seeks to foster participation and "bottom-up" change at the regional level at the same time as encouraging farmers to become entrepreneurial and improve their productivity and environmental performance without…
Full Text Available AGRIS is the International System for Agricultural Science and Technology. It is supported by a large community of data providers, partners and users. AGRIS is a database that aggregates bibliographic data, and through this core data, related content across online information systems is retrieved by taking advantage of Semantic Web capabilities. AGRIS is a global public good and its vision is to be a responsive service to its user needs by facilitating contributions and feedback regarding the AGRIS core knowledgebase, AGRIS’s future and its continuous development. Periodic AGRIS e-consultations, partner meetings and user feedback are assimilated to the development of the AGRIS application and content coverage. This paper outlines the current AGRIS technical set-up, its network of partners, data providers and users as well as how AGRIS’s responsiveness to clients’ needs inspires the continuous technical development of the application. The paper concludes by providing a use case of how the AGRIS stakeholder input and the subsequent AGRIS e-consultation results influence the development of the AGRIS application, knowledgebase and service delivery.
Using a panel data set for about 70 countries, this paper jointly analyzes agri-investment trends and food security developments in vulnerable countries. This work empirically connects two mainly independent debates about impacts of agri-investments on food security and on the proposed responsible investment policy frameworks and its contribution to achieve food security. The results indicate the special relevance of private investments, domestic or foreign. The domestic situation in target c...
The March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear plant accident have had immense impacts on Japanese agri-food sector. Previous analysis has demonstrated that some of the impacts that triple disaster are difficult to identify and assess due to the insufficient information, controversial data, continuing challenges and uncertainties, etc. In order to expend the assessments we have organized two expert assessments in order to identify the 2011 disasters’ short and longer terms impacts on agri...
While global capital uses various mechanisms to control and govern the agri-food system, counter-movements have been rising with self-protecting measures against the intrusion of the market system and development. Ashok Kumbamu critically examines this ‘double movement’ in the agri-food sector at a time of convergence of three global crises of food, energy, and climate. He looks at the organizational strategies and alternative development initiatives of the Deccan Development Society in south...
Vesterager, Jens Peter; Teilmann, Kasper; Vejre, Henrik
, and indicators of the environmental state at farm level. In a Danish test case, agricultural practices at twenty-five farms in two groundwater protection zones were assessed. Data was collected from databases, registers, maps and interviews with farmers. The index was calculated for 1996/7 and 2006/7 to track....... It is important to consider the robustness of each indicator: to assess whether changes will occur over time; whether changes are linked to management practices or external factors; and whether data are available up to date. Indicators dependent upon uptake data from agri-environmental schemes should be used......The lack of generic methods to assess the environmental consequences of agricultural practices and the lack of consensus on monitoring and evaluation of environmental, agricultural and socio-economic effects of agri-environment schemes (AES) in EU Member States call for better evaluation methods...
Zembo, Irene; Vignola, Pietro; Andò, Sergio; Bersezio, Riccardo; Vezzoli, Luigina
In the south-eastern depocentre of the Val d'Agri basin (Southern Apennines), a volcanic ash layer crops out interbedded within poorly structured alluvial fan deposits of Late Pleistocene age. Textural, depositional and pedological features of this weathered layer suggest a primary deposition from a pyroclastic fall-out of volcanic ash. Chemical analyses of feldspars show an alkali trachytic composition and accessory minerals association allow to correlate this tephra layer with the regionally dispersed Y-7 marine tephra layer (Tufo Verde Epomeo eruption, Ischia volcano), dated at 56 ± 4 ka. The Val d'Agri tephra here described for the first time was deposited during MIS Stage 3. Its recovery and characterization permit to contribute to regional correlation of the Mediterranean climatic and volcanic events from marine to continental successions and to describe landscape evolution of the Southern Apennines during glacial-interglacial cycles.
Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, P.; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard;
Over the past 30 years, Agri-Environmental Policies (AEP) in the EU have developed with relative national autonomy and according to the subsidiarity principle. The environmental directives represent an increase in EU-level environmental ambitions and challenge the current implementation of EU AEP...... environmental directive objectives nationally in the future. In this paper, we first investigate the dynamics in the implementation of national Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) through changes in (i) AES policy objectives over time, (ii) administrative implementation structures, and (iii) administrative policy...... by creating an increasingly demanding set of regulations with which each member state must comply. National AEP implementation may, however, maintain original characteristics and fail to adopt or transform as EU policy implementation proceeds or when EU policies develop. This creates a potential gap between...
Full Text Available The Italian agri-food sector has traditionally been one of the strongest in the national socio-economic system. In the last ten years, commercial exchange trends have shown growing openness towards foreign countries and in particular to European Union (EU countries. Both the primary sector and food industry are strongly influenced by their territorial location so much so that several authors have highlighted territorial specialisation and its effects on that territory’s features also considering the contribution of the Italian Regions. The following work will analyse the patterns of agri-food specialisation in the Italian Regions. In particular, the Lafay Index will be used to evaluate competitive advantage at a Regional level.
Ó hUallacháin D.
Full Text Available Semi-natural grassland habitats have declined significantly throughout Europe. To halt the decline, grassland conservation measures have been included in most European agri-environment schemes. This is the first study to compare the botanical composition of grassland habitats managed under the Irish Agri-Environment Options Scheme (AEOS. Sixty fields on drystock pastoral farms in receipt of agri-environment payments for grassland conservation were surveyed, with 20 fields being enrolled in each of the following AEOS options: Traditional Hay Meadow (THM, Species-Rich Grassland (SRG and Natura 2000 species-rich grassland (Natura. The vegetation quality of sites enrolled in the Natura measure was higher than the quality of those enrolled in the THM and SRG measures. Natura sites had the greatest species richness, with a mean >40 species per site, which included approximately 17 species indicative of high botanical quality. Traditional Hay Meadows sites had the lowest species richness (mean: 29 species per site and were dominated by species associated with improved grassland. Some THM sites had good levels of botanical richness and were similar in composition to Natura sites, with some Natura sites having lower vegetation quality, more similar to that of THM sites. Species-Rich Grassland had botanical richness that was intermediate between THM and Natura sites. A thorough assessment of the effectiveness of these measures was confounded by a lack of quantitative objectives for the target community composition to be attained. We discuss limitations and potential opportunities regarding the design, targeting, implementation and cost-effectiveness of these agri-environment measures.
Ross, Brent; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Ross, Kara L.
Sustainability initiatives are frequently imposed on upstream supply chain members by their more powerful downstream partners. This paper assesses the challenges of estimating costs and benefits for participants and the difficulties associated with identifying their locations and effects in the supply chain. The paper argues that the success and endurance of agri-food supply chains that purport to pursue sustainability objectives depend critically on the distribution of the associated costs a...
Full Text Available The supply chain of agricultural products has received a great deal of attention lately due to issues related to public health. Something that has become apparent is that in the near future the design and operation of agricultural supply chains will be subject to more stringent regulations and closer monitoring, in particular those for products destined for human consumption (agri-foods. This work is concerned with the planning of a real agri-food supply chain for chicken meat for the city of Tlemcen in Algria. The agri-food supply chain network design is a critical planning problem for reducing the cost of the chain. More precisely the problem is to redesign the existing supply chain and to optimize the distribution planning. As mentioned in our paper, the entire problem is decomposed into two problems, and each problem is solved in sequential manner, to get the final solution. LINGO optimization solver (12.0 has been used to get the solution to the problem.
Full Text Available The paper tackles international information system for agriculture Agris and local processing of metadata with database management software WebAgris. Operations are coordinated by the central repository at the FAO in Rome. Based on international standards and unified methodology, national and regional centers collect and process local publications, and then send the records to the central unit, which enables global website accessibility of the data. Earlier DOS-run application was based on package Agrin CDS/ISIS. The Current package WebAgris runs on web servers. Database construction tools and instructions are accessible on FAO Web pages. Data are entered through unified input masks. International consistency is achieved through authority control of certain elements, such as author or corporate affiliation. Central authority control is made available for subject headings, such as descriptors and subject categories.Subject indexing is based on controlled multilingual thesaurus Agrovoc, also available freely on the Internet. This glossary has become an important tool in the area of the international agricultural ontology. The data are exported to the central unit in XML format. Global database is currently eccessible to everyone. This international cooperative information network combines elements of a document repository,electronic publishing, open archiving and full text open access. Links with Google Scholar provide a good possibility for international promotion of publishing.
Angelina Sanderson Bellamy
Full Text Available Today’s society faces many challenges when it comes to food production: producing food sustainably, producing enough of it, distributing food, consuming enough calories, consuming too many calories, consuming culturally-appropriate foods, and reducing the amount of food wasted. The distribution of power within the current mainstream agri-food system is dominated by multinational agri-businesses that control the flow of goods and wealth through the system. This hegemony has implemented a regime whose structures reinforce its control. A growing response to the current agri-food regime is the rise of agroecology, in both developed and developing country contexts. This is not a new phenomenon, but it has evolved over time from its Latin American origins. However, agroecology is not a monolithic block and represents many different perceptions of what it means to advance agroecology and ways in which it can help today’s society tackle the crisis of the agri-food system. This paper addresses these sometimes discordant view points, as well as the gaps in our knowledge regarding agroecology in an effort to lay out some guiding principles for how we can move forward in transforming the current agri-food system to achieve sustainability and a more equitable distribution of power and resources.
Brewster, C.A.; Wolfert, J.; Sundmaeker, H.
This paper discusses the specific challenges of the agri-food sector in the light of research carried out in the SmartAgriFood project. Using questionnaires and focus groups, our research identifies a number of business needs and drivers which enable the identification of suitable Future Internet te
Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan
his paper presents a model explaining industrywide information systems (IS) integration in the agri-industry.Using a theoretical frame of value confi guration analysis and IS integration extent we study 15 organizations. We find that product sensitivity, continuous production, value chain captains......, and value creation logic explain the industry-wide IS integration. Incompatible value creation logic among stakeholders and the lack of presence of “value chain captains” – powerful actors dominating the entire industry - has and negative impact on industry-wide integration. On the other hand, product...... sensitivity and continuous production process led to higher levels of integration....
Schumacher, Kim Philip
Full Text Available This article reviews the research literature on gender relations in global agri-food value chains. The main focus is on the production side in countries of the Global South, with most examples from sub-Saharan Africa. After a short presentation of the underlying concepts and a review of the existing research literature, an outline is given of the major insights the analysis of gender issues in global value chains has offered. What is striking is the heterogeneity of the findings and proposed actions, as well as the scarcity of conceptual approaches that would integrate gender analyses further into the concept of global value chains.
Raquele Mendes de Lira Dantas
As reservas hídricas subterrâneas na Região Semiárida apresentam-se em grande parte com altas concentrações de sais. No entanto, a escassez deste recurso obriga a utilização deste tipo de água para diversas atividades humanas, inclusive a agricultura, tornando necessário o estudo de técnicas que viabilizem o uso dessas águas. Assim sendo, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o emprego de águas subterrâneas salobras no crescimento, rendimento e aspectos nutricionais das oleirícolas agrião ...
Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A.;
Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation...... and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri...
Henson, Spencer; Humphrey, John
The increasing prevalence of private standards governing food safety, food quality and environmental and social impacts of agri-food systems has raised concerns about the effects on developing countries, as well as the governance of agri-food value chains more broadly. It is argued that current debates have been 'clouded' by a failure to recognise the diversity of private standards in terms of their institutional form, who develops and adopts these standards and why. In particular, there is a need to appreciate the close inter-relationships between public regulations and private standards and the continuing ways in which private standards evolve.
Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.
García-Allende, P. Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Mirapeix, Jesus; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.
Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring. This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly, the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to determine whether producers of traditional agri - food products in Croatia are familiar with geographical indications and to examine their expectations about the impact of geographical indications on the competitiveness of their products. A telephone survey was conducted with 120 producers of four traditional agri - food product (Pag Cheese, meat of Zagorje Turkey, Slavonian kulen sausage and Virovitica Pepper. At the time of the research from April to June 2008 all four products were in the PDO/PGO registration procedure. Data collected by the survey were analyzed by use of the SPSS v.17.0 software. The results show that only a small numbers of respondents are fully familiar with geographical indications and their benefits. Majority of respondents have positive expectations about geographical indications; most of them expected that protection will increase consumer confidence in safety of their product, will increase familiarity with the protected product and reduce abuse of the product. Most positive expectations have been noted by highly educated producers as well as the younger ones. The results of this study show/indicate there is a need to better inform and educate producers about the benefits and advantages of protecting geographical indications. This protection schemes could improve market and tourist offer and hence income of farmers - producers of protected products, all of which contribute to the economic development of Croatian rural areas.
Full Text Available Over the years there has been a remarkable development in agricultural and environmental sciences and the public is growing increasingly concerned about the relations between agriculture and the environment, and about the sustainability of agricultural production systems in many parts of the world. Policy makers and the general public have asked the scientific community to make more information available, and a great wealth of research studies have been conducted and published in recent years. Many studies include in-depth analyses of agricultural systems based on simulation models for various purposes: understanding the mechanisms involved, comparing alternative scenarios and supporting and evaluating policy measures. Indicators are also frequently used to provide concise quantitative figures of various aspects (economic or productive performances, environmental impacts, etc. and to communicate them to a broad audience. This paper offers a survey of the recent literature dealing with agri-environmental issues and, in particular, of those references presenting the use of models and indicators for the assessment of agricultural systems and their effects on environmental compartments (water, soil, air, from multiple disciplinary perspectives, and at various scales. The references examined for this paper have been classified in order to group the papers according to various criteria, thus facilitating the identification of relevant references, and to compare their contents. The methodological approaches are analysed and compared in order to highlight the contributions of the scientific literature to the assessment of agro-ecosystems and agri-environmental policies.
LENG Zhi-jie; TANG Huan-wen
Aiming at the pricing of primary agricultural products for the large-scale suppliers and the wholesalers in agri-supply chain management, an approach for the large-scale supplier pricing is presented based on the threshold cointegration method of wholesale prices online including the GBand-TAR modified Band-TAR model. Our empirical work shows that it is more appropriate for a large-scale supplier pricing with his wholesalers based on the threshold cointegration method than the conventional linear cointegratiun method in spatially separate markets in an agri-supply chain of soybean in China in short time. Firstly, the three pairs of prices in spatially separate markets are of long-run equilibrium and threshold cointcgration. The forecast lest shows that the thresh-old cointegration approach is superior to the conventional linear cointegration approach in short time. Secondly, there are two thresholds of GBand-TAR in which the threshuht parameters represent relative transaction costs. Larger thresholds or wider neutral band corresponds to the greater distance between markets. Thirdly, the esti-mation of M-TAR shows that the large-scale supplier is more sensitive to incrcase of wholesaler prices than de-crease of wholesaler prices. The supplier can price on the forecast of market price by the threshold ECM inclu-ding the GBand-TAR if the equilibrium error of threshold lag is not in the interval of thresholds in which there is not profitable trading opportunities for the supplier.
Schader, Christian; Lampkin, Nicholas; Muller, Adrian; Stolze, Matthias
The Tinbergen Rule has been used to criticise multi-target policy instruments for being inefficient. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of multi-target policy instruments using the case of agri-environmental policy. Employing an analytical linear optimisation model, this paper demonstrates that there is no general contradiction between multi-target policy instruments and the Tinbergen Rule, if multi-target policy instruments are embedded in a policy-mix with a sufficient number of targeted instruments. We show that the relation between cost-effectiveness of the instruments, related to all policy targets, is the key determinant for an economically sound choice of policy instruments. If economies of scope with respect to achieving policy targets are realised, a higher cost-effectiveness of multi-target policy instruments can be achieved. Using the example of organic farming support policy, we discuss several reasons why economies of scope could be realised by multi-target agri-environmental policy instruments.
Canada's agriculture and food processing sector accounts for 15 per cent of Canadian energy consumption, of which 4 per cent is consumed on farms and 5 per cent is consumed for food and beverage processing. The rest is assigned to transportation. Energy efficiency research projects within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are being conducted across Canada in support of Natural Resources Canada's Program for Energy Research and Development (PERD). The research focuses on on-farm energy use or food processing to increase energy use efficiency and to ultimately help businesses in the agri-food sector achieve lower costs and higher returns. Other objectives are to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as other environmental emissions that have an impact on air and water quality. This document presents information about some of the projects and demonstrates the diversity of initiatives being undertaken. They include: improving produce while saving energy; reducing over-all energy inputs with manure; improved cooling of fresh blueberries; energy efficient drying of cranberries; liquid dairy manure and soil micro-organisms; saving energy on the farm with manure management; improved processing of ready-to-eat lettuce; removing surface moisture from blueberries; minimizing energy use during commercial banking; new biotechnology for energy recovery; decreasing energy use in processed meat cooking; energy efficient canola processing and utilization; reducing post-harvest losses of spinach; and, increasing production while decreasing consumption. 13 figs.
Marc C. A. Wegerif
Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four million residents of the fast growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has traced the sources of some important foods from urban eaters back through retailers, processors and transporters to the primary producers. Particular attention is given to the functioning of the market places and how new actors enter into the food system. These reveal that more important to the system than competition are various forms of collaboration. Of particular interest is how a wide range of small-scale and interdependent actors produce the food and get it to urban eaters at a city feeding scale without large vertically- or horizontally-integrated corporate structures. This “symbiotic food system” is an existing alternative to the corporate-dominated agri-business food system; it can and does deliver at scale and in a way that better responds to the needs of people in poverty who are buying food and the interests of food producers. It is not perfect in Dar es Salaam, but the food system is working and is a model that should be built on.
Full Text Available In the modern market economy, agri-food chains were imposed and strengthened due to unprecedented evolving recorded by supply and demand of food in recent decades, dynamic driven by market fragmentation, on the one hand, and specific processes of consumption and consumer emancipation, on the other hand. The objective of the paper aims to bring to the fore the best practices for support the Romanian small farmers to facilitate their access to the market, which is often dominated by large distribution networks. Reality has shown that financial support is not enough, even if farmers use modern and efficient technological systems, and that it is a need for an efficient integration of small producers in the agri-food sector. To highlight the best practices that can be used by Romanian small farmers were used information derived from: literature study on problems regarding the food sector; analysis of studies conducted by the consulting companies specialised in this field; analysing the consequences of recent legislation concerning the marketing of food products, namely its implementation in our country, especially in terms of small agricultural producers and their access to the Romanian market.
Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.
LUKAS YOWEL SONBAIT
Full Text Available This Ipteks’ activities for society (IbM have purpose to identify the real problem faced by farmers groupAgriMakmur and farmers group Acep in beef cattle cultivation. Methods offered to societies to solve conflictsbetween groups and improve management in each farmer group. Each group was given record-training about howto manage good business and sustainable finance management therefore standard of group management can beimproved. This method is expected to increase trust from members to team leaders from each group. Moreover,societies was offered some simple training about how to do daily standardised form/ standardized report withconsidering the education level of members so groups’ management qualit. This was hoped to make better andcreate good communication among members’ group. It was also to increase group performance and develop cattleof livestock population and the last one improve group farmer’s walfare. The result shows that both AgriMakmurand Acap farmers’ group have improved knowledge (Cognitive, skill (Psycho-motoric and Attitude ( Affective in Cultivation management especially in managed skill of beef cattle, daily note/recording, business analysis andavoiding of conflicts among members and group.Keywords: group management, training, beef cattle
Schlaich, Almut E.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem; Both, Christiaan; Koks, Ben J.
Farmland birds are in steep decline and agri-environment schemes (AES) to counteract these biodiversity losses are expensive and inefficient. Here we test a novel AES, Birdfields', designed using detailed ecological knowledge of the target species, Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus. Current AES, suc
Full Text Available In this work, different proposal are reviewed that have been moved for geographical delineation and boundaries definition of the National Park "Val d'Agri and Lagonegrese" in Basilicata (Italy and a working methodology is proposed for a better definition of the park boundaries, taking into consideration oil extraction activities carried out in the area.
Albrecht, M.; Duelli, P.; Müller, C.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.
1. Agri-environment schemes attempt to counteract the loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control in agro-ecosystems. However, only a few studies have evaluated whether these attempts are successful. 2. We studied the effects of managing meadow
Borrello, Massimiliano; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Cembalo, Luigi
Background: Closed-loop agri-food supply chains have a high potential to reduce environmental and economic costs resulting from food waste disposal. This paper illustrates an alternative to the traditional supply chain of bread based on the principles of a circular economy. Methods: Six circular
Full Text Available Accession to the European Union as well as the ongoing process of liberalization of global agricultural trade changed the conditions for agri-food trade between Poland and NAFTA countries. The study is an attempt to defi ne the signifi cance of NAFTA countries in the Polish agri-food trade, to assess the competitive position of selected Polish agri-food products on this market in years 2004–2012 and to predict its level for the year 2020, assuming two simulation scenarios: the lack of liberalization (I and liberalization of world agricultural trade (II. A deliberately selected set of ex post indicators of competitive position as well as agricultural sector equilibrium model CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regionalised Impact were used in the paper. The analysis showed that among non-EU countries this trade bloc is one of the most important trade partners for Poland. On this foreign market mainly Polish animal products and fruits and vegetables were competitive. The results of model simulations conducted for different groups of agri-food products showed that by 2020 a favourable competitive position on the NAFTA market might be expected in meat and meat products as well as in milk and dairy products.
Jones, Nádia; Duarte, Filomena; Rodrigo, Isabel; Doorn, van Anne; Graaff, de Jan
Since 1992 agri-environmental issues have gained attention by reforms of the CAP. For instance by supporting environmentally friendly land use, such as permanent pastures in less-favoured areas (LFA) that are only marginally suitable for alternative farming practices. In the last two decades a si
Materia, Valentina C.; Pascucci, Stefano; Dries, Liesbeth
We analyse European agri-food firms’ choices about innovation in-house or through outsourcing and provide empirical evidence about the correlation between these strategies. The relationship between the innovation strategy and firm-, industry- and innovation-specific characteristics is analysed throu
Amenta, V.; Aschberger, K.; Arena, M.; Bouwmeester, H.; Botelho Moniz, F.; Brandhoff, P.; Gottardo, S.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Mech, A.; Quiros Pesudo, L.; Rauscher, H.; Schoonjans, R.; Vettori, M.V.; Weigel, S.; Peters, R.J.B.
Nanotechnology has the potential to innovate the agricultural, feed and food sectors (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). Applications that are marketed already include nano-encapsulated agrochemicals or nutrients, antimicrobial nanoparticles and active and intelligent food packaging. Many n
Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.
Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…
Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.
Assessing potential uptake of agri-environmental schemes based on farm and farmer characteristics only results in an incomplete analysis because it neglects the effects of motivational issues of the institutional design of contracts, as set up by the government, and of social capital. In this paper
Canavari, M.; Fritz, M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Matopoulos, A.; Vlachopoulou, M.
E-business adoption rates in the agri-food sector are rather low, despite the fact that technical barriers have been mostly overcome during the last years and a large number of sophisticated offers are available. However, concerns about trust seem to impede the development of electronic relationship
Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formu
Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard
Over the past 30 years, Agri-Environmental Policies (AEP) in the EU have developed with relative nationalautonomy and according to the subsidiarity principle. The environmental directives represent an increasein EU-level environmental ambitions and challenge the current implementation of EU AEP b...
Full Text Available The agri-food components of the Made in Italy are well known all over the world, therefore they may significantly contribute to the Italian economy. However, also owing to a large number of cases of improper labelling, the Italian agro-food industry faces an ever-increasing competition. For this reason, there is a decline of consumers’ confidence towards food production systems and safety controls. To prevent erroneous classification of products and to protect consumers from false instore information, it is important to develop and validate techniques that are able to detect mislabelling at any stage of the food-chain. This paper describes some examples of genetic traceability of primary products in some important plant food chains such as durum wheat, olive and tomato, based on DNA analysis both of raw material and of processed food (pasta, olive oil, and peeled tomato.
In this paper, the Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) of the European Union are evaluated on the basis of county-level data for the German Federal States Thuringia and Bavaria. The purpose is to disentangle the effects of AES on farming practice from their effects on biodiversity. One of the major...... arguments in favour of AES subsidies is that they will promote environmentally-friendly land use, which in turn will lead to biodiversity conservation. However, the results of this paper reveal that production-oriented AES only focused on organic land use, irrespective of biodiversity levels. Nature......-conservation oriented AES are also allocated more towards organic farming practice; however, the intensity of the organic farming method is not considered. No evidence could be found that any of the considered AES incentivized a change in the agricultural sector....
Cozzens, Susan, E-mail: email@example.com [Georgia Institute of Technology, Technology Policy and Assessment Center, School of Public Policy (United States); Cortes, Rodrigo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidad de Talca (Chile); Soumonni, Ogundiran, E-mail: email@example.com [University of Witwatersrand, Wits Business School (South Africa); Woodson, Thomas, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Georgia Institute of Technology, Technology Policy and Assessment Center, School of Public Policy (United States)
The claim has often been made that nanotechnologies will contribute to the global development process. In 2005, a careful study identified specific areas where nanotechnologies could help developing countries achieve the millennium development goals. This article examines whether the research agenda of nanotechnology in the intervening period, as reflected in publications, has followed the directions identified at that time, in three key areas, water, energy, and agri-food. We find that the research community has taken up the broad directions indicated in the earlier study, although not so often the detailed applications of specific nanoscale techniques or phenomena. However, the impact on global development is unclear, both because the same applications can be useful in both developed and developing countries, and because the conditions in developing countries may not match the socio-technical requirements of the applications.
Severe situation faced by China’s agri-ecological security is elaborated.It is believed that cultivation of farmers’ citizenship is the key to solving this problem,because it is favorable to consolidating farmers’ independent and equal ideas,enhancing farmers’ cooperative community idea,cultivating farmers’ concept of rule by law,and strengthening farmers’ fair and just moral concept.It is expected to make farmers fully exercise their civil rights and consciously perform their civil responsibilities.Finally,practical paths for cultivation of farmers’ citizenship are put forward.These include improving market economy to promote equality of subjects,carrying out democratic practice to stimulate public participation,prospering cultural education to make clear public liability,propagating law in villages to carry forward spirit of rule by law,and making definite government responsibility to encourage social supervision.
Full Text Available The comparative analysis of trade with agricultural and food products of ten EU new member states (NMS, with emphasis on Slovenia, has been conducted at a highly disaggregated level. Slovenia has always been the net importer of agricultural and food products, and the same goes for the majority of ten NMS in the period analysed. For the purpose of assessing the similarities in their export structure, the export similarity index “S” has been used. By its use no significant overlap of export structures between NMS is revealed, but the slightly increase in resemblance is observed from 1999 to 2003, indicating the simultaneous restructuring of NMS’ agri-food sectors. Another indicator introduced in this comparative analysis is Revealed Comparative Advantage “RCA”, measuring competitiveness through major groups of products. Slovenia has the comparative advantage in comparison with the rest of new member states in following groups of products: meat, dairy products, beverages and others.
Full Text Available Agricultural activities within city boundaries have a long history in both developed and developing countries. In this paper, a broad approach to Urban AgriCulture (UAC is used, one that includes the production of crops in urban and peri-urban areas and ranges in developed countries from allotment gardens over community gardens to semi-entrepreneurial self-harvest farms and fully commercialized agriculture. With an empirical case study on UAC Initiatives in the Bonn/Rhein-Sieg region this work fills a gap since the lack of comprehensive and comparative studies on urban agriculture (UA currently makes it difficult for researchers to identify the benefits of UA activities.
Armando Rucoba Garcia
Full Text Available This study seeks to analyze the benefits, as well as the likely risks of cultivating Jatropha curcas in small production units of rain fed lands in Yucatán. In order to analyze the possible development of local artisanal agri-industry in the context of policies related to biofuels in Mexico, interviews with key informants were made to identify the agricultural potential of Jatropha c. in monoculture and associated crops. Its cultivation and using for biodiesel in the country will be possible as long as it not implies competition with crops for family consumption and it not represents an environmental degradation factor. Production of Jatropha c. on small areas could be a productive choice if public policies are established to promote biodiesel production and its use in national industry.
Wood, Thomas J; Holland, John M; Hughes, William O H; Goulson, Dave
Changes in agricultural practice across Europe and North America have been associated with range contractions and local extinction of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). A number of agri-environment schemes have been implemented to halt and reverse these declines, predominantly revolving around the provision of additional forage plants. Although it has been demonstrated that these schemes can attract substantial numbers of foraging bumblebees, it remains unclear to what extent they actually increase bumblebee populations. We used standardized transect walks and molecular techniques to compare the size of bumblebee populations between Higher Level Stewardship (HLS) farms implementing pollinator-friendly schemes and Entry Level Stewardship (ELS) control farms. Bumblebee abundance on the transect walks was significantly higher on HLS farms than ELS farms. Molecular analysis suggested maximum foraging ranges of 566 m for Bombus hortorum, 714 m for B. lapidarius, 363 m for B. pascuorum and 799 m for B. terrestris. Substantial differences in maximum foraging range were found within bumblebee species between farm types. Accounting for foraging range differences, B. hortorum (47 vs 13 nests/km(2) ) and B. lapidarius (45 vs 22 nests/km(2) ) were found to nest at significantly greater densities on HLS farms than ELS farms. There were no significant differences between farm type for B. terrestris (88 vs 38 nests/km(2) ) and B. pascuorum (32 vs 39 nests/km(2) ). Across all bumblebee species, HLS management had a significantly positive effect on bumblebee nest density. These results show that targeted agri-environment schemes that increase the availability of suitable forage can significantly increase the size of wild bumblebee populations.
Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire
Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system.
Hanilyn A. Hidalgo
Full Text Available The growth of tourism in the Philippines can be largely attributed to nature-based destinations but communities in these areas largely depend on farming and fishing to sustain their day-to-day needs. The need to capacitate the community’s social and human capital in addressing climate change impacts to their livelihood, properties and natural environment is deemed necessary to lessen their vulnerability issues in the management of agriecotourism destinations. The study aimed to 1. characterize and rank hazards that are likely to affect the nature-based tourism communities, 2. describe the nature-based tourism communities’ current sensitivity and exposure to climate stresses; and 3. estimate future vulnerability and risks of nature-based tourism communities. Three agri-ecotourism communities were selected using five criteria such as attraction uniqueness, hazard type, risk level, tourism dependency and market potential. The areas were subjected to tourism vulnerability case assessment focusing on services and energy; human health; food, security, water and agriculture; business and continuity; and biodiversity and culture. Calaguas Island’s top hazards are typhoon, drought and strong wind. Pecuaria Farm’s main hazards are drought, rat infestation and grass fire while Bulusan Lake’s major hazards are heavy rains and ash falls brought by volcanic eruption. Generally, vulnerability is high in the human health, services and energy sectors of tourism. The vulnerability of the three agri-ecotourism sites was intensified by factors that merely characterize the kind of community they have: a high marketing dependency, b poor political will, c low level of awareness and preparedness, d poor farming practices and e lack of tourism-related livelihood options. Destinations with functioning agricultural areas are the most affected sites due to an estimated increase in the temperature and increase in rainfall precipitations. Poverty
Duffy, Geraldine; McCabe, Evonne
Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) comprises many diverse serogroups, but seven serogroups, O157, O26, O103, O145, O111, O21, and O45, have been most commonly linked to severe human infections, though illness has also been reported from a range of other VTEC serogroups. This poses challenges in assessing the risk to humans from the diverse range of VTEC strains that may be recovered from animals, the environment, or food. For routine assessment of risk posed by VTEC recovered from the agri-food chain, the concept of seropathotype can be used to rank the human risk potential from a particular VTEC serogroup on the basis of both serotype (top seven serogroups) and the presence of particular virulence genes (vt in combination with eae, or aaiC plus aggR). But for other VTEC serogroups or virulence gene combinations, it is not currently possible to fully assess the risk posed. VTEC is shed in animal feces and can persist in the farm environment for extended periods ranging from several weeks to many months, posing an ongoing reservoir of contamination for grazing animals, water courses, and fresh produce and for people using farmland for recreational purposes. Appropriate handling and treatment of stored animal waste (slurries and manures) will reduce risk from VTEC in the farm environment. Foods of animal origin such as milk and dairy products and meat may be contaminated with VTEC during production and processing, and the pathogen may survive or grow during processing operations, highlighting the need for well-designed and validated Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point management systems. This article focuses on a veterinary public health approach to managing VTEC, highlighting the various routes in the agri-food chain for transmission of human pathogenic VTEC and general approaches to managing the risk.
Lara-Mayorga, I; Durán-Hinojosa, U; Arana-Cuenca, A; Monroy-Hermosillo, O; Ramírez-Vives, F
In a previous paper, the authors showed that a slight aeration of a methanogenic reactor treating wastewater from the manufacture of polymeric resins could improve its performance, by increasing or allowing the removal of some of its contaminants, including vinyl acetate (VA). This paper reports the isolation under aerobic conditions of a VA-biodegrading axenic culture (strain C1) retrieved from the sludge of a slightly aerated methanogenic reactor at 1 mg L(-1) d(-1) of dissolved oxygen (DO). The axenic culture obtained was phenotypically (morphology, biochemical properties, VA consumption kinetics) and phylogenetically characterized. It formed white colonies with a branched and flat morphology on solid medium. The cell morphology of the isolate was bacillus with round endings and flagellate. The cells could form chains and were stained Gram-negative. The isolate required simple nutritional elements and had a growth rate of 0.024 h(-1). The phylogenetical analysis showed that the aerobic bacterium was identified as Brevibacillus agri, with 99.3% similarity. The VA consumption kinetics in the methanogenic sludge were: volumetric consumption rate (rVA) of 1.74 +/- 0.2 mg L(-1) h(-1), maximum specific consumption rate (qVAmax) of 3.98 mg g(-1) volatile suspended solids (VSS) h(-1) and affinity constant (Ks) of 457.1 mg L(-1). The same parameters in the axenic culture were 1.69 +/- 0.04 mg L(-1) (h-1), 4.09 mg g(-1) dry weight h(-1) and 421.9 mg L(-1), respectively. These results show evidence that the aerobic isolated bacterium, identified as Brevibacillus agri, carried out the VA hydrolysis in the slightly aerated methanogenic sludge, which is the limiting step in the degradation of this compound.
Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Wilhelm, Barbara; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana
Knowledge synthesis refers to the integration of findings from individual research studies on a given topic or question into the global knowledge base. The application of knowledge synthesis methods, particularly systematic reviews and meta-analysis, has increased considerably in the agri-food public health sector over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue. The objectives of our review were: (1) to describe the most promising knowledge synthesis methods and their applicability in agri-food public health, and (2) to summarize the recent advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the use of systematic review and meta-analysis methods in this sector. We performed a structured review of knowledge synthesis literature from various disciplines to address the first objective, and used comprehensive insights and experiences in applying these methods in the agri-food public health sector to inform the second objective. We describe five knowledge synthesis methods that can be used to address various agri-food public health questions or topics under different conditions and contexts. Scoping reviews describe the main characteristics and knowledge gaps in a broad research field and can be used to evaluate opportunities for prioritizing focused questions for related systematic reviews. Structured rapid reviews are streamlined systematic reviews conducted within a short timeframe to inform urgent decision-making. Mixed-method and qualitative reviews synthesize diverse sources of contextual knowledge (e.g. socio-cognitive, economic, and feasibility considerations). Systematic reviews are a structured and transparent method used to summarize and synthesize literature on a clearly-defined question, and meta-analysis is the statistical combination of data from multiple individual studies. We briefly describe and discuss key advancements in the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis, including: risk-of-bias assessments; an overall quality
Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formula used to calculate the price in a farmer-processor transaction, may reduce incentives for farmers to produce high quality products. This can increase the risks that low quality products are excha...
Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Polard, Audrey; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo
Compensation payments to farmers for the provision of agri-environmental services are a well-established policy scheme under the EU Common Agricultural Policy. However, in spite of the success in most EU countries in the uptake of the programme by farmers, the impact of the scheme on the long term commitment of farmers to change their practices remains poorly documented. To explore this issue, this paper presents the results of structured field interviews and a quantitative survey in the Walloon Region of Belgium. The main finding of this study is that farmers who have periodic contacts with network bridging organisations that foster cooperation and social learning in the agri-environmental landscapes show a higher commitment to change. This effect is observed both for farmers with high and low concern for biodiversity depletion. Support for network bridging organisations is foreseen under the EU Leader programme and the EU regulation 1306/2013, which could open-up interesting opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of the current payment scheme for agri-environmental services.
Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin; Arena, Maria; Bouwmeester, Hans; Botelho Moniz, Filipa; Brandhoff, Puck; Gottardo, Stefania; Marvin, Hans J P; Mech, Agnieszka; Quiros Pesudo, Laia; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud J
Nanotechnology has the potential to innovate the agricultural, feed and food sectors (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). Applications that are marketed already include nano-encapsulated agrochemicals or nutrients, antimicrobial nanoparticles and active and intelligent food packaging. Many nano-enabled products are currently under research and development, and may enter the market in the near future. As for any other regulated product, applicants applying for market approval have to demonstrate the safe use of such new products without posing undue safety risks to the consumer and the environment. Several countries all over the world have been active in examining the appropriateness of their regulatory frameworks for dealing with nanotechnologies. As a consequence of this, different approaches have been taken in regulating nano-based products in agri/feed/food. The EU, along with Switzerland, were identified to be the only world region where nano-specific provisions have been incorporated in existing legislation, while in other regions nanomaterials are regulated more implicitly by mainly building on guidance for industry. This paper presents an overview and discusses the state of the art of different regulatory measures for nanomaterials in agri/feed/food, including legislation and guidance for safety assessment in EU and non-EU countries.
Full Text Available A PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less 1.0 μm short term monitoring campaign was carried out in Agri Valley (southern Italy in September 2012. This area is of international concern since it houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri – COVA within an anthropized context. PM1 measurements were performed in Viggiano, the nearest town to the COVA plant and one of the most populated town of the Agri Valley. During the study period, the PM1 daily concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 8.4 μg m−3 with a mean value of 4.6 μg m−3. Regarding the PM1 chemical composition, it can be observed that S and typical crustal elements were the most abundant constituents of the PM1 collected. By applying the Principal Component Analysis, it was pointed out that crustal soil, biomass and wood burning, secondary atmospheric reactions involving COVA plant emissions and local soil particles, and traffic were the main sources contributing to the PM1 measured in the area under study. Moreover, a possible contribution of the long-range transport of African dust was observed.
Meyer, Claas; Reutter, Michaela; Matzdorf, Bettina; Sattler, Claudia; Schomers, Sarah
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to financial environmental policy instruments that have played important roles in solving agri-environmental problems throughout the world, particularly in the European Union and the United States. The ample and increasing literature on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and agri-environmental measures (AEMs), generally understood as governmental PES, shows that certain single design rules may have an impact on the success of a particular measure. Based on this research, we focused on the interplay of several design rules and conducted a comparative analysis of AEMs' institutional arrangements by examining 49 German cases. We analyzed the effects of the design rules and certain rule combinations on the success of AEMs. Compliance and noncompliance with the hypothesized design rules and the success of the AEMs were surveyed by questioning the responsible agricultural administration and the AEMs' mid-term evaluators. The different rules were evaluated in regard to their necessity and sufficiency for success using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Our results show that combinations of certain design rules such as environmental goal targeting and area targeting conditioned the success of the AEMs. Hence, we generalize design principles for AEMs and discuss implications for the general advancement of ecosystem services and the PES approach in agri-environmental policies. Moreover, we highlight the relevance of the results for governmental PES program research and design worldwide.
Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also failed to account for both the conceptual and material networks of relations agricultural biotechnologies require, create and/or perform. This paper takes as a starting point that agricultural biotechnologies cannot be usefully assessed as isolated technological entities but need to be evaluated within the context of the broader socio-ecological system that they embody and engender. The paper then explores, compares and contrasts some of the methodological tools available for advancing this systems-based perspective. The article concludes by outlining a new synthesis approach of comparative cartographies of agri/cultures generated through multi-sited ethnographic case-studies, which is proposed as a way to generate system maps and enable the comparison of genetically modified (GM food with both conventional and alternative agri-food networks for sustainability assessment. The paper aims to make a unique theoretical and methodological contribution by advancing a systems-based approach to conceptualising and assessing genetically modified organisms (GMOs and proposing a synthesised methodology for mapping networks of relations across different agri/cultures.
王守刚; 毛家伟; 司贤宗; 刘春增; 张传忠
采用大田对比试验,以中烟100为材料,研究了Agri-star松土促根剂对烤烟生长发育、主要病害及经济性状的影响。结果表明,与不施松土促根剂相比,施用Agri-star松土促根剂处理烟株的农艺性状均有提高,移栽后45 d,株高增加4.4 cm,茎围增加0.26 cm,叶片数增加0.8片,叶面积增加184.1 cm2,其中叶面积提高最明显；降低了烟草花叶病和气候斑点病的发病率,二者分别下降14.3、7.5个百分点,提高了烟株的抗病能力；增加了烟株根、茎、叶干物质质量和根系体积,促进了根系发育；使得烟叶的经济性状有了明显提高。%In this study, a specific Agri-star soil conditioner was tested to investigate its effect on the growth,main diseases and economic traits of tobacco using the variety Zhongyan 100 as tested material. The results indicated that, compared with the conventional fertilization, treatment with Agri-star soil conditioner improved the tobacco agronomic traits, which increased the plant height, stem girth, leaf number and leaf area by 4. 4 cm,0. 26 cm,0. 8 and 184. 4 cm2 at 45 d after transplanted,respectively, with the leaf area increase being the most obvious. The rate of tobacco mosaic and weather speck decreased 14. 3 percentage points and 7. 5 percentage points,respectively. Agri-star soil conditioner could enhance the growth of root, stem, leaf biomass of tobacco significantly, and also improved the economic traits.
Trexler, Cary Jay
Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that
Goss, J; Burch, D
Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.
Full Text Available Most studies of Localised Agri-Food Systems (LAFS focus on the localised concentration of members and firms, and pay less attention to organisational factors, particularly those of an exogenous nature. This paper focuses on the role of organisation in a LAFS, assessing the efficacy of EU organisational measures aimed at strengthening the concentration of supply from the recent CAP reform 2014-2020. The paper has three sections. Part One describes the evolution of the concept of LAFS. Part Two examines the leading role played by institutions in organising relationships between firms in a LAFS. The example provided is that of the measures affecting the organisation of supply introduced by the recent CAP reform, 2014-2020. It makes particular reference to the Distretto del pomodoro da industria – Nord Italia (‘Industrial Tomato District – Northern Italy’. Part Three describes how organisational factors can lead to the creation of a LAFS, while the criterion of proximity is necessary but not sufficient.
Jun Ho Seok
Full Text Available Many studies show that product quality plays an important role in determining the direction of trade. This paper uses the Safe Quality Food (SQF certification as a proxy variable for quality to investigate its effect on U.S. exports. The results of this study show that only the highest level of SQF quality certification has a positive effect on U.S. agri-food exports. The results of this paper have three implications. Firms in the U.S. may want to become certified at the highest level of private standards if they are serious about increasing their exports. On the government side, they should consider employing high public standards or follow other strategies to promote development of high private standards. On the consumer side, SQF may have a signaling effect. SQF represents high quality in terms of food safety, which means that many consumers who want to buy high quality goods may enjoy the high quality products without risks of uncertain information
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the role that typical products can play in the local development process. Territorial resources involved, limits and strategies for their enhancement are analysed; this analysis will permit both to define the results that have been achieved since nowadays in the local development process and to point out future themes for the research in the field of agricultural economics. The typicality of an agri-food product regards qualitative characteristics that derive from its tie with the territory, this tie becomes a relevant element for the differentiation of the typical product from the others. In this context, the typical product maintains all the specificities associated to its origin, involving also aspects related to the traditions and the culture of the territories, to the collective dimension and to the local knowledge. Consumers tent to look for good which are differentiated and to connect authenticity and local specificity of food with healthiness. Due to the strong socio-economic ties that typical products have with the territory, they play a crucial role in the economy of the local systems and can promote development in lagging areas.
Zahm, F.; Gassiat, A.
/ Les indicateurs agri-environnementaux permettent de simplifier l'information et de rendre plus lisible un système complexe. Ils constituent un compromis entre les résultats scientifiques et l'information utile à la prise de décision. Il n'existe pas d'indicateur universel, leur choix dépend des objectifs et des données disponibles. Une présentation de 3 groupes de méthodes montre l'intérêt de leur utilisation dans le diagnostic d'une pratique agricole, dans la définition de territoires à en...
Full Text Available Agriculture is a global issue nowadays. At the European level, it is a sector, in which we are investing many resources. In particular, the Agri-Food sector plays a central role in the policies of the European Commission and the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, as well as being the main theme of Expo 2015 that will be held in Milan, Lombardy. In the Lombardy region, the farmers represent 2% of the entire population, cultivating about 80% of the agricultural land. Increasing needs to develop a common body of knowledge shared at the regional and national level so as to make it possible to effectively monitor cropping systems, water stress and impacts of climate changes affecting more frequently the territory, are becoming more and more urgent. In this context, the project Space4Agri (S4A intends to support the regional and local needs in terms of management of the agriculture sector, by designing and developing an information and knowledge based platform for managing geospatial and mainstream information by making it accessible over the Internet by standard communication technologies (Geo&Mainstream ICT. This platform has been designed to allow data workflows integrating i spatial data and observations, ii non-spatial information available from existing agronomic databases, iii data collected in the field by farmers, agronomists and volunteers using mobile applications, iv data collected by unmanned aerial sensors, and/or data produced by researchers as a result of applying scientific analysis on high quality remote sensing data. Foreseen results of the Space4Agri project and from other similar ongoing research activities may significantly spur the socio-economic development of Europe and create new growth opportunities for companies, public administrations, students and citizens.
Full Text Available New and alternative models for agri-food production and consumption have brought up questions regarding the effects they have on local development processes in terms of the economic exploitation of rural areas as well as environmental, cultural, and social factors. The agri-food system proposed by the Slow Food (SF Presidia Project, which focuses on farm-to-market systems for local, high-quality, sustainable products, can respond to the new and emerging needs of both rural and urban populaces via several approaches in addition to food production itself. However, evaluating these parameters is challenging. The aim of this study was to develop an indicator-based tool to monitor the sustainability in agri-food systems that considers quality as well as economic, ecological, social, and cultural aspects. We: (i translated the major SF principles of "good," "clean," and "fair" into five major criteria to evaluate sustainability; (ii designed multiple indicators to monitor progress toward sustainability for each of those criteria; and (iii applied the monitoring tools to three case studies as a first attempt at end-use validation. Indicators and criteria were weighted either equally or based on their importance to surveyed stakeholders, i.e., consumers, producers, and scientists/experts. The proposed approach performed well as a tool for a broad sustainability evaluation by effectively combining the indicators with the same feedback. With this approach, we demonstrated that the SF Presidia project increases all dimensions of sustainability and in particular socioeconomic and cultural capital by preserving the environmental and quality aspects of the food products.
Full Text Available Various tools and approaches have been experimented worldwide to address the externalities arising from agricultural activities, among which the design of agri-environmental policies and the introduction of specific measures to cope with the environmental impacts of agricultural origin. The mechanisms adopted within the Common Agricultural Policy with such aim fall within the category of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AESs, which are market-based policy schemes aimed at providing farmers with the right incentives to adopt farming practices yielding positive environmental externalities and are based on voluntary participation. Given the intrinsic complexity of agro-ecosystems and the effects of farmers’ behaviour, the assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of AESs is always challenging, and often both the environmental and economic effectiveness of AESs are questionable. The main objective of this paper is to present a framework for assessing the effectiveness of AESs in promoting social and environmental sustainability in Europe, based on experts’ knowledge. Experts’ knowledge, acquired through adequate elicitation strategies and managed with robust and transparent methodologies, can help building a system of information that can then be used to infer the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures, at least in comparative terms, if not in terms of quantitative absolute estimations. In the present study, the NetSyMoD framework approach has been adopted. First, a short introduction of the policy evaluation framework, the role of monitoring and performance indicators and of experts’ opinion is provided. Subsequently the methodology used to identify experts and to elicit their assessment on the effectiveness of AES schemes is presented. Finally, the paper provides a concrete example in which experts’ opinions have been used for the assessment exercise, and presents a framework for collecting, managing and integrating
Full Text Available Various tools and approaches have been experimented worldwide to address the externalities arising from agricultural activities, among which the design of agri-environmental policies and the introduction of specific measures to cope with the environmental impacts of agricultural origin. The mechanisms adopted within the Common Agricultural Policy with such aim fall within the category of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AESs, which are market-based policy schemes aimed at providing farmers with the right incentives to adopt farming practices yielding positive environmental externalities and are based on voluntary participation. Given the intrinsic complexity of agro-ecosystems and the effects of farmers’ behaviour, the assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of AESs is always challenging, and often both the environmental and economic effectiveness of AESs are questionable. The main objective of this paper is to present a framework for assessing the effectiveness of AESs in promoting social and environmental sustainability in Europe, based on experts’ knowledge. Experts’ knowledge, acquired through adequate elicitation strategies and managed with robust and transparent methodologies, can help building a system of information that can then be used to infer the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures, at least in comparative terms, if not in terms of quantitative absolute estimations. In the present study, the NetSyMoD framework approach has been adopted. First, a short introduction of the policy evaluation framework, the role of monitoring and performance indicators and of experts’ opinion is provided. Subsequently the methodology used to identify experts and to elicit their assessment on the effectiveness of AES schemes is presented. Finally, the paper provides a concrete example in which experts’ opinions have been used for the assessment exercise, and presents a framework for collecting, managing and integrating
Swetnam, Ruth D; Owen Mountford, J; Manchester, Sarah J; Broughton, Richard K
This paper explores whether the introduction of an agri-environmental scheme has altered the course of long-term trends in plant species abundance in the Somerset Levels and Moors Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA), UK. A semi-quantitative approach has been taken which integrates disparate but important historical datasets relating to flora and land management with more contemporary digital information. Species datasets from four time periods throughout the 20th century have been collated within a Geographic Information System and analysed with respect to ancillary data relating to elevation, under-drainage and ESA designation. Qualitative reconstruction of the historical ecology of this internationally important area of lowland wet grassland showed that a steady decline in abundance and extent of key components of the flora had already started by 1900. Analysis of historical under-drainage records dating from 1940s to 1980s showed a clear link between the length of time an area had been under-drained and the subsequent diversity of flora recorded in later surveys. In addition, the relative persistence of the rarer components of the wetland flora between surveys in 1980 and 1997 was related to the spatial pattern of under-drainage on the site since 1940. When overall species diversity was compared before and after ESA designation (1980-1997) there was some evidence of an increase in the number of species present and their spatial extent. The historical dataset provided useful contextual information with respect to species trends and allowed the interpretation of contemporary datasets to be placed within a longer timeframe. This pilot study using 18 species gives some evidence that long-established trends in species decline in the Somerset Levels and Moors ESA are starting to be reversed.
Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.
Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin; Gao, Wen-Hong; Zeng, Xin-An
With consumer concerns increasing over food quality and safety, the food industry has begun to pay much more attention to the development of rapid and reliable food-evaluation systems over the years. As a result, there is a great need for manufacturers and retailers to operate effective real-time assessments for food quality and safety during food production and processing. Computer vision, comprising a nondestructive assessment approach, has the aptitude to estimate the characteristics of food products with its advantages of fast speed, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. Specifically, computer vision systems are feasible for classifying food products into specific grades, detecting defects, and estimating properties such as color, shape, size, surface defects, and contamination. Therefore, in order to track the latest research developments of this technology in the agri-food industry, this review aims to present the fundamentals and instrumentation of computer vision systems with details of applications in quality assessment of agri-food products from 2007 to 2013 and also discuss its future trends in combination with spectroscopy.
Diti, Irene; Tassinari, Patrizia; Torreggiani, Daniele
The aim of this research is to define and test a methodology for an articulated and systematic analysis of the countryside, which can lend support to urban and landscape planning processes in addition to improving knowledge of the landscape, and for the implementation of agricultural and rural development policies. We have conceived a multi-criteria and multilevel methodology that was integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) and is based on clustering and maximum likelihood classification algorithms. The proposed method focuses on various agri-environmental and socio-economic components, whose synthesis is performed by means of an interpretative key that was developed by the authors, the "Agri-Environmental Footprint", to quantify the impact of rural areas on urban systems. In particular, this paper presents the general framework of the methodology, a set of indexes that are defined for its first-level analyses, and the results of their implementation through a case study in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). The method is based on the IsoCluster technique, which is associated with statistical analyses of criteria, such as the Principal Component Analysis and different data standardisation algorithms (min-max and z-score). The case study has allowed an iterative calibration of both the methodological framework and indexes.
Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik
Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES.
Aijaz Hussain Mir; M.A. Khan
An experiment upon an agri-silvicultural system involving Willow (Salix alba) tree,Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) and Knol khol (Brassica oleracea var.caularapa) was laid in randomized block designed at farmers' willow field at Shalimar near Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir,Srinagar India during 2005 and 2006.The main plot was divided into sub-spots with 8 m ( 2 m in size each in which four two-year-old willow (Salix alba) trees were at a spacing of 2 m ( 2 m in a sub-spot.The intercrops were maintained at recommended spacing and supplied with recommended doses of fertilizers.The benefit-cost ratio in willow plantation intercropped with vegetable crops of Kale and Knol Khol was analyzed and compared with the benefit-cost ratio of sole willow tree forestry.The results showed that every rupee invested in plantation of agri-silvicultural system generates benefit-cost ratio of 2.78 and 2.79 in case of Willow intercropping with Kale and Willow with Knol khol,respectively,while as for sole crop of willows benefit-cost ratio was calculated to be 2.66.These results provided circumstantial evidence in favour of adopting agroforestry involving willow instead of Sole tree forestry.
Liu, P; Li, J; Deng, Z
Using bio-transferred feedstuff was a cost-effective approach to improve egg quality and production; particularly, the nutritive diet came from agri-food wastes. In this study, optimization of fermentation conditions and co-cultivation of Neurospora crassa with Lactobacillus plantarum was performed in a simple bioreactor. The optimized fermentation of beer lees substrates through N. crassa led to the hydrolysis rates of crude fiber increasing to 43.27%. Compared to that of using N. crassa alone, the combination of N. crassa and L. plantarum enhanced the content of amino acids (13,120 to 18,032 mg/100 g) on oil-tea seed cake substrates particularly. When hens were fed 10% fermented oil-tea seedcake substrate, the ratio of feed to egg decreased from 3.1 to 2.6, egg production ratio increased from 65.71 to 80.10%, and color of vitelline (Roche) increased from 8.20 to 10.20. Fifteen kinds of carotenoids were identified by HPLC in fermented oil-tea seed cake substrates. The results of this study highlighted that the mixed-fermentation by N. crassa and L. plantarum may be an effective way to convert agri-food wastes into high-valued biomass products, which could have a positive effect on hens and their eggs.
Genderen, van R.A.; Ringersma, J.
“Groen Kennisnet” creates a content collection and professional “green” knowledge base (agriculture, horticulture, animal welfare, environmental protection, water management, food, fisheries). “Groen Kennisnet” makes these available to the Dutch agricultural education system and agri-business, and o
Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.
Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,
Wolf, J.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Ewert, F.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Angulo, C.; Rumbaur, C.; Lock, R.; Enders, A.; Adenauer, M.; Heckelei, T.; Rötter, R.P.; Fronzek, S.; Carter, T.R.; Verhagen, A.; Ittersum, van M.K.
The AgriAdapt project has developed methodologies that enable (a) the assessment of impacts, risks and resiliencies for agriculture under changes in climatic conditions but also under changes of other drivers (market, technology, policy, etc.) and (b) the evaluation of adaptation strategies at farm
Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…
Burykin, Y.; Klichova, G.; Bremmers, H.J.
This paper focuses on the regulation of financial accounting in SMEs in the agri- and food sector in Russia. The paper presents the factors which influence the accounting system and the quality of the information it provides. The information and reports that are prepared according to international s
Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J
Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted. El Papel de los Esquemas Agro-Ambientales en
Requier Desjardins, D. [Versailles Univ. (France). Centre for Economics and Ethics in the Environment and Development; Borray, G.R. [CORPOICA, Columbia (Colombia)
Environmental valuation ''multi-stakeholder'' processes, as advocated by ecological economics, often have a strong local character. Critical Natural Capital cannot be defined without referring to a given geographical scale, very often local in terms of the definition of the environmental resource at stake and the relevant stakeholders involved in the evaluation and decision process. In this setting, environmental valuation processes cannot be disentangled from socio-economic dimensions of local social development, as shown by various examples and especially by the one of local agri-food systems of panela production in specific areas of Colombia. While there exist cost-effective technological innovations that can reduce the ecological impact of the panela commodity chain, these innovations can be fully implemented only if the producers can rely on anticipations of the development of a market for quality biological panela that can be traced back to specific areas of production. (author)
Full Text Available Though the agricultural sector contributes significantly to the Indian economy, it faces several bottlenecks, one of those being the antiquated laws governing agricultural marketing and price discovery, leading to low price realization by Indian farmers. In India, six national level exchanges offer commodity derivatives contracts on commodities, with some having electronic spot exchanges to facilitate spot trading of commodities. However, farmers' participation in these exchanges has been poor. ITC-ABD, one of the largest aggregators and exporters of Indian agri-commodities, has started using these exchange platforms to hedge price risk. With experience of over three decades in the agricultural sector, Mr. S. Sivakumar has a deep understanding of the commodity markets and the needs of Indian farmers. This interview aims to get an insight into his views on increasing farmers' participation in commodity derivatives trading and more importantly, to understand ITC-ABD's commodity hedging strategy.
Alessandra La Notte
Full Text Available The identification of an appropriate justification for Agri-Environment-Climate (AEC payments is a crucial issue in the new Rural Development Programme (RDP. Given the environmental importance of grasslands in Trentino (Italy, the Management Authority in charge of the RDP decided to integrate an approach based on Ecosystem Services (ES into the calculation of AEC payments. The paper presents the methodology used for this approach as well as the preliminary results. The first step entails building a probabilistic model for the ES, named Sustainable Fodder Production. Model outputs are then integrated with the accounting results based on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN database (2009–2012 with the aim of calculating the additional costs and income waived due to the environmental commitments deriving from the sustainable management of permanent grassland in livestock farming. Sustainability measures imply more extensive management practices that maintain meadows in a healthy state.
Assaghir, Zainab; Girardin, Philippe; Napoli, Amedeo
National audience; Les indicateurs développés et utilisés en agronomie sont généralement calculés a partir de données de nature imparfaite. Les sources fournissent de l'information a propos d'une quantité mal connue. Dans cet article, nous étudions une méthode de fusion fondée sur la théorie des possibilités et la notion de sous-ensembles maximaux cohérents pour calculer un indicateur agri-environnemental estimant le risque des pratiques phytosanitaires sur les eaux souterraines. Il s'agit de...
Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko
The Vercelli rice district in northern Italy plays a key role in the agri-food industry in a country which accounts for more than 50% of the EU rice production and exports roughly 70%. However, although wealth and jobs are created, the sector is said to be responsible for environmental impacts that are increasingly being perceived as topical. As a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation is necessary to understand and manage the environmental impact of the agri-food chain, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to the rice production system: from the paddy field to the supermarket. The LCA has pointed out the magnitude of impact per kg of delivered white milled rice: a CO2eq emission of 2.9 kg, a primary energy consumption of 17.8 MJ and the use of 4.9 m3 of water for irrigation purposes. Improvement scenarios have been analysed considering alternative rice farming and food processing methods, such as organic and upland farming, as well as parboiling. The research has shown that organic and upland farming have the potential to decrease the impact per unit of cultivated area. However, due to the lower grain yields, the environmental benefits per kg of the final products are greatly reduced in the case of upland rice production and almost cancelled for organic rice. LCA has proved to be an effective tool for understanding the eco-profile of Italian rice and should be used for transparent and credible communication between suppliers and their customers.
Full Text Available The state of agri-food trade in two selected trade blocs from the African region was presented in the paper. Moreover, the possibilities of development of trade, production, demand and prices in agri-food sector of ECOWAS countries in view of changes caused by further liberalization of the world agricultural trade were discussed. A general equilibrium model Global Trade Analysis Project was used in the research to make the projections. The results of the analysis showed that a greater degree of liberalization of the world agricultural trade could cause an increase in the value of export and import of certain plant origin products, as well as may contribute to the decline in production and prices for these products.
Abstract The significance of private standards and associated local level initiatives in agri-food value chains are increasingly recognised. However whilst issues related to compliance and impact at the smallholder or worker level have frequently been analysed, the governance implications in terms of how private standards affect national level institutions, public, private and non-governmental, have had less attention. This article applies an extended value chain framework for crit...
利用联合国COMTRADE数据库的农产品数据,运用恒定市场份额模型研究了1999-2008年中国对日本农产品出口结构.研究发现,中国对日本农产品出口贸易深受日本农产品市场需求规模与结构的影响,中国出口农产品与日本农产品市场需求结构匹配性不足,中国农产品竞争力较弱.因此,中国应注重出口质量与竞争力的提升,提高出口产品的分散程度,保持出口持续增长.%Based on the data about agricultural products from UN COMTRADE database,this paper uses the constant market share model to analyze China's export structure of agri-production to Japan during 1999-2008. The result shows that China's agri-production export to Japan is affected by the scale and structure of agri-production market demand in Japan,and don't match with Japanese demand.and China's agri-production exported to Japan is less competitive. Therefore, China should focus on the quality and competitiveness of export production, and enhance the decentralize degree of export production to maitain the export growth.
Mertens, Koen C.; Jürgen Vangeyte; Stephanie Van Weyenberg; Christiane Von Haselberg; Martin Holpp; Renate L. Doerfler; Iver Thysen
Ample research is conducted on ICT, automation and robotics in agriculture and related environmental issues. ICT and Robotics innovations are rapidly emerging and have the ability to revolutionize future farming through their major impacts on productivity and profitability. Unfortunately human and financial resources and efforts are fragmented and limited. This led to the creation of the ICT-AGRI ERA-NET that provides a central structured framework. Its main objective is to strengthen and coo...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of interregional agri-food clusters under different competitions on regional economy by use of two-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Many foods are in production linkage between farmers who yield in agricultural products as low materials and processed food manufacture who produce final goods, like wine, dairy products and so on. Linkage between agriculture and related food industries service industries has been recognized as ...
Full Text Available The Val d'Agri area (southern Italy hosts the biggest on-shore European reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant, named Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA, located in a rural/anthropized context. Several hazards are associated to this plant. These are mainly represented by possible impacts of the COVA atmospheric emissions on the local air quality and human health. This work uses a novel approach based on the integration of air quality measurements from the regional monitoring network, additional experimental measurements (i.e., sub-micrometric particulate matter – PM1 and Black Carbon – BC and advanced statistical analyses to provide a preliminary evaluation of the Val d'Agri air quality state and give some indications of specific areas potentially affected by COVA hazards. Results show that the COVA plant emissions exert an impact especially on the air quality of the area closest to it. In this area several pollutants specifically related to the COVA combustion processes (i.e., nitrogen oxides, benzene and toluene show the highest concentration values and significant correlations. The proposed approach represents a first step in the assessment of the risks associated to oil/gas exploration and pre-treatment activities and a starting point for the development of effective and exportable air quality monitoring strategies.
Tkachenko Serhii A.
Full Text Available The given article highlights features of solving retrospective (successive tasks of monitoring production and economic activity of the territorial-production system through a profound using of scientific principles in the developed and introduced enlarged block diagram of the control system for a functionally advanced solution of the task of monitoring labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere. Solving the task of monitoring the labour force turnover in the territorial-production system by means of electronic digital machines allows: to reduce the complexity of calculations performed by employees of Human Resources Department and make time for other research and control functions; to accelerate submission of necessary accounting and economic as well as analytical information on the labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere to consumers; increase the quality of accounting and economic as well as analytical information by eliminating errors, which occur at manual calculation; to build a real scientific basis for developing measures of technical, organizational and socio-economic nature aimed at reducing the labour force turnover. The given list of issues solved at development of the monitoring subsystem in strategic control systems of the regional structure and territorial organization of the agri-food sphere is not complete, the use of industrial methods for creating a monitoring subsystem, training specialists and a number of other issues, which are no less important, should be mentioned as well.
Full Text Available Large governmental payments for ecosystem services programs (PES have frequently been criticized for their limited environmental effectiveness. The use of local intermediaries has been considered as one possibility for improving the environmental effectiveness of such programs. German Landcare Associations (LCAs have been identified as one intermediary that holds the potential to positively influence the implementation of agri-environmental measures (AEMs. This paper empirically assesses the involvement of LCAs in the context of AEM implementation in Germany. An online questionnaire was distributed to all LCAs in Germany. In a first step, we examine if LCAs (1 provide social networks between stakeholders and (2 provide agri-environmental information and assistance to farmers. In a second step, the LCAs assess (3 their perception of how strongly their work influences farmers’ participation in PES schemes and (4 if they pursue the spatial targeting of AEMs. In a third step, we relate the relative level of social networks and the provision of agri-environmental information and assistance to their stated influence on farmers’ participation in and spatial targeting of AEMs. Finally we derive overall conclusions on how intermediaries can enhance the effectiveness of PES programs in general.
Full Text Available The latest EU policies focus on the issue of food safety with a view to ensuring adequate and standard quality levels for the food produced and/or consumed within the EC. To that purpose, the environment where agricultural products are manufactured and processed plays a crucial role in achieving food hygiene. As a consequence, it is of the outmost importance to adopt proper building solutions which meet health and hygiene requirements as well as to use suitable tools to measure the levels achieved. Similarly, it is necessary to verify and evaluate the level of workers’ safety and welfare in their working environment. Workers’ safety has not only an ethical and social value but also an economic implication, since possible accidents or environmental stressors are the major causes of the lower efficiency and productivity of workers. Therefore, it is fundamental to design suitable models of analysis that allow assessing buildings as a whole, taking into account both health and hygiene safety as well as workers’ safety and welfare. Hence, this paper proposes an assessment model that, based on an established study protocol and on the application of a fuzzy logic procedure, allows assessing the global safety level of an agri-food building by means of a global safety buildings index. The model here presented is original since it uses fuzzy logic to evaluate the performances of both the technical and environmental systems of an agri-food building in terms of health and hygiene safety of the manufacturing process as well as of workers’ health and safety. The result of the assessment is expressed through a triangular fuzzy membership function which allows carrying out comparative analyses of different buildings. A specific procedure was developed to apply the model to a case study which tested its operational simplicity and the validity of its results. The proposed model allows obtaining a synthetic and global value of the building performance of
Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.
In this paper the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi - ENI - Val d'Agri Oil Center - COVA). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a~large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented on thirteen years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated to the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, exploiting data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. Achieved results indicate that such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.
Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.
In this paper, the robust satellite techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant, owned by Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e., waste flaring), as industrial processes are regulated by strict regional laws. While regarding the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented for 13 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated with the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, using data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. The results achieved indicate that the such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.
Full Text Available Val d'Agri is a «recent SSW - NNE graben» located in the middle of the Southern Apennines thrust belt «chain» and emplaced in Plio-Pleistocene.The recent sedimentation of the valley represents a local critical geophysical problem. Several strong near surface velocity anomalies and scattering degrades seismic data in different ways and compromises the seismic visibility. In 1998, ENI and Enterprise, with the contribution of the European Community (ESIT R & D project - Enhance Seismic In Thrust Belt; EU Thermie fund acquired two «experimental seismic and Resistivity lines» across the valley. The purpose of the project was to look for methods able to enhance seismic data quality and optimize the data processing flow for «thrust belt» areas. During the work, it was clear that some part of the seismic data processing flow could be used for the detailed geological interpretation of the near subsurface too. In fact, the integrated interpretation of the near surface tomography velocity/depth seismic section, built for enhancing the resolution of static corrections, with the HR resistivity profile, acquired for enhancing the seismic source coupling, allowed a quite detailed lithological interpretation of the main shallow velocity changes and the 2D reconstruction of the structural setting of the valley.
Fleming, Claire; Hough, Edward; Kemp, Simon; Cave, Mark
Mudrocks rich in organic matter present an attractive exploration target for unconventional gas and oil. The mid-Carboniferous (Visean - Bashkirian) Bowland Shale is developed in a series of fault-bound basins and is considered the principal accumulation of gas-prone shales in the UK. One risk with exploitation of shales is that the rocks may exhibit ductile behaviour and will not respond in an optimal way to hydraulic stimulation programmes. The brittle behaviour of the rock is strongly influenced by mineralogical composition. Approximately 15 m of core from the lower part of the Bowland Shale, has been used to test the feasibility of using Natural Infra-Red (NIR) Spectrometry to characterise the mineralogy of the shale, and compared to analysis using standard XRD techniques (both whole-rock and minerals are also easily detected using NIR spectrometry as they display distinctive absorption features in the Short Wave Infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The benefits of using a handheld NIR spectrometer (AgriSpec) is that it provides a rapid, non-destructive and highly portable method for characterising clay mineralogy. This method may represent a simple solution to the initial characterisation of what are challenging rocks to characterise: thick accumulations (locally in excess of 3500 m) with few marker horizons to enable correlation between basins. Results demonstrate that clay minerals such as dickite, kaolinite and smectite (as well as other characteristic minerals such as siderite; calcite and gypsum) can be identified within the Bowland Shale using this technique.
Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.
The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity are measured through a direct attribution model. Indirect impacts on agricultural employment and the agri-food industry are evaluated through a nested indirect attribution model. The transmission of water scarcity effects from agricultural production to macroeconomic variables is measured through chained elasticities. The models allow for differentiating the impacts deriving from water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show that the importance of drought impacts are less relevant at the macroeconomic level, but are more significant for those activities directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. From a management perspective, implications of these findings are important to develop effective mitigation strategies to reduce drought risk exposure.
Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio
Seeking to advance our knowledge of water flows and footprints and the factors underlying them, we apply, on the basis of an extended 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Spain, an open Leontief model in which households and foreign trade are the exogenous accounts. The model shows the water embodied in products bought by consumers (which we identify with the Water Footprint) and in trade (identified with virtual water trade). Activities with relevant water inflows and outflows such as the agrarian sector, textiles, and the agri-food industry are examined in detail using breakdowns of the relevant accounts. The data reflect only physical consumption, differentiating between green and blue water. The results reveal that Spain is a net importer of water. Flows are then related to key trading partners to show the large quantities involved. The focus on embodied (or virtual) water by activity is helpful to distinguish indirect from direct consumption as embodied water can be more than 300 times direct consumption in some food industry activities. Finally, a sensitivity analysis applied to changes in diets shows the possibility of reducing water uses by modifying households' behavior to encourage healthier eating.
Full Text Available In this paper the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST, a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi – ENI – Val d'Agri Oil Center – COVA. For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a~large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring, being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented on thirteen years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated to the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, exploiting data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003–2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. Achieved results indicate that such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83, emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.
Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.
The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.
Buttinelli, M.; Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; Chiarabba, C.
Since 2006 wastewater has been injected below the Val d’Agri Quaternary basin, the largest on-land oilfield in Europe, inducing micro-seismicity in the proximity of a high-rate injection well. In this study, we have the rare opportunity to revise a massive set of 2D/3D seismic and deep borehole data in order to investigate the relationship between the active faults that bound the basin and the induced earthquakes. Below the injection site we identify a Pliocene thrusts and back-thrusts system inherited by the Apennines compression, with no relation with faults bounding the basin. The induced seismicity is mostly confined within the injection reservoir, and aligns coherently with a NE-dipping back-thrust favorably oriented within the current extensional stress field. Earthquakes spread upwards from the back-thrust deep portion activating a 2.5-km wide patch. Focal mechanisms show a predominant extensional kinematic testifying to an on-going inversion of the back-thrust, while a minor strike-slip compound suggests a control exerted by a high angle inherited transverse fault developed within the compressional system, possibly at the intersection between the two fault sets. We stress that where wastewater injection is active, understanding the complex interaction between injection-linked seismicity and pre-existing faults is a strong requisite for safe oilfield exploitation.
Full Text Available Variations detected in geophysical, especially electromagnetic, parameters in seismic active areas have been sometimes attributed to modifications of the stress field. Among the different geophysical methods, magnetotellurics (MT could be one of the most effective because it allows us to explore down to seismogenic depths. Continuous MT recording could allow us to evaluate whether possible variations are significantly correlated with the seismic activity of investigated area. To assess the significance of such observations we must be able to say how well an apparent resistivity curve should be reproduced when measurements are repeated at a later time. To do this properly it is essential to know that the estimated error bars accurately represent the true uncertainties in comparing the transfer functions. In this work we will show the preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the data coming from the new MT monitoring network installed in Agri Valley. This analysis gives us the possibility: i to better study the temporal stability of the signals, ii to better discriminate the noise affecting the measures by remote reference estimation. The performed analysis disclosed a relatively low degree of noise in the investigated area, which is a promising condition for monitoring.
Full Text Available The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley – Basilicata region occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.
Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A
Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to introduce a new certified applied methodology for Assessing Suppliers in Agri-Food Complex as a tool for company competitiveness. The work is based on the results obtained in the research project NAZV QG60148/2005 funded by the Czech Ministry of Agriculture and on the requirements of agricultural practice. The novelty lies in the use of practices of the worldwide respected GLOBALG.A.P. standard (formerly EUREPGAP as yet not well known in our country. Based on the practical experience of the authors with the application of food safety standards in the food manufacturing industry and application of GLOBALG. A.P. standard in agricultural primary production, risk and hazard analysis was developed for the product group of fruit and vegetables. Subsequently, a checklist was designed for the implementation of the suppliers’ audit. The result is a methodology for food manufacturers based on the identification of sources of risks in primary production, which can threaten food safety. As part of the introduced methodology are proposed methodological criteria for evaluating suppliers of fruit and vegetables, including rating scales and the possibilities of its implementation. Different variations of the introduction of this approach are discussed from the management, time, and financial viewpoints. The use of this procedure in practice aims to reduce the likelihood of hygiene and health hazards of the basic input raw material according to the principles of the certified standards and thus strengthen the competitiveness of a given manufacturer on the market.
Full Text Available Solutions and development proposals for agriculture and for increasing of business performance must be sustainedby an analysis of the factors involved in agriculture, of the causes which affects the development of agriculture innormal conditions, of the advantages offered by the natural and economical conditions. First of all must be analysedthe possibility of agriculture development function of human resources involved in this sector. In establishing theresearch plan we have in mind the development level of agri-foods units from Romania and in the studied area, Iași County, Romania and also the strategic priorities of this domain in the context of creating of new jobs in ruralareas. As gathering technique for the information presented in the current paper we utilised the explicative casestudy, because we wanted a deep and complex investigation at Societatea Agricola Moldova (Moldova AgriculturalSociety from Ţigănaşi village, Iaşi County. From the main indicators of the agricultural production were analysedfor a period of three consecutive years the physical main production and merchandise production, and fromeconomical indicators were analysed: turnover, added value, revenues, expenses and profit. Based on this system ofindicators could be identified organizational structures, activity domains and products at which were recorded anunfavourable dynamics of profitability or a favourable dynamics, but which is not at the level of competitivenessdegree requested by the domestic and foreign market, giving the possibility of applying of some measures forincreasing of profitability of the whole economical-financial activity at a high level. At the end of the current studythe conclusion is that the society have a profitable activity obtaining profit in all three analysed years, respectively2010, 2011, 2012 resulting that the performance is a synthetic form of expressing the efficiency of the wholeeconomical activity of the firm.
Hérivaux, Cécile; Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge
In Europe, 30% of groundwater bodies are considered to be at risk of not achieving the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 'good status' objective by 2015, and 45% are in doubt of doing so. Diffuse agricultural pollution is one of the main pressures affecting groundwater bodies. To tackle this problem, the WFD requires Member States to design and implement cost-effective programs of measures to achieve the 'good status' objective by 2027 at the latest. Hitherto, action plans have mainly consisted of promoting the adoption of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES). This raises a number of questions concerning the effectiveness of such schemes for improving groundwater status, and the economic implications of their implementation. We propose a hydro-economic model that combines a hydrogeological model to simulate groundwater quality evolution with agronomic and economic components to assess the expected costs, effectiveness, and benefits of AES implementation. This hydro-economic model can be used to identify cost-effective AES combinations at groundwater-body scale and to show the benefits to be expected from the resulting improvement in groundwater quality. The model is applied here to a rural area encompassing the Hesbaye aquifer, a large chalk aquifer which supplies about 230,000 inhabitants in the city of Liege (Belgium) and is severely contaminated by agricultural nitrates. We show that the time frame within which improvements in the Hesbaye groundwater quality can be expected may be much longer than that required by the WFD. Current WFD programs based on AES may be inappropriate for achieving the 'good status' objective in the most productive agricultural areas, in particular because these schemes are insufficiently attractive. Achieving 'good status' by 2027 would demand a substantial change in the design of AES, involving costs that may not be offset by benefits in the case of chalk aquifers with long renewal times.
De Gori, P.; Improta, L.; Moretti, M.; Colasanti, G.; Criscuoli, F.
The Val d'Agri Quaternary basin in the Southern Apennine range of Italy hosts the largest inland oil field in Europe. Wastewater coming from the oil exploitation is re-injected by a high-rate disposal well into strongly fractured limestones of the hydrocarbon carbonate reservoir. Disposal activity has induced micro-seismicity since the beginning of injection in June 2006. Around 220 small magnitude events (ML Vulcanologia. The induced micro-seismicity illuminated a pre-existing high-angle fault located 1 km below the well. Since June 2006, wastewater has been re-injected with only short interruptions due acid stimulations. In January 2015 disposal activity was halted due to technical operations in the oil refinery and wastewater injection restarted after two weeks. We installed 5 short-period stations within 10 km of the disposal well to carefully monitor the re-start phase and the subsequent 3 months of disposal activity. This temporary network was complemented by stations of the National Seismic Network giving this final configuration:9 stations within 10 km of the well with the closest station 2 km apart, 13 stations within 20 km. Here we report on the preliminary analysis of the local earthquake recorded during the survey focusing on the events occurred in the injection area. The seismicity rate is compared with injection data.In spite of the dense network, we found that the rate of induced seismicity (both the number and energy of events) is very low when compared to the seismicity recorded during the first 5 years of injection activity carried out with comparable rate and pressure.
Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.
In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine key trends in the European Union’s trade policy towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP, as well as to identify main changes in the commodity structure of the European (and Polish agri-food trade. The results showed that for the ACP countries, the European market is perceived as a source of food industry while the EU (including Poland imports from ACP region coffee, tea and cocoa. This confirms a certain specialization of production and trade in ACP countries. Both the European Union and Poland, are net importers of agri- food products from the ACP region.
Full Text Available A methodological framework was designed to assess the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures adopted by the Veneto Region to reduce diffuse water pollution of agricultural origin. Two already existing methodologies were combined in a new flexible approach for policy assessment: Conceptual Modelling and Bayesian Networks (BNs. The former supported the development of a shared conceptual model (a cognitive map of the agro-ecosystem of the study area; while the latter allowed the development of a probabilistic model coherent with the cognitive map. BNs were selected because they allow analyses with scarce data; they can be updated when further information becomes available, and are easily understandable by layperson. The paper reports the results obtained in the Venice Lagoon Watershed (VLW case study, where the current agri-environmental measures were assessed in order to identify their effectiveness in terms of reduction of nitrogen releases in water bodies connected to the lagoon ecosystem. Preliminary results obtained by implementing expert opinions in the BN pointed out the likely limited effects of the measures on the declared objective of
Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy. The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6–12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.
Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.
The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.
Young, Ian; Kerr, Ashley; Waddell, Lisa; Pham, Mai T; Greig, Judy; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana
The application of systematic reviews is increasing in the agri-food public health sector to investigate the efficacy of policy-relevant interventions. In order to enhance the uptake and utility of these reviews for decision-making, there is a need to develop summary formats that are written in plain language and incorporate supporting contextual information. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a guideline for summarizing systematic reviews in one- and three-page formats, and (2) to apply the guideline on two published systematic reviews that investigated the efficacy of vaccination and targeted feed and water additives to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Both summary formats highlight the key systematic review results and implications in plain language. Three-page summaries also incorporated four categories of contextual information (cost, availability, practicality, and other stakeholder considerations) to complement the systematic review findings. We collected contextual information through structured rapid reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature and by conducting interviews with 12 topic specialists. The overall utility of the literature searches and interviews depended on the specific intervention topic and contextual category. In general, interviews with topic specialists were the most useful and efficient method of gathering contextual information. Preliminary evaluation with five end-users indicated positive feedback on the summary formats. We estimate that one-page summaries could be developed by trained science-to-policy professionals in 3-5 days, while three-page summaries would require additional resources and time (e.g., 2-4 weeks). Therefore, one-page summaries are more suited for routine development, while three-page summaries could be developed for a more limited number of high-priority reviews. The summary guideline offers a structured and transparent approach to support the utilization of systematic reviews
Plaggenhoef, van W.
Introduction During the last decade, concerns about quality and safety in agri-food supply chains have been raised. Several sector-wide crises, such as the BSE and the dioxin crises, classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease and Aviaire Influenza have fuelled these concerns. These conc
闵庆文; 张丹; 何露; 孙业红
中国农业文明历史悠久,农民们在长期生产实践过程中一直在寻求适应不同自然条件的生产方式,创造了灿烂的农业文化遗产.发端于20世纪初,以农业考古、农业历史、传统农业哲学及农业民俗学等为主要内容的农业遗产研究,为农业文化遗产研究奠定了基础.2005年以"青田稻鱼共生系统"被FA0列为首批GIAHS保护试点为标志的新时期农业文化遗产研究与保护实践探索,正体现出多学科合作、理论研究与实践探索并重、保护与发展协调的特征.本文从古籍整理与考古研究、概念与内涵研究、系统结构与作用机制研究、多功能性与生态系统服务研究等角度介绍了农业文化遗产的基础性研究进展,从动态保护途径研究、法律与政策保障研究和保护与发展实践探索等方面总结了近几年开展的工作与取得的成效.并在此基础上,提出了农业文化遗产研究与保护实践中应当注意的问题,包括:进一步丰富研究内容,重视典型传统生态农业模式的机理性、定量化研究;从多学科与跨学科的角度研究农业文化遗产;加快开展农业文化遗产的普查与价值挖掘工作;重视农业文化遗产的创新、发展及可持续利用;重视农业生物多样性与农业文化多样性两个方面的保护,在做好"两个保护"的前提下,促进地区的发展和农民生活水平的提高,并为现代农业发展提供支持;避免"原汁原味"的"冷冻式"保护和"大拆大建"的"破坏性"开发两种错误倾向;逐步建立农业文化遗产保护的多方参与机制,包括政府的主导作用,社区的积极参与,科技的有力支撑,企业的有效介入,媒体的跟踪宣传;使农业文化遗产地成为开展科学研究的平台,展示传统农业文明的窗口,生态-文化型农产品的生产基地,农业文化旅游的目的地.%With a long history of agri-cultural development, Chinese farmers have been
Reynisdottir, Eva Margret; Hedegaard, Rikke; Harder, Henrik
Siden 1970'erne har den primære vision for den bæredygtige byudvikling været at reducere bygningers energiforbrug for derved at reducere udslippet af drivhusgasser. Hvad der derimod stadigvæk mangler at blive sat fokus på er, hvordan bæredygtige designløsninger med fokus på reduceret energiforbru...
The Agri-Food Innovation Forum was attended by leaders in innovation for agriculture and forestry and its impact on bioproduct development. The presentations addressed issues of interest to public and private sector scientists, researchers, agricultural and forestry producers as well as business innovators who focus on the agriculture and forestry sectors as suppliers of raw materials for value added products. The forum provided an opportunity to network and interact with key leaders in biotechnology. The forum highlighted the following recent contributions by Canadians to agricultural innovation: producing cellulose ethanol from agricultural wastes; optimizing oil seed potential for industrial applications; producing biogas from manures; the auto industry's interest in biomaterials; and, fibres and polymers from lignocellulosic sources. The forum featured 7 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.
Le Page, Michel; Gosset, Cindy; Oueslati, Ines; Calvez, Roger; Zribi, Mehrez; Lilli Chabaane, Zohra
Meteorological forcing is essential to hydrological and hydro-geological modeling. In the case of the semi-arid catchment of Merguellil in Tunisia, long term time series are only available in the plain for a SYNOP station. Other meteorological stations have been installed since 2010. Therefore, this study aims at qualifying the reliability of the meteorological forcing necessary for an integrated model conception. We compare the meteorological data from 7 stations (sources: WMO and our own station), inside and around the Merguellil catchment, with daily gridded data at 25*25 km from AGRI4CAST and 50*50km from WFDEI. AGRI4CAST (Biaveti et al, 2008) is an interpolated dataset based on actual weather stations produced by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) for the Monitoring Agricultural Resources Unit (MARS). The WFDEI second version dataset (Weedon et al, 2014) has been generated using the same methodology as the widely used WATCH Forcing Data (WFD) by making use of the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The studied meteorological variables are Rs, Tmoy, U2, P, RH and ET0, with the scores RMSE, bias and R pearson. Regarding the AGRI4CAST dataset, the scores are established over different periods according to variables based on stepping between the observed and interpolated data. The scores show good correlations between the observed temperatures, but with a spatial variability bound to the stations elevations. The moderate and interpolated radiations also show a good concordance indicating a good reliability. The R pearson score obtained for the values of relative humidity show a good correlation between the observations and the interpolations, however, the short periods of comparisons do not allow obtaining significant information and the RMSE and bias are important. Wind speed has an important negative bias for a majority of stations (positively for only one). Only one station shows concordances between the data. The study of the data indicates that we shall have to adjust
Full Text Available Never before has food been as safe and secure as it is today, but simultaneously, society has become increasingly critical towards agricultural and food related issues. This two-sided development between society and agribusiness will be analyzed using Framing Theory. A quantitative semantic analysis was applied to evaluate the web-based social media in Germany. 50,931 web posts were collected covering 21 issues identified as relevant for the agri-food sector. The results show that all contentious issues are mainly framed in a two-sided way. The modern productivity-driven industry is judged as a negative development, trends returning to a more natural food production are seen as positive.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyse the functioning of agricultural farms located in the areas of Natura 2000 network. The research was conducted in 2015 among 70 farmers whose lands were located in the Valley of Biebrza River in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The main research method was a questionnaire. According to the results of the research, the agri-environmental scheme is a proper tool that combines the environmental protection and local producers’ interests; however, it requires the implementation of a supplement adjusted to the nature of the areas. It is also indicated that even though the economic part of the program does not raise any doubts, the natural eff ects are practically not recognized, which may lead to an incomplete protection of precious species and habitats.
Anastasio J. Villanueva
Full Text Available Agri-environmental schemes (AES in irrigated olive groves (IOG in southern Spain were assessed based on farmers’ preferences toward these schemes. A choice experiment was used in this ex-ante assessment, with the inclusion of some innovative elements, such as collective participation and ecological focus areas (EFA. The results showed that farmers’ mean willingness to accept (WTA participation in collective rather than individual AES was €124.5/ha. Their mean WTA for an additional 1% of EFA was €64.6/ha, while regarding the use of other agri-environmental practices, they showed a WTA of €6.3/ha and €114.7/ha for an additional 1% in the use of cover crops (CC in olive grove areas and restrictive management of CC, respectively. These estimates were strongly influenced by farmers’ expectations and socio-economic characteristics, as well as farm management. We obtained that farmers’ expectations of no farm takeover reduce WTA for collective participation, whereas agricultural training and having at least a secondary-school education reduce farmers’ WTA for EFA and restrictive management of the CC, respectively. Conversely, harvesting ground olives increased farmers’ WTA for a high proportion of the area under CC. The analysis of the AES scenarios showed moderately high estimates of total WTA (€101-349/ha, especially when collective participation is required (€225-474/ha. The results supported the argument that there are efficient ways to encourage public goods provision, overcoming trade-offs with private goods provision by identifying the type of joint production.
Rajić, Andrijana; Young, Ian; McEwen, Scott A
Knowledge translation and transfer (KTT) aims to increase research utilization and ensure that the best available knowledge is used to inform policy and practice. Many frameworks, methods, and terms are used to describe KTT, and the field has largely developed in the health sector over the past decade. There is a need to review key KTT principles and methods in different sectors and evaluate their potential application in agri-food public health. We conducted a structured mixed-method review of the KTT literature. From 827 citations identified in a comprehensive search, we characterized 160 relevant review articles, case studies, and reports. A thematic analysis was conducted on a prioritized and representative subset of 33 articles to identify key principles and characteristics for ensuring effective KTT. The review steps were conducted by two or more independent reviewers using structured and pretested forms. We identified five key principles for effective KTT that were described within two contexts: to improve research utilization in general and to inform policy-making. To ensure general research uptake, there is a need for the following: (1) relevant and credible research; (2) ongoing interactions between researchers and end-users; (3) organizational support and culture; and (4) monitoring and evaluation. To inform policy-making, (5) researchers must also address the multiple and competing contextual factors of the policy-making process. We also describe 23 recommended and promising KTT methods, including six synthesis (e.g., systematic reviews, mixed-method reviews, and rapid reviews); nine dissemination (e.g., evidence summaries, social media, and policy briefs); and eight exchange methods (e.g., communities of practice, knowledge brokering, and policy dialogues). A brief description, contextual example, and key references are provided for each method. We recommend a wider endorsement of KTT principles and methods in agri-food public health, but there are
Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)
The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)
V Haaren, Christina; Bathke, Manfred
Until now, existing remuneration of environmental services has not sufficiently supported the goals of spending money more effectively on the environment and of motivating farmers. Only a small share of the budgets for agriculture in the EU, as well as in US and other countries, is available for buying environmental goods and services beyond the level of good farming practice (GFP). This combined with the insufficient targeting of compensation payments to areas where special measures are needed leads to an unsatisfactorily low impact of agri-environment measures compared to other driving forces that stimulate the intensification of farming. The goal of this paper is to propose a management concept that enhances the ecological and cost efficiency of agri-environment measures. Components of the concept are a comprehensive environmental information base with prioritised goals and targets (available in Germany from landscape planning) and new remuneration models, which complement conventional compensation payments that are based upon predetermined measures and cost. Comprehensive landscape planning locates and prioritises areas which require environmental action. It contains the information that authorities need to prioritise funding for environmental services and direct measures to sites which need environmental services beyond the level of GFP. Also appropriate remuneration models, which can enhance the cost efficiency of public spending and the motivation of the farmers, can be applied on the base of landscape planning. Testing of the planning methodology and of one of the remuneration models (success-oriented remuneration) in a case study area ("Fuhrberger Feld" north of Hanover, Germany) demonstrated the usability of the concept and led to proposals for future development of the methodology and its application in combination with other approaches.
Villanueva, A. J.; Gómez-Limón, J.A.; Arriaza, M.; Rodríguez-Entrena, M.
Agri-environmental schemes (AES) in irrigated olive groves (IOG) in southern Spain were assessed based on farmers’ preferences toward these schemes. A choice experiment was used in this ex-ante assessment, with the inclusion of some innovative elements, such as collective participation and ecological focus areas (EFA). The results showed that farmers’ mean willingness to accept (WTA) participation in collective rather than individual AES was €124.5/ha. Their mean WTA for an additional 1% of EFA was €64.6/ha, while regarding the use of other agri-environmental practices, they showed a WTA of €6.3/ha and €114.7/ha for an additional 1% in the use of cover crops (CC) in olive grove areas and restrictive management of CC, respectively. These estimates were strongly influenced by farmers’ expectations and socio-economic characteristics, as well as farm management. We obtained that farmers’ expectations of no farm takeover reduce WTA for collective participation, whereas agricultural training and having at least a secondary-school education reduce farmers’ WTA for EFA and restrictive management of the CC, respectively. Conversely, harvesting ground olives increased farmers’ WTA for a high proportion of the area under CC. The analysis of the AES scenarios showed moderately high estimates of total WTA (€101-349/ha), especially when collective participation is required (€225-474/ha). The results supported the argument that there are efficient ways to encourage public goods provision, overcoming trade-offs with private goods provision by identifying the type of joint production. (Author)
王东亭; 饶秀勤; 应义斌
Nowadays, agri-products production and distribution systems are becoming more and more interdependent, integrated, and globalized. The two main themes toward agri-products around the modern world include maintaining safety and improving quality. Based on the information communication technologies (ICTs) and the internet of things (IOT) technologies, traceability through the entire agri-products supply chain will effectively address safety, quality, and defense issues of agri-products by providing precise, real-time, transparent, and reliable information from the farm to the table. Traceability systems are capable of minimizing the degree of information asymmetry between producers and consumers by collecting and sharing information among all partners of the supply chain, promoting the agri-products safety responsibility by implement track and trace functions along the supply chain, and helping strengthen confidence of the customers toward agri-products. Since traceability systems are becoming an important tool for monitoring and managing agri-product flows through the supply chains, many developing and developed countries around the world put great focus on them and try to introduce traceability into various kinds of agri-products supply chains. This review described and summarized the latest progress of the agri-products traceability development in the most advanced regions of agriculture produce all over the world, which comprised three main aspects:laws and regulations, standards and norms, and promotion and implementation. The agri-product traceability legal system has been developed in the Europe Union (EU), which puts "No. 178/2002 Act"at its core. It is divided into two levels:the upper level is the basic laws that set general principles, relatively; the lower level is specific articles and requirements for different kinds of agri-products based on the upper level. The EU started the Promoting European Traceability Excellence&Research (PETER) project from
Impacts of Changing Agri-Environmental Policy on Countryside Conservation: A Report of Focus Groups Held in Association with Skaneateles Lake Watershed, Skaneateles, NY, USA, and High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Goudhurst, Kent, England, UK
Gross, David; Bills, Nelson L.
Utilizing area-based agri-environmental programs, our work involves focus groups and interviews with program managers, landowners, and elected officials to assess the impact of on-farm managerial interventions on broader countryside conservation issues. Initially, two areas were compared: The Skaneateles Lake Watershed Agricultural Program (NY) and the High Weald Land Management Initiative (England). The organizing principle for this research is that the British experience with countryside ma...
Plaggenhoef, van, W.
Introduction During the last decade, concerns about quality and safety in agri-food supply chains have been raised. Several sector-wide crises, such as the BSE and the dioxin crises, classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease and Aviaire Influenza have fuelled these concerns. These concerns may not only be limited to safety and quality issues, but also important ethical concerns are raised, for example, concerning preventive slaughtering of animals. Due to all this attention, consumers ...
Randall Nicola P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Agriculture is the dominant land use throughout much of Europe. Changes to farming practices have led to concerns about negative impacts on biodiversity, and current agricultural policy has an emphasis towards conservation. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe the nature and coverage of research pertaining to the effectiveness of integrated farm management, organic farming and agri-environment schemes as interventions for conserving biodiversity in temperate Europe. Systematic mapping methodology was adapted from social sciences, and used to create a searchable database of relevant research. Methods Searches were made of 10 electronic databases containing peer reviewed journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings and organisational reports. Web searches for relevant research were also made. The title and abstracts of results were examined for relevance. Studies were included when published in English, when an intervention was applied to increase biodiversity or species diversity on farmland, and where there was a measured effect on study organism(s. Correlative and manipulative studies from temperate Europe were included. The research was incorporated into a searchable database (systematic map and key wording used to describe, categorise and code studies. Results The searches identified 83,590 records. Following removal of duplicates and the application of inclusion criteria, 743 references were coded for the final systematic map database. Most of the studies reported were from Western Europe, particularly from the UK. Invertebrates were the most commonly studied organism followed by plants and birds, and field margins were the most commonly studied biotope. Conclusions The systematic map describes the scope of research on the topic. It can be used to inform future primary research, or research synthesis and evaluation methods such as systematic review. Areas for which there appear to be evidence gaps
Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano
Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.
Margiotta, S.; Lettino, A.; Speranza, A.; Summa, V.
A PM1 geochemical and mineralogical study using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed on a pilot site in the Agri Valley which is close to the oil pre-treatment plant (C.O.V.A) of Europe's largest on-shore hydrocarbon reservoir. The study identified PM1 geochemical and mineralogical characters in the period before, during and immediately after a burning torch flare event. The finer fraction (DFe μm) consisted mainly of secondary particles and soot. In the coarser fraction (DFe ≥ 0.7 μm), natural particles originating from crustal erosion and soot were abundant. Fine quartz particles and lower Al / Si ratios are markers for desert dust origin, proving that a Saharan dust episode which occurred during the observation period played a significant role in supplying geogenic aerosol components to the PM1. Largest amounts of ≥ 0.7 μm fraction particles observed on the day of flare event may be due to a greater supply of Saharan geogenic particles. Soot had been significantly increasing long before the flare event, suggesting that this increase is also related to other causes, although we cannot exclude a contribution from flaring. S-rich aerosol consisted mainly of mixed particles originating from deposition and heterogeneous nucleation of secondary sulfates on mineral dust. Only-S particles were identified in the ≥ 0.7 μm fraction following the flare event. These particles may be indicators of larger amounts of sulphur in the atmosphere.
Full Text Available Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1 capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2 predict the sugar (resp. the acidity concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg. FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.
Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel
Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.
Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Sedy, Katrin; Spiegel, Heide; Zethner, Gerhard
Several agri-environment measures in Austria are presumed to also mitigate climate change. These are mainly measures that lead to an increase or stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable soils, like e.g. organic farming, legumes and cover crops in the crop rotation as well as the application of organic fertilizers. A reduction of mineral fertiliser application may also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study aim to evaluate different agricultural practices on their impact on SOC changes. Data from long term field experiments in Austria with different tillage systems and incorporation rates of crop residues and manure are used to determine effects of agricultural practices on SOC changes. Management factors that compare results from different activities on cropland are calculated and compared with international data. Furthermore these data are used to verify results gained from the application of humus balance model (VDLUFA). For the upscaling of potential SOC changes at regional level (federal states of Austria) data of the IACS - Integrated Administrative Control System are applied in the humus balance model. In order to cover the range of possible SOC changes three different approaches of the humus balance model are introduced and the results will be presented.
Yang, Bai-Ren; Sun, Zhu-Qiu; Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Zhao-Xia; Ding, Cheng
A strain, Brevibacillus agri DH-1, isolated from dry lands was used to remove m-dichlorobenzene. After 48h culturing, the concentrations of m-dichlorobenzene decreased from 26-130 to 7.87-28.87mg/L and dry cell weight for bacterial growth reached 52.43-75.05mg/L. The growth and degradation kinetics were analyzed by the fitting of Haldane-Andrews model and pseudo first-order model. A degradation pathway was proposed according to major intermediates (phenol), chloride ion variation, ring-opening enzyme activity, and high mineralization (0.47gCl-/gm-dichlorobenzene, 0.65 gco2/gm-dichlorobenzene, 0.15 gDCW/gm-dichlorobenzene). In addition, the performance in a biotrickling filter (BTF) was evaluated through removal efficiency and pressure drop values with increasing inlet loading rate from 4.10 to 122.57g/m(3)/h at three empty bed residence time points (30s, 60s, and 90s). The results demonstrated that strain DH-1 possessed high removal efficiency and stable operation in a BTF.
Full Text Available Italy is the European country with the highest amphibian richness and endemism. However distributional data from some Southern Italy areas are scanty, in particularly for the Basilicata region. In this study, we present the results of field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Appennino Lucano, Val d’Agri e Lagonegrese” National Park (almost 70,000 ha. We recorded breeding activity of 12 amphibian species in 307 sites, for a total of 493 records. For some endemic species we provide new ecological data, such as new altitudinal limit (Salamandrina terdigitata or expansion of the annual activity cycle (Bombina pachypus. Indices of diffusion, density and rarity were applied to test the status of each species in the Park. Correspondence analyses showed a clear aquatic habitat partitioning between anurans and urodelans and, concerning the latter, between newts and salamanders, newts being strictly dependent on artificial water bodies. Our results support the growing idea, recently formalized by the IUCN, that maintaining and restoring artificial water bodies may be fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibian communities in Mediterranean rural landscapes.
Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.
Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.
Koen C. Mertens
Full Text Available Ample research is conducted on ICT, automation and robotics in agriculture and related environmental issues. ICT and Robotics innovations are rapidly emerging and have the ability to revolutionize future farming through their major impacts on productivity and profitability. Unfortunately human and financial resources and efforts are fragmented and limited. This led to the creation of the ICT-AGRI ERA-NET that provides a central structured framework. Its main objective is to strengthen and coordinate European research regarding ICT and robotics in agriculture. Besides the creation of the Meta Knowledge Base (MKB, a common European research agenda will be developed and common research calls are launched. The Meta Knowledge Base (http://db-ictagri.eu is attempting to map all relevant research and development within the selected research area. To accomplish the mapping, two types of information are collected: research profiles and research postings. To organize the postings, a three-dimensional task-technology oriented framework was designed. The results indicated that the three axes: task, technology and scope seemed insufficient to describe the whole research area. Therefore, an improved framework was developed. By extending the task-technology oriented framework with a process-control–information system, a useful framework was designed.
Won, S.; Lau, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering
This presentation reported on an experimental study in which biohydrogen was produced via anaerobic fermentation of dairy wastewater using a 6 L sequencing batch reactor. Tests were performed at ambient temperature and varying pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The seed sludge was not pretreated. The tests showed that methanogenic activity could be suppressed via short HRT and large OLR changes. However, the maximum hydrogen production rate was only 0.08 L/L per day without pH control. The rate of hydrogen production increased considerably when sucrose-rich synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate, and when pH was controlled. When HRT was reduced from 2.5 days to 1.25 days, observed hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate reached 73 per cent and 4.38 L/L per day, respectively, for an optimal pH of 4.0. Volatile fatty acid was analyzed in order to determine the microbial metabolic pathway that favours increased hydrogen production. It was concluded that the co-fermentation of agri-food wastewater could improve the utilization of animal wastewater for the production of biohydrogen.
Lacava, T.; Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.
Gas flaring is one of the most controversial energetic and environmental issues the Earth is facing, moreover contributing to the global warming and climate change. According to the World Bank, each year about 150 Billion Cubic Meter of gas are being flared globally, that is equivalent to the annual gas use of Italy and France combined. Besides, about 400 million tons of CO2 (representing about 1.2% of global CO2 emissions) are added annually into the atmosphere. Efforts to evaluate the impact of flaring on the surrounding environment are hampered by lack of official information on flare locations and volumes. Suitable satellite based techniques could offers a potential solution to this problem through the detection and subsequent mapping of flare locations as well as gas emissions estimation. In this paper a new methodological approach, based on the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was developed to analyze and characterize the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (ENI-COVA) located in Val d'Agri (Basilicata) For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the RST approach was implemented on 13 years of EOS-MODIS (Earth Observing System - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data to detect COVA-related thermal anomalies and to develop a regression model for gas flared volume estimation. The methodological approach, the whole processing chain and the preliminarily achieved results will be shown and discussed in this paper. In addition, the possible implementation of the proposed approach on the data acquired by the SUOMI NPP - VIIRS (National Polar-orbiting Partnership - Visible Infrared Imaging
Ernst Jacobus Marais
Full Text Available Section 25 of the Constitution provides two ways in which the state may interfere with property rights, namely deprivation (section 25(1 and expropriation (section 25(2. As only the latter requires compensation, there is an incentive for property holders to label any infringement with their property as expropriation in the hope of being compensated for their losses. It is therefore essential to have a principled distinction between deprivation and expropriation, especially given the danger that uncertainty in this regard can hold for legitimate land reform initiatives, which often entail severe limitations on property. This contribution attends to Agri South Africa v Minister for Minerals and Energy 2013 4 SA 1 (CC, where the Constitutional Court recently revisited this distinction and held that the distinguishing feature of expropriation is that it entails state acquisition of property. Without state acquisition the interference can (at most amount to deprivation. Unfortunately, viewing state acquisition as the "key requirement" for expropriation is problematic. Firstly, it ignores the true nature of this feature in that it is only a consequence of a valid expropriation rather than a pre-requisite for it – at least in terms of pre-constitutional law. It is therefore inaccurate, concerning both pre- and post-constitutional expropriation case law, to regard acquisition as an indispensable requirement for expropriation. Secondly, limiting the constitutional property inquiry to whether or not the state acquired property appears inadequate as a means of solving difficult cases where the state acquires property pursuant to infringements like taxation and criminal forfeiture. As both these examples result in state acquisition, there must be another explanation of why they do not amount to expropriation.
张建国; 孟明浩; 崔会平; 俞益武; 张明如
城市扩张、旅游发展和村民生活质量改善,一直是古村落保护面临的重要问题.试图通过在外围构建休闲农业产业来破解诸葛古村保护与发展面临的难题.通过规划发展休闲农业产业,形成古村落核心区一休闲农业带-外围生态恢复区的圈层发展模式,打造古村落的生态围墙,化解城市扩张对古村落的威胁.中圈层休闲农业产业带将布局旅游功能区,各旅游功能区可有效提升诸葛村景区的旅游接待能力,减轻旅游对村民生活的冲击,促进村民就业,保护生态环境,实现古村落保护与社区经济社会发展的共赢.%The protection and preservation of the ancient villages always faced such key issues as urban expansion, tourism development and the improvement of villagers＇life quality. Attempt to solve the problems of ancient village protection and development, peripheral agri-tourism industry was construsted. A plan was drawn to guide the development of agri-tourism industry and the circle development model including ancient village core zone, agri-tourism belt and peripheral ecological restoration area was formed. It would constitute the ecological walls around the ancient village, which could dissolve the threat from the city expansion. Tourism functional areas were distributed by the agri-tourism middle belt to effectively increase the tourism reception capacity of Zhuge village scenic zone, reduce the impact of tourism on villager＇s life, promote the villager＇s employment, protect the natural environment and achieve a win-win situation in the protection of ancient village and community, economic and social development.
Improta, L.; Valoroso, L.; Piccinini, D.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.
The Val d'Agri basin in the Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe. High-quality recordings from a temporary dense network unravel a swarm of 111 small-magnitude events (ML ≤ 1.8) occurred in June 2006 during the first stage of wastewater injection into a high-rate well. 3D absolute locations and high-precision relative locations define a high-angle fault located 1 km below the well inside fractured and saturated carbonates where wastewater is re-injected. Seismicity begins 3 hours after the initiation of injection. The seismicity rate strictly correlates with injection curves and temporal variations of elastic and anisotropic parameters. Seismicity is induced by rapid communication of pore pressure perturbations along a high permeability fault-zone favorably oriented with respect to the extensional stress field. The spatiotemporal distribution of events agrees with an isotropic hydraulic diffusivity of 0.8 m2/s, which corresponds to high permeability values on the order of 10-13 m2/s. Such high permeability values are coherent with hydraulic well-tests in the very productive hydrocarbon reservoir and with the presence of a widespread system of open and conductive fractures in the carbonates that strike NW-SE parallel to the maximum horizontal stress of the extensional stress regime. Over the following 8 years, 235 events (ML ≤ 2.2) were recorded within 5 km of the disposal well by permanent stations of the local operator network and of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. Accurate 3D locations concentrate on the fault and unravel that after June 2006 micro-seismicity migrated upwards and downwards along the fault measuring 5-km along dip. Subsurface data show that the fault is a pre-existing blind back-thrust of an inherited fold-thrust system developed in the carbonate reservoir during Pliocene-Early Pleistocene. The seismicity rate correlates with short-term increases in injection pressure of the disposal well.
Cecília Geraldes Martins
Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life of minimally processed (MP watercress exposed to gamma radiation with doses of 1.0; 3.0; 4.0 kGy. Packaged irradiated and non-irradiated MP watercress was subject to sensory analysis. A panel consisting of 25-30 non-trained members, aged 20-55 years, was used. Sensory evaluation was carried out on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 after treatment with packages maintained at 7 °C. The members of the panel rated each sample for overall liking on a hybrid 10 hedonic scale (0 = extremely dislike; 10 = extremely like. Microbiological analyses were also conducted. Compared to the non-irradiated sample, 1 kGy irradiated watercress increased its shelf life by one day (16 days. Shelf lives of samples exposed to higher doses were reduced to 9 days (3 kGy and 6 days (4 kGy due to changes in appearance. The microbiological quality was good throughout the experiment.Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a vida de prateleira de agrião minimamente processado exposto a doses de 1,0; 3,0 e 4,0 kGy. Amostras de agrião não irradiadas e irradiadas foram submetidas à análise sensorial. Um painel composto por 25-30 membros não treinados e idade entre 20 e 55 anos foi utilizado. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada nos tempos 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 e 12 após o tratamento com radiação, utilizando embalagens mantidas sob refrigeração (7 °C. Os provadores avaliaram cada amostra utilizando a escala hedônica híbrida de 10 cm (0 = desgostei muitíssimo; 10 = gostei muitíssimo. Em paralelo foram realizadas análises microbiológicas. A amostra de agrião irradiada com 1 kGy apresentou vida de prateleira de 16 dias, um dia a mais que a da amostra testemunha. Por outro lado, amostras expostas a doses de 3 e 4 kGy apresentaram vida de prateleira menor, com 9 dias e 6 dias, respectivamente. A qualidade microbiológica do produto permaneceu adequada durante o experimento.
Full Text Available O agriãozinho é uma planta daninha de grande importância em pastagens do Brasil e apresenta destacada agressividade, sendo seu controle, portanto, desejável para o sucesso da produção forrageira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle químico de Synedrellopsis grisebachii na fase reprodutiva e as suas consequências sobre as características germinativas dos aquênios da planta daninha. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação dos herbicidas glyphosate (100, 200, 900 e 1.800 g ha-1, paraquat (34, 68, 300 e 600 g ha-1 e triclopyr (75, 150, 667 e 1.334 g ha-1, além da testemunha sem aplicação. Foram coletados aquênios aos 15 dias após a aplicação, sendo estes submetidos ao teste de germinação, determinando-se a porcentagem e o índice de velocidade de germinação. Após 29 dias em germinação, verificou-se a viabilidade dos aquênios não germinados, através do teste de tetrazólio. A eficácia dos herbicidas foi avaliada por meio de notas visuais de controle aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 DAA. Conclui-se que para o controle total de S. grisebachii, em estádio reprodutivo, é necessária a aplicação de 1.334 g ha-1 de triclopyr. Nesse estádio, a planta apresentou grande tolerância ao glyphosate e também ao paraquat. Quanto às características germinativas da progênie, o herbicida triclopyr nas doses de 150 e 667 g ha-1 promoveu redução na velocidade de germinação e na viabilidade, enquanto o glyphosate e paraquat não proporcionaram efeito.Synedrellopsis grisebachii is a weed of great importance for pastures in Brazil, presenting outstanding aggressiveness, with its control being thus desirable for successful forage production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical control of S. grisebachii at their reproductive phase and their effects on the germination characteristics of the weed's achenes. The treatments consisted of applying the herbicides glyphosate (100, 200, 900, and 1.800 g ha-1, paraquat (34, 68
柯彬发; 吕本富; 刘泳伦
目的是以台湾地区休闲农场为研究对象,首先以德尔菲法,结合许多专家意见来建立休闲农业在营销评价指针项目,并以平衡计分卡观点,建构休闲农业绩效评估因素,接着利用模糊层级分析法分析出休闲农场在营销服务方面相关因素及权重比,并推导各因素构面重要性及大小顺序,提供业者作为一有效经营参考指标.研究结果显示:休闲农业营销绩效评价指标有3项一级指标(主构面),14项二级指标(次构面).在一级评价指标当中,依序为游客满意度(0.564)、游客贡献度(0.247)、休闲农场对游客吸引力(0.189).在对应于一级指标中,各二级指针最重要项目分别为:年度游客量(0.086)、服务满意度(0.116)、年净利润(0.154).而依两层级串联后权重值×100得知,14项指标中最重要的前三项分别为:游客对休闲农场人员服务满意度(6.543)、整体环境满意度(4.738)、餐饮满意度(5.584).%The objective of this paper is to construct a marketing performance indication model for the agri-tourism farms in Taiwan. At first, the Delphi method was used to collect a number of indicators related to the marketing performance conducted by agri-tourism farms, and then applied the approach of BSC (Balanced Scorecard) to build up the crucial factors which greatly affect the marketing performance, and the fuzzy AHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process: FAHP) is applied to analyze the weight of each factors in the dimension of marketing performance, and gave the various factors weight indicator and ranking order. These findings would be very useful for the decision-makers of the agri-tourism farms to improve their performance in the operations of marketing. The findings of this paper are: Three dimensions in first level, 14 secondary indicators in second level (subordinate, dimension). Secondly, in an evaluation of performance of agricultural marketing, which, the higher the value of fuzzy solution, and
las compañías pero que no se traduce necesariamente en desarrollo social. Esta situación indica la exclusión de los circuitos globales como una estrategia democrática de desarrollo socio-económico.This article is aimed at examining the main characteristics of the process of globalization of the agri-food system regarding Latin America's socioeconomic development. The vast literature on globalization is summarized in three distinct groups. Radical neoliberals argue that globalization represents the necessary prescription for advancing the world socioeconomic development. Interventionist-centrists sustain that even though market dynamics have a central role, it is not possible to keep social and economic balance without state intervention. The third group criticizes globalization and defines it as a contradictory system that widens the gap between rich and poor countries and the gap between social classes within individual countries. Based on three case studies, this work examines three hypotheses generated by this debate. The first one concerns the workings of free market; the second one refers to the state's power and role; and the third one is related to the issue of democracy. The conclusion is that the market is strongly conditioned by transnational corporations and their actions negatively affect several social groups. It is also argued that the state keeps important powers, which, however, are being used to advance transnational corporations' interests, thus creating favorable conditions to capital's hypermobility. Regarding the third subject it is pointed out that globalization restrains popular participation in decision-making processes but simultaneously generates resistance and social mobilization. The conclusions underline that globalization generates a crisis in national development programs since economic growth is more based on the regional-global axis. It is also said that inclusion in global circles tends to increase benefits to companies but that
邱生荣; 梁康迳; 范水生
为了探讨两岸休闲农业产业一体化发展对于两岸休闲农业资源整合与产业对接作用的机理,从互补合作的角度系统地分析了两岸休闲农业合作一体化发展的5个基础:共同的市场、共同的机遇、共同的挑战、共同的利益、共同的历史渊源.研究结果认为,推进两岸休闲农业合作一体化路径的关键在于克服两岸的体制阻碍,通过共同的市场弥补双方的差异与分歧,在选择和优化合作模式的同时,加快扶持政策的创新,为两岸休闲农业合作的进一步深化创造更好的条件.%In order to figure out the theoretical mechanism of agri-tourism cooperation and integration between Taiwan and mainland China, the author analyzed 5 common bases (the common market, common opportunities and common challenges, common interests and common historical origin) for agri-tourism cooperation and integration between Taiwan and mainland China by the perspective of agricultural cooperation and integration. The study concluded that the key to promote agri-tourism cooperation and integration between Taiwan and mainland China was to overcome the institutional obstacles, compensate for the differences and differences between the two sides by the common market. Meanwhile, the agri-tourism industry both in Taiwan and mainland China could select the new cooperation model, then, it would improve the policies innovation and get better conditions for agri-tourism industry.
刘东红; 周建伟; 莫凌飞
With in-depth development of the technologies of internet of things ( IOT) , they have been increasingly applied in food and agri-food areas. The RFID (radio frequency identification) and WSN (wireless sensor networks) in principles, techniques and other related information were introduced, a more comprehensive summarization and analysis of these technologies and applications in agricultural and food industry during recent years were given, such as food processing, food-safety control, the food supply chain traceability and tracking, etc. The problems and solutions were also discussed. Furthermore, suggestions for future research and application areas were put forward.%物联网( IOT)技术正被越来越多地应用在食品及农产品领域.首先简介了无线射频识别标签( RFID)和无线传感器网络(WSN)的原理和技术,然后较全面地分析归纳了近年来这些技术在食品、农产品的生产监控、安全监管及供应链的溯源与追踪等领域的应用研究现状,并分析了存在的问题和解决途径,最后展望了这些 技术今后的发展趋势和应用前景.
Full Text Available The study discusses the agri-environment scheme, which gained a high position in the process of integration of environmental protection in the framework of the CAP. The purpose of the payments was to encourage farmers to protect and improve the environment. The farmers were required to apply environmentally friendly techniques and practices for a period of fi ve years. Received payments had additional reimbursement of extra costs and decreased income resulting from the application of environment-friendly practices. Agrienvironmental scheme was realized through packages and variants, whose number diff ered in time. In 2004–2006, agrienvironmental scheme included approximately 70 thousand of agricultural holdings, which labored on the surface of the 1.4 million ha. In the next programming period (2007–2013 the benefi ciaries submitted 448,6 thousand applications, and the level of payment amounted to PLN 6.7 billion. The program of the current fi nancial perspective (2014–2020 includes 2058,9 thousand ha of agricultural land, as compared to the total area of agricultural land in the country in the amount of 14609 ha of agricultural land represents 14.1%
为求解以混合整数规划(MIP)模型表征的农产品供应链网络(Agri-food Supply Chain Network,ASCN)优化设计问题,提出了基于混合粒子群算法(Particle Swarm Algorithm,PSA)的优化方法.分别将单邻域搜索和简化变邻域搜索作为局部搜索技术嵌入PSA中构建了两种混合PSAs.由混合PSA搜索MIP中二元决策变量,随后由LINGO求解MIP导出的线性规划问题并获取解.以陕西苹果产业集群的ASCN设计及其修改案例为例,验证了基于混合PSA优化方法的有效性.案例计算结果对比表明,增加局部搜索可显著增强PSA全局寻优能力,且简化变邻域搜索在改善PSA全局搜索能力上优于单邻域搜索.
Under the information asymmetry and market supervision lack of agri-food quality,the excessively rigorous standard of maximum residue limits（MRLs）for pesticide in agrifood is not only unbeneficial to protect consumer health and ecological environment,but also aggregate serious pesticide residues in agrifood.Taking national standard Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides in Food（GB2763-2005）as a case,calculated the Theory Daily Intake（TDI）related agrifoods of 439 residue indexes of 126 pesticides with the quantity relation between MRLs,acceptable daily intake（ADI）and TDI,and compared with the customer＇s Real Daily Intake（RDI）related agrifoods.It was found that there were 111 residue indexes related agri-foods which TDI were overly above and beyond their RDI of Chinese residents,accounted for 23.22% of 478 pesticide residue indexes in this national standards.This evidence proved that the national standard had the excessively rigorous tendency really and suggested our government would revise this standard at once in order to eliminate the food safety management trap.%在农产品质量信息不对称、市场监管不到位的情况下,农药最大残留限量标准制定过严,不但不能保护消费者健康和农业生态环境,反而会加剧农产品的农药残留问题泛滥。利用农药最大残留限量（MRLs）、日允许摄入量（ADI）与被测食品每日最大理论摄入量（TDI）三者之间的数量关系,以《食品中农药最大残留限量》GB2763-2005为例,计算了126种农药439个残留指标的TDI值,发现有111个残留指标的TDI值远远大于我国居民每日实际摄入量（RDI）,占GB2763-2005国家标准478个残留限量指标的23.22%,表明我国农药最大残留限量国家标准部分指标值设定存在过严的倾向,建议政府尽快修订该标准,以消除食品安全管理隐患。
Análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica de México en ciencias agricolas a través de las bases de datos internacionales, "Agricola", "Agris", "Cab Abstracts", "Science Citation Index", "Social Science Citation Index" y "Tropag & Rural", en el periodo 1983-2002
Ángel BRAVO VINAJA
En este trabajo de investigación se caracteriza la producción científica mexicana en el área de las Ciencias Agrícolas, utilizando para ello indicadores bibliométricos unidimensionales y multidimensionales de actividad científica, mediante los cuales se analiza por un lado la producción obtenida en las bases de datos: Agricola, Agris, Cab Abstracts, Tropag & Rural, Science Citation Index (SCI) y Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), y por el otro, la producción indexada solamente en las bases...
薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均
Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of different Agri soil conditioner application rates (0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/ha) on aroma components,sensory quality and economic characteristics of flue-cured tobacco leaves. The results showed that increasing soil conditioner application rates, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites,aromatic amino acid catabolites and total aroma components, aroma quality and yield of leaf increased, output value, average price and proportion of high grade leaf raised at first and then reduced. At the conditioner application rate of 11.25 kg/ha, the contents of Maillard reaction products,carotenoid catabolites, aromatic amino acid catabolites, and total aroma components,aroma quality and yield of leaf were higher,and output value,average price and high grade leaf proportion were the highest.%通过田间试验研究了Agri土壤调理剂不同用量(0,3.75,7.50,11.25,15.00 kg/hm2)对烟叶香味物质、感官质量和经济性状的影响.结果表明:随土壤调理剂用量的增加,烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量和香气质量提高,烟叶产量增加,烟叶产值、均价和上等烟比例先提高再降低.土壤调理剂用量11.25 kg/hm2时烟叶美拉德反应产物、类胡萝卜素降解产物、芳香族氨基酸降解产物、总香味物质含量、香气质量得分和产量较高,产值、均价和上等烟比例最高.
Natalino Perovano Filho
Full Text Available Durante o processamento da matéria-prima da indústria sucroalcooleira, gerase grande quantidade de efluentes com qualidades que impossibilitam seu lançamento em corpos de água sem o tratamento prévio. A biorremediação é usada para decompor resíduos orgânicos até um estado inócuo ou abaixo da concentração limite da legislação, tendo os fungos papel muito importante nessa estratégia por secretarem enzimas hidrolíticas. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o comportamento de fungos isolados de resíduos da estação de tratamento de efluentes de uma indústria sucroalcooleira frente à degradação de fenóis como o ácido tânico e de outros compostos de efluentes agroindustriais suplementados com nutrientes específicos. Dentre diferentes isolados, aqueles identificados como Aspergillus sp.e Cladosporium sp. apresentaram as melhores taxas de produção de enzimas degradadoras de ácido tânico, como a lacase, por exemplo, enquanto Mucor sp. foi o que melhor removeu a Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO e o conteúdo de fenóis totais, seguido por Cladosporium sp., Phanerochaeta chrysosporium e Geotrichum candidum.During the processing of raw materials from the sugar-alcohol industry, large quantities of wastewater is produced, which is inappropriate to release into water bodies without previous suitable treatment. The bioremediation is used to decompose organic waste until an innocuous condition or to a concentration below the limit under legislation; moreover fungi have very important role in this strategy due to the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. In the present study, we evaluated the behavior of fungi isolated from residuals of the waste treatment station from a sugar-alcohol industry in faceto the phenols degradation, as tannic acid and other compounds of agri-industrial wastewater supplemented with specific nutrients. Among different fungi, those identified as Aspergillus sp. and Cladosporium sp. presented the best rates of
Luning, P.A.; Vlieghere, de F.; Verhé, R.
Increasing public demand for adequate and safe food supply has led to extensive development in the field of plant-animal production, food processing, quality and safety procedures, food analysis and control and regulations. However, safety of food can only be guaranteed by the integration of control
Rasmussen, Birgitte; Vedsmand, Tomas
Denne rapport indeholder en rapportering af baggrundsstudier og workshops i forbindelse med projektet ’Jordbrugs- og fødevaresektorens udviklingsmuligheder i et regionalt innovationssystem perspektiv’. Baggrundsstudierne omfatter tilgange til regional regionaludvikling, strategi og innovation, er...
Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated retrospectively laboratory test results of 520 patient who has brucellosis suspect between 2002-2004 years. METHOD: We use to Rose-Bengal test, Wright agglutination test and the other laboratory results and demographic properties for diagnosis. RESULTS: Rose-Bengal test was positive in 39 patients (11.3 % sera. Wright agglutination test was found positive for 1/160 or higher titers in 18 (3.4% sera. CONCLUSION: Wright agglutination test gave higher positive results in summer and autumn months. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 485-488
Ramarao, D.; Agrawal, Rashmi; Rao, B. V. L. N.; Nanda, S. K.; Joshi, Girish P.
Purpose: Developing countries need to plan growth or expansion of education so as to provide required trained manpower for different occupational sectors. The paper assesses supply and demand of professional manpower in Indian agriculture and the demands are translated in to educational requirements. Methodology: The supply is assessed from the…
Niday, Karen [Cortland County Business Development Corporation, Cortland, NY (United States)
Establish and showcase energy independence at a small to medium scale farm by installing renewable energy equipment that will enable an agribusiness to survive using only energy that is generated onsite
农业技术扩散环境是指在一定时空范围内影响农业技术空间扩散的各种外部因素的综合体.遵循系统性、科学性和可靠性等原则,构建出农业技术扩散环境评价指标体系,借助SPSS软件和GIS技术对我国西北地区县域的农业技术扩散环境进行定量化评价与分析.结果表明:影响县域农业技术扩散环境的因素有耕地集约规模及农业发展水平、社会文化环境、科技信息环境及自然环境等方面;西北地区农业技术扩散环境整体水平不高,其空间分布规律具有明显的集聚特点,得分较高的地区集中在新疆北部、内蒙古西部和陕西的关中地区;而影响扩散环境的各项评价因子的空间分布呈现多样性特点.%The diffusion environment of agri-technique is a synthesis of various external factors that affect the spatial diffusion of agricultural technology in a certain temporal-spatial scope. It has a series of features, such as regionality,heterogeneity, dynamics, systematics and so on. Because of these features, the diffusion environment of agritechnique not only affects the direction and speed of spatial diffusion of agricultural technology, even becomes obstacle of spatial diffusion and affects the actual results finally. Following systemic principle, scientific principle and reliability principle and based on existing research results, the paper establishes the evaluation index system which includes 13 indexes from the four aspects that affect the spatial diffusion of agricultural technology such as the natural environment (soil,light and heat), agricultural input and output, agricultural science and technology information and cultural quality of the farmers. The paper applies SPSS software and GIS technology, using factor analysis method to make a quantitative evaluation and analysis of diffusion environment of agri-technique at country level in the northwestern China. The KMO of 0. 756 and cumulative variance
以农产品加工企业401名雇员为研究对象,采用问卷方式对变革型领导、心理授权和离职意向进行调查.结构方程模型和偏相关分析的结果表明,变革型领导对雇员离职意向存在负向关联,心理授权与雇员离职意向间也有负向关联.其中,变革型领导先影响直接资源,再影响心理资源,最后对离职意向起负向预测作用.心理授权在变革型领导和离职意向间所起中介作用得到了实证分析的支持.%Based on a survey of 401 employees from agri-food process corporations,transformational leadership,psychological empowerment and turnover intention were investigated with questionnaire. Both the results of structural equation modeling and partial correlations demonstrated that transformational leadership and psychological empowerment was negatively associated with turnover intention. Further more, psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention.
Due to the effect of uncertain factors such as seasonal weather, the output of agriculture produc-tion is uncertain given certain agricultural inputs. This paper addresses the issue of coordinating agri-food chain with perishable goods by revenue-sharing contract when both output and demand random factor are uniform distribution. Under revenue-sharing contract, a supplier decides on agricultural input (e) and de-liveries all goods with a price (ω) lower than its production cost per unit to the retailer while a retailer de-cides on the retail price (p) and return 1-Φ share (percentage) of its revenue to the supplier. Under such a contract, we analyze the basis of coordination of the chain and provide the relationship between ω and Φ as well as the range of Φ. A numerical example illustrates the correctness of our analysis. The results show that the revenue-sharing contract is able to coordinate the agri-food chain effectively and the optimal deci-sions of p and e are closely related to the demand price elasticity. The results also show the range of Φ is widen when the expected output increases.%生鲜农产品生产受季节性和天气等影响,投入一定农资后产出呈随机分布.本文考虑产出和需求扰动服从均匀分布情形下,单个生产商和零售商的供应链协调问题.在收益共享合同模式下,生产商决定农资投入数(e)并将单一产品以低于生产成本的价格(ω)全部出售给零售商,零售商制定销售价格(p)进行销售并支付约定比例(1-Φ)的收益补偿生产商.在分析供应链协调的条件后,说明了合同参数ω与Φ的关系和Φ设定范围.研究结果表明,收益共享合同能有效地协调供应链,且协调的p和e与需求价格弹性有关;并且Φ取值范围随影响产出的随机变量的期望值变大而增大.最后以数值箅例说明了分析结果的正确性.
Rumo ao desenvolvimento espacial sustentável? Explorando as implicações da nova bioeconomia no setor agroalimentar e na inovação regional Towards sustainable spatial development? Exploring the implications of the emerging bio-economy in agri-food and regional innovation
Full Text Available O paradigma da bioeconomia pode ser descrito como o conjunto das atividades econômicas que captam o valor latente em processos biológicos e nos biorecursos renováveis, para produzir melhores condições de saúde, além de crescimento e desenvolvimento sustentáveis. Este artigo faz uma revisão crítica do impacto da bioeconomia emergente sobre o desenvolvimento rural. São descritas algumas das consequências do desenvolvimento rural bioeconômico, na esfera agroalimentar e da inovação regional baseada em uma definição específica -e, de nosso ponto de vista, fraca -de Modernização Ecológica. A questão central, então, é: quais são as bases conceituais, a força impulsora, as expressões empíricas e as implicações do desenvolvimento bioeconômico? Argumenta-se que, embora a bioeconomia faça duras cobranças em relação à sustentabilidade, também deixa lacunas, apresenta al-guns efeitos secundários negativos, tanto ambientais como sociais, e corre o risco de ser uma economia parcial. Sustentamos, ainda, que a trajetória do desenvolvimento ecoeconômico pode constituir uma boa alternativa para localidades particularmente vulneráveis que queiram aumentar sua resiliência.The bio-economic paradigm can be described as those economic activities which capture the latent value in biological processes and renewable bioresources to produce improved health and sustainable growth and development. This article is a critical review of the impact of the emerging bio-economy in rural development. It describes some of its consequences in the sphere of agri-food and regional innovation based on a specific -and in our opinion weak - definition of Ecological Modernization. The central question then is: what are the conceptual roots, driving forces, empirical expressions and implications of bio-economic development? We argue that although the bio-economy makes severe sustainability claims, it also shows some missing links, has some negative
Vocational College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Professional"Four Phases and Five Steps"Entrepreneurial Training Mode Practice——Take Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College as an example%高职畜牧兽医专业"四阶段五环节"创业型人才培养模式实践探索——以江苏农牧科技职业学院为例
申峻松; 钱佳蓓; 王利刚; 洪俊
Target of higher vocational education not only to train the employed, but to nurture entrepreneurs, entrepreneur-ship to create more jobs. Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College makes effective exploration on Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Professional and personnel training, combined with professional edu-cation from entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial skills development starting formation of animal husbandry and vet-erinary professional"four-phase and five aspects"entrepreneurial training model of practice initiatives.%高职教育的目标不但要培养就业者,还要培养创业者,以创业带动更多人就业.江苏农牧科技职业学院对畜牧兽医专业创业型人才培养进行了有效探索,从创业教育结合专业教育,创业技能培养出发,形成了畜牧兽医专业"四阶段五环节"创业型人才培养模式的实践举措.
Effects of electrically transferred molecular information on the germination of garden cress Efectos de informaciÃƒÂ³n molecular transferida elÃƒÂ©ctricamente sobre la germinaciÃƒÂ³n de berro Efeitos de informaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o molecular transferida eletricamente sobre a germinaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o do agriÃƒÂ£o
Robert T. Leskovar
Full Text Available We followed a hypothesis that biologically relevant information from various substances can be non-chemically transferred to organisms through a combination of a high voltage electric field that can stably imprint information into water or a water solution. A special device was constructed, and a thoroughly tested biological sensor system (i.e. cress seedlings exposed to a defined heat stress, was used. The results demonstrate a clear evidence of biological effects of electrically imprinted information of biologically active substances into water solution, however not necessarily with an obvious connection to the effects of the original (donor substance. The growth reaction of cress seedlings was either stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on the time of the application. Keywords: Molecular information, electromagnetic transfer, heat stress, herbicide, cytokine, cress, germination. Efeitos de informaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o molecular transferida eletricamente sobre a germinaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o do agriÃƒÂ£o Resumo Seguimos a hipÃƒÂ³tese de que informaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o biologicamente relevante de vÃƒÂ¡rias substÃƒÂ¢ncias pode ser transferida de maneira nÃƒÂ£o quÃƒÂmica a organismos, atravÃƒÂ©s da combinaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o de um campo elÃƒÂ©trico de alta intensidade, que pode imprimir estavelmente informaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o na ÃƒÂ¡gua ou sistemas aquosos. Foi construÃƒÂdo um aparelho especial e foi utilizado um sistema sensor especial, amplamente provado (plantas de agriÃƒÂ£o expostas a estresse tÃƒÂ©rmico definido. Os resultados demonstram evidÃƒÂªncia dos efeitos de informaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o eletricamente impressa de substÃƒÂ¢ncias biologicamente ativas em soluÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂµes aquosas. No entanto, estes efeitos nÃƒÂ£o estÃƒÂ£o necessariamente ligados aos prÃƒÂ³prios da substÃƒÂ¢ncia original (doadora. A reaÃƒÂ§ÃƒÂ£o de
Company performance is increasingly dependent on continuous improvement and innovation. In order to manage innovation projects effectively, a number of internal and external business capabilities are important: The results of this study show that functional, and in particular integrative firm capabi
Dittrich, K.; Dagevos, H.; Jong, de F.; Seuneke, P.
Food and the city has never been a more urgent theme than today, and The European Union’s priority to commit to innovation in this field will certainly enhance its economic and external strength and improve its competitive position in the world of food and life sciences. Europea Netherlands held a s
Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T
Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... of resource use and emissions associated with a product’s life cycle can be aggregated into impact categories (e.g., nonrenewable energy use, land occupation, global warming, acidification, etc.) and further aggregated into overall damage impacts (e.g., impacts on biodiversity, human health, and resource...
Aramyan, L.H.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Kooten, van O.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
The last decade has seen an increasing interest in indicators of supply-chain performance. A large number of various performance indicators have been used to characterize supply chains, ranging from highly qualitative indicators like customer or employee satisfaction to quantitative indicators like
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the positioning of the so-called Made in Italy agro-food exports in foreign markets considering global world tendencies as well as country specific trends. Besides, we aim at disentangling the role of product quality from price competition as a driver of competitive advantages.To these ends, the work combines two different methodologies, applied in three steps. First, we estimate the elasticities of Italian exports, with respect to world imports, Italian export prices and the competitors’ prices. Second, an index of the sophistication of exports’ flows that captures the role of quality in global competition is calculated. Third, the estimated elasticities are compared with the changes in the sophistication levels.Results allow for product-specific trends to stem out from the overall picture. Exports’ performance varies according to the type of product and to the degree of market completion. Although, the Made In Italy aggregate seems overall competitive, the analysis pinpoints some drawbacks in the positioning of some products in the world arena. Focus on wine and on olive oil, two major Italian exporting sectors, helps in understanding the potential of the joint methodology adopted.
The paper aims at examining the hypothesis that the influence of trust on contract can be thought of as a dynamic factor of organizational choices in supply chains. The relationship between contract and trust is delineated on the basis of institutional environment, contractual incompleteness, safeguards and restrictive provisions. The interaction between individual and system elements in the formation of trust and its influence in hybrid contracting is considered. According to a New Instituti...
TANG Sai; WANG Jiheng; PAN Wenhua; WANG Tingrui; ZUO Hong
With the rapid development of Chinese economy,the question of credit is becoming more and more important.Especially in China rural area,building a new socialist countryside needs the support of finance.While as we all known,the financial system in rural area is not effective enough to promote the productivity and the level of welfare of household.
Verdouw, C.N.; Sundmaeker, H.; Meyer, F.; Wolfert, J.; Verhoosel, J.
The food and agribusiness is an important sector in European logistics with a share in the EU road transport of about 20 %. One of the main logistic challenges in this sector is to deal with the high dynamics and uncertainty in supply and demand. This paper defines requirements on Future Internet (F
Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
Second generation biofuels produced from “residual” biomasses are considered promising ways of producing bioenergy. However, many studies tend to forget that these biomasses are today used for specific purposes, (e.g. feeding). This means that their use for energy would induce cascading...... considered: combustion, fermentation to ethanol, and to biogas. The iLUC impacts were quantified and included in the assessment. The LCA results revealed that, for all scenarios, GHG emissions from indirect land-use changes were the major contributor to the total GHG impact (up to ca. 40-60% of the total...... induced GHG emissions). All in all, the use of biomasses that are today used as animal feed (e.g. beet molasses) induced significant GHG emissions through iLUC. These were quantified at between 1-3.5 t CO2/t dry residue depending upon the nutritional value. The recommendation is to avoid the use...
Full Text Available A general consensus on bio-energy and renewable energetic sources is expressed by modern societies; at the same time, some concerns and uncertainties are related to the actual ecological and environmental standards that these new technologies are able to fulfill. The overall energy demand is permanently rising as the economic growth spread through new developing countries. The consciousness about the limited petroleum availability and the negative environmental consequences related to fossil fuels exploitation, inevitably calls for a new global energy model based on a drastic improvement on energy use efficiency, energy savings and renewables. On this respect, biomass could play an important role to meet these new constraints and requirements. The development of bio-energy needs a reliable biomass availability, a well organized and integrated chain-supply and reasonable costs of the biomass feedstock in order to be competitive with respect to conventional fossil-fuels. Different productive and distributive chain-supply can be depicted, at the large as well as at the local-scale; pros and cons can be identified for both, but locally produced bio-energy and “distributed” energy generation is mostly favored by general society and some stakeholders; it seems to better support landowners, rural economy and local market; at the same time, the environmental benefits seems to be higher. Rigorous evaluation procedures, such as “Life Cycle Assessment”, must be ordinarily implemented to proper compare such alternatives with each other and choose the one that fits better.
杨如萍; 宋雯雯; 孙石; 吴存祥; 王化俊; 韩天富; 国家大豆产业技术体系综合试验站
分别于2010和2011年对全国18和20个省(区)的130和141个大豆科技示范县进行抽样调查,收集当地大豆生产田的单产及其相关性状数据.在此基础上,按大豆栽培区划进行分区统计,并采用多元逐步回归方法判断不同地区影响产量的关键因素.结果表明,各地区大豆的播种期因耕作制度不同和气象条件多样而存在很大差异,变化幅度大小依次为南方＞西北＞东北＞黄淮海；东北地区大豆种植密度最高,西北、黄淮海居中,南方最低.平均单产高低依次为西北＞东北＞黄淮海＞南方.在农艺和产量性状中,株高以东北大豆为最高,其后依次为西北、黄淮海和南方；单株荚数与单株粒数2个性状的地域差异趋势一致,2010年均依次为南方＞西北＞黄淮海＞东北,2011年均依次为西北＞南方＞黄淮海＞东北；黄淮海地区大豆的百粒重最高,西北次之,东北及南方则相对偏低.多元逐步回归结果表明,在东北和南方地区,影响大豆产量的首要因素为单株粒数,而在西北及黄淮海地区则为单位面积株数.文中讨论了不同主产区提高大豆单产的主攻方向.%The on-site sample survey of 130 and 141 agri-technology demonstration counties in 18 and 20 provinces(autonomous regions) of China was conducted in 2010 and 2011 , respectively. After the survey, the key yield limiting factors in different production regions were determined with step-wise multiple regression analysis. The results showed that soybean sowing dates were consistent with cultivation conditions and farming system in different regions. The order of the sowing date span was South ( biggest) , Northwest, Northeast and Huang-Huai-Hai( HHH,smallest) region;The plant density was the highest in Northeast, middle in Northwest and HHH regions,and the lowest in South China. Soybean yield was the highest in Northwest, the second in the Northeast, the third in HHH and the lowest in the
Jongen, W.M.F.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
This is a fully rewritten and extended version of the successful textbook “Innovation of food production systems”. It focuses on consumer-driven food product innovation using a systems-oriented approach. It integrates marketing and consumer sciences with technological aspects such as processing, log
Metlina G. V.
Full Text Available The organization of animal feeding in the summer and procurement of fodder for the winter are of great importance. The sowings of sugar sorghum can become a reliable and stable source of fodder even in the regions with insufficient humidity. It is a unique drought tolerant crop, which can be used as green mass, hay, silage, grain, mono fodder, briquettes. The article gives the study results of green mass and absolutely dry substance, and the assessment of cultivation efficiency of such sugar sorghum varieties and hybrids grown in FSBSI ‘I.G. Kalinenko ARRIGC’ as ‘Zernogradsky yantar’, ‘Debyut’, ‘Listvenit’, ‘Zersil F1’, ‘Elisey F1’. The productivity of green mass and dry substance of the new variety ‘Listvenit’ and the hybrid ‘Elisey’ exceeded the standard variety on 7,0-5,0 t/ha and 2,30-0,74 t/ha respectively. The cultivation technologies of sweet sorghum varieties and hybrids produced the high net energy of 69,6-121,9 GJ/ha with the coefficient of energy efficiency of 3,72- 5,08. As for the energy, the cultivation technology of the sweet sorghum hybrid ‘Elisey’ can be considered as the most efficient variant, as it produced the maximum net energy of 121,9 GJ/ha with the coefficient of energy efficiency of 5,08
Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO
Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of management of official overseas trips of staff in agric-scientific research institutions,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.
This project involves the growing of trial quantities of alfalfa for gasification pilot plant tests and the use of by-products of alfalfa plants as animal feeds for beef and dairy cattle and turkeys. The various tasks under this project are described. Tasks are: design; review and confirm feedstock supply plan; performance guarantees and warranties; sales contracts; site plan construction and environmental permits report; environmental monitoring plan; and project management, engineering, and administration.
Full Text Available With the globalization of trade, people have become enlightened and demanding consumers as regards the origin of their food and the environment in which it is produced. The concept of geotraceability described in this article responds to that requirement by combining geographical information with conventional traceability data. The inclusion of geographical information relating to the environment of the production plots is based not only on exploiting some functionalities of spatial analysis tools that exist in geographical information systems (GIS but also on developing specific tools such as a geoidentifier and geoindicators. This article also describes the characteristics and methods of implementing a geographical information management system linked with traceability information. Lastly, the potential for using geotraceability systems in supply chains is analyzed, in particular for consumer warnings in cases of food crisis and assistance for certification of differentiated quality agricultural products.
In this inaugural address by Prof. Dr. Martin Mulder, on the occasion of his acceptance of the title of Professor in Education and Competence Studies at Wageningen University on 11 March 2004, he spoke about the position of Education and Competence Studies within Wageningen University. He stressed t
Dentoni, D.; Peterson, H.C.
This study provides a definition of Multi-Stakeholder Sustainability Alliances (MSSAs) based on describing the platforms formed and/or joined by the fifty largest food and beverage multinational corporations (MNCs). It develops an inductive framework on how MNCs use MSSAs to effectively signal to th
Raymond, Christopher Mark; Reed, Mark; Bieling, Claudia
understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged...
Horton, Robert L.; Krieger, Jackie; Halasa, Katrina
While young students are more capable of scientific inquiry than previously believed, elementary school teachers are often inexperienced in and lack confidence with teaching science. ChickQuest is a 4-H-created embryology curriculum for third-graders that meets Ohio state science standards, teaches STEM skills, and promotes ongoing interaction…
Stobbelaar, D.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Bishop, C.; Hall, J.; Pretty, J.
Recent investigations have indicated that environmental and conservation policies frequently fail to reach anticipated aims, which raises concern over the cost-effectiveness of governmental policy-related expenditure. The limited effectiveness of policies is often attributed to methodological aspect
Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.
A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.
Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, Elke
The REDD policy which preserves, enables substantial emission reductions. Since agricultural production and area expansion is a primary driver of tropical deforestation, REDD policies might limit the expansion possibilities of agricultural land use and therefore influence competitiveness, agricultur
Rasmussen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per Dannemand
Denne rapport indeholder en kortfattet beskrivelse af viden til udvikling af processer og produkter inden for fødevaresektoren. I rapporten kalder vi det en ’videnplatform’. Videnplatformen er orienteret mod anvendelse af viden til vurdering af udviklingsmuligheder på det regionale niveau inden f...
Rajendran, Subin Raj Cheri Kunnumal; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil
Recently developed strategies and techniques that make use of the vast amount of genetic information to perform targeted perturbations in the genome of living organisms are collectively referred to as genome engineering. The wide array of applications made possible by the use of this technology range from agriculture to healthcare. This, along with the applications involving basic biological research, has made it a very dynamic and active field of research. This review focuses on the CRISPR system from its discovery and role in bacterial adaptive immunity to the most recent developments, and its possible applications in agriculture and modern medicine.
The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.
L'abbate, N; Lorusso, A; Lasalvia, M
Italian Food Processing Section includes primary sector (agriculture, fishing and farming), secondary industry and service sector (trade, transport and marketing). The whole process is structured in a sequence of production structures, which constitute a die. The most important food processing dies are fruit and vegetable, cereals, wine, oil, bovine, swine and avian breeding, fishing, milk and cheese. Every die presents very different production cycles, jobs and working professionals. Considering the heterogeneity of food processing dies, all occupational risk factors, such as chemical, biological, physical, ergonomic, psychosocial and injuries risks, are very frequent in such working activities. In a pilot study carried out in the province of Foggia (Apulia, Southern Italy) we showed that the major perceived risk factors where dust and physical overload in the cereal-pasta processing die, and noise and awkward postures in olive-oil die. However, perceived risk factors are biased by low risk perception due to poor information about health occupational hazards, this representing an important health safety problem. For this reason, the activity of preventive authorities at various levels is highly recommended.
This paper is motivated by two broad questions: how is technology transferred from academia to non-academic domains, and how well do facts within these technologies travel? These questions are explored in the context of a particular extension education program in Tamil Nadu, south India. The paper explores the extent to which fertigation technologies (drip irrigation) and other farm and postharvest technologies travelled from the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to the farming community in ...
Aramyan, L.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Kooten, van O.
Purpose - Measurement of the performance of entire supply chains is an important issue because it allows for "tracking and tracing" of efficacy and efficiency failures and leads to more informed decision making with regard to chain design. However, the choice of appropriate supply chain performance
Full Text Available In the last few decades, characterized by intense environmental, landscape and socio-economic-financial changes, unexpected issues concerning the primary sector are arising and asks to researchers an urgent and deep reformulation both of the conceptual and technological tools used in the applied research. The concept of innovation is now radically changed, starting from a prevailing formula of linear top-down technology transfer, which has characterized the green revolution of the 1960s, to nowadays approach characterized by the innovation of a complex system, aimed at creating sustainable and shared opportunities through economic and institutional development. Those who now work in public or private bodies oriented to research for innovation are struggling to maintain their specific study area, but within integrated schemes where technical and scientific aspects are in interaction with organizational, institutional and political issues. Innovation can tackle several issues: new products, new technologies, new markets, new procedures (institutions and new policies. The series of scientific and conceptual tools framed into the Agro-ecology domain seems appropriate to plan development initiatives of which the primary objective is ensuring a sustainable management of all the resources involved in agricultural production processes, while promoting food security and sovereignty, as well as protecting the rural landscape. By studying a target agro-ecosystem it is possible to identify and characterize the relationships between both the internal components and the system structures and functions at different levels of complexity of plot, farm and country, without neglecting the interactions among scientific, technological and socio-economic factors, and ultimately tending towards a science aimed at conflict resolution. Given the challenges that agricultural development is going to face in the next decades, it is indeed essential to support the planning and implementation of sound agro-ecological policies through an appropriate set of advanced tools. Particularly, a key aspect to empower all the stakeholders involved in the research, development, dissemination and application of new methods and technologies is the identification of information and communication systems that farmers and policy makers need in order to cope with fast-changing conditions in a complex system. University and research centers can act as institutional facilitators of dialogue and development policies among different stakeholders, catalyzing participation and promoting participatory problem-solving strategies for agricultural development and cooperation.
Full Text Available En 1998, les pouvoirs publics français prononçaient un moratoire de deux ans concernant les autorisations de mise sur le marché des variétés de colza génétiquement modifiées. Cette décision donnait suite aux conclusions de la conférence des citoyens des 20 et 21 juin 1998 à l’Assemblée nationale et aux recommandations de l’Office parlementaire des choix scientifiques et technologiques, fondées sur « les incertitudes liées à la diffusion de transgène dans l’environnement à partir de plantes comme le colza, présentant des risques de croisements avec d’autres espèces ».
Meixner, O.; Ameseder, C.; Haas, R.; Canavari, M.; Fritz, M.; Hofstede, G.J.
In marketing literature, trust is perceived as a pivotal aspect of business transactions. However, trust is still a concept that needs to be clarified. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to measure the importance of trust building elements in establishing a trustful relationship between trading
Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Kuiper, W.E.; Pennings, J.M.E.
The last 4 decades have seen the transformation of food supply chains from being supply driven to becoming much more closely integrated with consumer demand. With this development, the transaction mechanism in food marketing channels has changed from an open-market mechanism to coordination through
The paper presents findings of a large study on socio-economic impacts of the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear disaster on the Japanese agriculture and food sector. It contains fourteen parts: introduction with the framework of analysis; a brief description of events and their overall social, economic and environmental effects; assessments on affected farms and agricultural resources; progress and challenges of restoration of agricultural communities, lands, infrastructure...
Full Text Available The study explores local food as a marketing opportunity for small food producers and identifies barriers to development. Research was conducted primarily through depth interviews, supplemented by a survey of food marketing group members in North-West England. The results of this local study were consistent with national survey data showing increasing consumer interest in food provenance, traceability and support for the local economy. Lack of an official and recognised definition of the term "local food" hindered marketing. Restricted access to finance and the burden of regulations were identified as barriers. Further, small business success was subjective and difficult to identify, since goals may be based on sustaining a lifestyle rather than profit.
Sørensen, Olav Jull; Ndyetabula, Daniel; Temu, Anna A.
The aim of the paper is to investigate the role and formation of a business association having calue chain partners as its members.......The aim of the paper is to investigate the role and formation of a business association having calue chain partners as its members....
Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F.
The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation
Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)
The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation projects, 11 successfully concluded and 6 failed projects, as well as 29 running projects in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France, two innovation consortia ...
Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.
Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia
Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...
Full Text Available Considerations on assessing the dynamics of expenditure, which are directed from the national budget and EU, their proportions and selected interdependencies occurring in the implementation of agricultural policy in Poland in the long run, ie in 1996- -2012 (17 years in the period before and after accession to the EU are discussed. The study is carried out at several levels. One of them assesses the relationship of expenditure on the agricultural sector relative to total budgetary expenditure. The authors also present share expenses with funds from the EU's total budget in Polish agriculture, which allowed to determine the relationship between the EU and national funding budgetary objectives in agricultural policy in Poland. Based on these observations it was possible to determine the status of the agricultural budget in the light of the national budget before and after accession to the EU.
Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Tabeau, A.A.
Agricultural policies in the European Union (EU) have a history of continuous reform. AG-MEMOD, acronym for Agricultural sector in the Member states and EU: econometric modelling for projections and analysis of EU policies on agriculture, forestry and the environment, provides a system for analysing
Full Text Available Through the improvisation of songs based on a sixteenth-century Spanish poetic form in contemporary Puerto Rico, singers symbolically reterritorialize Puerto Rican culture, returning it to its agrarian roots. Cultural reflexivity, born of a series of cultural displacements, has led to both the rigidification of the décima form and an emphasis on the Puerto Rican countryside and rural lifestyle in its lyrics. The article focuses on 58 verses that were improvised for a contest outside of Comerío.
Van Antwerpen, Henry
The global economy is creating profound and substantial changes for business and industries throughout the world. In the agricultural industry this is also true regarding the active consolidation of the food-value chain that is taking place at a rapid rate and on the other hand a strong component of international competitiveness is becoming a reality with multi-national role players positioning them globally. The consumer on the other hand requires a simpler and cheaper supply chain and wants...
Full Text Available The conventional approach to control of outbreaks of serious animal diseases by massive destruction of animals is increasingly being questioned. While this approach has been reasonably successful in achieving outbreak control, intensification of animal production has resulted in ever larger numbers of animals having to be destroyed in as short a period of time as possible. In order to control highly contagious diseases, the culling involves not only infected and in-contact herds but at-risk herds within a defined area, which results in the destruction of large numbers of healthy animals.
communication), so stock solutions were titrated with 1N HCl or 1N NaOH until their pH was in the suitable Eclox testing range (pH 6-8). 3. Results... titrating pentachlorophenol in 50 millimolar (mM) phosphate buffer with 1 molar hydrochloric acid to pH 7.5. Test chemicals were used either the...Chromatograph Sigma-Aldrich >14 days 99.5 Chloramine [monochloramine] 10599-90-3 4º C / dark amperometric titration Sigma-Aldrich 24 hrs NA
Frewer, L.J.; Bergmann, K.; Brennan, M.; Lion, R.; Meertens, R.; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M.; Vereijken, C.
The issue of consumer acceptance of food technologies, and their applications, needs to be addressed early in technology development. However, whether extensive assessment of consumer acceptance is necessary for all food-related technologies a priori is uncertain. A review of studies of seven foodre
Verdouw, C.N.; Vucic, N.; Sundmaeker, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.
The food and agribusiness is an important sector in European logistics with a share in the EU road transport of about 20%. One of the main logistic challenges in this sector is to deal with the high dynamics and uncertainty in supply and demand. This paper discusses the opportunities of Future Inter
Simopoulos, A P
The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation.
Morris, J; Bailey, A P; Lawson, C S; Leeds-Harrison, P B; Alsop, D; Vivash, R
In many river floodplains in the UK, there has been a long history of flood defence, land reclamation and water regime management for farming. In recent years, however, changing European and national policies with respect to farming, environment and flood management are encouraging a re-appraisal of land use in rural areas. In particular, there is scope to develop, through the use of appropriate promotional mechanisms, washland areas, which will simultaneously accommodate winter inundation, support extensive farming methods, deliver environmental benefits, and do this in a way which can underpin the rural economy. This paper explores the likely economic impacts of the development of flood storage and washland creation. In doing so, consideration is given to feasibility of this type of development, the environmental implications for a variety of habitats and species, and the financial and institutional mechanisms required to achieve implementation.
Boggs, George L.
This forum response adds a conceptualization of harmony to Dopico and Vázquez' investigation of pedagogy that combines citizen science, environmental and cross-cultural research, and service-learning. Placing many appropriate and significant aspects of culturally situated science education in an authentically relational context beyond the classroom, this paper calls attention to insightful contributions and new directions for research, such as the process of inducing or eluding nihilism regarding ecological issues. How can such a question be researched effectively in order to learn about the family of pedagogies emerging in response to the need for more ecologically conscious and relationally authentic teaching across many disciplines? In this paper, I use a Vygotskian framework and an abbreviated case study of agricultural service-learning from my research, drawing attention to the importance of students' culturally-mediated construction of setting as they interact in older and newer ways.
Full Text Available This contribution explores the buyer side of the value chains of the main agricultural products exported from the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs to the EU, taking Spain as an explorative case study in the broader European context. It draws on the Global Value Chain (GVC approach to provide new survey-based evidence for better profiling the opportunities and constraints for EU trade for orange, strawberry, tomato and olive oil imported from Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Turkey. The approach used complements inquiries using quantitative trade models usually based on aggregate sectoral level. Results show differences depending on the product and the country studied. There are in all cases multiple challenges to be solved at the origin of the value chain including better chain organization, further transparency and security, improvement in infrastructure and logistics, keeping transaction costs manageable at the same time. Consumer preferences in buyer markets when sourcing must be taken on the first place. The findings can have relevant policy implications in terms of prospective Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Agreements on agriculture and food.
Dimitris P. Makris
Full Text Available Red grape pomace (RGP and onion solid wastes (OSW were used as raw material to produce flavonoid-enriched extracts, using ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. The extraction medium used was composed of water and glycerol and under the conditions used the extraction of flavonoids from both materials was shown to obey first-order kinetics. Maximum diffusivities (De values were 4.01 × 10−11 and 2.35 × 10−11 m2·s−1, for RGP and OSW extraction, respectively, while the corresponding activation energies (Ea were 14.00 and 15.23 kJ·mol−1.
Baudoux, P.; Kazenwadel, G.; Doluschitz, R.
International audience; Political strategies to reduce negative environmental effects of agriculture can be divided into injunctions such as inhibitions and precepts, and into voluntary approaches. These two substantially different approaches are studied in the German Federal state of Baden-Württemberg, using as exampIes the Market Release and Landscape Conservation Programme (MEKA, voluntary), and the regional Regulation for Water Protection Areas (ScMLVO, compulsory) respectively. In order ...
Full Text Available Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community.
Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.
Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…
Purpose: The European Commission and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews. This paper seeks to show the involvement of social partner organisations at the level of EU-funded competence development projects.…
Purpose - The European Commission and social partner organisations at EU level encourage the lifelong development of qualifications and competence. This is reflected in many policy reports and reviews. This paper seeks to show the involvement of social partner organisations at the level of EU-funded
Belaya, Vera; Gagalyuk, Taras; Hanf, Jon Henrich
The recent developments of Russian and Ukrainian economies and rapid growth of food industries have proven to be one of the key motives for international companies to enter these countries and stirred up active investments into the food sector. It is observable that when foreign food retailers and branded food processing companies enter a new country, they take their business models known from their home countries into the newly entered markets. In this context of particular importance are ma...
The purpose of this study is to develop competencies of teachers, the coordination of the education, learning activities; in having access to innovations, developments and scientific studies in the literature. In addition, the purpose is to determine how teachers' scientific research self-efficacy and attitude towards the scientific research…
Full Text Available The schemes for identifying and protecting the names of agricultural products and foods having specific qualities, have been launched by European Union as a part of its complex agricultural quality policy. The main objective of this article is to examine different aspects of three of the schemes, developed for products with specific characteristics resulting from a particular origin or farming method: PDO (Protected Designation of Origin, PGI (Protected Geographical Indication and TSG (Traditional Speciality Guarantied. The focus is mainly on the economic issues of the production and marketing of products and foodstuffs registered under particular schemes. The methodology includes studying the existing literature and European regulations on the subject, collecting and analysing statistical data as well as examining a short practical case.
Survey of the World Agricultural Documentation Services, Draft; Prepared on Behalf of the FAO Panel of Experts on "AGRIS" (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology).
The purpose of the survey was: (1) to evaluate existing agricultural information services and (2) to propose possible frameworks for an improved world-wide agricultural information service. The principal statistical results of the survey are summarized in the following figures which are based on data collected in nearly all instances for the year…
This paper presents the possible development scenario of the Polish agricultural sector till 2020. It also assesses the impact of macroeconomic growth, CAP reforms and worldwide policies towards the agriculture on this development. The scenario is build using an extended version of the Global Trade
Full Text Available Hog farms bring with them employment to remote areas but they also bring environmental problems. What determines the location of the large-scale factory farm? It is race? Is it capital availability? The answer seems to be capital availablity
Henan,with its abundant agricultural and tourism resources ,has achieved considerable progress in leisure agricultural tourism .However ,as a new industry ,there are also urgent problems to be solved in its de-velopment.Its sustainable growth requires scientific planning ,categorized guiding,sophisticated facilities,opti-mal environment ,innovative development modes with distinct themes ,quality service through staff training ,all-around marketing through establishing advertising platforms .These measures will help Henan to establish itself as a leading leisure agricultural tourism province and make due contribution to the solution of the “Three Rural Issues”and the construction of“urbanization ,industrialization ,and agricultural modernization”in middle China .%河南作为农业大省和旅游文化大省，近年来休闲农业旅游发展迅猛，取得了一些成效，呈现出新的特点。但是，作为刚刚起步的休闲农业旅游，存在着一系列亟待解决的问题。要促进河南休闲农业旅游可持续发展，应当加强科学规划、进行分类指导；完善旅游配套，优化发展环境；创新发展模式，突出休闲主题；实施人员培训，提高服务质量；搭建宣传平台，开展全面营销，从而促进河南休闲农业旅游做大做强，为推动中原经济区“三农”建设、“三化”协调发展做出贡献。
Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-
Maanteeameti peadirektori Tamur Tsäkko käskkirjaga lisati Kroodi eritasandilise ristmiku ehitushankesse tingimus, mis nõuab pakkujalt 6,4 mln. euro suurust pangagarantiid transiidifirmale Vopak E.O.S. Ettevõtete hinnangul on summa ebamõistlikult suur
Hog farms bring with them employment to remote areas but they also bring environmental problems. What determines the location of the large-scale factory farm? It is race? Is it capital availability? The answer seems to be capital availablity
Full Text Available Global interest towards lactic acid production has recently significantly increased because lactic acid can be used as raw material for the production of polylactic acid (PLA, a polymer used in biodegradable plastics for its special, environmentally-friendly properties. However, the high production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA due to the high price of lactic acid. Here we evaluated the potential of pear pomace and ricotta cheese whey (RCW as a low-cost source of nutrients for lactic acid fermentation of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus farciminis in microaerophilic conditions and mild sterility. After an initial lab-scale screening of 19 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains to select the highest producer of lactic acid, we reported the 1L-batch scale-up to test process efficiency and productivity of the most promising LAB strains. Batch fermentation of a 25:75 mixture of pear pomace and RCW, respectively, reached an overall yield factor of 90% and a volumetric productivity of 0.42 g/L·h.
Van Heerden, Lucas Daniël
This study investigates the relationship between perceptions of servant leadership and the ethical climate in an agricultural business. Using the Executive Servant Leadership Scale (ESLS) and the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ), the data was collected; full-time employees of an agricultural business, rating the servant leadership style of their managers in addition to the ethical work climate of their organisation. The survey was conducted on a convenience sample (N=151) representin...
Gonçalves, Alexandre; Goufo, Piebiep; Barros, Ana; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Trindade, Henrique; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel
The growing awareness of the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low-cost protein, is of special relevance. However, the consumption of legumes also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers' wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors, including genetic characteristics, agro-climatic conditions, and postharvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review, which focusses on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
... agriculture (CSA) programs, agri-tourism activities, and other direct producer-to-consumer infrastructure. AMS... programs, agri-tourism activities and other direct producer-to-consumer market opportunities; and (B) to... agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other direct producer-to-consumer marketing...
林宗贤; 吕文博; 吴荣华; 莫晓杜
Ação de Micoflora de efluentes agroindustriais sobre diferentes corantes e substratos lignocelulósicos =Action of mycoflora from agri-industrial effluents on different dyes and lignocellulosic substrates
Ana Maria Queijeiro López
Full Text Available Enzimas extracelulares de fungos são importantes para sua sobrevivência em ambientes inóspitos, sendo capazes de degradar compostos recalcitrantes. Fungos filamentosos secretam hidrolases e fenoloxidases capazes de degradar complexos de estruturas aromáticas,como de alguns xenobióticos. O propósito deste trabalho foi testar diferentes corantes (Azul de Metileno, Azure B, Verde Malaquita e Cristal Violeta, em substituição ao composto Poly R478, no método de seleção de microrganismos degradadores de fenóis em meio sólido, além de comparar tal atividade de Micoflora isolada de efluentes de indústria sucroalcooleira com a de outros fungos adquiridos em coleção oficial. Os corantes testados revelaram-se ótimos substitutos do Poly R478. O isolado que apresentou atividade descolorante mais intenso do que a do diâmetro de seu crescimento (Cladosporium sp. foi testado, então, em meio líquido frente a dois substratos naturais e um sintético (bagaço de cana, serragem de madeira e azul de metileno. Este removeu altas concentrações de glic��dios redutores, proteínas e fenóis totais, além de reduzir a DQO em meio com serragem de madeira como substrato fenólico natural. Tal fungo, portanto, mostrou-se promissor para compor consórcios visando cometabolismo ebiorremediação de efluentes nos quais há presença de compostos fenólicos ou outros recalcitrantes com estrutura semelhante à de lignina.Extracellular enzymes of fungi are important for survival in inhospitable environments, as they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds. Filamentous fungi secrete hydrolases and phenoloxidases that are capable of degrading complexes of aromatic structures, such as certain xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to test different dyes (methylene blue, Azure B, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet, replacing the compound Poly R478 in the method of selection of phenol decomposer microorganisms in solid medium, and compare this activity of the mycoflora of effluents from sugar-alcohol industry, to the ones of other fungi acquired in official collection. The tested dyes proved to be excellent substitutes for Poly R478. The isolate that showed more intense decolorant activity than the diameter of its growth (Cladosporium sp. was then tested on two natural and one synthetic substrate (sugarcane bagasse, sawing wood, and methylene blue in liquid medium. This isolate removed highconcentrations of reducing sugars, proteins and total phenols, and reduced the COD in medium containing sawdust as natural substrate of phenols. This fungus, therefore, seems promising to form consortia for co-metabolism and bioremediation of effluents in which there is a presence of phenolic or other recalcitrant compounds with similar structure to lignin.
Buffon, Marilene da Cruz Magalhăes
Orientadores: Vismar da Costa Lima Neto e Maria Lucia da Costa Lima Co-oreintadores: Izabel Galarda e Marilis Dallarmi Miguel Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Agronomia. Defesa: Curitiba, 2005 Inclui bibliografia e anexos Área de concentraçăo: Produçăo vegetal
Current Situations of Competitive Scientific Research Projects for Agri-scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO; Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG
This paper collected and arranged competitive scientific research projects undertaken by Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences in 2003-2014. Through statistical analysis on quantity of projects,funded amount,age of person responsible,professional title of person responsible,academic degree of person responsible,research object,it discussed relevant characteristics and rules. Finally,it came up with pertinent measures and recommendations,in the hope of providing services for decision-making and scientific and technological management.
According to the regional economics′ principle and the agricultural business′ demand,the paper specially researches on the agricultural business′ characteristics,problem,regional feature,development distribution and countermeasures of Gansu′s western area ofHuanghe river to enhance the development practice′s strategic significance.%根据区域经济学原理和农业产业化的要求，对甘肃河西地区农业产业化的特点、问题以及区域特色、开发布局和对策措施，进行了专题研究，以期增强开发实践的战略意义。
Vestlusringis internetireklaamist osalesid Juris Mendzinsh, Linda Saulite, Ilze Taurina, Daina Misina, Edgars Rozentals, Gatis Veikshins, Reinis Zitmanis, Agris Strautnieks, Jurijs Zarinsh, Ivars Bauls, Martinsh Labans ja Vents Dorinsh
Lättemäe, Silja, 1952-
Rahvusvaheline investeerimispankur Joakim Helenius on Trigon Agri nõukogu esimees. Omades kindlat usku Eesti piimanduse edukasse tulevikku, tahab ta rajada siia Euroopa Liidu suurima ja moodsaima farmikompleksi
Ndyetabula, Daniel; Temu, Andrew E.
The aim of at investigating innovations related to financial services for the agri-bussiness sector, suing examples from Tanzania......The aim of at investigating innovations related to financial services for the agri-bussiness sector, suing examples from Tanzania...
... agriculture (CSA) programs, agri-tourism activities, and other direct producer-to-consumer infrastructures...-tourism activities and other direct producer-to-consumer market opportunities; and (B) to develop, or aid..., agri-tourism activities, and other direct producer-to-consumer marketing opportunities.'' \\2\\...
...-tourism activities, and other direct producer-to- consumer infrastructures. AMS hereby requests proposals... stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities and other direct producer-to..., roadside stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other...
This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...
This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...
This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...
Kristensen, Erik Steen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Hansen, Birgitte
The holistic perspective of organic farming implies a broader conception of food safety that includes both product safety and agri-food system safety. The credibility of organic food can only be maintained if the organic agri-food system is developed in correspondence with the basic organic principles. In this way it will be possible to show the whole organic agri-food system as a safer alternative to conventional farming. Thereby trust will be supported in organic foods despite the sparse (a...
Software packages commercially marketed by Agri ImaGIS allow customers to analyze farm fields. Agri ImaGIS provides satellite images of farmland and agricultural views to US clients. The company approached NASA-MSU TechLink for access to technology that would improve the company's capabilities to deliver satellite images over the Internet. TechLink found that software with the desired functions had already been developed through NASA's Remote Sensing Database Program. Agri ImaGIS formed a partnership with the University of Minnesota group that allows the company to further develop the software to meet its Internet commerce needs.
丁宇; 徐艳梅; 彭熠
该文采用文献调研和头脑风暴法，引入吸收能力概念，构建了引入吸收能力的农业科技企业市场导向与品牌营销策略关系理论模型，实证分析了农业科技企业市场导向影响品牌营销策略的途径。研究结果表明：农业科技企业的市场导向在一定程度上是通过企业吸收能力的桥梁或中介作用对企业的品牌营销策略产生影响；农业科技企业可以从识别知识能力、评价知识能力、消化知识能力、应用知识的能力四个方面提升企业的吸收能力，从而通过市场导向影响农业科技企业品牌营销策略，提升农业科技企业品牌营销策略的水平。%The paper adopts literature review and brain-storm to construct a theoretical model concerning market orientation of agricultural scientific enterprises and brand marketing strategies with reference to concept of absorptive capability .According to the model ,an empirical analysis is made of the routes by which the market orientation of agricultural scientific enterprises affects brand marketing strategies .The paper has arrived at the following results :the market orientation has certain effects on brand marketing strategies by means of business absorptive capability ;agricultural technology businesses can improve their absorptive capability in the areas of knowledge recognition ,knowledge assessment ,knowledge di-gestion and knowledge application so as to influence brand marketing strategies and improve the level of brand marketing strategy .
介绍了太原市气候特点及主要气象灾害（干旱、暴雨、大风、冰雹、霜冻、连阴雨等），就气象灾害对农业生产的影响进行分析，并进一步探讨了近些年太原市气象部门防灾减灾气象服务工作的开展情况。%Characteristics of climate and main meteorological disasters such as drought, rainstorm, strong wind, hail, frost, continuous rain in Taiyuan City were introduced. The effects of main meteorological disasters on agricultural production were analyzed. And then de-velopment of the meteorological services work of disaster prevention and mitiga-tion by Taiyuan meteorological depart-ment in recent years was discussed.
吴江月; 濮励杰; 朱明; 戴小清; 陈新建; 韩明芳
遗传资源是农业生产中重要的投入要素，通过将遗传资源投入纳入C－D生产函数模型，并对2001—2007年江苏省农业生产经济数据进行分析，计算江苏省遗传资源及其他生产要素对农业经济增长的贡献率。结果表明，江苏省农业经济增长主要依赖于动物遗传资源投入和科技进步。与固定资产和劳动力投入要素相比，遗传资源对农业经济增长的整体贡献明显，其中动物遗传资源的贡献高于植物遗传资源。因此，江苏省应优化农业结构，提高遗传资源利用率，加大科技投入，推进农业现代化建设。%Genetic resource is an important input factor in agricultural production. Usually contributions of production fac⁃tors such as labor, fixed assets and technology to agricultural economic growth were calculated using the C⁃D production function model. While in this study, the concept of genetic resources was firstly introduced into the model to evaluate con⁃tributions of the factors to agricultural economic growth. For that end, Jiangsu Province was cited as a case for study. Cal⁃culation of contributions of genetic resources and other production factors to agricultural economic growth was done based on the data of agricultural production in Jiangsu Province from 2001 to 2007. Results show that agricultural economic growth in Jiangsu Province depends mainly on input of animal genetic resources and technological innovation. Although the contribution of technological innovation to agricultural economic growth in Jiangsu Province is high, while that of genetic resources is also significant. Meanwhile, the contribution of animal genetic resources is larger than that of plant genetic re⁃sources. Therefore, Jiangsu Province should optimize its agricultural structure, improve its utilization of genetic resources, and increase its sci⁃tech input so as to promote the construction of its modern agriculture.
胡国强; 李茵; 蔚继承
针对农业生产环境中信息监测点分散和学校现有无线传感网络（WSN）的不足，采用移植性强支持6LoWPAN协议栈的Contiki嵌入式操作系统在STM32平台上进行农业环境信息监测传感器节点设计；在DDWrt上实现了支持6LoWPAN协议栈的IPv4/IPv6双栈边缘路由器，将监测到的农业环境信息转发到IPv4/IPv6网络，最终实现了基于6LoWPAN的农业信息传感系统。在校园网环境下测试了农业环境信息传感节点与测试机网络的连通性，测试结果表明，基于6LoWPAN协议的无线网关与农业环境信息监测传感节点通过6LoWPAN协议可以正常通信，用户可通过CoAP协议访问6LoWPAN无线传感器网络。%To overcome the insufficient of disperse information monitoring points in agricultural production environment and wireless sensor network(WSN)existing in college,the strong portability embedded operating system Contiki supporting 6LoW⁃PAN protocol stack is adopted to design the agri⁃environmental monitoring sensor node on STM32 platform. The IPv4/IPv6 double⁃stack edge router supporting 6LoWPAN protocol stack was realized on DDWrt. The monitored agri⁃environmental information is transmitted to the IPv4/IPv6 network to realize the agricultural information sensing system based on 6LoWPAN. The connectivity between agri⁃environmental information sensor node and tester network was tested in campus network environment. The test re⁃sults show that the 6LoWPAN protocol based wireless gateway can communicate with agri⁃environmental information monitoring sensor nodes via 6LoWPAN protocol normally,and users can access the 6LoWPAN wireless sensor networks via CoAP protocol.
Ação de Micoflora de efluentes agroindustriais sobre diferentes corantes e substratos lignocelulósicos - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6187 Action of mycoflora from agri-industrial effluents on different dyes and lignocellulosic substrates - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6187
Ana Maria Queijeiro López
Full Text Available Enzimas extracelulares de fungos são importantes para sua sobrevivência em ambientes inóspitos, sendo capazes de degradar compostos recalcitrantes. Fungos filamentosos secretam hidrolases e fenoloxidases capazes de degradar complexos de estruturas aromáticas, como de alguns xenobióticos. O propósito deste trabalho foi testar diferentes corantes (Azul de Metileno, Azure B, Verde Malaquita e Cristal Violeta, em substituição ao composto Poly R478, no método de seleção de microrganismos degradadores de fenóis em meio sólido, além de comparar tal atividade de Micoflora isolada de efluentes de indústria sucroalcooleira com a de outros fungos adquiridos em coleção oficial. Os corantes testados revelaram-se ótimos substitutos do Poly R478. O isolado que apresentou atividade descolorante mais intenso do que a do diâmetro de seu crescimento (Cladosporium sp. foi testado, então, em meio líquido frente a dois substratos naturais e um sintético (bagaço de cana, serragem de madeira e azul de metileno. Este removeu altas concentrações de glicídios redutores, proteínas e fenóis totais, além de reduzir a DQO em meio com serragem de madeira como substrato fenólico natural. Tal fungo, portanto, mostrou-se promissor para compor consórcios visando cometabolismo e biorremediação de efluentes nos quais há presença de compostos fenólicos ou outros recalcitrantes com estrutura semelhante à de lignina.Extracellular enzymes of fungi are important for survival in inhospitable environments, as they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds. Filamentous fungi secrete hydrolases and phenoloxidases that are capable of degrading complexes of aromatic structures, such as certain xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to test different dyes (methylene blue, Azure B, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet, replacing the compound Poly R478 in the method of selection of phenol decomposer microorganisms in solid medium, and compare this activity of the mycoflora of effluents from sugar-alcohol industry, to the ones of other fungi acquired in official collection. The tested dyes proved to be excellent substitutes for Poly R478. The isolate that showed more intense decolorant activity than the diameter of its growth (Cladosporium sp. was then tested on two natural and one synthetic substrate (sugarcane bagasse, sawing wood, and methylene blue in liquid medium. This isolate removed high concentrations of reducing sugars, proteins and total phenols, and reduced the COD in medium containing sawdust as natural substrate of phenols. This fungus, therefore, seems promising to form consortia for co-metabolism and bioremediation of effluents in which there is a presence of phenolic or other recalcitrant compounds with similar structure to lignin.
徐杰; 张俊; 谭华; 孙笑侃; 周正; 王开义; 杨宝祝
以农资产品为研究对象,基于农资产品标识编码技术、LINQ to SQL的数据库编程和访问技术、GPRS的信息无线传输技术和角色控制的权限动态分配,构建基于B/S架构的多层次多用户多权限的农资可信流通监管系统,为农资企业、经销商和消费者搭建农资产品生产、流通、销售和使用的各环节信息交互平台,并以电话、网络和短信为公众提供信息查询、投诉和溯源服务.该系统具有较好的示范推广应用前景.
Teunissen, W.; Schekkerman, H.; Willems, F.; Majoor, F.
Farmland bird populations in the Netherlands have shown an accelerating decline in recent years, despite extensive conservation efforts including reserves, agri-environment schemes and protection of nests by volunteers. Although agricultural intensification is the main cause underlying these decline
1. Requirement for ArticlesThe journal mainly publishes original research papers, research notes, letters and reports about weather and climate analysis, agri-culture and ecology meteorology, pollution meteorology,
1. Requirement for ArticlesThe journal mainly publishes original research papers, research notes, letters and reports about weather and climate analysis, agri-culture and ecology meteorology, pollution meteorology, atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry, water resources and en
Salu, Mikk, 1975-
Trigon Agri kogus välismaa investoritelt 1,7 mld. krooni ning investeerib selle Venemaa ja Ukraina põllumajandusse. Teravilja- ja riisihinna kallinemisest maailmaturul. Tabel: Teravilja ekspordihinnad maailmaturul. Lisa: Eestis on põllumaa defitsiit
Pitk, Merike, 1959-
Saaremaa laevakompanii omanik Vjatsheslav Leedo ja Agri OÜ omanik Ossi Loukkojärvi on Saaremaal riigimaade rendihinnad nii kõrgele tõstnud, jättes senised maakasutajad maast ilma. Ebakindel maasuhe on probleemiks Eestis paljudele
Trigon Farming tegutseb Eestis aastast 2003 ning firmal on laudad peale Kaiu veel Saaremaal Kärlas, lisaks tegutseb firma ka Venemaal ja Ukrainas. Farmingu emafirma on Trigon Agri, mis on noteeritud Stockholmi börsil
Berkum, van S.; Meijl, van H.
This article reviews a broad range of theoretical concepts available to explain international trade in agricultural and food products. For many years agricultural trade analyses were largely based on traditional perceptions of comparative advantage following neoclassical theory. Observations of agri
Spiegel, van der M.
Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves otsustas annetada 15. oktoobril 2011 Afganistanis lahinguülesande täitmisel langenud kapral Agris Hutrofile postuumselt mõõkadega Kotkaristi kuldristi teenetemärgi. Riigipea tegi ka sissekande kaitseministeeriumis avatud kaastunderaamatusse
Army systems. Unclassified Military Fuel Additives Unclassified • Antioxidants (AO) - Required in fuels that have hydrotreated components...Deoxygenation & Hydrotreating Selective Hydrocracking Product Separationtallow fats wood waste & by-products agri-wastenon-food crops algae
Albrecht, M; Duelli, P; M. K. Obrist; Müller, C.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.
Background Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted plant...
Matthias Albrecht; Peter Duelli; Obrist, Martin K.; David Kleijn; Bernhard Schmid
BACKGROUND: Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted pla...
Pomboza, Ruth; Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi
Changing consumer and market demands is an important driver behind the challenges and opportunities that are facing the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada and that will influence the sector's profitability and competitiveness in the future. It is therefore important to understand developments in the consumer demand for agriculture and agri-food products. The report provides updated demand elasticities for fourteen food groups in Canada. The estimates are useful for conducting analysis...
This paper has two main objectives: (i) to analyze the theoretical conditions of using agro-environmental indicators as measurement tools integrated into the evaluation process of agri-environmental policies and (ii) to present results of an empirical analysis of their use. It shows how agri-environmental indicators initially developed to support the environmental farm management but also to monitor the state of environment have been mobilized since the late 1990s by the state action in an ev...
W. A. Welderufael
Full Text Available Along the path of water flowing in a river basin are many water-related human interventions that modify the natural systems. Rainwater harvesting is one such intervention that involves harnessing of water in the upstream catchment. Increased water usage at upstream level is an issue of concern for downstream water availability to sustain ecosystem services. The upstream Modder River basin, located in a semi arid region in the central South Africa, is experiencing intermittent meteorological droughts causing water shortages for agriculture, livestock and domestic purpose. To address this problem a technique was developed for small scale farmers with the objective of harnessing rainwater for crop production. However, the hydrological impact of a wider adoption of this technique by farmers has not been well quantified. In this regard, the SWAT hydrological model was used to simulate the hydrological impact of such practices. The scenarios studied were: (1 Baseline scenario, based on the actual land use of 2000, which is dominated by pasture (combination of natural and some improved grass lands (PAST; (2 Partial conversion of Land use 2000 (PAST to conventional agriculture (Agri-CON; and (3 Partial conversion of Land use 2000 (PAST to in-field rainwater harvesting which was aimed at improving the precipitation use efficiency (Agri-IRWH.
SWAT was calibrated using observed daily mean stream flow data of a sub-catchment (419 km2 in the study area. SWAT performed well in simulating the stream flow giving Nash and Sutcliffe (1970 efficiency index of 0.57 for the monthly stream flow calibration. The simulated water balance results showed that the highest peak mean monthly direct flow was obtained on Agri-CON land use (18 mm, followed by PAST (12 mm and Agri-IRWH land use (9 mm. These were 19 %, 13 % and 11 % of the mean annual rainfall, respectively. The Agri-IRWH scenario reduced direct flow by 38 % compared to Agri-CON. On the other
Full Text Available Local Probiotics Microbial Effect on Improvement of Hybrid Maize Production.Nationalmaize needs continue to increase every year, either for food, feed and industrial raw materials. To meetthis requirement Indonesia have to do import corn because the production at the farm level is still lowdue to poor application of resource integrated crop management (ICM including the use of localprobiotic microbes.This study aims to determine the effect of applying maizeintegrated resourcemanagement ( ICM - maize using Local Probiotic Microbial fertilizer. The experiment was conductedin the village Cicurug, Majalengka Subdistricts, District Majalengka using a Randomized Block DesignComplete (RCBD, with four treatments and six replications. The treatment of local probiotic microbeswere: the dose of 3 l ha-1 Agri Simba, the dose of 3 l ha-1 Agri Simba + 1.500 g of urea, the dose of 6l ha-1 Agri Simba, and a dose of 6 l ha-1 Agri Simba + 3.000 g of urea. The results showed that the doseof applying local probiotic microbes (Agri Simba has significant effect on growth, yield componentsand yield of hybrid maize varieties P-21.The highest yieldof dried shelled beans was 12.20 t ha-1achievedby the dose of 6 l ha-1Agri Simba+ 3.000 g urea.The lowest yield was 8.73 t ha-1 that obtained at doseof 3 l ha-1 Agri Simba. The componentsthat support tne yield of theP-21 hybrid maize wereweightofcob, number of rows per ear and weight of 100 grains.
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.
Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke
This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.
总结了山东省东营市农产品质量安全现状和存在问题，提出了加强宣传培训，大力推进农业标准化生产，狠抓农业投入品监管，健全农产品质量安全保障体系，加大财政、政策扶持力度，推进农业组织化、规模化生产，加强农产品质量监测力度等提高农产品质量安全水平的对策建议。%This paper summarized the situation and problems of the agri-product quality and safety in Dongying city in Shandong provin ce, proposed a series of practical measures to improve the level of the agri-product quality and safety, including strengthening publicity and training, vigorously promoting the standardization of agri-product, paying close attention to supervision of agricultural inputs, improving the agri-product quality and safety system, increasing the financial and policy support, promoting the organization of agriculture and large-scale production, strengthening the monitoring efforts of the agri-product quality and safety etc.
Full Text Available The agri-food enterprises are more and more aware of their responsibilities and their social role and they require the development of innovative marketing strategies, based on the principles of sustainability and characterized by a strong orientation to the society. Starting from the importance of innovation for the sustainable development in socio-economic and environmental terms, the study analyzes the links between sustainable innovation and food quality focusing on the communication innovations. In this regard, the study provides an overview on the evolution of marketing theory (ethical, social, responsible and sustainable, underlining the need to push also the agri-food system towards a responsible valorization as an innovative form of sustainable communication. Finally, it provides useful insights to policy makers and stakeholders on the tools required to foster and support sustainable development of agri-food sector and to create synergies between public and private interests.
Full Text Available The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.
In 1997, AgriHouse, Inc. (d.b.a. Aeroponics International), a leading agri-biology company, united with NASA and BioServe Space Technologies, a nonprofit, NASA-sponsored partnership research center, to design a soil-less plant-growth experiment to be performed in microgravity, aboard the Mir space station. This experiment aimed to gauge the effectiveness of a non-pesticide solution on the immune responses of bean plants. In essence, the research consortium was looking for a means of keeping plants free from infection, without having to rely on the use of pesticides. This research, combined with follow-on grants from NASA, has helped Berthoud, Colorado-based AgriHouse gain credibility in the commercial marketplace with related technology and gross the capital necessary to conduct further research in a new-age field known as bio-pharming.
Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D
New models for estimating bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the agricultural food chain were developed using recent improvements to plant uptake and cattle transfer models. One model named AgriSim was based on K OW regressions of bioaccumulation in plants and cattle, while the other was a steady-state mechanistic model, AgriCom. The two developed models and European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES), as a benchmark, were applied to four reported food chain (soil/air-grass-cow-milk) scenarios to evaluate the performance of each model simulation against the observed data. The four scenarios considered were as follows: (1) polluted soil and air, (2) polluted soil, (3) highly polluted soil surface and polluted subsurface and (4) polluted soil and air at different mountain elevations. AgriCom reproduced observed milk bioaccumulation well for all four scenarios, as did AgriSim for scenarios 1 and 2, but EUSES only did this for scenario 1. The main causes of the deviation for EUSES and AgriSim were the lack of the soil-air-plant pathway and the ambient air-plant pathway, respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that soil-air-plant and ambient air-plant pathway should be calculated separately and the K OW regression of transfer factor to milk used in EUSES be avoided. AgriCom satisfied the recommendations that led to the low residual errors between the simulated and the observed bioaccumulation in agricultural food chain for the four scenarios considered. It is therefore recommended that this model should be incorporated into regulatory exposure assessment tools. The model uncertainty of the three models should be noted since the simulated concentration in milk from 5th to 95th percentile of the uncertainty analysis often varied over two orders of magnitude. Using a measured value of soil organic carbon content was effective to reduce this uncertainty by one order of magnitude.
M. Mucciarelli; S. I. Giano; D. Chianese; M. Bavusi
The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings ...
Pengfei SHl; Liqiong LUO; Chen ZHAO; Yao LUO
ln the past 70 years, lsrael has not only realized the self-sufficiency of agri-cultural products, but also make its way to becoming one of leading exporters of agri-cultural products in the world rapidly. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for this world famous "Miracle of Negev Desert" , but we consider the decision making mechanism as one of the most important reasons, because such a perfect integrat-ed system consisting of researching system, experimental system and extension sys-tem is wel organized and it booms the development of agriculture in lsrael.
Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R
Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a
Recent events in the agri-food sector increased the demand for quality attributes, from healthy and safe products to sustainable agricultural practices (Grunert, 2005). Particularly challenging is the connectedness of transactions between farmers, traders, processors, retailers and final customers i
Albrecht, M.; Duelli, P.; Obrist, M.K.; Müller, C.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.
Background Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. Methodology/Principal Findi
Francesconi, G.N.; Ruben, R.
Commercialization through cooperatives has the potential to reduce transaction costs and improve bargaining power of farmers vis-à-vis the market. The objective of this study is to evaluate the probability for Ethiopian agri-cooperative to engage in collective marketing activities over time, given m
Dentoni, D.; English, F.; Schwartz, D.
Agri-food organizations that are capable of “sensing the market” – that is, capable of searching, processing and using market information, are usually also market oriented, innovative, entrepreneurial and successful. But how can a small farm with limited resources develop market sensing capabilities
Purpose: Whilst children working in agriculture and domestic work is an inherent part of growing up and essential for survival, if boys and girls lose out on education they are less equipped to respond to inevitable environmental shocks and to negotiate agri-food value chains. This article investigates views of extension agents on children…
Verdouw, C.N.; Robbemond, R.M.; Wolfert, J.
Farming nowadays is a complex managerial task that imposes stringent requirements on farm management information systems. In other sectors, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are widely implemented to meet such requirements. This paper assesses the applicability of ERP systems in the agri-fo
Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Capetown , South Africa Agricultural Research Council - Roodeplaat, Elsenburg, South Africa AgriPAC...Consultores, Buenos Aires, Argentina Biotechnology Division, Dept of Economic Affairs, Dept of Agriculture and Tourism Western Cape, Capetown , South Africa...Bodega y Cavas de Weinert S.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina Fresh Produce Terminals, Capetown , South Africa Giraldi Dairy Farm, Chilcoy, Argentina Hartenberg
Klerkx, L.W.A.; Villalobos, P.; Engler, A.
As in many sectors in emerging economies, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become important for exporting agri-food firms in view of their integration in global supply chains. The purpose of this research was to assess the implementation by Chilean fruit exporters of CSR prac
chemicals was technical grade or better (>90%) and were used without further purification. Specialty chemicals including formuations such as agri- cultural...polycarbon- ate. Teflon yarn is available for sewing seams. Bonding patches over the seams would be required to cover holes left from sewing. Because
Fischer, A.R.H.; Beers, P.J.; Latesteijn, Van H.; Andeweg, K.; Jacobsen, E.; Mommaas, H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Veldkamp, A.
Innovations in the agri-food sector are needed to create a sustainable food supply. Sustainable food supply requires unexpectedly that densely populated regions remain food producers. A Dutch innovation program has aimed at showing the way forward through creating a number of practice and scientific
Meulen, van der H.S.
This PhD-thesis describes the diversity and coherence in the beef chain of the Central-Italian region of Umbria as co-existing circuits of interlinked cattle farmers, butchers and consumers. A circuit represents a specific and stereotypical way in which the production annex marketing of a agri-food
Frederiksen, Pia; Vesterager, Jens Peter
This Volante deliverable D2.2 provides an overview and comparative analysis of the transposition and implementation of the two European policies: the Habitats Directive (HD) and the agri-environmental schemes (AES) under the second pillar of the common agricultural policy (CAP), and the role that...
The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...
Kelholt, H.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Tongeren, van F.W.
Dit rapport analyseert handelsbelemmeringen die Nederlandse agri-food exporteurs tegenkomen op hun buitenlandse afzetmarkten, en vergelijkt deze met handelsinstrumenten die de EU hanteert. Centraal staat het identificeren van offensieve belangen in de lopende WTO-onderhandelingen in de Doha-ontwikke
Transaction costs and other market failures are widely present in the agricultural sector of emerging economies and negatively affect to low-income smallholders, making difficult their integration into dynamic agri-food supply chains. Earlier literature mentions contract farming as an economic insti
Knijff, van der A.
In aansluiting op de kwartaalrapportages is Agri-Monitor begonnen met de ontwikkeling van een tussentijdse rapportage voor de glasgroentesector. Het eerste half jaar bij de glasgroente wordt gekenmerkt door een grillig prijsverloop. Ook daalde de export, vooral naar de belangrijkste uitvoerlanden he
Klopcic, M.; Kuipers, A.; Hocquette, J.F.
Quality foods, such as traditional, EU certified, organic and health claimed are part of a growing trend towards added value in the agri-food sector. In these foods, elements of production, processing, marketing, agro-tourism and speciality stores are combined. Paramount above all is the link to the
Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif
The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…
chemical, pharmaceutical and agri- food sectors. Assobiotec intends to contribute to the development of a domestic biotechnology industry along four...updated assessment of the situation of the Italian biotechnology industry . INDUSTRIA OGGI: What has Assobiotec been doing during its first year of...development of the biotechnology industry , sees the involvement of Assobiotec through its participation in the National Committee for
137.5 Page 17 Budgetary Overview The ASSET contract was awarded in the amount of $2,043,162.35 on September 28, 2011 for a beginning period of...Technologies Inc Lilburn Georgia AGRI Dynamics Inc Albany Georgia Alektronics, Inc. Beavercreek Ohio All Right Steel, LLC Gushing Oklahoma Allegra
The use of GIS in concert with simple or complex simulation modeling provides an unparalleled way to generate new data and to help a variety of audiences understand spatial patterns of data. From improved understanding, policy incentives can be crafted to reduce adverse environmental impacts of agri...
Schekkerman, H.; Teunissen, W.; Oosterveld, E.
1. Like many farmland birds, the largest European population of the black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa, in The Netherlands, has been declining for decades despite conservation measures including agri-environment schemes (AES). In a new experimental AES aiming to reverse this decline, collectives of f
Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.
An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be consid
Rutten, M.M.; Tabeau, A.A.; Godeschalk, F.E.
This paper develops an innovative approach for calculating household nutrition indicators in a Computable General Equilibrium framework, using the flow of primary agri-food commodities through the global economy from farm to fork. It has been incorporated as a nutrition module in MAGNET. The method
Kaloxylos, A.; Wolfert, J.; Verwaart, T.; Maestre Terolc, C.; Brewster, C.; Robbemond, R.M.; Sundmaker, H.
The Future Internet is expected to greatly influence how the food and agriculture sector is currently operating. In this paper, we present the specific characteristics of the agri-food sector focusing on how information management in this area will take place under a highly heterogeneous group of ac
... PRIMARILY FOR REAL ESTATE PURPOSES RURAL HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Housing Site Loan Policies... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE....C. 1480; delegation of authority by the Sec. of Agri., 7 CFR 2.23; delegation of authority by...
This editorial provides insight on investigations regarding advancements in agri-food quality and testing of eco-friendly organic farming methodologies. The discussion elaborates on the advantages of recent farming techniques and their impact on improved crop yield, crop quality, and minimization of...
Boulanger, Pierre; Dudu, Hasan; Ferrari, Emanuele; Philippidis, George
In the summer of 2014 Russia imposed a ban on most agri-food products from countries enforcing Ukraine-related sanctions against Russia. We use a specific factors computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the short-run impact of this retaliatory policy. The baseline is carefully desi
Visser, de C.L.M.; Schreuder, R.; Stoddard, F.
The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described an
Kaneene, John B.; Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Kisaka, Stevens; Miller, RoseAnn; Kabasa, John D.
The AgShare Phase I Program, conducted at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, was formed to create open education resources for teaching and community development through action research. The study was conducted by an interdisciplinary team of investigators from fields of veterinary medicine and agri-business. Two master of science students…
support of Ballistic Missile Defense. His shore assignments include duties as a Business and Financial Management Intern at the Joint Strike Fighter...commercial banking industry as a commercial and agri- business lender for eight years and was commissioned an Ensign in the U. S Navy through the Officer...A. Problem Statement ................................................................................... 3 B. Research Questions
Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing
., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a...
Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael
A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…
“Our country is facinga period with high risks forfood safety.”Sun Xianze, Director of the Food Safety Coordination Department under the State Food and Drug Administration, warningon July 7 that food safety problems areimpeding Chinese agri-products and
Wubben, E.F.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Wals, A.E.J.
Competing frames and interests regarding food provision and resource allocation, adding to the increased global interdependencies, necessitate agri-food companies and institutions to engage themselves in very diverse multi-stakeholder settings. To develop new forms of interaction, and governance, re
Doudou ZHANG; Pengling LIU
Abstract Problems in agricultural science and technology service system were ana- lyzed, such as system problem, investment and worker quality, and based on this countermeasures were proposed, so as to promote the development of modern agri- culture and construction of new countryside.
Campbell, Hugh; Rosin, Christopher; Hunt, Lesley; Fairweather, John
One of the most interesting recent developments in global agri-food systems has been the rapid emergence and elaboration of market audit systems claiming environmental qualities or sustainability. In New Zealand, as a strongly export-oriented, high-value food producer, these environmental market audit systems have emerged as an important pathway…
Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Gottardo, Stefania; Amenta, Valeria; Arena, Maria; Brandhoff, Puck; Marvin, Hans J.P.; Mech, Agnieszka; Moniz, Filipa Botelho; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Undas, Anna K.; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Aschberger, Karin
Background: Nanotechnology applications can be found in agricultural production, animal feed, food processing, food additives and food contact materials (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). A great diversity of nanomaterials is reported to be currently used in various applications, while
Full Text Available The geothermal waters in Debrc are in karstified Triassic limestone and dolomite. Maximal measured temperature is 58°C on the depth of 1000 m. By using geothermal energy from thermal waters of Debrc, is possible intensive agri and aqva culture production, especially organic food according to world ecologic standards, as well as toplification of Debrc.
Haile, D.T.; Slangen, L.H.G.
This paper presents results of a contingent valuation study based on responses from household members living in Winterswijk, The Netherlands. The respondents are asked to report their preferences on a range of willingness to pay (WTP) for agri-environmental schemes (AES) provided by farmers. Estimat
Kentie, Rosemarie; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Trimbos, Krijn B.; Groen, Niko M.; Piersma, Theunis
Intensification of agricultural use of grassland habitats has been linked to the declines of many farmland bird species, several of whom have been in decline for multiple decades despite agri-environmental schemes. In the Netherlands, where most grasslands have been transformed into well-drained mon
Kentie, R.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Trimbos, K.B.; Groen, N.M.; Piersma, T.
Intensification of agricultural use of grassland habitats has been linked to the declines of many farmland bird species, several of whom have been in decline for multiple decades despite agri-environmental schemes. In the Netherlands, where most grasslands have been transformed into well-drained mon
Báldi, A.; Batáry, P.; Kleijn, D.
Agricultural intensification is a major threat to biodiversity. Agri-environment schemes, the main tools to counteract negative impacts of agriculture on the environment, are having mixed effects on biodiversity. One reason for this may be the limited number of species (groups) covered by most studi
Batáry, P.; Báldi, A.; Sárospataki, M.; Kohler, F.; Verhulst, J.; Knop, E.; Herzog, F.; Kleijn, D.
It is now widely accepted that agricultural intensification drives the decline of biodiversity and related ecosystem services like pollination. Conservation management, such as agri-environment schemes (AES), has been introduced to counteract these declines, but in Western European countries these t
Dentoni, D.; Lu, J.; English, F.; McBride, R.
The case of the Australian Southern Rock Lobster Association describes real issues faced by the Market Development Manager of a collective agri-food organization (SRL) representing all the southern rock lobster fishermen in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. The case deals with recent globaliza
Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Lawson, Lartey Godwin
towards countries with large exports of agri-food, thereby supporting the hypothesis that FDI is used as an export-platform. FDI is coupled with high exports from Denmark, probably of raw or semi-processed food products for further processing and exports. We also find that FDI is higher in countries...
Raamets, Heli, 1975-
AS Trigon Agri Heiki Volveri juhtimisel rajab Pihkva oblastisse Gdovi linna lähedal asuvasse Dobrutshi külla kaasaegset piimafarmi, projekti maksumuseks on ligi 10 miljonit eurot. Vt. samas: Venemaal kestab Vene aeg edasi; Trigon Agril kolmes riigis 35 põllumajandusettevõtet
@@ Liangyou-Peijiu (65002), an inter-subspecies hybrid, was bred in Jiangsu Acad of Agri Sci (JAAS) by two-line method. The female was a low-temperature-sensitive sterile line, Pei'ai 64s (japonica), and the male was 9311.
Reinberg, Tiit, 1975-
Ilmunud ka: Järva Teataja 11. juuni, lk. 1. Säreveres põllumajandusmessi "Agri 2005" külastades teatas president Arnold Rüütel, et tal on plaanis endale traktor soetada. Presidendile andis nõu samuti messi külastanud parlamendiliige Tiit Tammsaar. Vabariigi President Türil 10.06.2005
Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Peeters, L.; Bloemhof, J.M.
Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustain
Westerink - Petersen, J.; Buizer, I.M.; Santiago Ramos, J.
Green and Blue Services were developed in The Netherlands to reward farmers for the environmental services they provide to society. Especially the first initiatives were area specific, developed together with farmers and different from the national Agri-environmental scheme. In the PLUREL case study
In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...
Wardlow, George; And Others
Theme articles discuss the need for agriculture teachers to heed research in science education; describe the landscape horticulture program at Anoka (MN) High School; propose a change of curriculum objectives to ones that teach students career readiness; and describe the East Environmental Science and Agri-Business Magnet High School in Kansas…
Wegerif, Marc; Hebinck, Paul
This article is an analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four million residents of the fast growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has traced the sources of some important foods from urban eaters back through retailers, processors a
Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter
The controversy in Europe over genetically manipulated (GM) foods has been conceived largely as a conflict between a reluctant public and a more enthusiastic agri-food sector. As a result, the political focus has been on the public to the neglect of other actors, such as the farmers, whose willin...
The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...
Methorst, R.G.; Roep, D.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.
Farm development strategy is affected by, and affects, the biophysical and socio-economic context of the farm leading to agri-environmental challenges for farm development. For effective policies and support programmes it is important to understand the drivers for choices farm development. Three-fol
Kilelu, Catherine; Klerkx, Laurens; Omore, Amos; Baltenweck, Isabelle; Leeuwis, Cees; Githinji, Julius
Increasingly, value chain approaches are integrated with multi-stakeholder processes to facilitate inclusive innovation and value chain upgrading of smallholders. This pathway to smallholder integration into agri-food markets has received limited analysis. This article analyses this integration t
Kruize, J.W.; Wolfert, J.; Goense, D.; Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Veenstra, T.
Agri-Food Supply Chain Networks are required to increase production and to be transparent while reducing environmental impact. This challenges farm enterprises to innovate their production processes. These processes need to be supported by advanced ICT components that are developed by multiple vendo
Purpose: To explore the influence of competitive strategy in entrepreneur-led SMEs and the effects on e-learning HRD. Design/methodology/approach: Performance consulting company reviews provide holistic information on nine case studies on small and medium sized enterprises drawn from the printing, agri-foods and media industries. Findings:…
Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.
Keywords: Ananas comosus; Benin; cultural practices; fruit quality; hapas; heterogeneity; planting material; slips; suckers; supply chain; variation in quality; variation within crop; vigour. Poor average quality and uniformity in quality have become major issues in agri-food chains
Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Devlieghere, F.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Luning, P.A.
There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Vali
projections. It would be hoped that as this work proceeds, some further work on domestic capacity of U.S. agri- culture might be done to make it more...IBRD study. There is no gainsaying the large benefits that a more liberalized agricultural regime, if adopted by the industria - lized countries, holds
Cavinder, Clay A.; Antilley, Teri J.; Briers, Gary; Sigler, Dennis; Davidson, Deann; Gibbs, Pete G.
Surveys evaluating the Texas AgriLife Extension Summer Horsemanship School Program were gathered from the summers of 2006 through 2009. Data indicate a high percentage of individuals expressed improved knowledge about horse awareness and training, and greater thinking skills were developed after participating in a clinic. Positive responses…
Thermal pasteurization used by the egg industry for controlling vegetative cells of pathogens is ineffective for destroying endospores. There is a strong need in the agri-industries to develop effective intervention strategies to eliminate the possible bioterrorism threat from spore forming bacteria...
Martindale, Wayne; Marriott, Sue
The continued downturn across the agri-sector evident by indicators such as loss of farm income, low produce prices relative to retail prices, increased management costs of production and declining contribution of agriculture to the National Gross Domestic Product. During this period it has become evident that the importance of grassland farming…
A total of 59 converted sorghum lines and six checks were evaluated for resistance to two foliar fungal diseases, anthracnose and downy mildew (SDM) in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Farm, College Station, Texas. In 2008, 23 lines exhibited resistance (35%), 29 sus...
Quaye, W.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.
Agri-based economies especially those in developing countries are becoming increasingly dependent on foreign markets and losing their autonomy in food production and distribution. However, there are possibilities to re-link local production and consumption. That is reconnecting local productive reso
Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Rovira, J.; Spiegel, van der M.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.
The dynamic environment wherein agri-food companies operate and the high requirements on food safety force companies to critically judge and improve their food safety management system (FSMS) and its performance. The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic instrument enabling a systemati
Holland, John M.; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Entling, Martin H.; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Smith, Barbara M.; Jeanneret, Philippe
Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with agri-en
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) previously isolated from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and to 10 of 17 Natio...
Vellema, S.; Wijk, van J.
In the agri-food sector, global partnerships between lead firms and international NGOs design standards that aim to enhance environmental sustainability and to some extent realise social justice. However, the effectiveness of such standards is limited when their content and governance provokes resis
Barmpounakis, S.; Kaloxylos, A.; Groumas, A.; Katsikas, L.; Sarris, V.; Dimtsa, K.; Fournier, F.; Antoniou, E.; Alonistioti, N.; Wolfert, J.
The Agriculture business domain, as a vital part of the overall supply chain, is expected to highly evolve in the upcoming years via the developments, which are taking place on the side of the Future Internet. This paper presents a novel Business-to-Business collaboration platform from the agri-food
Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Bastl, M.; Allaoui, H.
Food chain logistics plays an important role in the sustainability performance of the food sector. Therefore, project SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems) started as a collaborative international project, aiming for tools and frameworks for the food sector to make a step change in o
Nitric acid production is identified as a main source of nitrous oxide. Options for emission reduction however are not available. TNO and Hydro Agri studied the technological and economic feasibility of catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide in nitric acid tail-gases. Although in literature promis
Aramyan, L.H.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Kooten, van O.; Lans, van der I.A.
Agri-food supply chains are currently being confronted with many requirements regarding the product quality of their products. In recent years, concerns about food quality have risen among consumers as a result of several outbreaks of diseases and various environmental concerns. This has stimulated
Future food security for the rapidly increasing human population is at stake because farmers need to produce more food on less land and with less water and energy. Natural resources will be less and less available for agriculture due to economic development, which diverts these resources to non-agri
Conservation practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watersheds in the United States without documentation of their impacts. The goal of the ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Project Watershed Assessment Study is to quantify the effect of conservation practices within 14 agri...
P.C.J. van Rijn; J. Kooijman; F.L. Wäckers
Hoverflies with predatory larval stages are important natural enemies of aphids and other pests in field crops. Many adult hoverflies are actively visiting and feeding on flowers, indicating that pollen and nectar are important resources for them. The scarcity of suitable flowers in intensified agri
Bonanno, Alessandro; Constance, Douglas H.
Employing the case of the expansion and regulation of hog confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) in Texas combined with the actions of the transnational agri-food corporation Seaboard Farms, Inc., this paper probes the relationship between the state and corporations in the global era. It specifically investigates the ability of the state to…
Blomne Sopov, M.; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.; Sertse, Y.; Vellema, W.; Verjans, H.
Can agri-food companies do it all? Develop new markets, secure supply, protect reputations, ensure profits and reduce poverty, create jobs and guarantee food supplies? Company strategies now commonly refer to ‘creating shared value’ and ‘inclusive business’. But with growing pressure on resources, a
Berkum, van S.; Kelholt, H.J.
This study analyses the agricultural trade relations of the Netherlands with Turkey and with Israel, and investigates the present market positions of the Dutch agribusiness in the two countries. Based on a review of market and agri-food supply chain developments, opportunities for expansion of trade
Curtis, Paul E.; Henebry, William J.
Paul Curtis is Lead Instructor in Agriculture and William Henebry is Instructor in Agri-Marketing at Parkland College, Champaign, Illinois. Dr. Curtis holds a Ph.D. in agronomy from the University of Illinois where he conducted research and taught plant breeding and plant physiology. Mr. Henebry, with 23 years of experience as a grain elevator…
Hess, Alexander Jay
Science and agriculture professional organizations have argued for agricultural literacy as a goal for K-12 public education. Due to the complexity of our modern agri-food system, with social, economic, and environmental concerns embedded, an agriculturally literate society is needed for informed decision making, democratic participation, and…
Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.
Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…
The rates of foodborne disease caused by gastrointestinal pathogens continue to be a concern in both the developed and developing worlds. The growing world population, the increasing complexity of agri-food networks and the wide range of foods now associated with STEC are potential drivers for incre...
Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff
Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…
This paper departs from the observation that the industrialization and globalization of the agri-food supply chain has disconnected food from its socio-cultural and physical territorial context. In recent years there is growing recognition of the multitude of problems associated with the prevailing
Giles, Emma L., E-mail: email@example.com [Teesside University, Health and Social Care Institute (United Kingdom); Kuznesof, Sharron; Clark, Beth; Hubbard, Carmen; Frewer, Lynn J. [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)
Consumer’s attitudes to, and acceptance of, emerging technologies and their applications, are important determinants of their successful implementation and commercialisation. Understanding the range of socio-psychological, cultural and affective factors which may influence consumer responses to applications of nanotechnology will help “fine-tune” the development of consumer products in line with their expectations and preferences. This is particularly true of applications in the food area, where consumer concerns about technologies applied to food production may be elevated. This research applied systematic review methodology to synthesise current knowledge regarding societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology applied to agri-food production. The objective was to aggregate knowledge derived from different research areas to gain an overall picture of consumer responses to nanotechnology applied to food production. Relevant electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature were searched from the earliest date available, for peer-reviewed papers which reported primary empirical data on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology, using a formal systematic review protocol. Inclusion criteria for papers to be included in the review were: empirical peer-reviewed papers written in English; a population sample of adults aged 18 years and over used in the research; a research focus on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology; and research on attitudes towards, and willingness to pay for, different applications of agri-food nanotechnology. Two researchers independently appraised the papers using NVivo 10 QSR software. Studies examining consumer and expert acceptance were thematically analysed, and key information was collated. The results were synthesised in order to identify trends in information relevant to consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applied to food production. Eight key themes were identified from the 32 papers
Giles, Emma L; Kuznesof, Sharron; Clark, Beth; Hubbard, Carmen; Frewer, Lynn J
Consumer's attitudes to, and acceptance of, emerging technologies and their applications, are important determinants of their successful implementation and commercialisation. Understanding the range of socio-psychological, cultural and affective factors which may influence consumer responses to applications of nanotechnology will help "fine-tune" the development of consumer products in line with their expectations and preferences. This is particularly true of applications in the food area, where consumer concerns about technologies applied to food production may be elevated. This research applied systematic review methodology to synthesise current knowledge regarding societal acceptance or rejection of nanotechnology applied to agri-food production. The objective was to aggregate knowledge derived from different research areas to gain an overall picture of consumer responses to nanotechnology applied to food production. Relevant electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature were searched from the earliest date available, for peer-reviewed papers which reported primary empirical data on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology, using a formal systematic review protocol. Inclusion criteria for papers to be included in the review were: empirical peer-reviewed papers written in English; a population sample of adults aged 18 years and over used in the research; a research focus on consumer and expert acceptance of agri-food nanotechnology; and research on attitudes towards, and willingness to pay for, different applications of agri-food nanotechnology. Two researchers independently appraised the papers using NVivo 10 QSR software. Studies examining consumer and expert acceptance were thematically analysed, and key information was collated. The results were synthesised in order to identify trends in information relevant to consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applied to food production. Eight key themes were identified from the 32 papers which were
David Oscar YAWSON
Full Text Available Virtual water has been proposed as a mechanism with potential to reduce the effects of water scarcity on food security. To evaluate the role of virtual water in reducing the effect of water scarcity on food security, all components of the available water resource in agricultural areas must be quantified to provide a basis for evaluating food imports driven by water scarcity. We refer to this situation as ‘agri-compatible connections’ among water scarcity, virtual water, and food security. To date, this has not been captured in the literature on water scarcity, virtual water flows and food security. The lack of agri-compatibility has rendered the virtual water concept seemingly inconsistent with trade theories and water-food security policy needs. We propose two requirements for achieving agri-compatible connections: (i the limit of crop production imposed by water scarcity should be captured by quantifying all components of the water available to satisfy specific crop water requirement in the importing economy, and (ii food import should satisfy ‘water-dependent food security’ need, which is the actual or potential food security gap created by insufficient available water from all sources for crop production (all other things being equal. Further, we propose that agri-compatible water scarcity should capture three key elements: (i a reflection of aridity or drought potential, (ii quantification of all the components of water resource available to a given crop at a given locality and time, and (iii use of crop- and catchment-specific water scarcity factors to evaluate the effect of crop production and virtual water on water scarcity. In this paper, we show the conceptual outlines for the proposed agri-compatible connections. Achieving agri-compatible connections among water scarcity, virtual water and food security will enhance the analysis and understanding of the role of virtual water for food security in the importing economy and water
李培武; 张奇; 丁小霞; 白艺珍
Contaminants threating the quality and safety of edible vegetable agri-food are mainly pesticide residues, biotoxins and heavy metal ions. In field of the detection technologies for the pollutants in agri-foods, some obvious progresses in sample pretreatment techniques, confirmed detection technologies and rapid detection technologies have been made. Sample pretreatment techniques have been developed and improved, including solid phase extraction, solid phase micro extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and microwave assisted extraction technology and so on. Both technologies of immunoaffinity adsorption and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and, Safe) have been quickly developed and widely applied. Confirmatory testing technologies, particularly chromatography-mass spectrometry, have been modified to improve the standard methods for determination of pesticide residues, biotoxin contamination in agricultural products in China, and the chromatographic mass spectrometry detection technology has been in rapid development and application, because it is sensitive, accurate, and reliable, especially suitable for being used as a laboratory arbitration detection. Rapid detection technologies have also been gradually set up from original innovation to terminal product creations. And a series of techniques and products such as various kits, immunoaffinity column, immunochromatographic strips and so on based on enzyme inhibition, immunoassay and non-destructive methods have been developed. Therefore, a multi-level technological options were provided for the determination of qualitative or quantitative analysis, as complements to advanced instrument method. In the field of risk assessment of contaminants in agri-foods, remarkable progress has been made in the construction of agricultural product quality and safety risk assessment system in the last three years. The system comprises of National Agri-food Safety Risk
Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson; Lisa F. Blackburn; Phil Northing; Weiqi Luo; Raymond J. C. Cannon; Keith F. A. Waiters
The effect on spore germination of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium following direct exposure for 24 h to the insecticides Majestik, Spray Oil, Agri50E, Savona and Oberon for the control of both egg and second instar stages of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, was determined. Exposure to both Agri-50E and Oberon was followed by acceptable spore germination. Infectivity rates of L. rnuscarium on poinsettia foliage in the presence of dry residues of the insecticides were also investigated.No significant detrimental effects on the levels of control of B. tabaci were recorded compared with fungus applied to residue-free foliage. Sequential application of the chemicals Savona, Spray Oil and Majestik with the fungus all produced mortalities of second instar B. tabaci above 90%. Incorporation of these chemicals with L. muscarium into integrated control programs for B. tabaci is discussed.
Shanahan, Peter; Quinton, John; Binley, Andrew; Silgram, Martyn
Compaction of cultivated soils is a major problem for agriculture in terms of yield decline and sustainable soil resource management. Tramline wheelings exacerbate runoff and increase erosion from arable land. The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) LINK Project - a joint venture between agri-business, land managers and research groups - is currently evaluating a number of methods for alleviating compaction in tractor wheelings across a range of soil types in England. Using innovative applications of agri-geophysics (e.g. ground penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, acoustics and x-ray tomography), this current project aims to determine relationships between properties derived from geophysical methods (e.g. soil moisture, porosity), soil compaction and structural morphology. Such relationships are important for a clearer understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in compacted soils, to address land management practices and develop cost-effective mitigation measures. Our poster will present some early results of this study.
Lehmann, Richard J; Hermansen, John Erik; Fritz, Melanie
for the agri-food sector, covering single aspects of sustainability as well as sustainability in a broader sense, including social, economic and environmental issues. Integrated, computer-based information services, since they are mainly building on existing systems, provide flexible solutions for enterprises...... of enterprises, supply chains and the sector by satisfying customers’ and consumers’ demands for information on the sustainability of a product. The present paper introduces a framework for developing information services for European pork chains using the three selected information domains food safety...... of possible service users and deficiencies in the existing information infrastructures. The paper supports different stakeholders involved in agri-food production, such as service developers, enterprise decision makers and management consultants, in developing enterprise- and chain-specific solutions which...
Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Gómez-Limón, José A; Espinosa-Goded, María; Castro-Rodríguez, Juan
In this paper we present an estimate of the economic value of carbon sequestration in olive grove soils derived from the implementation of different agricultural management systems. Carbon sequestration is considered jointly with other environmental co-benefits, such as enhanced erosion prevention and increased biodiversity. The estimates have been obtained using choice experiments and show that there is a significant demand from society for these environmental services. From a policy perspective, an agri-environmental scheme that delivers the highest level of each environmental service would be valued by society at 121 Euros per hectare. If we focus on carbon sequestration, each ton of CO(2) would be valued at 17 Euros. These results show that there is scope to include agricultural soil carbon sequestration in climate change mitigation strategies and to provide guidance for setting payments for agri-environmental schemes promoting soil management changes.
The past decade's rapid expansion of a global market for organic food has set powerful economic and political forces in motion. The most important dividing line is whether organic food production should be an alternative to or a niche within a capitalist mode of production. To explore this conflict the article analyzes the formation of a market for eco-labeled milk in Sweden. The analysis draws on three aspects: the strategy of agri-business, the role of eco-labeling, and the importance of inter-organizational dynamics. Based on archival studies, daily press, and interviews, three processes are emphasized: the formative years of the alternative movement in the 1970s, the founding of an independent eco-label (KRAV) in the 1980s, and a discursive shift from alternative visions to organic branding in the early 1990s following the entry of agri-business.
Full Text Available El artículo analiza la manera cómo, mediante emprésitos, asistencia técnica y el establecimiento de estaciones experimentales agrícolas en la región andina, los Estados Unidos desarrollaron una política imperial de planificación y dirección del desarrollo agrícola de vastas zonas de América Latina. En relación al caso ecuatoriano, el estudio centra su atención en las políticas implementadas por el United States Department of Agriculture, a partir de 1890, y la creación de la Estación Experimental Ecuatoriana como mecanismo para la explotación de la quina y el caucho en el marco de la obtención de recursos y materiales estratégicos para la guerra.
The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (pHDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (pHDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).
Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha
Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils.
Schaub, Michael; Martinez, Nicolas; Tagmann-Ioset, Aline; Weisshaupt, Nadja; Maurer, Melanie L; Reichlin, Thomas S; Abadi, Fitsum; Zbinden, Niklaus; Jenni, Lukas; Arlettaz, Raphaël
Conceived to combat widescale biodiversity erosion in farmland, agri-environment schemes have largely failed to deliver their promises despite massive financial support. While several common species have shown to react positively to existing measures, rare species have continued to decline in most European countries. Of particular concern is the status of insectivorous farmland birds that forage on the ground. We modelled the foraging habitat preferences of four declining insectivorous bird species (hoopoe, wryneck, woodlark, common redstart) inhabiting fruit tree plantations, orchards and vineyards. All species preferred foraging in habitat mosaics consisting of patches of grass and bare ground, with an optimal, species-specific bare ground coverage of 30-70% at the foraging patch scale. In the study areas, birds thrived in intensively cultivated farmland where such ground vegetation mosaics existed. Not promoted by conventional agri-environment schemes until now, patches of bare ground should be implemented throughout grassland in order to prevent further decline of insectivorous farmland birds.
Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid
Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.
Évaluation des impacts environnementaux des pratiques agricoles à l’échelle de la parcelle et de l’exploitation en vue de l’élaboration d’un plan d’actions : une méthode de diagnostic spatialisé fondée sur des indicateurs, le DAE-G1
Ossard, Audrey; Gala, Marie-Béatrice; Boizard, Hubert; Leclercq, Christine; Lemoine, Célie
En Picardie, dès le début des années deux mille, les chambres d’agriculture ont initié un projet de recherche-développement dont l’objectif était de concevoir une démarche innovante de gestion de la qualité et de l’environnement inspirée des normes ISO 14001 dans les exploitations agricoles, qui permette l’amélioration des pratiques. Ce projet a conduit à la construction d’une méthode de diagnostic agri-environnemental : le DAE-G, diagnostic agri-environnemental géographique, conçu par Agro-T...
Happe, Kathrin; Hutchings, Nick; Dalgaard, Tommy;
Changes in the structure of agriculture are known to affect emissions of environmental pollutants from agriculture. Such changes are often driven by structural changes in agricultural production, so structural changes are likely to have indirect effects on emissions. In a pilot study, we consider...... how linking two complementary simulation models might be used to explore these effects. The agent-based AgriPoliS model was used to simulate the structural dynamics of agricultural production. The results from AgriPoliS were passed via a number of intermediate models to the Farm-N model, which...... was used to estimate the nitrogen surplus and losses from each farm for each year. The modelling complex was exercised by simulating the effects of two plausible policy scenarios for each of 14 years. The initial sizes and types of farms were based on statistics from a region in Denmark and the farms were...
Kelly Bronson; Irena Knezevic
Farming is undergoing a digital revolution. Our existing review of current Big Data applications in the agri-food sector has revealed several collection and analytics tools that may have implications for relationships of power between players in the food system (e.g. between farmers and large corporations). For example, Who retains ownership of the data generated by applications like Monsanto Corproation's Weed I.D. “app”? Are there privacy implications with the data gathered by John Deere's ...
@@Chlorophyll contents are one of important physiological traits, which affect photosynthesis in plants. There were significant differences in chlorophyll contents between Zhaiyeqing 8(ZYQ 8), an indica variety and Jingxi 17(JX 17), a japonica variety (Table 1). In 117 DH lines of the cross of ZYQ 8/ JX 17, these parameters distributed conTwo neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice LU Chuangen and ZOU Jiangshi, Jiangsu Acad of Agri Sci, Nanjing 210014, China
HALBERG Niels; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen
As discussed by Knudsen et al. (Chapter 1) there is a rapid development in the global food chains towards increased trade and competition over long distances and very large corporate retail chains taking control over large parts of food trade. This global competition leads to a downward price pressure and demands for large volumes, standardisation, specialisation and high production efficiency and productivity for agricultural systems all over the world. This industrialisation of the agri...
Knickel, Karlheinz; Münchhausen, von, Susanne; Vilija, Girgzdiene; Virgilius, Skulskis
Higher value food chains tend to converge either towards rather narrow market segments and niches or towards conventionalisation and loss in added value when volumes and turnover start growing more significantly. In this paper we will present the findings from a set of case studies of growth in agri-food chains implemented during 2014 in ten European countries, including in Eastern Europe and Turkey. The comparative analysis will help to better understand different development pathways with t...
Includes: Food Insecurity in Low-Income Rural Areas, Eric Icart, University of Maryland Eastern Shore New Shift in Food Distribution Orientation: The Proposition of Fresh Prepared Foods, John L. Park, Research Associate, Food Industry Management Program, Cornell University, 109 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801 Distribution Barriers Confronting Small-Volume Fruit and Vegetable Growers, John R. Brooker, David B. Eastwood, and Morgan D. Gray, Professors and Computer Analyst, Department of Agri...
<正>Through the joint efforts of editorial staff and multitudinous readers, Asian Agricultural Research eventually passes the extremely strict appraisal, to be indexed by CABI’s full text repository. CABI is globally acclaimed as one of the most author-itative and prestigious abstract data bases concerning agriculture and forestry. Since inception of publication, Asian Agri-cultural Research has also been indexed by AGE Database, Naresuan University Library, Rural Development Foundation of India, Royal Tropical Institute and CSA Illumina.
Ronan, Glenn; Cleary, Gordon
The quest to shape Australian agriculture for improved and sustainable profitability is leading Research and Development Corporations, agri-service consultants and government to devote substantial effort into development of new farm business analysis and benchmarking programs. ‘Biz Check’, ‘Pork Biz’, ‘Wool Enterprise Benchmarking’, ‘Dairy Business Focus’ and ‘Business Skills and Best Practice’ for beef and sheep meat producers are examples of current farm management and training programs whe...
The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...
Çanakkale On Sekiz Mart University, Agriculture Faculty, ÇANAKKALE Uludağ University, Agriculture Faculty, BURSA Atatürk University, Agriculture Faculty, ERZURUM Adnan Menderes University, Agriculture Faculty, AYDIN Yuzuncu Yil University, Agriculture Faculty, VAN Ondokuz Mayıs University, Agriculture Faculty, SAMSUN Uludağ University, Agriculture Faculty, BURSA Uludağ University, Agriculture Faculty, BURSA Yuzuncu Yil University, Agriculture Faculty, VAN Yuzuncu Yil University, Agri...
Rutten, M.M.; Tabeau, A.A.; Godeschalk, F.E.
This paper develops an innovative approach for calculating household nutrition indicators in a Computable General Equilibrium framework, using the flow of primary agri-food commodities through the global economy from farm to fork. It has been incorporated as a nutrition module in MAGNET. The method of tracing nutrients through the food system allows for making agriculture, the food supply chain and the economy as a whole nutrition-sensitive in scenario analyses. The validation of the nutritio...
Kehili, Mouna; Schmidt, Lisa Marie; Reynolds, Wienke; Zammel, Ayachi; Zetzl, Carsten; Smirnova, Irina; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami
Background In today’s consumer perception of industrial processes and food production, aspects like food quality, human health, environmental safety, and energy security have become the keywords. Therefore, much effort has been extended toward adding value to biowastes of agri-food industries through biorefinery processing approaches. This study focused, for the first time, on the valorization of tomato by-products of a Tunisian industry for the recovery of value-added compounds using biorefi...
The fund’s strategic areas at this time include: ASSESSMENT OF BRAZIL’S RESEARCH LITERATURE • Aeronautics • Agro- business • Amazon Region...Applications 1.332 1976 Phys 76 Journal Of Applied Physics 2.498 1937 Phys 76 Scientia Agricola 0 2004 Agri # Papers 2006 EC Journals (Not covered by...Chesbrough, H.W. 2006, Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School
Christopher Stevens; Jane Kennan
This paper investigates how the formation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the EU might affect the ability of the six Development Cooperation Ireland programme countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to continue to provide protection to their domestic agri-food sectors. Various scenarios are constructed on the assumption that ‘substantially all' trade with the EU must be liberalised if the EPAs are to be compatible with WTO rules on regional trade agreements. The paper concludes that EP...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the state and effectiveness of informal entrepreneurship extension education among Malaysian farmers especially the members of Farmers’ Organization Authority (FOA. The development of an agri-entrepreneurship, both concept and activity, has been growing in importance in Malaysia. The government of Malaysia has established few agencies within the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA such as FOA to provide extension on technical and motivational training to individual farmers to become agri-entrepreneurs. This is in tandem with Ministry motto of “agriculture is business”. Such training it is hoped to strengthen capacity building among the farm ers and to have a sustainable growth in the agribusiness sector. Despite the recognition of the importance of entrepreneurship in the knowledge economy, the effectiveness of its informal entrepreneurial extension education remains debatable. Four hundred farmers who are members of FOA were interviewed with a structured questionnaire to gather information on their social attitude towards the effectiveness of the informal entrepreneurship education on their capacity building as agri-entrepreneur. The results shows that informal entrepreneurship education is not able to provide the entrepreneurship skills acquisition as expected. The findings also indicate that the level of understanding on “what is entrepreneurship” is still low among the FOA members. In this regard, efforts should be intensified to improve informal agri-entrepreneurial courses and training, and extension on developing entrepreneurial skill among the farmers. Thus extension and training courses not only apply the modern technologies to the agriculture but also the fundamental changes in farmers’ attitude towards agriculture is a business.
在英格兰桥北区(Bridgnorth)的壤质砂土上布置试验,研究最近研制出的4个土壤结构改良剂对土壤稳定性的作用.分析"Agri-Sc"对土壤溅蚀作用的试验结果表明:经过3次重复施用"Agri-Sc",过20个月后,"Agri-Sc"处理的土壤平均溅蚀量可降低14.3%.用其它3种土壤结构改良剂(Soiltex、Humus、Kiwi Green)做比较,发现这4种改良剂均可降低土壤密度,提高总孔隙度.然而,只有Soiltex和Kiwi Green可使土壤结壳强度增加,施入"Agri-Sc"两次后可使团聚体的稳定性提高.结果证明,加入合成的土壤结构改良剂,通过不断改善土壤性质,通常能改变土壤结构,降低土壤可蚀性,有利于土壤保持.然而,这种有利的效果不易取得,需做进一步研究,以弄清改良剂的作用机制以及和土壤间的相互作用.
will be truly unlimited. What is fostering the card boom ? The profit motive, of course. Besides the high "plastic credit" interest rate (over 20...American mentions two of them. The first one is Balis Gajauskas who, allegedly, spent half his life in prison for "translating literature" about...foundations for breeding and seed grow- ing and new methods of creating high-quality varieties and hybrids of agri- cultural crops. The activity of the
Rai ( Bali ), and Polonia (Medan) Airports, the director general for immigration said. "Those traveling by sea may enter via the ports of Tanjung...shipbuilding industry has experienced a real boom in orders for ships, both within Indonesia as well as from foreign sources. This situation shows that...Junior Minister of Agri- culture Sjarifudin Baharsjah says that rice production in 1991 is expected to decline to 44.7 million tons of dry paddy
Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Bessou, Cécile; Heijungs, Reinout; de Snoo, Geert
International audience; Palm oil systems generate large amounts of biomass residues. According to best agri-cultural practices, they are supposed to be returned back to plantation to maintain soil fertility. However, there are variations in practice. Differences in economic status and treatment options on biomass residues cause variations on the preference to perform LCA, leading to divergence in results that complicate interpretation. Difficulties found in comparing LCA results based on lite...
Lanzon, N.; Kahl, J.; Ploeger, A.
Nanotechnology, the science of the ultra small, is up-and-coming as the technological platform for the next wave of development and transformation of agri-food systems. It is quickly moving from the laboratory onto supermarket shelves and our kitchen tables (Scrinis and Lyons, 2007). Therefore we investigated in a literature review and a comparison of the findings with the EU regulation of organic farming to what degree nanotechnology can be applied in organic food production. ...
Full Text Available Article reflects the competitiveness and quality management from the perspective of enunciated historical and methodological approaches. They are listed by management functions and show interrelation between quality and profit, thus addressing the economic entity as the core of acting for promotion of exports. Also, we set the calculation of indicators of competitiveness of agri-food exports from the Republic of Moldova and establish the priorities and the necessary conclusions.
Vugt, van, Arie B.; Schrader, T.H.; Roo, de, N.; Daddy, A.; Douma, A; Salifou, M.L.
Niger is the largest exporter of onions in West Africa. More than 100.000 Nigerian peasants cultivate onions. For them and all the other operators within the chain (intermediaries, tradesmen, shipping agents), the onion is an important source of income. SNV Niger, and Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation in the Netherlands, in collaboration with FCMN Niya and Agri-Bilan, initiated an action research titled “Peeling the onion”. The goal of this action-research is to identify possibi...
Kentie, R.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Trimbos, K.B.; Groen, N.M.; Piersma, T
Intensification of agricultural use of grassland habitats has been linked to the declines of many farmland bird species, several of whom have been in decline for multiple decades despite agri-environmental schemes. In the Netherlands, where most grasslands have been transformed into well-drained monocultures managed for maximal dairy production, schemes that aim to protect nests from agricultural activities are the most popular. The cause of the failure of these schemes, however, seems poor r...
This report presents global and domestic information regarding production, trade and market developments for pickled cucumbers. U.S. cucumber production and trade are commonly divided into two categories: fresh and pickling. Michigan is the largest producer of pickling cucumbers in the country, accounting for 18 percent of total U.S. production. Like many agri-food industries, this processed product sector has gone through numerous changes in the past decade which have influenced production a...