WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural sustainability concepts

  1. THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRONELA-SONIA NEDEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the definition of sustainability in development literature has varied widely and broadened in scope. The concept arose in response to economic growth models that characterized development approaches over the last half century. It was eventually recognized that such models did not adequately address social inequalities and led to environmental degradation. The concept gained wider use after the World Commission on Environment and Development published "Our common future" (Brundtland 1987. The economic, social, political and ecological dimensions of the rural environment are complex and have multiple implications, starting with theoretical and practical reasons. The process of urbanization that takes place at world-wide level has become one of the global problems of mankind, because of the disparities created between the countryside and the city, which arematerialized in the cultural, economical and social aspects that are synthesized in the terms of urban and rural civilizations, which define the different realities of the geographical space. Because the concept of sustainable agriculture is still evolving, this paper reviews the ideas, practices and policies that make the basis ofsustainable agriculture concept, in order to suggest to others practical steps that may be appropriate for them in moving toward sustainable agriculture.

  2. Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: Concept to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture not only feeds the planet, it also is the biggest overall factor affecting the environment. Thus, innovative sustainable farming systems that produce healthy food and protect the environment at the same time are very much needed. We, as agricultural engineers, need ...

  3. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules

    2008-02-12

    Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food

  4. THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    PETRONELA-SONIA NEDEA

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, the definition of sustainability in development literature has varied widely and broadened in scope. The concept arose in response to economic growth models that characterized development approaches over the last half century. It was eventually recognized that such models did not adequately address social inequalities and led to environmental degradation. The concept gained wider use after the World Commission on Environment and Development published "Our common future" (Brund...

  5. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  6. New concepts of energy supply for sustainable agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Frerichs

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of future agricultural production systems requires innovative approaches. For creating a more productive, resource-efficient and low-emission agriculture the systemic development of the agricultural processes, the operating conditions and the organizational processes is necessary. Fundamentally new approaches can be found by defining scenarios. Such a hypothetic concept does field operation without using internal combustion engines. Instead of this the power supply of performant machines can be done by electric direct supply systems or for small machines by battery systems with charging points. However, all this requires the electrical energy supply of agricultural fields. A direct electric energy supply utilizing the Center Pivot approach via rotating structures enables new production systems. Using innovative technologies new solutions with great potential for automation and a productive precision agriculture can be designed. This paper highlights an unconventional approach stimulating the discussion about future developments in agricultural engineering.

  7. Role of agrophysics in the concept of sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak R.T.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Agrophysics, which is a part of enviromental physics deals with physical and physi-comechanical processes connected with mass and energy exchange in soil-plant-atmosphere system and the processes related to gathering, transport and storage of agricultural plant materials. The development of modern sustainable and safe biological production without the knowledge of agro-physical factors is not possible.

  8. Tree Crops, a Permanent Agriculture: Concepts from the Past for a Sustainable Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reed Funk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available J. Russell Smith (1874–1966, a professor of geography at Columbia University, witnessed the devastation of soil erosion during his extensive travels. He first published his landmark text, Tree Crops, A Permanent Agriculture in 1929, in which he described the value of tree crops for producing food and animal feed on sloping, marginal, and rocky soils as a sustainable alternative to annual crop agriculture less suited to these lands. A cornerstone of his thesis was using wide germplasm collection and plant breeding to improve this largely underutilized and genetically unexploited group of plants to develop locally adapted, high-yielding cultivars for the many climatic zones of North America. Smith proposed an establishment of “Institutes of Mountain Agriculture” to undertake this work. For a variety of reasons, though, his ideas were not implemented to any great degree. However, our growing population’s increasing demands on natural resources and the associated environmental degradation necessitate that Smith’s ideas be revisited. In this review, his concepts, supported by modern scientific understanding and advances, are discussed and expanded upon to emphasize their largely overlooked potential to enhance world food and energy security and environmental sustainability. The discussion leads us to propose that his “institutes” be established worldwide and with an expanded scope of work.

  9. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  10. Urban Agriculture : Sustainability Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka

    2013-01-01

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively...

  11. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  12. Nuclear energy for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of improved crop plants and applying the concepts of integrated plant nutrient and integrated pest management are some of the ways for sustaining agriculture and developing ecofriendly management techniques. Ionizing radiations and isotopes (both stable and radioactive) have in the past been used for many applications in agriculture and they will have immense applications in future also

  13. Opportunities and challenges of sustainable agricultural development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs bet...

  14. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  15. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  16. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  17. Production Practices and Systems in Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Interest in sustainable agriculture probably had its roots in the concept of sustainable development. There exist no agricultural production technologies or farming systems that are environmentally benign. The question thus becomes "what is sustainable and what is not?" The two underlying themes that appear in most definitions of sustainability and sustainable farming systems deal with (1) the economic profitability of the farming system over a long period of time; and (2) long-term benefits ...

  18. Green Carbon: Making sustainable agriculture real

    OpenAIRE

    G. Basch; González-Sánchez, E.; Kassam, A.; Triviño-Tarradas, P.; Holgado-Cabrera, A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development has evolved from a mere movement for the protection of the environment, to other multidimensional approaches. Indeed, today it calls for a holistic approach, seeking to preserve and improve not only the environment, but also to achieve social equity and economic sustainability. In Europe, society demands quality and safe products, not only in the industrial sector but also in agriculture. According to FAO, sustainable agriculture development is a key...

  19. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people')

  20. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  1. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Forgács; Judit Beke

    2011-01-01

    The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  2. Introduction: Features of environmental sustainability in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Ferrari, S; Rambonilaza, M

    2006-01-01

    This introductive paper aims to address the features of environmental sustainability in agriculture. Recent developments of the concept, which are discussed here, emphasise its multi-faceted nature and lead to various definitions as well as to different implications for policy measures in society...

  3. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  4. INTEGRATING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, ECOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current agricultural practices are contributing to environmental degradation, which also threatens the sustainability of agricultural production. cology has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of a sustainable and environmentally sound agriculture. owever...

  5. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices. PMID:27263015

  6. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, A MULTIDIMENSIONAL CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    TEODORESCU ANA MARIA

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development imposed itself as a corollary of economic term "development". Sustainable development is meant to be the summation of economic, environmental and social considerations for the present and especially for the future. The concept of sustainable development plays an important role in european and global meetings since 1972, the year it has been set for the first time. Strategies necessary to achieve the objectives of sustainable development have been developed, indicators ...

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  8. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif;

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a...

  9. The sustainability, base for the agriculture of next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is defined the sustainability concept, their origin and the operation form to the interior of CORPOICA. It discusses the concept of sustained development and the characteristics that it should have the agricultural technology to involve the concept in the agricultural development, under the perspective of satisfying the necessities of people presently, maintaining options for the future generations. The sustainable agricultural development is analyzed in connection with the ecological, economic and social sustainability and the situation of the agricultural producer in the application of the concept. It thinks about the agriculture ecology like strategy guided to achieve a sustainable agriculture by means of the knowledge of the relationships that they are given among the production systems and the processes that govern the behavior and offer of the intervened ecosystems. Complementarity the technology use of under environmental impact and the development of productive systems adapted to the environment, taking advantage of the biodiversity. It concludes that the sustainability should be above all an ethical concept that makes part of the investigator's formation inside a holistic and interdisciplinary context

  10. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Faroque, M.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, ...

  11. Environmentally sustainable agriculture in Poland - economic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta Wrzaszcz; Konrad Prandecki

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is particularly linked with natural environment, due to the necessity of natural resources exploitation in the process of agricultural production. Intensive agricultural activity can cause exhaustion of the natural resources and some reduction in agricultural productivity. This interrelation substantiates promoting different forms of sustainable agriculture, that ensures, on the one hand, the volume and profitability of agricultural production, on the other hand, respect for the n...

  12. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  13. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  14. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  15. AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the agriculture sustainable development for poverty reduction and raising productivity in agriculture. Agriculture is one of way the vast majority of Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia that makes their living with its high multiplier affect across the wider economy. This sector also is most capable of growing the continent???s economy in the medium term. KKN PPM Dikti gives fund to manage research in all areas including agriculture and re...

  16. MAIN NATURAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ion, SCURTU

    2014-01-01

    In the process of agricultural production we are using natural resources, human resources and capital. Responsible management of natural resources will allow the development of sustainable agriculture with the possibility of agricultural products to satisfy both quantitatively and qualitatively food requirements of the population. Natural resources that are irreplaceable in agricultural production are soil and water and now must be taken global measures for slowing and stopping global warming...

  17. Sustainable Agriculture: Towards a Conflict Management Based Agricultural Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Ahmadvand; Ezatollah Karami

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to provide an alternative conceptual framework for agricultural extension, which can deal with environmental scarcity, conflict and challenges in sustainable way. For this purpose, a brief history of agricultural extension and conflict is introduced and then conflict management approaches are reviewed. Finally, an alternative model is proposed to use conflict management approach as a basis for agricultural extension. The implication of conflict management approach in agr...

  18. Nuclear techniques and sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights the contribution to sustainable agricultural development of various nuclear techniques, and describes the methods developed and promoted by the IAEA's Laboratories at Seibersdorf and Vienna. After a general introduction to the applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture there follow sections devoted to soil fertility, irrigation and crop production; agrochemicals and residues; insect pest control; and plant breeding. A second article, to appear in the next edition of the IAEA Bulletin, will focus on environmental aspects of sustainable development

  19. Sustainable Agriculture in the United States: A Critical Examination of a Contested Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H. Constance

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the political economy of the development of sustainable agriculture programs and initiatives in the United States. Sustainable agriculture emerged as part of a growing critique of the negative environmental consequences of unquestioned modern farming methods. The USDA/Sustainable Agriculture Research Education Program created in 1990 and the National Organics Program created in 2002 are the current government-sponsored programs in support of sustainable agriculture. Recently, private approaches to develop a national sustainable agriculture standard for the U.S. have emerged. The events of the cases developed in the paper reveal that because the concept of sustainability is deeply contested, agribusiness is able to exploit the ambiguity surrounding the definition of sustainable and exercise power in attempts to frame sustainable agriculture in their favor. Most recently, this contested process has focused on whether genetically-modified organisms (GMOs will be included as part of the national sustainable agriculture standard.

  20. Multicriteria evaluation of sustainable agricultural land use : a case of Lesvos

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanides, Gerda; Nijkamp, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture has become an important policy orientation in the area of land use. It serves as an analysis framework to reconcile conflicting interests. In the paper the notion of sustainable agriculture will be operationalized by using the concept of environmental utilisation space. This concept offers critical threshold values for various socio-economic and environmental indicators.The paper allows for flexibility and variability in expert opinion on sustainable agriculture by dis...

  1. Sustainable food and agriculture: stakeholder's frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Gorp; M.J. van der Goot

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, the notion of sustainability is open for discursive struggle. This article's primary objective is to acquire insight into the manner in which the principal stakeholders strategically use frames in their public communication about sustainable food and agriculture. A framing an

  2. Sustainable Agriculture: How to make it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: sustainable agriculture; organic farming; whole farm management; decision support; farming systems research; designing; modeling; beta-gamma integrationThe objective of the research described in this thesis was to develop a model that helps farmers to design a sustainable farm system. If s

  3. INVESTIGATING THE SUSTAINABLE ASPECTS OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the sustainability in the farming sector is a core objective of the European Union which generates important consequences on the life’s quality. The sustainable agriculture has to bring an own contribution to the raising of the food safety and security, development and revitalize rural areas, environmental protection.In Romania improving the sustainability features of the agricultural practices is an ongoing preoccupation of the making cisional factors, the sustainable development being introduced in the national strategies and implemented in the practice by the agricultural holdings. This paper investigates the main characteristics of sustainability of Romanian agriculture having in view the three pillars of sustainable development, namely, economic aspects, social aspects and environmental aspects. For achieving this purpose it is carried out a dynamic analysis of the holdings’ economy which have a commercial profile from Romania and the other EU new member states. The analysis results reveal the contribution of some production factors on the economic efficiency to sustainable growth of holdings. The study findings suggest the action directions that have to be addressed by the decisional factors in order to consolidate the sustainability of farming practices.

  4. Sustainable Agriculture: Towards a Conflict Management Based Agricultural Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah

    This study aims to provide an alternative conceptual framework for agricultural extension, which can deal with environmental scarcity, conflict and challenges in sustainable way. For this purpose, a brief history of agricultural extension and conflict is introduced and then conflict management approaches are reviewed. Finally, an alternative model is proposed to use conflict management approach as a basis for agricultural extension. The implication of conflict management approach in agricultural extension is far-reaching: it requires new modes of analysis and different roles and tasks.

  5. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about Malaysian extension workers’ attitudes towards SAP. Front line extension workers in the DOA were surveyed to identify their attitudes on SAP. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results revealed that extension workers have positive attitudes on SAP concepts. It is recommended to find out to what extent extension workers attitudes has played significant role to transfer information to the farmers.

  6. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  7. Conservation agriculture: Profitable and sustainable

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2000-01-01

    This pamphlet explores conservation agriculture (CA), including its definition and principles, benefits, technologies, implementation, and frequently asked questions. CA relies on three basic principles: permanent soil cover, minimal soil disturbance, and crop rotations. CA provides numerous environmental, social and economic benefits, but adoption of CA has been relatively slow world-wide.

  8. Eco-efficient Agriculture: Concepts, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keating, B.A.; Carberry, P.S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Asseng, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Dixon, J.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-efficiency in the simplest of terms is about achieving more with less—more agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, for less input of land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency encompasses both the ecological and economic dimensions of sustain

  9. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies quantitatively confirm the long-articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. The general equivalence of the latter indicates that, considered globally, hillslope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic and climate forcing, whereas conventional plow-bas...

  10. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  11. SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION - NEW ECONOMIC CONCEPT REQUIRED BY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    VIOREL CORNESCU; CECILIA-ROXANA ADAM

    2013-01-01

    Following the concept of sustainable development and standard economics, we find innovation presented as one of the most important factors of world economic growth. Although most authors focus their research on sustainable development, this paper will instead focus on sustainable innovation. The paper converges on studying innovation from the perspective of sustainable development and sustains several theoretical results in order to show the importance of adopting innovation process which res...

  12. MAIN NATURAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, SCURTU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of agricultural production we are using natural resources, human resources and capital. Responsible management of natural resources will allow the development of sustainable agriculture with the possibility of agricultural products to satisfy both quantitatively and qualitatively food requirements of the population. Natural resources that are irreplaceable in agricultural production are soil and water and now must be taken global measures for slowing and stopping global warming and climate change, which could jeopardize the attainment of agricultural production. In the paper reference is made to the quality of agricultural soils of Romania, the existence of water resources and measures to be taken to preserve soil fertility and combating drought.

  13. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  14. Financing Sustainable Agriculture Under Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-kun; WANG Yang-jie

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing great challenge in meeting global food security and is expected to face even greater challenge under climate change. The overall goal of this paper is to examine how ifnance can be used to achieve the joint objectives of development, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in agriculture in developing world based on literature review. The results show that agriculture is much under invested and foreign aid also has not increased appropriately to assist developing countries to maintain sustainable agriculture under climate change. There are a wide range of areas in mitigation of and adaptation to climate change that need substantial investment. Major areas and successful cases mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in agriculture that have worked in developing countries are examined. A list of areas that have worked, could work and be scaled up or transferred is identiifed and discussed. This study concludes that mainstreaming agricultural mitigation and adaptation into agricultural development programs, enhancing local capacity, and considering different stakeholders’ needs are major experiences for successfully ifnancing sustainable agriculture under climate change.

  15. Ants and sustainable agriculture. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Benckiser, Gero

    2010-01-01

    International audience 60% of the world's ecosystems are not used in a sustainable way. Modern agriculture is blamed for declining soil carbon and biodiversity. Climate change, habitat fragmentation and other obstacles impede the movement of many animal species, and distribution changes are projected to continue. Therefore, we need alternative management strategies. The colony organisation of social insects, especially of ants, is seen as a model to design an improved agricultural manageme...

  16. Urban agriculture in Tanzania: issues of sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Sofer, M.; Mlozi, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a description of the two towns. Then it analyses the ways in which people in Morogoro and Mbeya carry out crop cultivation and livestock keeping. This is followed by chapters on food and income, environmental...

  17. biotechnology: a tool for innovation sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed 9.6 billion people, according to UN projections, will populate the planet in 2050. This is the challenge that agriculture is called to deal and that will be one of the themes supporting the EXPO 2015. The answer to food needs of a population growing, in particular in In developing countries, it will certainly not be unique, but the road seems marked: it is that of an intensification sustainable agriculture, supported by innovation and research, able to enhance agricultural yields without adding to the budget input necessary for the production (energy, earth, water).

  18. Urban social sustainability: A concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Anđelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the concept of urban social sustainability in order to provide a systematization of the main ideas contained in various interpretations of the term. First, it deals with the problems and dilemmas in defining the term of urban social sustainability, showing complexity of the idea and disagreements about its interpretation. Then it discusses the relation between the main dimensions of sustainable development for the purpose of explaining the two complement approaches to urban social sustainability. One approach sees urban social sustainability as a mean of achieving environmental and economic sustainability, while the other approach analyses urban social sustainability as a value in itself. A significant part of the paper concerns the dominant concepts within the discourse of urban social sustainability. Normative principles and operational dimensions of the term may be derived on the basis of these concepts.

  19. Sustainable development in agriculture: is it really sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian agriculture has achieved remarkable success in the food grain production due to inception of 'rainbow revolution', which made the country self-sufficient in food production. Sustainable agriculture (SA) is an ongoing process, in which people take actions leading to development of agriculture that meets their current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It advocates avoiding all those actions, which reduce the ability of future generations to meet out the present generations. It is based on the optimal interaction between clean environment, healthy economy, and vital society by avoiding trade-off of problems to other regions on to the future. Moreover, sustainable agriculture is the function of people's progress and nature's capacity. In fact, SA commits us to considering the long-term effect and to recognize our place within the ecosystem. It encourages a continuous reflection on the implications of human activity on the ecosystem. Empirical evidences shows that in the race of self-sufficiency in food grain production, we compromised a lot on social and environmental fronts. The aftermath of green revolution is not so sustainable as it showed reverse side too, in the form of environmental degradation and ecological imbalances. Such threats have led to the need for promoting sustainable development in agriculture. Due to several unsustainable activities which resulted in resource degradation in the form of top soil loss, ground water depletion and forest degradation. The average soil loss is estimated to be over 16 tonnes/ha/year. The ground water depletion resulted in several blocks as 'grey blocks' and 'dark blocks'. This happened mainly due to increase in number of tube-wells and free supply of electricity making the cost of pumping water very low. Rate of human induced land degradation is very high. Out of total geographical area of 329.0 million ha, 187 million ha (57.0 %) are reported to have degraded, of

  20. Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Orana Jade

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

  1. CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY – A LOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMIL DINGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve a definition of the concept of sustainability and of sustainable system from a logical perspective. In this respect, it introduces and defines (through the sufficiency predicates the concept of logically vivid system and, on this basis, are discussed a logical concept of sustainability, respectively of a sustainable system in general are discussed and built up. Sustainability is considered in light of identity preservation of the systems, as a static anchor, on one hand, and of the concept of automatic stabilizers as a dynamic anchor on the other side. Finally, the two sufficiency conditions for a logically vivid system be sustainable are identified: the presence of hyper-cycles, respectively the absence of positive feed-back.

  2. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  3. How Organic Agriculture Contributes to Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socio-economic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in poorer countries. This is due on the one hand to the application of organic principles, which means efficient management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, manure, etc.) and therefore costeffectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products – at local and international level – has tremendous growth prospects and offers creative producers and exporter...

  4. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Caliman Jean-Pierre; Berthaud André; Dubos Bernard; Tailliez Bertrand

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides), and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent). We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able ...

  5. Sustainable agriculture and its perceptions amongst Czech and Indian students.

    OpenAIRE

    Poláková, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has a vital function in meeting the basic needs of human society. Besides production of food and other products, agriculture serves many other purposes that refer to a whole range of social, economic, and environmental functions associated with agriculture and related land-use. The acknowledgment of multifunctional agriculture is an important step towards sustainable agriculture, which is a premise for sustainable development. This work investigates sustainable development with...

  6. From the research on socially-sustainable agriculture [14

    OpenAIRE

    Floriańczyk, Zbigniew; Kwasek, Mariola; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of sustainable agriculture. An outline of research problems. Sustainable agriculture in the light of the selected criteria – a microeconomic view. Food quality and safety and consumer health. The productivity and sustainability of agriculture from the development strategies perspective.

  7. Diversification and Sustainable Development in Chinese Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Funing; Zhu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Feeding a growing population exceeding 1 billion is a big challenge to the Chinese government and has partly led to the self-sufficient policy in grain production and supply for decades. However, the efforts to push grain production everywhere have resulted in not only deterioration of the environment but also stagnation or even reduction in farmers'income as production costs continue to increase.This situation might be worsening after China's accession to the WTO that provides market access for bulk commodity imports. A sustainable development in Chinese agriculture depends on diversification, or structural adjustment, that allows Chinese farmers to fully utilize their comparative advantage in production of labor-intensive goods.Past experience has shown that diversification has contributed more than a half of the growth in Chinese agriculture during the reform period and reduced stresses on the environment at the same time. It is likely to contribute even more to Chinese agriculture in the future and in a sustainable manner.

  8. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought. PMID:26951221

  9. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  10. Sustainable Agriculture Management of Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa, M. Haggag

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to achieve sustainable management of the fungal pathogens diseases by regulation and exploitation of the microbial diversity without causing degradation of environment and health problems. Development of sustainable, integrated pest management (IPM approaches for plant diseases control; ecology and characterization of plant pathogens and biocontrol agents. Restoring beneficial organisms that attack, repel, or otherwise antagonize disease-causing pathogens will render a soil disease-suppressive. Plants growing in disease-suppressive soil resist diseases much better than in soils low in biological diversity. Beneficial organisms can be added directly, or the soil environment made more favorable for them through use of compost and other organic amendments. Compost quality determines its effectiveness at suppressing soil-borne plant diseases. More recently, a larger portion of the strategies utilized in agriculture have been biological control practices. In the broad sense, host genetics, soil amendments, fertilizer effects on pathogens, etc., are all part of the IPM picture.

  11. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  12. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent. We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able to assess the situation on different scales and see how it is evolving, and also provide assistance for rational management that is compatible with farmers’ production targets.

  13. Linking knowledge and action through mental models of sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Matthew; Lubell, Mark; Hillis, Vicken

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is notoriously difficult to define and put into practice in the context of agricultural and other social-ecological systems. A crucial task within this debate is to analyze how practitioners understand the idea of sustainability. Using California winegrape growers as an example, this paper uses network science to describe the structure of farmer mental models of sustainable agriculture and link those models to behavioral aspects of sustainable agriculture. California growers ha...

  14. AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND INNOVATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Achieving food security and environmental issues become greatest challenge of humankind. Further, natural resources are almost reaching its limit and hence there is a global call for optimum utilisation and also conservation of natural resources. In this existing scenario, sustainable natural resources management heavily relies on sound sustainable agricultural practices. The sustainable agricultural practices dissemination, diffusion and adoption depend on agricultural knowledge information ...

  15. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jegak Uli

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about...

  16. Conventionalization, Civic Engagement, and the Sustainability of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that organic farming is synonymous with sustainable agriculture. The broad goals of sustainable agriculture include economic profitability, environmental stewardship, and community vitality. However, the "question of sustainability" (Ikerd, 2008) can be asked of any type of farming, including organic production. One way to…

  17. On the eclectic concept of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifritz, Walter [Muelacherstr. 44, CH-5212 Hausen (Switzerland)

    2001-10-01

    We define 'sustainable development' simply by the preservation of the productive capacity of the economy which can be expressed by the setting-up of a free capital shock-wave. Using the soliton theory the stability characteristics of such a wave can be derived. With reference to this non-linear mathematics the presently eclectic concept of sustainability could be reduced to its core, namely, the maintenance of inter-generational equity via a stable capital wave. (Author)

  18. Precision Agriculture with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for SMC estimations – Towards a more Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Hafsal, Leif Peder

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis is reviewing the latest published research on remote sensing technology in the agricultural sector, for soil moisture estimations towards a more sustainable precision agriculture. Modern, exciting new technological innovations will also be presented, along with the sustainable aspect of conventional agriculture with more precise agricultural practices. The synergy between UAS, SMC and sustainability are the focus of attention for this review thesis, as the po...

  19. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  20. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jahangir

    2005-01-01

    The report presents the current status of some selected CGPRT Crops (secondary crops) and examines their potentials in enhancing the sustainable development of diverse agriculture in Bangladesh. Agriculture in Bangladesh is composed of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry subsectors. This study deals primarily with crop agriculture and the scope of diversification is limited to crop rather than agricultural diversification.

  1. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...

  2. Review of Malaysian Agricultural Policies with Regards to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md W. Murad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new scientific knowledge coupled with concerns for the environmental, economic and social aspects of agriculture brought Malaysian agriculture into a state of transition. The need for reviewing Malaysian agricultural policies has arisen due to that fact that current agricultural practices in the country are found to be related to environmental, economic and social problems. This study is an effort to review the current Malaysian agricultural policies with regards to sustainability. The Third National Agricultural Policy (3NAP, which is the latest one and relevant secondary materials have primarily been reviewed to substantiate our arguments in this paper. The study, however, argues that the latest Malaysian agricultural policies are compatible with the standards of sustainable agriculture, but the current agricultural practices in the country differ, to some extent, from sustainability principles. The study ends up with some concluding remarks.

  3. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  4. National sustainable transport planning - concepts and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    conceive and define the concept of ‘national sustainable transport planning’. This is done via selected literature within this and associated areas. A definition is provided and it is suggested that three interlinked dimensions are of importance for transitions, thus a normative, an analytic and a...... governance dimension. The definition of national sustainable transport planning is confronted with current national transport planning practices in Sweden and Norway, which are somewhat advanced and have long traditions of recurrent, comprehensive, cross modal planning processes and integrated documents...

  5. Quantitative population epigenetics - a catalyst for sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stauß, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Ecological intensification of agricultural practices can be a minimum input agriculture with a maximum utilization of the epigenetic potential for a maximum output. The application of Quantitative Population Epigenetics as a catalyst for sustainable agriculture offers earning opportunities (market segments or business cases) for the existing players in the high-input agriculture in terms of win-win. For example, agriculture is a major factor in eutrophication of surface waters. By using...

  6. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend;

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... and contractors and the idea is to help the homeowner with design and decision making process. The building stock analysis shows that detached single-family houses account for large share of the total number of dwellings in all Nordic countries. Final energy use for space heating and hot water is in the range...... but built in the same way, using the same materials. Existing full-service renovation concepts in the Nordic countries have just recently entered the market and are not well established and their success is yet to be evaluated. The success is strongly influenced by the current renovation market...

  7. Transgenic Crops: Implications for Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Alice; Altieri, Miguel A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for genetically modified (GM) crops to threaten biodiversity conservation and sustainable agriculture is substantial. Megadiverse countries and centers of origin and/or diversity of crop species are particularly vulnerable regions. The future of sustainable agriculture may be irreversibly jeopardized by contamination of in situ…

  8. Assessment of the agricultural sustainability of Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qian; Zhao Xueping

    2007-01-01

    It is significant for the study on the sustainable development of regional agriculture to monitor and measure the trend of agricultural development with an effective method. The sustainable development of regional agriculture should accord with regional population, rural economic development, social progress, resource and environmental support. This paper establishes the evaluating indicators system of sustainable development of regional agriculture,evaluates the agricultural sustainable development in Shaanxi Province with a comprehensive multi-indicator method,analyzes the support of resource and environment for regional agriculture by the resource-development index and the environment-development index, and gets the conclusion that the indicators, such as education level, the income gap between urban and rural residents, the per capita area under cultivation and the consumption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers per hectare, are the main factors to restrict agricultural sustainability, and that the pressure of the development of subsystems of population, economy and society on the subsystems of resource and environment turns out to be stronger and stronger. Agricultural environment gets better, but resource becomes one of the important factors to restrict the development of regional agriculture. In a word, this paper highlights the potentials and limitations of sustainable agriculture of Shaanxi and helps identify the development direction in the future.

  9. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system

  10. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.

  11. Land use and agriculture sustainability: does landscape matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on showing how landscape can play a role in the sustainability of agricultural activities and what conditions have to be required to consider landscape as a sustainable output in this way. Nowadays, agricultural policies in Europe attach a growing importance to the direct management by agricultural producers of the countryside. This actual trend emphasizes the role of non-commodity outputs in the production process, with respect to the multifunctional nature of agricul...

  12. An Economic Analysis of Agricultural Sustainability in Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Hatai, L.D.; Sen, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    The development of a method for generating Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) for agricultural sustainability and evaluating the existing status has been reported. Some measures have been suggested to promote sustainable agriculture of Orissa. This state has been selected since it faces wide inequality, improper management and over-exploitation of natural resources and explosion of population. These have created a threat to ecological balance and economic as well as social status of...

  13. Sustainable Management of Resource Consumption Agriculture - Enlightenment from Organic Agriculture of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Fang; Xu, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the content of organic agriculture, sustainable management of agriculture in Japan is analyzed from four aspects. Firstly, organization and management institutions and relevant laws and regulations of organic agriculture in Japan are introduced. Secondly, certification procedure of organic agricultural products is briefly described, that is, determining production plan, reorganizing cultivation and management records, making certification application, on-site inspection, offering cer...

  14. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Anh, Dao The; Thinh, Le Duc; Bihn, Vu Trong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the socio-economic impacts of recent developments in the regional and global economic environment, including trade liberalization on upland agriculture at a village level and identifying constraints to the sustainable development of diversified agriculture, in particular upland agriculture based on CGPRT crops in Viet Nam.

  15. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  16. Sustainable Absorption Panels from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail F.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become a serious environmental problem and there are demands for alternative sustainable materials which capable to reduce the noise level at various frequency ranges. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the potential of turning the agricultural waste and waste paper into a sound absorption panel. For the purpose of this study, combination of two materials was under studied; coconut coir fibre from agriculture waste and shredded waste paper from the office. There were two main objective of the research; first is to develop absorption panels from coconut coir powder that available locally with a combination of shredded paper at different percentage of mixture. Second objective is to identify the absorption rate of the panels. The study encompasses the fabrication of the particle board using the coconut husk powder mix with shredded waste paper and using the gypsum powder as the binder for the two materials. Four acoustic panels of size 0.5m x 0.5m and 0.012 m thick were fabricated with different mix ratio; 25% of coconut coir powder mixed with 75% of shredded waste papers for sample 1, 50% both of the material for sample 2, 75% of coconut coir powder mixed with 25% of shredded waste paper for sample 3, and lastly 100% of coconut coir powder for sample 4. The absorption coefficient of the panels was tested in a reverberation chamber and in accordance with ISO 354:1985 standards. Based on the results, sample 1 gave the highest absorption coefficient compared to sample 2, 3 and 4. It can be concluded that the acoustic panel made from a mixture of 25% coconut coir powder with 75% shredded waste paper provided higher absorption coefficient compared to the performance of the other samples. This might be caused by the size of the coir powder which is very small, creating less void space in between the panel and thus causing it to absorb less sound. Since sound absorption is very much affected by the availability of void space of

  17. SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS: TRANSLATING CONCEPT INTO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idqan Fahmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has proven to spur economic growth for many countries in the world. It has, however, also negative impacts in terms of widening income gap, environmental degradation etc. such that many are worried that the growth will not be sustainable. Triple bottom line was introduced to make the economic growth and company competitiveness more sustainable. Although to define the concept is easy, to make it implemented, especially by developing countries, is another matter. Education and research track by universities is suggested to be one best way to accelerate the implementation of the concept. A case of Graduate Program of Management and Business (MB-IPB is used to illustrate the attempt.Keywords: Sustainable Business Competitiveness, Triple Bottom Line, MB-IPB, 3PsABSTRAKGlobalisasi telah terbukti memacu pertumbuhan ekonomi pada berbagai belahan dunia, tetapi juga mempunyai banyak dampak negatif yang dirasakan dalam bentuk melebarnya kesenjangan pendapatan, kerusakan lingkungan dll. Akibatnya banyak khawatir bahwa pertumbuhan ekonomi yang terjadi tidak akan berkelanjutan. Konsep Triple Bottom Line diperkenalkan untuk membuat pertumbuhan ekonomi dan dayasaing perusahaan lebih berkelanjutan. Walaupun konsep ini relatif mudah untuk dijelaskan, menerapkannnya ternyata tidak mudah, terutama di negara berkembang. Jalur pendidikan dan penelitian merupakan salah satu cara terbaik yang dapat dilakukan universitas untuk mempercepat penerapan konsep. Kasus Program Pascasarjana Manajemen dan Bisnis (MB-IPB digunakan untuk mengilustrasikan upaya tersebut.Kata kunci: Dayasaing Bisnis Berkelanjutan, Triple Bottom Line, MB-IPB, 3P

  18. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  19. Sustainable development of rainfed agriculture in India:

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Kerr

    1996-01-01

    India's agricultural growth has been sufficient to move the country from severe food crises of the 1960s to aggregate food surpluses today. Most of the increase in agricultural output over the years has taken place under irrigated conditions. The opportunities for continued expansion of irrigated area are limited, however, so Indian planners increasingly are looking to rainfed, or unirrigated agriculture to help meet the rising demand for food projected over the next several decades. Given th...

  20. Sustainable Agricultural Practices and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: Does Agroecology Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kassie, Menale; Zikhali, Precious; Pender, John; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural practices, in as far as they rely on renewable local or farm resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper, we used two sets of plot-level data—from a low-rainfall area and from a high-rainfall area of Ethiopia—to investigate the impact of sustainable agricultural practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on reduced tillage. Specifically, we sought to i...

  1. Perceptions of Paddy Farmers towards Sustainable Agricultural Technologies: Case of Haraz Catchments Area in Mazandaran province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bagheri; H. S. Fami; A. Rezvanfar; Asadi, A. (Awat); Yazdani, S

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture has defined and described in many ways. Despite the diversity in conceptualizing sustainable agriculture, there is a consensus on three basic dimensions of the concept, namely, ecological soundness economically viable and socially acceptable. The dimensions of ecological soundness refers to the preservation and improvement of the natural environment. Environmental issues emerge from the human use of natural resources. Farmers' decisions to adopt a new agricultural tech...

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND FOOD PRODUCTION SUSTAINABILITY IN BANGLADESH AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    1999-01-01

    Although `Green Revolution' technology is the major technological breakthrough in agricultural history, which is adopted by nations worldwide, including Bangladesh, to boost their foodgrain production, it is increasingly felt that productivity from this new agricultural technology is declining and is a threat to sustainability of economic development. The present study attempted to evaluate the role of technological change in augmenting aggregate crop growth and sustaining food production for...

  3. Acceptance of Sustainable Agricultural Practices: The Case of Crop Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey L. DSilva; Norsida Man; Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Bahaman A. Samah

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Agriculture for numerous years has been a source of income generator that offered wide opportunities for employment and enhancing the socio-economic status of mankind in many countries. Without doubt acceptance of agricultural sustainable practices will bring much benefit to the farming community especially in the long run to overcome the scarcity of resources and continuous income. Aim of this study was to determine contract farming entrepreneurs acceptance of sustainable ...

  4. Agroecology as a Science of Integration for Sustainability in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge contribution is provided in order to understand agroecology as both a scientific discipline and a philosophical paradigm for promoting sustainability in agriculture. The peculiar character of agroecology as an applied science based on the systems paradigm is explored in the fields of research and tuition. As an organisational capability of connecting different hierarchical levels in accordance with the goal of sustainability, integration is shown as an emergent property of the evolution of agriculture as a human activity system.

  5. Cultivated Capital: Agriculture, Food Systems and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Webb

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated capital lies at the heart of concerns about sustainable development for 3 reasons: First, sustaining agricultural productivity is essential to meeting the world’s still growing demand for food. Without adequate food consumption, nutrition and labour productivity are impaired, which in turn limits the pace of economic growth and poverty alleviation. Second, removing poverty requires income growth among the rural poor, many of whom continue to rely on agriculture-based economic syste...

  6. Sustainable Agriculture in Aotearoa: Social Learning through Piecewise Deliberation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Martin; Small, Bruce; Wedderburn, Elizabeth,

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and illustrates design principles in a programme of applied science and stakeholder consultation on sustainable agriculture in New Zealand. We report procedures and tools for building deliberations around agriculture performance, societal responsibilities and regional planning challenges, focussing on the question of how effectively to mobilise knowledge from different sources and at different scales about environmental and economic systems to address sustainability policy...

  7. SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS: TRANSLATING CONCEPT INTO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idqan Fahmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Globalization has proven to spur economic growth for many countries in the world. It has, however, also negative impacts in terms of widening income gap, environmental degradation etc. such that many are worried that the growth will not be sustainable. Triple bottom line was introduced to make the economic growth and company competitiveness more sustainable. Although to define the concept is easy, to make it implemented, especially by developing countries, is another matter. Education and research track by universities is suggested to be one best way to accelerate the implementation of the concept. A case of Graduate Program of Management and Business (MB-IPB is used to illustrate the attempt.   Keywords: Sustainable Business Competitiveness, Triple Bottom Line, MB-IPB, 3Ps   /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  8. ASSESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available First stage for attaining sustainability in a system is the measurement of current state of sustainability. Indicators are widely used as tools for measurement of sustainability. In this study, a comprehensive index was proposed to measure sustainability in agricultural production systems. This index takes advantage of fuzzy logic to combine all six indexes which were selected as the representative of three dimensions of sustainability. A set of models and sub-models based on the fuzzy inference system were employed to define the index. A case study conducted in two large production farms of maize and wheat, in Iran, proved the feasibility and usability of the model.

  9. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  10. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  11. Transition to Sustainable Fertilisation in Agriculture, A Practices Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, Suvi; Oosterveer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that sustainability transition in agriculture requires a shift from a regime oriented towards increasing agricultural productivity to a regime in which the environmental and social effects of production are regarded as central. Practice theories represent an emerging perspective on a

  12. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancing the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'neem cake' is the scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA Technical Unit Environment and Sustainable Development Innovation the Agro-Industrial System, developed a promising experiment to promote the use of 'neem cake' as an insecticide, and fertilizer of low cost in sustainable agriculture.

  13. Indigenous agroforestry in Latin America: A blueprint for sustainable agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, D.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale rainforest destruction in Latin America has occurred partly as a result of government policy incentives to colonize and clear forest for agriculture and ranching, in order to alleviate poor economic and social conditions in other regions. Inappropriate agricultural techniques have been used which are not sustainable, and the new colonist farmers are forced to clear ever more virgin forest for agriculture in order to survive. The objectives of this literature review are to assess t...

  14. Promoting Sustainable Agriculture: Experiences from India and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Puttaswamaiah S; Ian Manns; Amita Shah

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture growth, driven by Green Revolution, has increased the foodgrains supply, ensuring food security. The next stage, however, faces a serious challenge in terms of sustainability. While developing countries face the problem of sustainability of resource use, the challenge for developed economies is overuse of chemical inputs. These problems have increased awareness about sustainable farming and emphasised the need for moving towards it. Policies have since stressed promoting sustainab...

  15. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Menozzi; Martina Fioravanzi; Michele Donati

    2015-01-01

    The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA). Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was applied on a sample o...

  16. The Reorganization of Agricultural Extension Toward Sustainable Agricultural Development in Eastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadalla. A. E. Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of Sustainable agricultural development are to enhance food security; to increase productivity and competitiveness of the sector; to deepen linkages with other sectors; to create new sources of growth for the sector; and to conserve and utilize natural resources in a sustainable basis. The agricultural extension services can play a crucial role in providing this network of information on sustainable agricultural education. Thus, the role of agricultural extension is very important to support Sustainable agricultural development which is moving from production to a wider set of sustainability and environmental objectives may need to change their extension approach. To fulfill this objective, a sample of 46 Managers, Deputy Directors, respondents was selected through simple of sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research .A questionnaire was used to collect the data and Analysis of descriptive statistics. Results: According to factor analysis, the implications for sustainable agricultural development were categorized into two groups consisting: (a The Decentralization (b The Pluralism. That decentralization is high with Delegate the local committees (local leaders, farmers’ organizations and agricultural credit organizations for the dissemination of sustainable agricultural development programs and for the collection of taxes and financial charges from the farmers due to the extension services and loans of 67.4�0.While 69.6 �0of Managers and Deputy Directors mentioned that high performance of Pluralism is Providing training for farmers organizations’ staff. To achieve this participation, extension organizations would need to formally of decentralization and Pluralism or transfer the control of specific program planning and management functions to the system levels of local Agricultural extension, Private sector organizations, Farmers organizations and Education organizations where

  17. The Sustainable Food and Agricultural Movement in Munich, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    The sustainable food and agriculture movement in Munich, Germany is one of the strongest in all of Germany. Germany as a whole is the leading consumer of organic food in Europe and is one of the founders of the organic agriculture philosophy and practice. But in the case of Munich, where does this activism come from in particular? Why is Munich so strong in this movement? This paper discusses the methodology of mapping the actors involved in the sustainable food and agriculture movements foll...

  18. Comparative Study on Sustainable Agriculture Knowledge among Malaysian Contract Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmariana Azman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern farming methods like contract farming must emphasize on the need to practice sustainable agriculture so that it will lead towards the development of the agriculture sector. To do so, knowledge is paramount as this will enable the implementation of good agriculture practices. What is the current level of knowledge of contract farmers with regards to sustainable agriculture? Is there any difference in the level of knowledge between farmers from different zones? Thus, this study would like to investigate on the level of knowledge pertaining to sustainable agriculture practices between contract farmers from east and west Malaysian. Approach: This study used a survey methodology to obtain the data. A total of 160 respondents participated in the study and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: From the result, it was identified that the respondents were at a high level pertaining to their knowledge on sustainable agriculture. Further analysis showed that there is a significant difference in knowledge based on different zones. Conclusion: The study recommends that more efforts should be taken by respective stakeholders to further improve farmers knowledge regarding pest control, soil erosion and proper usage of machine for agriculture.

  19. Precision Farming and Conservation Advances Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    To many, Precision Farming, more formally termed Precision Agriculture, seems like an oxymoron. Yet site-specific management makes sense to an exponentially growing number of farmers. So where is Precision Farming headed? The short answer is that it is being extended from a focus on crop productio...

  20. Sustainable nanomaterials using waste agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. Learning from nature, one can produce a wide variety of nanoparticles using completely safe and benign materials such as ...

  1. Acceptance of Sustainable Agricultural Practices: The Case of Crop Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. DSilva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture for numerous years has been a source of income generator that offered wide opportunities for employment and enhancing the socio-economic status of mankind in many countries. Without doubt acceptance of agricultural sustainable practices will bring much benefit to the farming community especially in the long run to overcome the scarcity of resources and continuous income. Aim of this study was to determine contract farming entrepreneurs acceptance of sustainable agricultural practices and the issues involved in their level of acceptance. Approach: This is a qualitative study and the data was collected from a focus group discussion on seven contract farming entrepreneurs in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The researchers played the role as the instrument during the data collection process and an interview guide assisted researchers to obtain objectives of the study. Data obtained from the respondents was recorded and eventually transformed into verbatim transcripts for the process of data analysis. Results: It was identified that contract farming entrepreneurs have a sound knowledge on sustainable agricultural practices and they belief it is vital for mankind. However, their level of acceptance is still not significant as they perceive that they still need much support from the relevant agriculture agencies. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is suggested that all concerned parties should make the necessary sacrifices and put in more effort in ensuring that contract farming entrepreneurs will eventually embrace sustainable agricultural practices that will bring benefit to the present and future generations.

  2. Soil sustainability in organic agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    May-Roberts, S; Robertson, J.; K. Killham; Paton, G

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the assessment of soil sustainability and the potential impact of cultivation are based upon the application of chemical procedures. In the absence of a biological context, these measurements offer little in understanding longterm changes in soil husbandry. Detailed microcosm investigations were applied as a predictive tool for management change. The microcosms were designed with homogenised soils treated with organic amendments. Key soil functional relationships were quantifie...

  3. Sustainable intensive agriculture: evidence from aqueous geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trolard Stoll, Fabienne; Chanzy, Andre; Ruget, Francoise; Lecerf, Remi; Charron, François

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical and crop models allow for simulating the concentration of irrigation water (Durance River) by evapotranspiration, equilibration with soil pCO2, dissolution / precipitation of calcite, dissolution of fertilizers (P-K, no N), and apatite precipitation. Nutrient absorption is simulated as removal of the corresponding ions from the solution. The results show that the crop system in the Crau plain has thus protected and ameliorated soils since the XVIth century, while sustaining ...

  4. Sustainable Agriculture: A Question of Ecology, Economics, Ethics or Expedience?

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Pannell; Schilizzi, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Sustainability is the paradigm of our time, yet its use as a guide to planning or decision making is clouded by its ambiguity and the multiplicity of definitions in use. In this paper we address the issue of how best to deal with the multi-faceted nature of sustainability. We outline each of the facets of sustainability which have been discussed in literature, but suggest that most of them boil down to three basic concepts: environmental stability, intergenerational equity and economic effici...

  5. Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication deals with the direct application of phosphate rock (PR) sources to agriculture. Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and its deficiency restricts crop yields severely. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic, and often extremely P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fibre production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers such as superphosphates are commonly recommended to correct P deficiencies, but most developing countries import these fertilizers, which are often in limited supply and represent a major outlay for resource-poor farmers. In addition, intensification of agricultural production in these countries necessitates the addition of P not only to increase crop production but also to improve soil P status in order to avoid further soil degradation. Hence, it is imperative to explore alternative P sources. Under certain soil and climate conditions, the direct application of PR, especially where available locally, has proved to be an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the more expensive superphosphates. PR deposits occur worldwide, but few are mined (for use mainly as raw materials to manufacture water-soluble P fertilizers). The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Coordinated Research Project called 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilizers, in particular rock phosphates'. This was implemented by institutes of developing and industrialized countries from 1993 to 1998. The results obtained yielded new information on: chemistry of soil P; tests for available soil P; phosphate nutrition of crops; agronomic effectiveness of PR products; and P fertilizer recommendations with particular emphasis on PR use. Within the framework of the integrated plant nutrition systems promoted by

  6. Considerations on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Dryland Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; TSUNEKAWA Atsushi; TSUBO Mitsuru; KOIKE Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Drylands of the world cover 41% of the Earth's land surface and are a direct source of livelihood for 6.5 billion people, especially in developing countries. However, nearly all drylands are at risk of land degradation as a result of human activities. Poverty and desertification in dryland areas are major problems threatening sustainable agriculture and rural development in dryland areas. Several topics that are significant for sustainable agriculture and rural development for food security and environmental rehabilitation in dryland areas were stressed in this paper.

  7. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOBRE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, a key component of the structure of economic branches, should be addressed directly related to the maintenance of natural resources and their exploitation in a controlled way or the enhancement of their own, without resorting to inconsistent stimulus elements that can in time generate dysfunctions in products and the environment. Looking at things from this perspective, there is a need for a sustainable agriculture approach, given its social, ecological and economic representativeness, with active and continuous character.

  8. Sustainable management of library and information systems in agricultural universities

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the importance of library and information systems in agricultural education, research and development. Points out the challenges offered to library executives by information explosion, developments in computer and communication technology, and information awareness. Opines that agricultural library systems in India as they exist now are not sustainable. They have to be totally recast and made more productive to the needs by application of modern management techniques. Discusses in de...

  9. Diagnosis and Challenges of Sustainable Agricultural Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural development seeks not only to preserve and maintain natural resources, but also to develop them, as future generations would have much more demand quantity-wise and quality-wise for agricultural and food products. Such goals should ensure a balance with the development of livelihoods enjoyed by the individuals concerned. Livelihood should not be restricted to an indicator of sufficient income levels but should also include public health concerns and edu...

  10. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    George, D.; Clewett, J.; Birch, C; Wright, A.; Allen, W

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other courses, and adversely affects the ability of graduating students to apply climate information. This paper presents evidence from a professional develop...

  11. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, de, Marieke

    2014-01-01

      The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems that characterize modern agriculture. The Dutch innovation programme “TransForum” considered robustness an important societal value that needed to be developed in relation to innovation...

  12. Sustainable development in agriculture: a socio-ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Castro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a perspective on sustainability in agriculture - which derives from a notion of development tied to the idea of growth - supported by technological advances aimed at ensuring sustainable management of natural resources. In this sense, we consider here a socio-ecological approach in order to bring together the individual and their environment, showing that this relationship is fundamental for a process of coevolution, where nature and human being together can define the organization society.

  13. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  14. Methodologies aand indicatores to assess sustainability in tourism and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani

    2009-01-01

    The PhD project is about methodologies and indicators to assess sustainability, especially relating to tourism and agriculture. Spatial planning processes need to be supported by instruments able to evaluate current situation and to measure long term effects of the policies for development that are implemented. The use of indicators for measuring sustainability of tourism addresses some important needs: (1) quantitative evaluation of current state of environmental, social and economic conditi...

  15. Guidelines for Sustainability Assessment in Food and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    El Hage, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The ecological, economic and social principles of sustainable development (WCED, 1987) received nearly universal agreement during and following the 1992 Earth Summit. One of the summit‘s major outcomes, Agenda 21, includes a whole chapter (Chapter 14) on sustainable agriculture and rural development. Much progress has been made in the past two decades. For most social and economic Millennium Development Goals, improvements have been substantial (UN, 2011). Global per capita Gross National Inc...

  16. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, N.R; Dorn, K.; B. Runck; P. Ewing; Williams, A; Anderson, K A; L. Felice; K. Haralson; J. Goplen; Altendorf, K; Fernandez, A.; W. Phippen; Sedbrook, J.; Marks, M.; Wolf, K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultura...

  17. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  18. Economic and Environmental Perspectives on Sustainable Agriculture Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    There is a great deal of concern today to ensure that economic development, including agricultural development, is sustainable. It is being increasingly emphasized that this sustainability requires care to be taken of the natural environment. This is because the natural environment is both the source of important resources that support economic activity and an avenue or sink for disposal of wastes from economic activity. Soil and water are for example, important natural resources used in agri...

  19. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  20. Sustainability through service perspectives, concepts and examples

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfson, Adi; Martin, Patrick M; Tavor, Dorith

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the mutual relationship between service and sustainability. It covers methodologies and approaches and describes measurements and tools that can promote sustainability on the service market. Lastly, it presents the different applications of sustainability, together with examples of sustainable services. Environmental concerns have become integral to any decision-making process in the design and implementation of goods and services. With the increasing dominance of the service sector, and as service systems become more complex and interdisciplinary, the focus must move from the exchange of products to that of services. Newly created services should thus aim to incorporate sustainability into their designs while viewing sustainability as a service in its own right. Integrating sustainability in the service design and development process is essential to improving the sustainability of our society and preserving the environment. Moreover, doing so shifts the service boundaries from values that...

  1. Room for Sustainable Agriculture. Part 1 Advice. Part 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    An outline is given of the social dilemmas associated with agriculture and horticulture in the Netherlands. Ongoing innovation and accelerated sustainable development are essential to resolve these dilemmas. Given the importance of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture sector, there is every reason for the central government to play its part and help remove the obstacles to the continuing sustainable development of the sector. The Council recommends that the central government continues developing the Council's vision for agriculture and horticulture with the parties concerned, allows scope for the development of different agricultural business models, applies knowledge and innovation as drivers of continuing sustainable development, amends laws and regulations as necessary, and facilitates a permanent dialogue between the sector and society. The advisory report also sets out the Council's vision concerning the political and public debate on agriculture and horticulture. This debate is most clearly characterised by major and seemingly insurmountable differences of opinion. The Council hopes that its report will induce a shift in thinking about Dutch agriculture among politicians and society at large, so that the transitions considered necessary by the Council can be implemented more rapidly.

  2. National sustainable transport planning - concepts and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Leleur, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability has become a significant ambition for transport planners and policy-makers around the world. However, a transition to sustainable transport is a challenging, long term process, which raises important questions concerning how national, planning processes could support the integration of sustainability. This is the topic of the research project SUSTAIN. Internationally, research on national transport planning is limited, and not well established as a coherent field of research.Th...

  3. 'Sustainable Development': Is it a Useful Concept?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfred Beckerman

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that 'sustainable development' has been defined in such a way as to be either morally repugnant or logically redundant. 'Strong' sustainability, overriding all other considerations, is morally unacceptable as well as totally impractical; and 'weak' sustainability, in which compensation is made for resources consumed, offers nothing beyond traditional economic welfare maximisation. The 'sustainability' requirement that human well-being should never be allowed to decline is shown t...

  4. The Concept Model of Sustainable Buildings Refurbishment

    OpenAIRE

    Mickaitytė Aistė; Kaklauskas Artūras; Tupėnaitė Laura; Zavadskas Edmundas

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development principles reaching many spheres of human activities, public buildings refurbishment is not an exemption in this case. Buildings refurbishment supports excellent opportunities to reduce energy consumption in buildings as well as encourages other sustainable refurbishment principles implementation - citizens' healthcare, environment protection, rational resources use, information about sustainable refurbishment dissemination and stakeholders groups' awareness. During th...

  5. Biotechnology: a tool for sustainable innovation in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed 9.6 billion people, according to UN projections, will populate the planet in 2050. This is the challenge that agriculture is called to deal and that will be one of the topics carriers EXPO 2015. The answer to food needs of a population growing, in particular in the Countries in the developing world, will certainly not unique, but the road seems marked: it is that of an intensification sustainable agriculture, supported by innovation and research, able to enhance agricultural yields without adding to the budget input necessary for the production (energy, earth, water).

  6. Sustainable Nutrient Management in Chinese Agriculture:Challenges and Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has to raise agricultural productivity in its limited and shrinking farmland to guarantee food security for its huge and ever-growing population. Sustainable soil nutrient management is of paramount importance to the world's most populous country. Critical challenges the country is facing in sustaining soil fertility and in alleviating the hazardous impact of intensive fertilizer use are discussed in this paper. It is emphatically pointed out that national strategies as well as area-specific action plans with respect to scientific nutrient management are urgently needed to balance productivity and sustainability in the future. Relevant proposals for addressing those challenges are also presented.

  7. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. PMID:27486573

  8. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. PMID:27486573

  9. Geoethical remarks to sustainable development concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2013-04-01

    crust. Geological factors need to be reflected and respected in any concept of environmental sustainability. People have to improve permanently by an appropriate up-to-date geoeducation any knowledge of the behaviour of the Nature (including its predictability). The needed geoethical way of thinking and acting should be based on generally accepted moral and ethical principles achieved by mankind by various ways and experiences (in spite of some current contrary trends). It is necessary to seek new priorities emphasizing more and more the solidarity of human kind.

  10. Environmental Economics, Ecological Economics, and the Concept of Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Munda

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic discussion, mainly for non-economists, on economic approaches to the concept of sustainable development. As a first step, the concept of sustainability is extensively discussed. As a second step, the argument that it is not possible to consider sustainability only from an economic or ecological point of view is defended; issues such as economic-ecological integration, inter-generational and intra-generational equity are considered of fundamental importance. Tw...

  11. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de D.M.

    2014-01-01

      The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of problems

  12. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 5th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory lists 151 programs in alternative farming systems (systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources, especially sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic or organic farming and gardening). It includes programs conducted by colleges and universities, research…

  13. Sustaining the Earth's watersheds, agricultural research data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS water resources program has developed a web-based data system, STEWARDS: Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data System to support research that encompasses a broad range of topics such as water quality, hydrology, conservation, land use, and soils. The data syst...

  14. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  15. Sustainable Development of Agriculture from the Perspective of Rural Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,China’s economic construction enters into a new development period.The buyer’s market appears,structural demand of agricultural products becomes excessive,and the demand market becomes depressed.In the process of seeking approaches for expanding domestic demands,accelerating construction of small towns is a breakthrough point of rural population urbanization,and also an optimal approach for realizing transfer of rural surplus labor.Besides,accelerating construction of small towns is an inevitable path for intensive management of rural land implementing ecological agriculture,and also an optimal path for improving farmers’ quality and improving living conditions.In addition,it is an essential strategy for increasing consumption,expanding domestic demand,pulling rural economic and social development,and also a powerful measure for realizing sustainable development of agriculture.In the process of construction of rural urbanization,it is required to attach importance to strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.This is beneficial for the present generation and for descendants.Therefore,how to build small towns and how to solve many problems in sustainable development of agriculture have received much concern.

  16. Ground to Grits. Scientific Concepts in Nutrition/Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents an activity-oriented program designed to give students experiences that will help them understand concepts concerning the relationship between science, agriculture, and nutritional needs. Covered in the six units of the guide are reasons for eating certain foods (taste and smell); the nature of food (the concept of…

  17. Geography, sustainability and the concept of glocalization

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Theodoor Verstappen

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability focuses on the question whether our planet can sustain the present and future global human impact. The related environmental issues and particularly global changes, such as increasing temperatures, rising sea level, deforestation and deteriorating biodiversity, have become a key subject in earth science research. The social and economic components of sustainability, however, get less scientific attention and are often ignored in political and religious circles. Emphasis i...

  18. Public Investment and Environrnental Sustainability of Agricultural Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Li Yousheng

    2004-01-01

    The excessive application of fertilizer and pesticides in grain production in China has posed a threat to the environrnental sustainability of agricultural production. One of the major reasons of the increasing usage of chemical inputs by farmers is their trying to reach higher yields, especially in absence of adequate public inputs, such as development and extension of appropriate technology and necessary production infrastructure, etc. Based on the cropspecific data of the past 20 years, this paper examines how the public investments in agricultural researches could impact on the reduction of farmers' private material inputs of major grain crops in China. It manifests that the increased investments in public sector, especially in agricultural researches, is a favorable and effective way to reduce farmers' private material inputs and should be given a priority consideration in the policy emendation to increase yields and improve production sustainability.

  19. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. PMID:25602557

  20. Agricultural sustainability in the semi-arid Near East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture began in the eastern Mediterranean Levantine Corridor about 11000 years ago toward the end of the Younger Dryas when aridity had diminished wild food resources. During the subsequent Climatic Optimum, agricultural villages spread rapidly but subsequent climatic changes on centennial to millennial scales resulted in striking oscillations in settlement, especially in marginal areas. Natural climate change thus alternately enhanced and diminished the agricultural potential of the land. Growing populations and more intensive land us, both for agriculture and livestock, have led to changes in the structure of vegetation, hydrology, and land quality. Over the millennia, political and economic interventions, warfare and incursions by nomadic herding tribes all impacted sustainability of agriculture and the ability of the land to supports its populations. In much of the region today, agricultural land use is not sustainable given existing technology and national priorities. The Near Eastern case is instructive because of the quality of information, the length of the record, and the pace of modern change.

  1. Agricultural sustainability in the semi-arid Near East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hole

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture began in the eastern Mediterranean Levantine Corridor about 11 000 years ago toward the end of the Younger Dryas when aridity had diminished wild food resources. During the subsequent Climatic Optimum, agricultural villages spread rapidly but subsequent climatic changes on centennial to millennial scales resulted in striking oscillations in settlement, especially in marginal areas. Natural climate change thus alternately enhanced and diminished the agricultural potential of the land. Growing populations and more intensive land use, both for agriculture and livestock, have led to changes in the structure of vegetation, hydrology, and land quality. Over the millennia, political and economic interventions, warfare and incursions by nomadic herding tribes all impacted sustainability of agriculture and the ability of the land to support its populations. In much of the region today, agricultural land use is not sustainable given existing technology and national priorities. The Near Eastern case is instructive because of the quality of information, the length of the record, and the pace of modern change.

  2. Sustainable agriculture. Practice in progress; Duurzame landbouw. De praktijk onderweg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cino, B.J.

    2004-07-01

    In the booklet 'Een routekaart naar duurzame landbouw: wegen en kruispunten' (A roadmap to sustainable agriculture: roads and crossings) a line of thought is elaborated which could guide the quest for sustainable agriculture. The present study is meant to test this line of thought for its practical use. Starting-point was the idea that practitioners have already started their own quest for sustainable agriculture and that their experiences would offer food for thought. Two cases have been studied, the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA and the Innovatieplatform Duurzame Meierij (IDM, platform for a sustainable Meierij). In the aforementioned roadmap five dimensions are identified: why, what, where, how much and how. The present study has focused on the 'how': how do practitioners strive for sustainable agriculture. VEL and VANLA strive for a more environmentally friendly dairy farming that actively integrates nature conservation and landscape management. Ecological and economical sustainability should go hand in hand and the relationship with the other stakeholders in the area is thought to be important. Obstacles in the quest for sustainability, according to VEL and VANLA, are mainly found at the level of policy and its implementation, in the present knowledge system and in the remuneration for sustainable farm management. The IDM strives for a sustainable Meierij (Duurzame Meierij), with a focus on the rural areas. The platform checks projects using a model developed by Telos (Brabants Centre for Sustainability Issues) and in which three forms of capital are central: ecological, social-cultural and economical. Obstacles in the quest for sustainability, according to IDM, are mainly found at the level of policy and its implementation, in the price setting for sustainable products and in the perception and attitude regarding sustainability amongst urbanites, consumers and the different stakeholders of the area. Both cases are challenging

  3. Becoming more sustainable: concepts and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirages, D.C. [Maryland Univ., Dep. of Government and Politics, Harrison Program on the Future Global Agenda, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The automobile and associated mobility system have had a major economic and ecological impact on human societies. The industrial revolution, during which the internal combustion engine has played a major role, has shaped secular, materialistic societies and associated consumption patterns that cannot be sustained in a future world of eight billion people. Creating a more sustainable world means maximizing human satisfaction while minimizing human impact on nature. Becoming more sustainable is best envisioned as a continuing process in which constraints and possibilities change over time and space. The sustainable process raises major controversies including how to define and measure progress, how to apportion wealth among generations, and between free trade and environmental preservation. Sustainable mobility implies major changes in approaches to transportation including stressing psychological rather than physical mobility, designing speciality vehicles for emerging niches, and placing special emphasis on mass transit systems for emerging megacities. (author) 17 refs.

  4. Utilising intrinsic robustness in agricultural production systems: Inventions for a sustainable development of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Napel, J. ten; Bianchi, F.; Bestman, Monique

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of utilising robust crops and livestock for improving sustainability of agriculture. Two approaches for dealing with unwanted fluctuations that may influence agricultural production, such as diseases and pests, are discussed. The prevailing approach, which we call the ‘Control Model’, is to protect crops and livestock from disturbances as much as possible, to regain balance with monitoring and intervention and to look for add-on solutions only. There are a nu...

  5. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  6. Sustainable Water Management - Slogan or Practicable Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelbach, W. K.

    2009-05-01

    A definition of sustainability is difficult. It is much easier to define what is not sustainable. In general a practice is non-sustainable, if on one hand there is no alternative to it and on the other hand it cannot go on indefinitely without running into a crisis. Translated to water resources, non-sustainability may show in the depletion of a finite resource, which cannot be substituted, the resource being water itself, or resources linked to it such as soil and ecosystems. It can also show in the accumulation of substances - such as salts - to harmful levels, build-up of conflict potential due to unfair water allocation or bad governance leading to failure of institutions. To judge whether a regional water resources management strategy is sustainable, one can model the situation and extrapolate to time infinity to determine whether the system has a solution which is acceptable in economic, social and environmental terms. An example from the arid west of China is given. The solution of such a modeling effort need not be steady state but could be quasi-periodic or even non-stationary. A difficulty in testing for sustainability is the fact that system parameters and boundary conditions are not constant in time. Population, climate and values keep changing and adaptivity to those changes should be provided for. Another difficulty stems from the fact that parameters and boundary conditions (especially those in the future) are subject to uncertainty. That requires conservatism and robustness of a strategy. It may well be that for a region no sustainable solution can be designed without a substantial change in system characteristics such as population, area of cultivated land, or trans-basin water transfer.

  7. Analysis and Design of Agricultural Sustainability Indicators System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Hua-jiao; ZHU Wan-bin; WANG Hai-bin; CHENG Xu

    2007-01-01

    The development and characteristic of agricultural sustainability indicators system (Sis), at home and abroad, was reviewed. It was pointed out that the existing domestic methodsof sustainability evaluation can not be accepted by foreign scholars, and their scientific basis is inadequate. The experience and shortcomings of the previous studies on the indicators selection and evaluation methods were analyzed, also with the significance for practice. Finally, a new Sis for agriculture development evaluation was proposed, together with the corresponding calculation and evaluation methods. The farmer development index indicator was proposed to embody the viewpoint that the development of people is the ultimate aim; the dynamic weight calculation method was designed to reflect the various significance of the different indicators when their values were changing; and new indicators integrate methods were also explored.

  8. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  9. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend;

    2010-01-01

    individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing on......In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... services as well as other promoting issues to overcome the behavioural, organizational, legal and social barriers that exist in sustainable renovation. A starting point for such a change has been to get an overview of the existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical...

  10. The contribution of animal production to agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Doreau, Michel; Harinder P. S. Makkar; Lecomte, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for animal products for a growing world population, use of a large amount of feed ingredients in competition with human food coup led with the urgent need for mitigating environmental effects, livestock farming has to transform. New mo dels of sustainability, that are acceptable to all stakeholders, must be explored. Reducing negative environmental impacts of various agricultural practices is a major global challenge. However, to avoid making inappropriate decisio...

  11. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser, Bernhard; Stolze, Matthias; Oehen,Bernadette; Gessler, Cesare; Weibel, Franco; Bravin, Esther; Kilchenmann, Adeline; Widmer, Albert; Charles, Raffael; Lang, Andreas; Stamm, Christian; Triloff, Peter; Tamm, Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/...

  12. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultural production. Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification. However, while there are many fallow-season and perennial crops that might be used in such a “bioeconomic” strategy for diversification, most are not yet well adapted and highly-marketable. Efforts are underway to enhance adaptation and marketability of many such crops. Critically, these efforts require a strategic approach that addresses the inherent complexity of these projects. We outline a suitable approach, which we term “sustainable commercialization”: a coordinated innovation process that integrates a new crop into the agriculture of a region, while intentionally addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability challenges via multi-stakeholder governance. This approach centers on a concerted effort to coordinate and govern innovation in three critical areas: germplasm development, multifunctional agroecosystem design and management, and development of end uses, supply chains, and markets. To exemplify the approach, we describe an ongoing effort to commercialize a new fallow-season crop, field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L..

  13. Determinants of sustainability in urban and peri-urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva; Predotova, Martina; Diogo, Rodrigue V.C.; Kehlenbeck, Katja; Gebauer, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) covers about 10% of the global food demand, and substantially contributes to the income of the urban poor. However, surprisingly little quantitative data exist about the sustainability and resource use efficiency of UPA and its contribution to maintaining plant biodiversity. Horizontal and vertical flux measurements of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) as well as biodiversity studies were conducted to analyze UPA systems in selec...

  14. Farmer responses to climate change and sustainable agriculture. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Aysha; Vanclay, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a major issue for agricultural sustainability, and changes in farming practices will be necessary both to reduce emissions and to adapt to a changing climate and to new social expectations. A complicating factor is that the processes of behaviour change are complex and can be slow to occur. Discourse analysis is useful in understanding how the discourses farmers are embedded in contribute to resistance to change. Discourses are particular ways of using language in particular...

  15. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Howitt, Richard E.; Klonsky, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The economic viability of alternative and more sustainable agriculture farming systems depend on the value of farm profits. These values may be estimated through short or long-run of profit maximization, but there is a difference in these methods. In short-run profit maximization the instantaneous marginal benefits are equated to the marginal costs of production. Where as in the long-run maximization of profits the capital value of soil resources are quantify in addition to the direct revenue...

  16. Developing sustainable conservation agriculture for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eash, Neal S.; Walker, Forbes; Thierfelder, Christian; Marake, Makoala V.; Wilcox, M; Lambert, D; Basson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This presentation was given at the Soil Science Society of America annual meeting on October 22nd, 2012 in Cincinnati, Ohio at 11:10 in the morning. Conservation agricultural practices were used in Southern Africa's cropping system to improve soil nutrient, improve food security, sequester carbon, and mitigate green house gases. LTRA-9 (Developing sustainable CAPS for smallholder farmers in Southern Africa)

  17. Do non-farm enterprises affect sustainable agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Elazegui, Dulce D.; Ravidas, L.

    2001-01-01

    Intensive agriculture, particularly in the uplands, has brought about soil erosion and/or land degradation, thus, threatening sustainability or improvement of production. Despite the presence of soil conserving technologies and environment-friendly techniques, there are factors constraining their widespread adoption such as additional labor requirements which are competitively pulled by diversifying sources of income and emerging non-farm income opportunities within or in nearby areas.

  18. How can Organic Agriculture contribute to Sustainable Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas

    2006-01-01

    Organic agriculture can, especially in poorer countries, contribute to meaningful socioeconomical and ecologically sustainable development. On the one hand, this is due to the organic practice, which means management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, dung, etc.) and therefore cost effectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products — at local and international level — has tremendous prospects for growth and offers to creative producers and exporters from the south s...

  19. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…

  20. Integrating sustainability into concept selection decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    The audience for this research is fellow researchers and others helping product developers to start including sustainability when they are selecting product concepts. The aims of the research were to understand the needs of product developers integrating sustainability into concept selection and what might be done to help them. The research approach was to iterate between the three studies of design research methodology. The first study focused on understanding the challenges that product dev...

  1. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  2. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Menozzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA. Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was applied on a sample of durum wheat producers to analyse intentions 1 to maintain 7% of the arable land as an EFA, and 2 to implement the private sustainability scheme. Structural equation modelling was applied to test for the relative importance of intention determinants. The farmers’ attitude and past behaviour positively affect intentions to implement the EFA, while perceived behavioural control and attitudes predict intentions to adopt the private sustainability scheme. These results suggest possible interventions that public authorities and supply chain leaders might implement to stimulate farmers’ sustainable behaviours. 

  3. Sustainable Agriculture in the United States: A Critical Examination of a Contested Process

    OpenAIRE

    Constance, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the political economy of the development of sustainable agriculture programs and initiatives in the United States. Sustainable agriculture emerged as part of a growing critique of the negative environmental consequences of unquestioned modern farming methods. The USDA/Sustainable Agriculture Research Education Program created in 1990 and the National Organics Program created in 2002 are the current government-sponsored programs in support of sustainable agriculture. Re...

  4. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  5. Considering Structural, Individual and Social Network Explanations for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture: An Example Drawn from Washington State Wheat Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland Glenna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As acceptance of the concept of agricultural sustainability has grown, it has become increasingly recognized that notions of sustainability and how to promote it will necessarily vary depending on the commodity in question. It thus becomes important to investigate how movements towards sustainability are emerging for different commodities. The objective of our paper is to present the results of an analysis of Washington wheat producers that investigates the degree to which interest in sustainability exists amongst those farmers and whether structural factors and farmer personal characteristics are more or less significant than social network factors in explaining farmers’ views of possible sustainable methods. Our findings indicate that a measure indicating use of local social networks to gain information is associated with a higher degree of interest in new production methods aimed at improving agricultural sustainability.

  6. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  7. Exploring the Concept of Sustainable Development through Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Arnaud; Blanchard, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is used in everyday life by the general public, alongside researchers, institutions, and private companies. Nevertheless, its definition is far from being unequivocal. Clarifying the outline of the concept seems necessary. We have created a role-play for this purpose. Our article aims at depicting its main…

  8. Remote sensing and GIS in support of sustainable agricultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Dennis Correa

    Over the coming decades it is expected that the vast amounts of area currently in agricultural production will face growing pressure to intensify as world populations continue to grow, and the demand for a more Western-based diet increases. Coupled with the potential consequences of climate change, and the increasing costs involved with current energy-intensive agricultural production methods, meeting goals of environmental and socioeconomic sustainability will become ever more challenging. At a minimum, meeting such goals will require a greater understanding of rates of change, both over time and space, to properly assess how present demand may affect the needs of future generations. As agriculture represents a fundamental component of modern society, and the most ubiquitous form of human induced landscape change on the planet, it follows that mapping and tracking changes in such environments represents a crucial first step towards meeting the goal of sustainability. In anticipation of the mounting need for consistent and timely information related to agricultural development, this thesis proposes several advances in the field of geomatics, with specific contributions in the areas of remote sensing and spatial analysis: First, the relative strengths of several supervised machine learning algorithms used to classify remotely sensed imagery were assessed using two image analysis approaches: pixel-based and object-based. Second, a feature selection process, based on a Random Forest classifier, was applied to a large data set to reduce the overall number of object-based predictor variables used by a classification model without sacrificing overall classification accuracy. Third, a hybrid object-based change detection method was introduced with the ability to handle disparate image sources, generate per-class change thresholds, and minimize map updating errors. Fourth, a spatial disaggregation procedure was performed on coarse scale agricultural census data to render

  9. Weed sustainable managment in agricultral and non-agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Arcangeli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is a way to assure the availability of natural resources for future generations.Weed managementin cultivated and not cultivated areas is part of sustainable agriculture as well, and has to face three important challenges:economical (to increase income and competitiveness of farm sector, social (give rural areas opportunity of economicdevelopment and improvement of living conditions, environmental (promote good agricultural practices andpreserve habitats, biodiversity and landscape. The first two challenges involve the in-depth study of models, the economicthreshold of intervention, the management of herbicide resistance phenomena, the study and development ofnew herbicide molecules, or even modern formulations, leading to the optimization of treatments with possible reductionof distributed doses per hectare. Environmental issues must be set in the studies to assess and manage the factorsleading to phenomena of diffuse or point pollution (i.e. water volumes, soil, etc.. However, a sustainable agricultureproduction must take into account consumers’ needs and concerns, especially about food health and safety withrespect to production methods (traditional, integrated and biological. In this context, the results obtained by the developmentof more advanced active principles, the spread of public and private Integrated Production Specifications(Disciplinari di Produzione Integrata and the greater and greater commitment by the institutions in charge of monitoringthe agro-pharmaceutical residues in agro-food products, can be set. The SIRFI SIRFI (Società Italiana per laRicerca sulla Flora Infestante, thanks to the multi-disciplinarity of the structures supporting it, always takes an activepart into innovation especially aimed to the identification of tools implementing farm activity sustainability.

  10. Applying the food multimix concept for sustainable and nutritious diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotor, F B; Ellahi, B; Amuna, P

    2015-11-01

    Despite a rich and diverse ecosystem, and biodiversity, worldwide, more than 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger. Of major concern are a degradation of our ecosystems and agricultural systems which are thought to be unsustainable thereby posing a challenge for the future food and nutrition security. Despite these challenges, nutrition security and ensuring well balanced diets depend on sound knowledge and appropriate food choices in a complex world of plenty and want. We have previously reported on how the food multimix (FMM) concept, a food-based and dietary diversification approach can be applied to meet energy and micronutrient needs of vulnerable groups through an empirical process. Our objective in this paper is to examine how the concept can be applied to improve nutrition in a sustainable way in otherwise poor and hard-to-reach communities. We have reviewed over 100 FMM food recipes formulated from combinations of commonly consumed traditional candidate food ingredients; on average five per recipe, and packaged as per 100 g powders from different countries including Ghana, Kenya, Botswana, Zimbabawe and Southern Africa, India, Mexico, Malaysia and the UK; and for different age groups and conditions such as older infants and young children, pregnant women, HIV patients, diabetes and for nutrition rehabilitation. Candidate foods were examined for their nutrient strengths and nutrient content and nutrient density of recipes per 100 g were compared with reference nutrient intakes for the different population groups. We report on the nutrient profiles from our analysis of the pooled and age-matched data as well as sensory analysis and conclude that locally produced FMM foods can complement local diets and contribute significantly to meet nutrient needs among vulnerable groups in food-insecure environments. PMID:26260048

  11. CONCEPT FORMATION OF ENTERPRISE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Barmutsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a problem of enterprise sustainable development which exists in the context of modern social and economic and dynamic development of the economy in theRepublicofBelarus.The executed analysis of critical situations considers a crisis that makes harmful effects in the whole world and in the economy of theRepublicofBelarusnot only as a negative phenomena but also as a positive element that serves as a stimulator for a new phase of life.The paper examines main stages of transfer to stable sustainable operation of an enterprise that continues its development within the framework of industrial technologies and application of innovation technologies.New information and economic structure is characterized by fast obsolescence of capital and also by certain financial losses for risk, innovations, higher quality of products and execution of service. However even having such economic situation the lost opportunity due to nonuse of the possibility to start change-over to products of new generation covers minimization of expenses achieved at the cost of efficient usage of obsolete technologies and worn-out equipment. 

  12. The problem of sustainability within the complexity of agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the general systems theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agricultural and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for the development of scientific and technological advances concordant with the agricultural food chain needs of the XX century; which permit an orientation of not only work by profession is who lead the processes of animal and vegetable production, but also creates a sense of pertinence in all of the participants in the chain, highlighting the importance of studying by means of systemic thought, agronomy and animal science, as disciplines that approach to complexities of agriculture which is the angular stone of civilization, such as we know it at the moment

  13. An Underground Revolution: Biodiversity and Soil Ecological Engineering for Agricultural Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S Franz; Wagg, Cameron; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2016-06-01

    Soil organisms are an integral component of ecosystems, but their activities receive little recognition in agricultural management strategies. Here we synthesize the potential of soil organisms to enhance ecosystem service delivery and demonstrate that soil biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously (i.e., ecosystem multifunctionality). We apply the concept of ecological intensification to soils and we develop strategies for targeted exploitation of soil biological traits. We compile promising approaches to enhance agricultural sustainability through the promotion of soil biodiversity and targeted management of soil community composition. We present soil ecological engineering as a concept to generate human land-use systems, which can serve immediate human needs while minimizing environmental impacts. PMID:26993667

  14. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  15. Risk identification of agricultural drought for sustainable Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, N. R.; Blanta, A.; Spyropoulos, N. V.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Drought is considered as one of the major natural hazards with a significant impact on agriculture, environment, society and economy. Droughts affect sustainability of agriculture and may result in environmental degradation of a region, which is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of agriculture. This paper addresses agrometeorological or agricultural drought within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with risk identification of agricultural drought, which involves drought quantification and monitoring, as well as statistical inference. For the quantitative assessment of agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the vegetation health index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI, are areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural drought-prone region of Greece, characterized by vulnerable agriculture. The results show that agricultural drought appears every year during the warm season in the region. The severity of drought is increasing from mild to extreme throughout the warm season, with peaks appearing in the summer. Similarly, the areal extent of drought is also increasing during the warm season, whereas the number of extreme drought pixels is much less than

  16. Agroforestry—The Next Step in Sustainable and Resilient Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heron Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture faces the unprecedented task of feeding a world population of 9 billion people by 2050 while simultaneously avoiding harmful environmental and social effects. One effort to meet this challenge has been organic farming, with outcomes that are generally positive. However, a number of challenges remain. Organic yields lag behind those in conventional agriculture, and greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching remain somewhat problematic. In this paper, we examine current organic and conventional agriculture systems and suggest that agroforestry, which is the intentional combination of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock, could be the next step in sustainable agriculture. By implementing systems that mimic nature’s functions, agroforestry has the potential to remain productive while supporting a range of ecosystem services. In this paper, we outline the common practices and products of agroforestry as well as beneficial environmental and social effects. We address barriers to agroforestry and explore potential options to alter policies and increase adoption by farmers. We conclude that agroforestry is one of the best land use strategies to contribute to food security while simultaneously limiting environmental degradation.

  17. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on ...

  18. Perceptions of Paddy Farmers towards Sustainable Agricultural Technologies: Case of Haraz Catchments Area in Mazandaran province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagheri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture has defined and described in many ways. Despite the diversity in conceptualizing sustainable agriculture, there is a consensus on three basic dimensions of the concept, namely, ecological soundness economically viable and socially acceptable. The dimensions of ecological soundness refers to the preservation and improvement of the natural environment. Environmental issues emerge from the human use of natural resources. Farmers' decisions to adopt a new agricultural technology depend on complex factors. One of the factors is farmers' perception. The objective of this study was to investigate perceptions of paddy farmers towards applying sustainable agricultural technologies and to identify factors influencing their perceptions. The results of the study show that farmers had good perception about sustainable technologies such as diversification and rotation, application of manure but in general, they preferred modern technologies to local ones. They perceived agrochemicals as the best means to combat against pests and to increase rice production. Their perception of intangible impacts of modern technologies was weak. It was found that there should be a relationship between a numbers of socio-economic factors, such as human capital factors, information sources use, extension participation and landholding size and the perception towards selected sustainable agricultural technologies. Also, educational level, contact with agricultural experts and extension participation were best predictors of their perceptions.

  19. Researching alternative, sustainable agricultural systems: A modelling approach by examples from Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2000-01-01

    In recent decades agriculture has undergone rapid technological and structural changes. This development has raised concerns about the sustainability of modern agriculture and motivated an interest in alternative and, perhaps, more sustainable agricultural systems. Agriculture involves both ecological and social systems, and research in agricultural systems therefore faces the dual challenge of understanding complex agro-ecosystem interactions and handling the involvement of human actors, the...

  20. HISTORICAL AND GENETIC RESEARCH APPROACH TO EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    I. Orobets

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines main stages of evolution of the concept of sustainable development. The role of the United Nations is demonstrated as to establishing and supporting the concept of sustainable development. The study identifies ways to achieve sustainable development.

  1. Optimal use of agrometeorological information for sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid regions of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of sustainable agriculture encompasses ecological, economic and social problems in which weather and climate can be of great importance. Despite considerable technological advancement and improved irrigation facilities, Indian farmers are still dependent on seasonal rains, which are highly variable both in time and space. Inclement weather events like droughts, floods, cold and heat waves, hails, squalls, tropical storms severely affect the agricultural production. Their harmful effects may be partially reduced if the occurrence of these events is predicted in advance and farmers are suitably advised to take preventive/corrective measures. With the objective to help the farmers maximize profits by decreasing weather related losses, increasing the timeliness of farm operations and to reduce environmental pollution through the optimal use of agricultural chemicals, the location specific/regional Agrometeorological Advisory Service was initiated in the year 1991. The forecasting skills of most of the weather parameters at Hisar have improved considerably over the years. Now, it is time to integrate and make use of vast agrometeorological information available online in preparing weather based advisories for in-season agricultural operations both for single locations and on a meso or regional scale as desired. This can be further strengthened through input from new technologies such as neural network, remote sensing, GIS, ground measurements and modeling applications along with traditional wisdom available with the farming communities should be integrated to further strengthen the location specific weather forecasting system for the development of sustainable and more efficient crop production systems. (author)

  2. Sustainable Agriculture as a Recruitment Tool for Geoscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, K. P.; Gilbert, L. A.; McGillis, A.

    2014-12-01

    Small-scale agriculture has exploded with popularity in recent years, as teenagers and college students gain interest in local food sources. Outdoor experiences, including gardening and farming, are often among the motivations for students to take their first geoscience courses in college. The methods and theories of small agriculture translate well into geologic research questions, especially in the unique setting of college campus farms and gardens. We propose an activity or assignment to engage student-farmers in thinking about geosciences, and connect them with geoscience departments as a gateway to the major and career field. Furthermore, the activity will encourage a new generation of passionate young farmers to integrate the principles of earth science into their design and implementation of more sustainable food systems. The activity includes mapping, soil sampling, and interviewing professionals in agriculture and geology, and results in the students writing a series of recommendations for their campus or other farm. The activity includes assessment tools for instructors and can be used to give credit for a summer farming internship or as part of a regular course. We believe reaching out to students interested in farming could be an important recruitment tool for geosciences and helps build interdisciplinary and community partnerships.

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE, VARIABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE'S RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gukurume Simbarashe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.

  4. Students' Experiential Learning and Use of Student Farms in Sustainable Agriculture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Damian M.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Student farms, developed largely out of student efforts, have served as centers for the development of experiential learning and sustainable agriculture and food systems educational activities on land-grant colleges of agriculture well before most formal sustainable agriculture and food systems programs were proposed. This study explored students'…

  5. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. The role of composting in sustainable agriculture; Il ruolo del compostaggio nell`agricoltura sostenibile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sequi, P.; Benedetti, A.; Canali, S.; Tittarelli, F. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    Incineration, landfill and recycling are three main strategies to face the problem of waste disposal, and may co-exist. However, it is essential to encourage recycling, the only sustainable practice among the three cited above which avoids the existence itself of wastes by transforming possible waste materials in a series of products. Composting, as sustainable transformation of potential wastes in organic fertilizers, tunes up with sustainable agriculture, and must be optimised and developed. The three requisites needed in order that agriculture can be considered sustainable are discussed, and the use of compost is shown to enhance sustainability, not only of the agricultural activity, but of a more general context of sustainable society.

  7. Sustainability Management in Agribusiness: Challenges, Concepts, Responsibilities and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable management has recently gained growing attention in the agribusiness sector. This is mainly due to a widespread discontent with the industrialization of agricultural production and food processing and growing public pressure on agribusiness firms to implement more sustainable management practices. In this paper we present the results of an explorative empirical study of sustainability management in German agribusiness firms. The study shows that agribusiness firms have developed a broad understanding of sustainability management and perceive a multi-facetted spectrum of societal demands they have to meet. The most important arguments for implementing more sustainable management practices are that companies have to make sure that they are trusted by society in the long run and that the perception of a company by external stakeholders has become more and more important. The companies surveyed know quite a number of sustainability programmes and standards, but the number of companies that actually participate in these initiatives is much smaller. Nonetheless, the majority of the respondents feels that their company is more successful with regard to sustainability management than industry average.

  8. Sustainable Livelihoods and Employment: How Are These Concepts Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John E. S.; Singh, Naresh

    The relationship between the concepts "full employment" and "sustainable livelihoods" was examined in the context of international efforts to promote economic development and eradicate poverty worldwide. After a comparison of the very different economic problems facing developing nations and the nations of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, it was…

  9. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Balanced natural use in agrosphere — basis of sustainable agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    O. Furdychko

    2012-01-01

    The article gives theoretical approaches and practical aspects of sustainable nature use in agrosphere. Grounded ecological and economic principles of sustainable development agriculture production that base on balanced nature use.

  11. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  12. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control.

  13. A soil's perspective on sustainable agriculture (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is to provide food security across the world and in the long term. One of the prerequisites to tackle this great challenge is to understand how sustainable agroecosystems function and provide ecosystem services. I will discuss how we have and hope to continue to elucidate the feedbacks between agroecosystem management options (e.g., tillage, organic practices, integrated soil fertility management, etc.), global change (e.g., elevated CO2, elevated O3, and climate change), soil properties (e.g. soil structure and soil biota) and carbon and nutrient cycling. I will make the argument, based on some case studies, of how we need to conduct experimental soil work from the micro- to landscape scale over day to decadal times scales and subsequently integrate the experimental results within simulation models to interpolate and extrapolate them to the regional and global scale over decadal to century-long time scales. These modeling results can then be linked to socioeconomic models in order to holistically assess the sustainability of agriculture. Finally, I will show some case studies on how to bring our improved understanding into practice to effectively ensure a better food security.

  14. The Evolution of the Agri-Environmental Policies and Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura-Lucas, Maria Raquel; Godinho, Maria de Lurdes Ferro; Fragoso, Rui Manuel de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the exploitation of natural resources now, without compromising the natural resources stocks for the future generations. In the context of the paper, agricultural sustainability takes place at the interface between agriculture and the environment. The focus is on the interplay between farming systems and agri-environmental policies. Agricultural policies have major impacts on soil and water quality and on bio-diversity. Support commodity price policies have lea...

  15. The Concept of Agricultural Productivity on Ecosystem Scale and Its Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wan-bin; QIU Hua-jiao; CHANG Xin; CHENG Xu

    2006-01-01

    What is the connotation and the extension of the productivity concept and how to calculate it are the core problems in evaluating an agricultural-production process. The attributes of agricultural production processes have changed greatly in the last 100 years, and the methods to describe and measure the productivity failed to keep in pace with the production processes, resulting in a totally vague, incomplete evaluation of the production processes. Sometimes the serious problem of pollution is ignored in the race to shortdated money making, thus leading to a blooming and flooding pollution;sometimes the great ecological benefits are ignored and the corresponding production processes suffer drastically from "economic deficit". With the old agricultural productivity indices, no prediction can be made of the ultimate effects of agroecosytem on mankind-pollution or welfare. A new concept, agricultural productivity on ecosystem scale (APES) and the related indices are defined here to solve these problems. Emergy and exergy are introduced to help the measurement of the indices. Emergy is the memory of energy, which can be used to measure the total cost, including natural capital and social capital. APES of the agroecosystem is the aggregated contributions of all components to mankind and its habitat in uniformed dimensions, it may be expressed in material, energy, information, organization, pollution and damage, etc., positive or negative, and are calculated based on exergy methods. And a related index agroecological coupling degree (ACD) shows sustainability.

  16. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar;

    2013-01-01

    relevance through a detailed context specific analyses of visitor related conflicts.Comparable population and tourist visitor statistics underlines large differences in human pressure. The political commitment on the EU Natura2000 networks related to the protected areas and their regions have been taken as...... a departure for a more detailed analysis of the accessibility and related conflicts and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism and related planning in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability...

  17. CONCEPT OF A SUSTAINABLE FOOD-GROWING UNIT ON MARS

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Mariia

    2016-01-01

    Present thesis relies on sustainable approach and the Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design. Concept development of a food-growing unit on Mars is a part of a challenge named “Sustainable Human Habitation of Mars” stated by NASA’s Epic Challenge Joensuu educational program. The thesis is a result of my collaboration with BioMars team that represents our vision on a food-growing system, which should be able to function independently beyond the Earth. The project at hand was carried out ...

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation on the Agricultural Sustainable Development with the Smallest Generalized Deviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation index system of agricultural sustainable development is constructed with the four components of social index,agricultural economic index,resources index,and environment index.According to the comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the participation of single person,comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the smallest generalized deviation and the participation of many people is established.Based on the case studies,agricultural sustainable development status of a certain region is evaluated.Result shows that the evaluation scores of the social index and agricultural economic index are high in this region,but the score of resources index is general and the evaluation result of environment index is not very good.The comprehensive evaluation value of overall sustainable development is 0.665 5;and the evaluation result is "good".

  19. Identifying the Barriers of Sustainable Agriculture Adoption by Wheat Farmers in Takestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Kheiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture systems of production often lead to environmental degradation, economic problems and even social conflict. The efficacy of agriculture systems conducive to the economic, environmental and social sustainability of farming operations has been demonstrated, yet the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is not widespread. This study evaluates the barriers of sustainable agriculture by wheat farmers in Takestan using a descriptive–correlation survey methodology. This quantitative study was based on a Researcher made questionnaire designed to elicit the barriers to adoption of sustainable agriculture practices perceived by a sample of 149 wheat farmers in the Takestan (N=268, through a stratified random sampling technique. Instrument validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The reliability estimated by Cronbach’s coefficient (α=0.905. The data has been analyzed using the SPSS (16. The results revealed that the high cost of sustainable agriculture was the most important barriers in its implementation (M=4.74. The findings of multiple regressions explained that farmer’s attitudes and practices of sustainable agriculture explained 89 percent of the variance of the barriers of sustainable agriculture. Farmer’s attitudes had the most influence on the determination of the barriers of sustainable agriculture (β=0.775.

  20. Enhancement of Agricultural Production Through Sustainable Agriculture and Poverty Allevition in Kot, Manazary Baba (Malakand Agency Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Khan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable agriculture can bring both environmental and economic benefits for farmers, communities and nations. Sustainable agriculture plays a vital role for poverty alleviation through enhancement of crops and vegetable production. The present study was conducted to compare the production of traditional agriculture (existent with sustainable agriculture and to demonstrate its economic role. The project are (12500 acres consists on both irrigated and non-irrigated land. Keeping in mind the climatic condition, the wheat, maize and different vegetable was cultivated in ways of sustainable agriculture. The wheat production increased from 40-50% on irrigated land but 20-30% on rain-fed land, the maize production enhanced from 20-25% on irrigated land and 10-15% on rain-fed land. Similarly, the vegetable like okra, onion, garlic and tomato production were increased from 30-32% on irrigated land while 28-30% on rain-fed land. If the sustainable agriculture practices are carried out on the whole agriculture land of the project area properly then it is possible that the inhabitants will not only meet the food requirements from their local fields but they will also be able to export to the market of other areas. From experimental result, it is concluded that this practice will reduce the consumption of food requirements and can be used for poverty alleviation.

  1. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar;

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same...... time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...... and relate it to an empirical study of sustainable tourism in eight protected areas and their regions in the Baltic. They are subject to large differences in human pressure. The political commitment to the related EU Natura 2000 networks has been taken as our point of departure for a more detailed analysis...

  2. Integrated weed management for sustainable rice production: concepts, perspectives and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed management has always been in some way integrated with cultural and biological methods, probably occurring more fortuitously than purposefully. Experience has shown that repeated use of any weed control technique especially in monocultures production systems results in rapid emergence of weeds more adapted to the new practice. In intensive high input farming systems, heavy selection pressure for herbicide tolerant weeds and the environmental impacts of these inputs are important tissues that require a good understanding of agroecosystem for successful integration of available options. Rice culture, in particular flooded rice culture has always employed integration through an evolution of management practices over the generations. However, a vast majority office farmers in Asia have yet to achieve the high returns realised by farmers elsewhere, where a near optimum combination of high inputs are being effectively integrated for maximum productivity. In addition to technological and management limitations, farmers in developing countries are faced with social, economic and policy constraints. On the other hand, farmers who had achieved considerable increases in productivity through labour replacing technologies, in particular direct seeding with the aid of herbicides, are now faced with issues related to environmental concerns due to high levels of these inputs. The issues facing weed scientists and farmers alike in managing weeds effectively and in a manner to ensure sustainability have become more challenging than ever before. In the last two decades, no issue has been discussed so. intensively as Sustainable Farming, Sustainable Agriculture or Alternative Agriculture within the broader global concept of Sustainable Development. To address these challenges a clear perspective of sustainable farming is essential. This paper addresses these concepts, perspectives and options for choices in weed management for sustainable rice production. (Author)

  3. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  4. Modelling sustainable bioenergy potentials from agriculture for Germany and Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model for analyzing the sustainable potential of agricultural biomass for energy production. Available land and residue potentials are assessed up to 2030 for Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Two scenarios are presented: a ''business as usual'' scenario is compared to a sustainability scenario. The latter implements a comprehensive sustainability strategy, taking also into account non-agricultural land use such as building activity and nature conservation. On the one hand our model quantifies the conflict of objectives between enhanced extensification in agriculture and increased area for nature conservation. On the other hand the synergies in restricting built up area and increased mobilisation of agricultural residues are assessed. Additionally the impact of reduced subsidized agricultural exports from the EU is calculated, also as an indicator for the influence of world food markets on bioenergy potentials. Our results show that the sustainable energy potential from agricultural biomass is strongly restricted for Germany and the Czech Republic compared to their energy demand. But in Poland and Hungary native agricultural biomass provides a much higher potential for energy supply, even if sustainability is comprehensively considered. However, this is strongly influenced by the amount of agricultural exports of each country. For bioenergy from agricultural cultivation to remain a sustainable option in the energy sector, its influence on the food markets must be respected more thoroughly and a comprehensive approach to sustainable development in land use is a prerequisite. (author)

  5. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ingram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  6. Sustainable agriculture in a switchboard; Duurzame landbouw in een schakelkast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, A.; Van der Kolk, J.W.H.; Noij, G.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.

    2004-07-01

    Several methods can be used and compared to think about the transition towards sustainable agriculture: a sectoral approach, the chain approach and a spatial approach. It appears that in the first phase of the transition process all three methods should be used, while further in the process the focus could be on one of the approaches or one could switch from one method to another, depending on the stage of the process. [Dutch] Diverse benaderingen helpen bij het denken over transitie naar duurzame landbouw. In deze rapportage worden de sectorale benadering, de ketenbenadering en de ruimtelijke benadering naast elkaar gezet, waarbij wordt aangegeven wat sterke punten zijn en waar ze tegen grenzen aan lopen. Vervolgens is gekeken een integrale benadering het meest passend is om te komen tot paden richting duurzame landbouw. Dit blijkt niet het geval. Het lijkt erop dat het meeste rendement kan worden behaald als in de eerste fase van een transitieproces alle drie de benaderingen tegelijk worden betrokken in het proces, terwijl er in latere fases kan worden geschakeld tussen de benaderingen.

  7. Assessing Agricultural Sustainable Development Based on the DPSIR Approach:Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-dong; Felix Mueller; Benjamin Burkhard; CAO Xing-jin; HOU Ying

    2013-01-01

    According to the contemporary ecosystem approach, the linkages of human actions with their environment have to be assessed in an integrative manner. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model is applied to identify and describe processes and interactions in human-environmental systems. An example application from a research project dealing with the development of sustainable management strategies for the agriculture in Jiangsu, China, illustrates the potentials and limitations of its sustainable development. The concept and indicators of ecological integrity are used to assess the indicators in the dimensions of DPSIR between 2003 and 2006. The main drivers included population growth which caused increasing demand for food, growing environmental demands, and rapidly decreasing of land and other natural resources. The main environmental problem was water pollution. The results show that in the dimension of driver, total grain output and agricultural land productivity both increased. Labor intensive agriculture has been promoted to increase agricultural land productivity. In the dimension of pressure, on the positive side, infrastructure got greatly improved, the input level such as total power of machinery, and level of fertilizer use increased, and level of pesticides use decreased, but on the negative side, cultivated land per capita and irrigation rate decreased, natural resources keep decreased. Environmental pollution indicators such as industrial wastewater discharge and acid rain rate increased in Jiangsu Province. In the aspect of state, ecosystem state was improved, plant coverage index increased, biological abundance index increased, fertilizer productivity increased, eco-environmental quality index increased, but land degradation index also increased. In the aspect of impact, output level increased, output efficiency enhanced, farmer’s social economic benefit improved. In the aspect of response, social support was greatly improved, input

  8. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture under salinity pressure – A study in semiarid Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Bouksila, Fethi

    2011-01-01

    In semiarid and arid Tunisia, water quality and agricultural practices are the major contributing factors to the degradation of soil resources threatening the sustainability of irrigation systems and agricultural productivity. Nowadays, about 50% of the total irrigated areas in Tunisia are considered at high risk for salinization. The aim of this thesis was to study soil management and salinity relationships in order to assure sustainable irrigated agriculture in areas under salin...

  9. Refining the definition of sustainable agriculture: An inclusive perspective from Malaysian vegetable sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Sheng Tey

    2012-01-01

    Skepticism about the longevity of conventional agriculture has resulted in the quest for sustainable agriculture. Like many developing countries, a homogenous definition of the term ‘sustainable agriculture’ is yet to be developed in Malaysia. To fill this gap, using an inclusive perspective, this study posits a refined definition of ‘sustainable agriculture’ for Malaysia.Cognizant of relevant past studies, which were built on rather narrow viewpoints, this study integrates qualitative insigh...

  10. The energy inside the concept of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intimately bound of two thematic basic conceptual schemes are shown: The climatic change and the paper of the energy inside the concept of sustainable development. It is presented a description of the green house effect, their causes and consequences. They are analyzed, making emphasis in the differences among the countries of the north and of the south, the consumption of natural resources, the population's growth, and the deforestation like main causes of the climatic change. Lastly is discussed the international negotiations related with the topic

  11. CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT IN TIMES OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dębicka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rate of economic, technological, political and legal changes, as well as the com-plexity of predicting demand, behavior and preferences of consumers, along with expand-ing markets contribute to the growing importance of sustainable supply chain in the com-pany’s operation, playing a special role in the decision making process and adaptation to the consumer needs of. In order, therefore, to achieve a competitive advantage, it is nec-essary to maintain the high level of innovation, which should result in the implementation of new solutions, ideas and concepts that contribute to the competitiveness on a global scale.

  12. BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENTS ASSISTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard KATA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides identification and assessment of barriers to the implementation of the instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP that support sustainable development of agriculture. This issue has been studied on the example of individual farms of south-eastern Poland, which benefited from programs to support sustainable agriculture in 2004-2013. The introduction of agriculture on the path of sustainable development depends on institutional factors (including political, which can induce farmers to take into account the environment and future generations in their microeconomic decisions. It has been shown that the most important barriers to the efficient and effective implementation of programs in support of sustainable agriculture are financial and information and education constraints.

  13. Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Future Developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is...... widely expected that both CAP reforms and a WTO agreement will also lead to a more environmentally friendly European agriculture. It is conceivable, however, that market demand would instead provide renewed incentives for intensive agricultural production. Opening European agriculture to more competition...

  14. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  15. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  16. The Discussion on the Interaction and Integration of Modern Agriculture and Rural Tourism Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis summarizes the connotation of rural tourism and divides it into six types,including rural sight-seeing,rural body-building activity,rural folk culture,rural experience of farm work,rural business affairs,and study and development.It outlines the theory of sustainable development of rural tourism and points out that what sustainable development of tourism concerns is the coordination of ecology,economy,and society centering on human and nature.On the basis of introducing the connotation of modern agriculture,it divides modern agriculture into six types,including sightseeing agriculture,leisure agriculture,green agriculture,characteristic agriculture,factory agriculture,and three-dimensional agriculture.And by concluding,it obtains the combination model of modern agriculture and rural tourism.Based on the introduction of the above related theories,the thesis discusses the interaction and integration model of the sustainable development of modern agriculture and rural tourism.It emphatically analyzes the integration model of modern agriculture and rural tourism,including pastoral agriculture tourism model(sightseeing village,leisure farm,citizen farm),and science education tourism model(agricultural science and technology education base,tourism and leisure education agricultural park,children’s,agricultural education base,agricultural exposition).Based on the interaction and integration relationship between modern agriculture and rural tourism,the thesis puts forward corresponding countermeasures so as to promote their positive development and realize the maximum of ecological,social and economic benefits.

  17. Irrigated agriculture: Water resources management for a sustainable environment

    OpenAIRE

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Roldán Cañas, José

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, research on irrigation has mainly been aimed at reducing crop water consumption. In arid and semi-arid environments, in relation to the limited water resources, the use of low quality water in agriculture has also been investigated in order to detect their effects on soil physical properties and on crop production. More recently, even the reduction of energy consumption in agriculture, as well as the effects of external factors, climate change and agricultural policies, ha...

  18. Sustainable Agriculture and Water Quality Control – A Structural Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Douguet, Jean-Marc; Schembri, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    There is no disputing the fact that water pollution by nitrates is, in large part, caused by agricultural activities. Concerns about soil and water pollution by modern agricultural practices are becoming too important to be ignored. Point pollution can consist of direct discharges of animal excrement or be caused by the use of pesticides close to streams. Diffuse pollution caused by agricultural practices is more difficult to pin down. It is generally linked to systematic use of fertilisers a...

  19. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  20. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  1. An Approach to Assess Sustainability of Agricultural Farms

    OpenAIRE

    BACHEV, Hrabrin Ianouchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. This paper gives an answer to important questions such as: “what is sustainability of farms?” and “how to assess sustainability of farms?”. First, evolution of the “concept” and the major approaches for assessing sustainability of farms is discussed. More adequate definition of the farm sustainability is suggested as ability of a particular farm to maintain its governance, economic, social and ecological functions in a long term. Next, a specific for the conditions of Bulgarian farm...

  2. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation, this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developingcapability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China. At first, an index system of agricultural sustainabledevelopment in China is built up, which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources, agricultural develop-ment, environment and ecosystem, rural society, sciences-education and management. We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes. Second, a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values(relative superiority) of every provincial unit, which are as supporting data for assessment. We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem (GIS) to gain the area units of assessment. Third, according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in everyagricultural assessing unit. After making order and grade, we complete the sustainable developing capability assessmentto integrated agricultural regionalization in China. The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural develop-ing capability of China is not high. Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainabledevelopment. The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China. It needs a long periodand great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China. Finally, there is a discussion to the studymethod.

  3. Mechanization and new technologies for the control and the sustainability of agricultural and forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Editors

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Book of the Congress:Mechanization and new technologies for the control and the sustainability of agricultural and forestry systems Alghero, Italy, 29th May - 1st June 2016

  4. Developing a Planning Framework for Accessible and Sustained Urban Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity threatens communities across the Tamilnadu States, characterized by environmental degradation, decreasing agricultural land, rising social inequities, skewed communities, and public health issues. Urban agriculture provides an opportunity to counteract food system problems and empower individuals. Urban agriculture is broadly defined as food production in urban spaces. Despite its benefits, urban agriculture is threatened by institutional barriers. Urban agriculture is not fully supported by municipal laws and policies, making it vulnerable and impermanent. Therefore, developing and implementing planning policies, laws, and programs to support urban agriculture will establish its practices and support its benefits. Research focuses on broad policies, comprehensive plans, zoning ordinances, and organizational infrastructure. Samples are drawn from cities across the Tamilnadu States, including San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, Seattle, and Chicago. Discussion, comparison, and evaluation are based on public input and comment. Because of the very recent and ongoing nature of urban agriculture planning measures, discussed policies, laws, and programs are sometimes incomplete or in the process of being adopted. This thesis establishes opportunities, examples, and boundaries for developing an urban agriculture planning framework and potential nationwide municipal application.

  5. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Oh-Jung Kwon; Paul, Birthe K.; Maryline Boval; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Diana Burbano; Megan McGroddy; Amy M. Lerner; Douglas White; Mario Cuchillo; Manuel Luna; Michael Peters

    2016-01-01

    As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock ...

  6. INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: VIEW FROM WITHIN THE LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Batie, Sandra S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    1993-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural research and education have gained acceptability within the land-grant system in less than a decade, an impressive change. Attitudes were changed by a set of forces which include lobbying by sustainable agriculture advocates, requests from farmers as a result of the cost-price squeeze of the early 1980's, changing demands for both environmental quality and less pesticide residues from food consumers, and the availability of new funding sources. Despite its hard-won ac...

  7. Acceptance Towards Sustainable Agriculture among Contract Farmers and its Impingement Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rising demands and needs for food nowadays have put a great pressure on our natural resources. Overuse of the environmental sources has been proven to have profound impact on both; the community and the environment. To solve such problem, sustainable agriculture has been suggested as one of the solutions. Undoubtedly, sustainable agriculture will supply adequate nutrition sources at the present and in the future to the community. In line with this, a lot of efforts have been put to embolden farmers to practise sustainable agriculture. Nonetheless, are the farmers accepting it in their farming routines? The answer of this query will fulfil the main objective of this study which is to discover the level of acceptance of contract farmers in Malaysia on sustainable agriculture. Additionally, socio-demographic factors that impinge the level of acceptance have become another objective for this study. Approach: This is a quantitative study where through a multi stage simple random sampling, a total of 326 contract farmers from four states in Malaysia were chosen as the respondents. Results: Analysis carried out has identified that contract farmers in Malaysia do have a high level of acceptance on sustainable agriculture. Apart from this, factors such as zone and races were identified to have significant difference with acceptance towards sustainable agriculture. Additionally, age was identified to have significant relationship with acceptance towards sustainable agriculture. Conclusion/Recommendation: Several discussions and recommendations have been highlighted and expectantly it can help the concerned parties to further strengthen contract farmers’ acceptance towards sustainable agriculture.

  8. CREATING URBAN AND BUILDING SPACE FOR AGRICULTURAL SPACE TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Galih Prawata

    2013-11-01

    strategies that can help the city, so it can produce its own food and create sustainable lifestyle. This paper focuses on how to create Jakarta, one of the big cities in South East Asia, into a city based on agricultural system that can ensure food safety and make a sustainable urban lifestyle without damaging the environment. Also, it discusses the possibilities of converting the urban or building space into agricultural space, which can support the food production for the people of Jakarta.

  9. Is the Sustainability Revolution Devouring Its Own Children? Understanding Sustainability as a Travelling Concept and the Role Played by Two German Discourses on Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Knauf

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the expanded meaning of the term sustainability and its broader use in society, policy and economics will actually bring about the benefits experts anticipate for the forest-based sector. It begins by defining sustainability as a travelling concept, then presents and analyzes two current lines of discourse in Germany on sustainability, both with high relevance for the forest-based sector: strong sustainability and sustainable building. The analysis shows that each ...

  10. ORGANIC FARMING FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN THE ERA OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has caught the imagination and action of the world for more than a decade. Sustainable agriculture is necessary to attain the goal of sustainable development. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, sustainable agriculture is the successful management of resources to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. All definitions of sustainable agriculture lay great emphasis on maintaining an agricultural growth rate, which can meet the demand for food of all living beings without draining the basic resources towards crop improvement. Organic farming is one of the several approaches found to meet the objectives of sustainable agriculture. Most of the techniques used in organic farming like inter-cropping, mulching and integration of crops and livestock are not alien to agriculture systems including the traditional agricultural practices. However, organic farming is based on various laws and certification programmes, which prohibit the use of almost all synthetic inputs and the central theme of this method is the health of soil. The adverse effects of modern agricultural practices on the farm and also on the health of living beings and thus on the environment has been well documented all over the world. Application of technology, particularly the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides all around us has persuaded people to think aloud. As a result of global climatic changes, their negative effects on the environment are manifested through soil erosion, water shortages, salination, soil contamination, genetic erosion, Organic farming is one of the widely used methods, which is thought as the best alternative to avoid the ill effects of chemical farming. It also has far more advantages over the conventional and other modern agricultural practices that are available today.

  11. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  12. Sustainable agriculture in the picture. Results of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture with regard to people, planet en profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the results of Dutch agriculture and horticulture for all relevant sustainability aspects, including the most recent figures and long term developments. Next to the results for the sector as a whole, attention is paid to separate types of businesses, i.e. greenhouse horticulture, dairy farms and pig farms

  13. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  14. Sustainable Use of Agricultural Land in Zhoukou City Based on Emergy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; WEN; Shuijuan; SUN; Qingsong; LI; Huiping; FAN

    2013-01-01

    Taking Zhoukou City in Henan Province as an example,we select the statistics during the period 2000-2009,and use emergy analysis method to research the sustainable use of agricultural land in Zhoukou City. The study results show that: ( i) The agricultural input is mainly based on resources purchase input,which accounts for more than 90% of total emergy input; the industrial energy input is to a large extent dependent on the input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide; precipitation significantly affects the input of renewable environmental resources. ( ii) The agricultural output is mainly based on farming and animal husbandry,with the proportion reaching 99% ; the proportion of fishery and forestry is too low; the agricultural output structure is relatively simple. ( iii) The use of agricultural land has achieved initial success in terms of economic sustainability,but in terms of ecological sustainability and social sustainability,it is at a low level; the sustainable use index shows the great vitality and development potential of agricultural system; unsustainability is reflected in considerable input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide,and simple agricultural output structure.

  15. Agriculture sustainability in a sensitive environment--a case analysis of Loess Plateau in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Loess Plateau, an arid and semi-arid region in Northwest China, is well-known for its most serious soil erosion in terms of sediment yield each year. Soil erosion, which is intensified by agricultural activities, is the major factor influencing sustainable agriculture development in this region. It reduces productivity by removing nutrients and especially reducing water availability that is essential for crop production in the area. It also brings about off-site costs by demanding more efforts for maintenance of banks and dams along Yellow River through raising the riverbed with sediment. Climate is capricious and extreme weather conditions occur frequently, which impairs normal agricultural production with erosion and also decrease of water availability. Extensive way of farming still dominates on the Loess Plateau, which cannot produce satisfying economic results and needs to be improved or altered. Conventional agricultural production pattern needs to be reconsidered for husbandry has not been granted its due position. Agriculture is the backbone of economy. Poor agricultural production impedes economic development and vice versa, backward economy also influences the advancement of agriculture. Besides a large population, education status of farmers is another threshold that requires being resolved for a sustainable agriculture.Although conventional agriculture has been practiced there for more than 5000 years, now it cannot meet the demand for food and fiber by the increasing population and some of its farming practices are contributing to environmental degradation directly or indirectly and can sustain no longer. Agriculture on Loess Plateau needs to find its own way of sustainability. To work toward a sustainable agriculture, chances and challenges both indwell on Loess Plateau.

  16. Conception of transition to sustainable development and regional energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the Russian energy sustainable development is considered, allowance made for power capacities available, today's technologies of electrification and heat supply. Steady rise in prices for coal and gas makes the idea of using alternative energy sources more and more attractive. Energy restructuring is necessary, which will permit using the opportunities of small-scale energy generation relying on diverse renewable energy sources (wind mills, biogas energy facilities, etc.). Great opportunities for creating independent utilities arise from introduction of steam-gas and gas-turbine facilities. Regional plans of electric energy and heat supply systems are to be reviewed and updated, allowance made for warming of the climate and environmental problems

  17. Farm Education and the Effect of a Farm Visit on Children's Conception of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2015-01-01

    Personal connections to agriculture have decreased considerably in Finland during the last few decades due to structural changes in agriculture. In this study, we will elucidate the understanding and conception of agriculture amongst urban pupils who have grown up during the 21st century. The research strategy consists of intervention in form of a…

  18. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  19. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  20. A mutli-factor analysis of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated m...

  1. Sustainable development of the agricultural production in terms of membership in the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjelika Aidinova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An important event in our country's economy is the entry August 22, 2012 Russia to the World Trade Organization. And a particularly hot topic at the moment is the development of sustainable agriculture in a completely new environment. The questions of state support for agriculture during the "transition period" in terms of membership in the WTO.

  2. Sustainable land use in Tikopia: Food production and consumption in an isolated agricultural system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Fog, Bjarne;

    2010-01-01

    increasingly unreliable. Local agricultural production and exploitation of marine resources are essential to sustain the population, and with few exceptions farming and fishing techniques remain unchanged. Most of the island is still farmed permanently and the intensive agricultural system has not suffered...

  3. Sustainable governance of agriculture and the Baltic Sea : Agricultural reforms, food production and curbed eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Markus; Granstedt, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production and nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea are likely to increase following Poland's and the Baltic States' entrance into the EU. According to HELCOM these trends will be highly dependent on the agricultural policies of the EU. The expansion of the EU can be seen as a window of opportunity where agricultural policy could improve the Baltic Sea environment. Longstanding initiatives with local organic food systems and Ecological Recycling Agriculture (ERA) in the eight EU-coun...

  4. Quantitative population epigenetics - a catalyst for sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauß, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of quantitative population epigenetics and the related importance of stress can lead to a paradigm shift, away from a high-input and high-output agriculture with a maximum utilization of the genetic potential to an ecological intensification, to a low-input and high-output agriculture which is optimization and harmonization of limiting stress factors to achieve maximum results with limited environmental or ecological resources.

  5. A Future for Small Farms? Biodiversity and Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, James K.

    2004-01-01

    Small farms play a crucial role in conserving the agricultural biodiversity that underpins long-term food security worldwide. Particularly in centers of crop genetic diversity – such as Mesoamerica in the case of maize (corn) and the Andean region in the case of potatoes – small farmers are the ‘keystone species’ in agricultural ecosystems of great value to humankind. Today, however, a formidable nexus of market forces and political forces threatens both small farmers and the biodiversity the...

  6. Towards sustainable food systems: the concept of agroecology and how it questions current research practices. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a promising concept for achieving greater sustainability. This paper offers an overview and discussion of the concept based on existing literature and case studies, and explores the way it questions our current research approaches and education paradigms. Literature. In order to improve the sustainability of agriculture, the use of external and chemical inputs needs to be minimized. Agroecological farming practices seek to optimize ecological processes, thus minimizing the need for external inputs by providing an array of ecosystem services. Implementing such practices challenges the current structure of the food system, which has been criticized for its lack of social relevance and economic viability. An agroecological approach includes all stakeholders, from field to fork, in the discussion, design and development of future food systems. This inclusion of various disciplines and stakeholders raises issues about scientists and their research practices, as well as about the education of the next generation of scientists. Conclusions. Agroecology is based on the concept that agricultural practices and food systems cannot be dissociated because they belong to the same natural and socio-economic context. Clearly, agroecology is not a silver-bullet, but its principles can serve as avenues for rethinking the current approaches towards achieving greater sustainability. Adapting research approaches in line with indicators that promote inter- and transdisciplinary research is essential if progress is to be made.

  7. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  8. SANREM: Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Managment: A new dawn for longer-term thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Hepperly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This article discusses a brief overview of the history of agriculture technology and conservation, and the failures of past programs. From there, the author explains the need for a new approach, listing the SANREM CRSP (Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management- Collaborative Research Support Program) as a recent government initiative that recognizes the need for environmental conservation in international agriculture development. The author also expresse...

  9. The drivers of intellectual sustainability in a regional agriculture, cattle, and forest farmstead

    OpenAIRE

    I. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual capital drivers emerge in the national and regional economies as a key source of integrated sustainability. The company analyzed in the case study is the largest Portuguese agriculture, cattle, and forest farmstead, covering several marshlands. As the largest agricultural company, its primary mission is the cost effectiveness and efficient management of their agricultural and environmental heritage, in respect for biodiversity and for environmental values. Located in the region o...

  10. Sustainability in Agricultural Mechanization: Assessment of a Combined Photovoltaic and Electric Multipurpose System for Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Toufic El Asmar; Ugo Bardi; Hossein Mousazadeh; Alireza Keyhani; Hossein Mobli

    2009-01-01

    This study is dedicated to the assessment of the possibility of replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy as a source of power in modern agriculture. We examined the use of a completely sustainable agricultural mechanization system based on a renewable energy system and a battery powered, multi-purpose agricultural vehicle. This assessment is based on the RAMseS project, financed by the European Commission under the 6 th Framework Program, which has led to the actual manufacturing of the s...

  11. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Hoffman; Vicken Hillis; Mark Lubell

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a part...

  12. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Menozzi, Davide; Fioravanzi, Martina; Donati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA). Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was applied on a sample...

  13. Analysis of a sustainable gas cooled fast breeder reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A Thorium-GFBR breeder for actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. • A mixture of 232Th and 233U is used as fuel and LWR used fuel is used. • Detailed neutronics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulics analysis has been presented. • Run this TGFBR for 20 years with breeding of 239Pu and 233U. • Neutronics analysis using MCNP and Brayton cycle for energy conversion are used. - Abstract: Analysis of a thorium fuelled gas cooled fast breeder reactor (TGFBR) concept has been done to demonstrate the self-sustainability, breeding capability, actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. Simultaneous use of 232Th and used fuel from light water reactor in the core has been considered. Results obtained confirm the core neutron spectrum dominates in an intermediate energy range (peak at 100 keV) similar to that seen in a fast breeder reactor. The conceptual design achieves a breeding ratio of 1.034 and an average fuel burnup of 74.5 (GWd)/(MTHM) . TGFBR concept is to address the eventual shortage of 235U and nuclear waste management issues. A mixture of thorium and uranium (232Th + 233U) is used as fuel and light water reactor used fuel is utilized as blanket, for the breeding of 239Pu. Initial feed of 233U has to be obtained from thorium based reactors; even though there are no thorium breeders to breed 233U a theoretical evaluation has been used to derive the data for the source of 233U. Reactor calculations have been performed with Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP/MCNPX. It is determined that this reactor has to be fuelled once every 5 years assuming the design thermal power output as 445 MW. Detailed analysis of control rod worth has been performed and different reactivity coefficients have been evaluated as part of the safety analysis. The TGFBR concept demonstrates the sustainability of thorium, viability of 233U as an alternate to 235U and an alternate use for light water reactor used fuel as a blanket for

  14. USE OF THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Naumov, V.; O. Kholeva

    2014-01-01

    The definition of the concept of sustainable development in the management of complex technological systems has been revealed. The basic approaches to the definition of sustainable development indicators have been described. The reasonability of use of the concept of sustainable development in transport and forwarding enterprises management has been shown. The system of indicators for evaluation of the freight forwarding enterprises sustainable development has been proposed. The mentioned sys...

  15. Refining the definition of sustainable agriculture: An inclusive perspective from Malaysian vegetable sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Sheng Tey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Skepticism about the longevity of conventional agriculture has resulted in the quest for sustainable agriculture. Like many developing countries, a homogenous definition of the term ‘sustainable agriculture’ is yet to be developed in Malaysia. To fill this gap, using an inclusive perspective, this study posits a refined definition of ‘sustainable agriculture’ for Malaysia.Cognizant of relevant past studies, which were built on rather narrow viewpoints, this study integrates qualitative insights from selected up-stream stakeholders in Malaysian vegetable sector. The structured results suggest that sustainable agriculture can be defined as the process by which anintegrative balanced agricultural system is realised through a dynamic set of practices that are (1 environmentally enhancing, (2 resource optimal, (3 economically viable, (4 socially justifiable and (5 functionally feasible over time. Though derived from Malaysia, this definition can be adapted to fit local nuances in other countries and sectoral emphases in agriculture. With these five inter-related operational attributes, which are capable of enhancement and/or modification periodically, this flexible definition can progressively provide potential direction towards academic understanding and development of agricultural sustainability.

  16. Corn-based feedstock for biofuels: Implications for agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Crop residue as a source of feedstock for biofuels production must retain ecosystem services and be sustainable. The challenge is to develop cropping system management strategies that balance the demand for increasing biofuel needs with ecosystem sustainability. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of changes in land use and management caused by corn-based biofuel production (grain, cob, stover) on soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability. Our specific goal was to investigate how the levels of corn residue removal influence current soil carbon and nutrient budgets and how these budgets are maintained under proposed production scenarios. Soil organic carbon (SOC), an important carbon component in the life cycle of biofuel production, is a sensitive indicator of cropping system sustainability. We used a soil carbon and nutrient balance approach developed from published field observations and a validated mechanistic model to analyze historical corn grain yields and fertilizer usage associated with various management practices at the county scale across the United States. Our analyses show that ecosystem carbon flux demonstrates significant spatial variability, relying heavily on the total biomass production level and residue harvest intensity; SOC budgets depend mainly on the proportion of residue removal, tillage type, and previous SOC stock level. Our results also indicate that corn cob removal for biofuel has little effect on soil carbon and nutrient balances under conventional management practices, while necessary irrigation can contribute greatly to corn-based biofuel production and ecosystem sustainability in the western side of the Great Plains and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

  17. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes. PMID:23610175

  18. Sustainable energy concepts. Concept Knowledge theory and morphological overviews; Duurzame energieconcepten. Concept kennistheorie en morfologische overzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Savanovic, P. [Stichting Bouwresearch SBR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Building design is a highly complex process that requires the support of multi-disciplinary design teams. Therefore a supportive design approach has been developed in a PhD research: Integral Design. The innovative Concept-Knowledge (C-K) theory by Hatchuel and Weil is used in combination with the Integral Design method. Morphological overviews, which are produced by combining mono-disciplinary Morphological Charts, provide a tool to structure and to give an overview of the communication and information exchange between design team members, while C-K theory supplies the theoretical framework for the reflection on the Integral Design. [Dutch] Het ontwerpen van gebouwen is complex en vereist multidisciplinaire teams. Om dit te ondersteunen is in het kader van een promotieonderzoek een integraal ontwerpmethode ontwikkeld. De 'concept kennistheorie' (C-K-theorie) van Hatchuel en Weil is gecombineerd met integraal ontwerpen. Morfologische overzichten vormen een hulpmiddel om het ontwerpproces te ordenen. Bovendien vergemakkelijken ze de communicatie tussen ontwerpteamdeelnemers. De C-K-theorie biedt een theoretisch kader voor reflectie binnen het integraal ontwerpproces.

  19. SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: OPPORTUNITY FOR THAI-RURAL FARMER DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in supporting sustainable agriculture and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, August, 2014) included a symposium on “Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology” to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included i) ...

  1. Environmental Education, Sustainable Agriculture, and CGIAR: History and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a global network of 15 specialized centers employing around 2,000 international scientists and 6,000 national staff in over 100 countries. CGIAR educational approaches to environmental issues have varied amid conflicting perspectives. Inadequate policies, learning resources,…

  2. Local Food Systems and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ligita, Melece

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides insights into food systems and local or alternative food systems. The author reveals current changes and opportunities of agricultural and agrifood sector and rural areas. The role and development opportunities of local food systems are summarized by the author.

  3. Atoms for sustainable agriculture; Enriching the farmer's field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews the use of nuclear and isotope techniques in soil and crop research as stimulated by the combined efforts of the IAEA and FAO, in order to find ways to improve poor soils and sustain the world's crop production. 1 graph., 1 fig

  4. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  5. Sustainability initiatives in agriculture: The role of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable society is one that can meet its needs while preserving natural resources for future generations. Key components of this goal are production of a robust food supply while protecting human health and the environment, conserving precious resources, and balancing economic viability. Rapid...

  6. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  7. Protecting agriculture against nuclear radiations: conception and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of atomic and chemical (AC) accident or attacks the agriculture is severely affected. This became clearly after the Chernobyl disaster, after which the authorities mobilized and increased the efforts to protect the agriculture. In Switzerland the Federal Commission for AC protection has undertaken the necessary actions in collaboration with the Federal Office for Agriculture. The protection of agriculture against radioactive fallout has many aspects. One of these concerns the requirement of informing farmers with all the necessary instruction to ensure the protection of rural population and animals, foods and forages, to make them able to take essential protection measures without exterior assistance, and to provide the agriculture buildings with simple and durable tools necessary in case of emergency intervention. To implement these requirements on Confederation level educational programs were developed to instruct agriculture agents and advisors on basic notions of radioactivity and radiation protection. These programs are thought to make the farmer aware with the implications of nuclear chemical and nuclear menace and the measures of protecting its enterprise by own means. Special instructions are to be applied by the enterprise chiefs to ensure first that the personnel protection is the top priority and then how to minimize and limit the damage produced by the radiation accident

  8. Towards a Sustainability Education Framework: Challenges, Concepts and Strategies—The Contribution from Urban Planning Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Jabareen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Education for sustainability is becoming a critical component in achieving a sustainable life and protecting our planet and human habitats. However, a review of the sustainability literature reveals a great deal of confusion and misinterpretation regarding the concepts, themes, and goals of education for sustainability. Education for sustainability, including the themes that should be derived and taught, lacks an interdisciplinary conceptual framework. In addition, the literature of education for sustainability mostly lacks the aspects of urban and community planning and the significant contribution of the planning profession. This paper proposes a new conceptual framework, Sustainability Education Framework, which is composed of concepts that derived from different disciplines. At the heart of the conceptual framework rests the normative category and its concepts. The epistemological foundation of the conceptual framework of education for sustainability is based on the unresolved paradox between ‘sustainability’ and ‘development’.

  9. Sustainable tourism development of globally important agricultural heritage sites: a case study of "traditional rice-fish agriculture system"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongle; Sun Yehong; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui

    2008-01-01

    Traditional rice-fish agricultural heritage site in Qingtian County, China, one of the pilot sites of Glob-ally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), is of great value in tourism development. This paper aims to explore how to realize sustainable tourism development in agricultural heritage site through identifying current problems in GIAHS site, and making constructive recommendations for coupled development of heritage preserva-tion and economic development. Field survey was carried out and data was collected through field questionnaire surveys of tourists and residents' in Longxian Village of Qingtian County, as well as interviews of residents with semi-structured questionnaires for their perceptions and attitudes to tourism development. The following results are got.(1) the tourism industry is still at its early state of Nongjiale tourism (enjoy and experience authentic country life-style), under very limited administrative management; (2) what attracts visitors most are delicious fish and beautiful natural environment, but not agricultural heritage itself; (3) most tourists come from adjacent areas and stay only half a day, many of whom pay their visits twice or more; (4) a few local residents take part in the activities of tourism industry, but in very limited manners even if they do.Current patterns of tourism development are casting negative impacts on agricultural heritage. Conservation agricultural heritage should be put in the first place for sustainable tourism development. Agricultural heritage, as a key attraction, should be taken as the focus for tourism development. The important thing is to change the present Nongjiale tourism into real heritage tourism, to establish a cooperative mechanism among different stakeholders,and to increase local residents' income through engaging in tourism industry.

  10. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM) crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance...

  11. Talking Agricultural Sustainability Issues - an Interview with Dr. Gurdev Khush

    OpenAIRE

    Bhullar, Gurbir S

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Gurdev Khush is an agricultural scientist well known to the world for his remarkable role in the development of high-yielding rice varieties, which greatly contributed towards ushering a number of countries (particularly in Asia) into the Green Revolution. While leading research at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, as Principal Plant Breeder and Head of the Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biochemistry division, he contributed more than 300 rice varieties including...

  12. Sugarcane for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Production under Ambient Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Amzad

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane is a food-cum-cash-cum-industrial crop with high varietals resistance, anti-erosive and thus helps preserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical zones. Sustaining sugar requirement as a source of food for an ever-growing world population in the changing ambient environment due to gradual depletion of natural resources, pollution, rising costs, low productivity and expansion of urban communities are some of the major challenges in the present century. Sugarcane and sugar producti...

  13. Sustainable Development of Bioheat from Agricultural Wastes and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-01-01

    This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impact of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an ind...

  14. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Adamo; Luisella Celi

    2009-01-01

    Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, sa...

  15. Society issues, painkiller solutions, dependence and sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Mahatma Gandhi listed seven blunders of humanity: Wealth without work, Pleasure without conscience, Commerce without morality, Worship without sacrifice, Politics without principles, Knowledge without character, and Science without humanity. Here I tackle three major issues, climate change, financial crisis and nation security, to disclose weak points of current remedies, and to propose sustainable solutions. Global warming and the unexpected financial crisis will undoubtedly impact all natio...

  16. Management Strategies for Transition to Sustainable Agricultural Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, D.; Mulligan, K.; Brown, C. M.; Yang, Y. E.

    2011-12-01

    In many agricultural regions of the world, aquifer overdrafting for agricultural irrigation continues. Management strategies are investigated that transition from this unsustainable use of water to a future, diminished use of irrigation. Complications arising from climate change and volatile energy prices are considered. A command and control strategy is modeled using combined simulation and optimization techniques. This strategy is compared with market based mechanisms such as cap and trade and Pigouvian pricing that are modeled using agent based methods. The formulations are designed to model the effects of different management strategies including those that seek to avoid rapid changes in basin-wide water utilization (considered a surrogate for agricultural production) over this time period. Formulations also include limits on total reduction in aquifer storage and controls on streamflow in the basin. The management formulations used in this study are developed for planning horizons of 50 to 100 years and use the Republican River Basin in the High Plains Aquifer as a case study. Historical and climate-adjusted recharge patterns are considered. Spatial and temporal variation in total irrigated acreage and the aquifer storage change determined by the solutions of the management formulations are analyzed and presented.

  17. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  18. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  19. Governing Sustainability Transitions: Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives and Regime Change in United States Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Konefal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a case study of US agriculture, this paper examines how governance affects sustainability transitions in socio-technical systems. The multi-level perspective (MLP has become a leading framework for theorizing sustainability transitions in socio-technical systems. It posits that transitions to more sustainable socio-technical systems are an outcome of external pressure at the landscape level and internal pressure emanating from niches. While the MLP is a robust analytical framework, it under-theorizes the role that governance plays in sustainability transitions. This paper addresses this research gap through examining three multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs that have developed sustainability metrics and standards for US agriculture: Field to Market; LEO-4000; and the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops. Applying a governance analytical framework, membership selection, decision-making procedures, and access to resources are found to affect the kinds of sustainability metrics developed, as well as their likely implementation. Specifically, the governance processes functioned to channel sustainability metrics towards ones that were congruent with the existing agrifood regime, and marginalize metrics that had the potential to disrupt regime processes. Thus, this article proposes that governance is a key component of sustainability transitions, and that current usage of MSIs in much of environmental governance may function to moderate sustainability transitions.

  20. Sustainable port infrastructure, practical implementation of the green port concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlic Bostjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall idea and research interest related with the development of sustainable port infrastructure evolved around the core requirements of continuous reduction of negative environmental impacts without jeopardising economic growth. The growth of trade activities and need for competitiveness on the global market are forcing ports around the world to systematically and continuously evaluate all possibilities for the optimisation and related costs reduction. On the implementation level, the greatest challenge is how to empower workers, who operate machines and work on the shop floor, to achieve enduring performance improvements. Presented research work provides a methodological approach for finding realistic solutions to the problem of the future development challenges of seaports. The case study shown in this research represents a practical application of the green port concept with the emphasis on the overall energy efficiency improvement based on testing, deployment and demonstration of energy efficient solutions. Additional emphasis was placed on the state-of-the-art technologies and developing pilot initiatives based on modern energy solutions designed to improve efficiency in fuel consumption and emissions reduction in rubber tired gantry cranes.

  1. EU Agricultural Policy: the Concept of Multifunctionality and Value Added Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Miceli

    2005-01-01

    Multifunctionality and value added agriculture are the European answers to WTO challenge to liberalize agricultural trade. The second chapter provides a framework for the European Common Agricultural Policy. It presents an historical perspective and its main limits and challenges, in particular the current Doha round of WTO negotiations. The resulting reforms will be discussed. The following chapters will deal with the answers elaborated by EU and implemented in its CAP reforms in order to ma...

  2. Recycling of Treated Sewage Sludge in Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural utilization of organic wastes amendments has been shown to be a sound alternative for both waste recycling and soil fertility improvement. Also, attention had been paid to use the biological agents that most cheap and safe for agricultural application in poor sandy soils. In this respect, irradiated sewage sludge and individual and dual inoculants of Azospirillum, Rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi were applied for reclamation and development of low fertile sandy soil. The fertilizer value of sewage sludge has been known for a long time, but the concomitant problems of heavy metals in soil, as a result of its continuous applications, have only been recognized recently. Most of the studies were devoted to follow up the effect of high concentrations of metals when sewage sludge was applied, but no attention has been accelerated about its effect on soil microorganisms. Adverse effects of sewage sludge on microbial activity and populations of cyanobacteria, Rhizobium, Mycorrhizae and total microbial biomass have been detected in some cases of Europe. For example, N2 fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria was found to be inhibited at concentrations (mg kg-1) of 127 Zn, 37 Cu, 21 Ni, 3.4 Cd, 52 Cr, and 71 Pb. Impact of bio fertilizers combined with irradiated sewage sludge on micro nutrients, e.g. Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb availability to clover and wheat plants, and productivity of both crops was the main objective of this study. In this connection, nuclear technology may offer a safety method against pathogenic effects of sewage sludge applied into agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, irradiated sludge is considered as safely source of organic wastes as well as the benefits on enrichment the low fertile soil with available nutrients, which act as a limiting factor for crop production. The N, P and K nutrients uptake by either shoots or grains of tested crops were positively and significantly affected by application of sewage sludge as well as bio

  3. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  4. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Ingram; Margaret Nelson; Katherine A. Spielmann; Peeples, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. W...

  5. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S.; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource i...

  6. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Important green house gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), though carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellul...

  7. Defining sustainability as a social-cultural concept: Citizen panels visiting dairy farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    The important role of values is very evident when it comes to citizens' concept of sustainability. The present paper had the objective to define sustainability as a socio-cultural concept for livestock production systems. The main research question was: how do Dutch citizens value various aspects of

  8. The Role of Nitrogen-Efficient Cultivars in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Weisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve nitrogen (N efficiency in agriculture, integrated N management strategies that take into consideration improved fertilizer, soil, and crop management practices are necessary. This paper reports results of field experiments in which maize (Zea mays L. and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars were compared with respect to their agronomic N efficiency (yield at a given N supply, N uptake efficiency (N accumulation at a given N supply, and N utilization efficiency (dry matter yield per unit N taken up by the plant. Under conditions of high N supply, significant differences among maize cultivars were found in shoot N uptake, soil nitrate depletion during the growing season, and the related losses of nitrate through leaching after the growing season. Experiments under conditions of reduced N supply indicated a considerable genotypic variation in reproductive yield formation of both maize and oilseed rape. High agronomic efficiency was achieved by a combination of high uptake and utilization efficiency (maize, or exclusively by high uptake efficiency (rape. N-efficient cultivars of both crops were characterized by maintenance of a relatively high N-uptake activity during the reproductive growth phase. In rape this trait was linked with leaf area and photosynthetic activity of leaves. We conclude that growing of N-efficient cultivars may serve as an important element of integrated nutrient management strategies in both low- and high-input agriculture.

  9. Farmers’ Sustainable Agriculture Perception in the Vietnam Uplands: the Case of Banana Farmers in Quang Tri Province

    OpenAIRE

    Van, Nguyen Thanh; Patana Sukprasert; Chinawat Yapwattanaphun

    2015-01-01

    Upland farmers in Vietnam are associated with the lowest income and face serious issues of natural resources degradation and environmental pollution because of poor agricultural practices. To persuade the upland farmers to adopt sustainable practices, it is vital first to assess their perception of sustainable agriculture. This study aimed to measure banana farmers’ perception towards sustainable agriculture and its determinants in the Vietnam uplands based on a case study in Quang Tri provin...

  10. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  11. The Preparation of Updated Vegetation Maps by Processing Satellite Images: A Way in Sustainable Management of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand; Shahryar Sobhe Zahedi

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in sustainable agriculture and economic management is to calculate areas under different crops that the inputs of agriculture connect to this topic. Planning of agricultural mechanization, fertilizer and pesticide requirements, pests and diseases control, estimates of agricultural production, income and tax and financial planning, all linked to the cultivated areas and estimation of agricultural products. One of the problems in the agricultural section...

  12. Nuclear techniques and sustainable development in agriculture and food (Iraq as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated management of natural resources in accordance with the application of a wide range of nuclear technology, enabled the agricultural operations to shift towards a high level of productivity in a sustainable manner and, at the same time, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, which helps in addressing climate change. Through this article, we will review what has been provided by nuclear techniques in favor of sustainable development of agriculture and food. These nuclear techniques have been developed in labs and fields of the IAEA and have been tested and applied by many scientists and researchers around the world, including what have been accomplished by Iraqi scientists at the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  13. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher social reputation. Finally, it presents basic measures for sustainable development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, including carrying on reasonable core elements of self-study examination system, adjusting structure of discipline, improving social assistance system, and expanding service space.

  14. Normative, systemic and procedural aspects: a review of indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Several methods for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems have been developed. These methods do not fully: (i) take into account the multi‐functionality of agriculture; (ii) include multidimensionality; (iii) utilize and implement the assessment knowledge; and (iv) identify conflicting goals and trade‐offs. This paper reviews seven recently developed multidisciplinary indicator‐based assessment methods with respect to their contribution to these shortcomings. All approaches inc...

  15. For a Sustainable Agriculture, We Need More Adam Smith, Not Less

    OpenAIRE

    James, Harvey S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    There are two competing approaches sustainability in agriculture. One stresses a strict economic approach in which market forces should be allowed to guide the activities of agricultural producers. The other advocates the need to balance economic with environmental and social objectives, even to the point of reducing profitability. This paper shows how the writings of the 18th century moral philosopher Adam Smith could bridge the debate. First, he is recognized by those advocating the economi...

  16. Sustainable Agricultural Intensification: The Role of Cardamom Agroforestry in the East Usambaras, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bullcok, Renee; Mithöfer, Dagmar; Vihemäki, Heini

    2013-01-01

    The East Usambaras, located in northeast Tanzania, are a tropical biodiversity hotspot where unsustainable agricultural management practices pose threats to landscape conservation and development objectives. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Intensification (SAI) would improve long term productivity and reduce pressures on forest reserves. This study assesses adoption of soil fertility investments using farm and household data to evaluate profitability and feasibility of scaling up SAI. A cr...

  17. Urban agriculture in Istanbul : the road to food security and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Eloglu, Selen Caglayik

    2012-01-01

    As the world is facing urbanization at full speed and as food systems become more globally entangled leaving consumers at the mercy of markets and conventional products, urban agriculture attracts more attention and offers new opportunities to urban residents to handle their food systems. With its ability to secure food for populations, generate income, sustain urban ecosystems and create livable communities, urban agriculture is praised increasingly in different parts of the world, and urban...

  18. CEEPES Evaluation of Sustainable Agricultural Policies for Iowa's MSEA Site, Walnut Creek, A

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Lakshminarayan; Aziz Bouzaher; Johnson, Stanley R.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of the Nation's ground and surface water supplies from normal use of pesticides and fertilizers has caused growing concern about the impact of agricultural practices on water quality. Informed decisions on sustainable agricultural policies to protect soil and water quality, and also to minimize economic stress to the producers, requires integrated economic and environmental research designed to study the complex interaction of soils, weather, hydrology, chemicals, economics, and...

  19. Sustainable Food Systems for Future Cities: The Potential of Urban Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kubi Ackerman; Michael Conard; Patricia Culligan; Richard Plunz; Maria-Paola Sutto; Leigh Whittinghill

    2014-01-01

    Populations around the world are growing and becoming predominately urban, fueling the need to re-examine how urban spaces are developed and urban inhabitants are fed. One remedy that is increasingly being considered as a solution to inadequate food access in cities, is urban agriculture. As a practice, urban agriculture is beneficial in both post-industrial and developing cities because it touches on the three pillars of sustainability: economics, society, and the environment. Historically, ...

  20. Networking knowledge in the sustainable agriculture movement: Some implications of the gender dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanein, N.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the diverse, local knowledge of women farmers in a small farming community in Wisconsin where they have formed a sustainable farming network to exchange ideas and practices. Research has shown that different, gendered experiences create multiple knowledges and perspectives. Using personal observations and in-depth interviews, the author describes and analyzes the activities of a local sustainable agriculture movement of women in a small town in Wi...

  1. Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry in the Mediterranean Partner Countries and Turkey: Factors, Indicators and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kniivilä, Matleena; Mili, Samir; Ait El Mekki, A.; Arovuori, Kyösti; Ben Saïd, Moncef; Çağatay, Selim; Horne, Paula; Kıymaz, Taylan; Laajimi, Abderraouf; Martinez-Vega, Javier; Pyykkönen, Perttu; Soliman, Ibrahim; Thabet, Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define the main factors of sustainable agriculture and forestry in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The study is based on the review of existing literature and country level analyses. In the study indicators which can be used to measure sustainability are defined and examined and data on these is collected. Major challenges of the sector in the study countries are tentatively examined. According to the study relatively much data is available, but not enough to g...

  2. Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry in the Mediterranean Partner Countries and Turkey: Factors, Indicators and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kniivilä, Matleena; Mili, Samir; El Mekki, A. Ait; Arovuori, Kyösti; Ben Saïd, Moncef; Çağatay, Selim; Horne, Paula; Kıymaz, Taylan; Laajimi, Abderraouf; Martínez Vega, Javier; Pyykkönen, Perttu; Soliman, Ibrahim; Thabet, Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define the main factors of sustainable agriculture and forestry in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The study is based on the review of existing literature and country level analyses. In the study indicators which can be used to measure sustainability are defined and examined and data on these is collected. Major challenges of the sector in the study countries are tentatively examined. According to the study relatively much data is available, but ...

  3. Reforming Land-Tenure Systems in South Africa: Routes to Socio-Economic and Agricultural Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeks, Celine; Azadi, Hossein; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; Troyo-Dieguez, Enrique; Van Passel, Steven; Witlox, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Given the historical development of land tenure in South Africa, the aim of this article is to examine the best routes to alleviate poverty and retain sustainable agriculture in the country. First, a theoretical framework is presented that relates land tenure to sustainability, and three historical periods (pre-colonial, colonial, and apartheid) are then considered to explain the changes in land tenure and their consequences. The progress and main limitations of post-apartheid land reform to ...

  4. The concept of computer software designed to identify and analyse logistics costs in agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study comprised research, development and computer programming works concerning the development of a concept for the IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process-based approach. As a result of research and programming work an overall functional and IT concept of software was developed for the identification and analysis of logistics costs for agricultural enterprises.

  5. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. (author)

  6. Sustainable Development of Bioheat from Agricultural Wastes and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impact of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated but especially in remote rural areas.

  7. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  8. Composting of Disposal Organic Wastes: Resource Recovery for Agricultural Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad H. Golabi; Peggy Denney; Clancy Iyekar

    2006-01-01

    One of the major problems of agricultural soils in the tropical regions of the Pacific is the low organic matter content. Because of the hot and humid environment, the soil organic matter (SOM) is minimal due to rapid decomposition.Composted organic material is being applied on agricultural fields as an amendment to provide nutrients and enhance the organic matter content for improving the physical and chemical properties of the cultivated soils. In addition land application of composted material as a fertilizer source effectively disposes of wastes that otherwise are buried in landfills. In our soil program at the University of Guam, we are evaluating the use of organic material as an alternative to synthetic fertilizers. Its goal is to develop management strategies and use available resources for improving crop production while conserving resources and preserving environmental quality. Our case study project is designed to improve soil fertility status by using composted organic wastes and assessing how the nitrogen and other essential nutrients contribute to long-term soil fertility and crop productivity without application of synthetic fertilizers. In our pilot project, compost is produced from wood chips,grinded typhoon debris mixed with animal manure, fish feed, shredded paper and other organic wastes. Mature compost is then applied on the field at the rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 t/ha as a soil amendment on the eroded cobbly soils of southern Guam.Corn is planted and monitored for growth performance and yield. The effect of land application of composted material on the SOM content and overall soil quality indices are being evaluated in this pilot study.

  9. McSustainability and McJustice: Certification, Alternative Food and Agriculture, and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hatanaka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative food and agriculture movements increasingly rely on market-based approaches, particularly voluntary standards and certification, to advance environmental sustainability and social justice. Using a case study of an ecological shrimp project in Indonesia that became certified organic, this paper raises concerns regarding the impacts of certification on alternative food and agriculture movements, and their aims of furthering sustainability and justice. Drawing on George Ritzer’s McDonaldization framework, I argue that the ecological shrimp project became McDonaldized with the introduction of voluntary standards and certification. Specifically, efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control became key characteristics of the shrimp project. While the introduction of such characteristics increased market access, it also entailed significant costs, including an erosion of trust and marginalization and alienation of farmers. Given such tradeoffs, in concluding I propose that certification is producing particular forms of environmental sustainability and social justice, what I term McSustainability and McJustice. While enabling the expansion of alternative food and agriculture, McSustainability and McJustice tend to allow little opportunity for farmer empowerment and food sovereignty, as well as exclude aspects of sustainable farming or ethical production that are not easily measured, standardized, and validated.

  10. On sustainable development of uranium mining industry in China based on the concept of ecological security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological security is an important issue for sustainable development of mining industry, on which the development of nuclear industry and nuclear power is based. But uranium mining and processing has larger effect on ecological environment which mainly include tailings, waste rock, waste water, and radiation effects. In this paper, the dialectical relationship between ecological security and sustainable relationship is analyzed, the ecological safety concept at home and abroad is compared and the role that ecological safety plays in the sustainable development of uranium mining based on analysis of restricting factors on uranium mining in China from the perspective of ecological security is also probed into. To achieve sustainable development of the uranium mining industry in China, an ecological security concept from four aspects must be established: 1) the concept of ecological security management; 2) the scientific concept of ecological security; 3) the concept of ecological security investment; and 4) the concept of ecological security responsibility. (authors)

  11. Sustainable Manufacturing and Design: Concepts, Practices and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Kishawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is reported on the importance of integrating sustainability with manufacturing and design, along with other objectives such as function, competitiveness, profitability and productivity. The need of utilizing appropriate tools like design for environment, life cycle assessment and other environmentally sound practices that are cognizant of the entire life cycle of a process or product is highlighted. It is likely that sustainability and environmental stewardship will be increasingly important considerations in manufacturing and design in the future and are likely to influence the main priorities for advancing manufacturing operations and technologies. Designers and manufacturing decision makers who adopt a sustainability focus and establish a sustainability culture within companies are more likely to be successful in enhancing design and manufacturing. It is concluded that more extensive research and collaboration is needed to improve understanding of sustainability in manufacturing and design, and to enhance technology transfer and applications of sustainability.

  12. Ecological Agriculture as a strategy to sustainable rural development as demonstrated in a Mexican Project

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Heide

    1998-01-01

    The Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany and the University of Chapingo, Mexico are working together on a project named “Development of Environmental Agriculture in Central Countries of Mexico”. The study began two years ago. The main focus is the analysis and research of eco-logical agriculture as a strategy to sustainable rural development. My con-tribution will be to show the experiences with ecological agriculture on a long time project in Mexico in the State of Tlaxcala. The village Vi...

  13. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-04-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.

  14. Sustainability analysis for irrigation water management: concepts, methodology, and application to the Aral Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ximing; McKinney, Daene C.; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable irrigation water management should simultaneously achieve two objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture for food security and preserving the associated natural environment. A stable relationship should be maintained between these two objectives now and in the future, while potential conflicts between these objectives should be mitigated through appropriate irrigation practices. Lessons learned from unsustainable water management practices around the world demonstrate the necess...

  15. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.

  16. Beyond Cliche--Reclaiming the Concept of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In closing his 2008 Myer Lecture, the scientist and environmentalist Dr. Tim Flannery said that this century will be defined by the search for sustainability. How perilous therefore that nowadays there is so much overuse of the word "sustainability" that it has become a cliche. Today's tertiary students studying architecture and energy-related…

  17. Prevention and Rehabilitation of Degraded Land to Achieve Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid population growth and the challenge of food security combined with burgeoning urban development have put multiple pressures on land and water resources. Worldwide soil degradation is currently estimated at 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Once land resources are degraded, rehabilitation usually requires a long-term effort and is often expensive. To mitigate land and soil degradation, effective soil conservation and suitable rehabilitation practices are required and should be chosen according to the levels and causes of soil degradation. The basic principles of soil conservation and management for preventing land degradation are: (i) to control soil erosion by practices such as terracing, reduced tillage in combination with mulching, intercropping or grass strips, (ii) to improve soil fertility through organic and inorganic fertilizers, and (iii) to prevent accumulation of harmful substances. Natural rehabilitation of degraded land can be a practical and low-cost alternative. For example, soil stabilization through vegetative measures has been used to control wind and water erosion and simultaneously improve soil health by increasing soil organic matter and nutrient availability. Nevertheless, if land has been degraded by mining and/or contaminated by heavy metals or organic pollutants, the surrounding farmlands can also be affected through surface runoff from the contaminated site, thereby rendering them unfit for cultivation. In this case, phytoremediation technologies, defined as the use of plants and trees to remove, immobilize, transform or degrade contaminants in polluted soil or water, in combination with for instance constructed wetlands and/or microbial interactions can be used to remediate polluted land as well as to prevent contamination of farmlands. Therefore both on-farm management and off-site remediation are important to protect and improve agricultural land resources, hence improve crop

  18. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Rubino

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  19. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  20. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancement of the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'neem cake' scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA laboratories have developed a promising trial to promote the use of neem cake as a low-cost insecticide and fertilizer in sustainable agriculture.

  1. Do You See What I See? Examining the Epistemic Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemic barriers to sustainable agriculture, which are those aspects of food production that are not readily revealed by direct perception: such as decreases in rates of soil and nutrient loss, increases in levels of beneficial soil micro-organisms, and reductions in the amount of chemicals leaching into the water table.…

  2. The Status of Literacy of Sustainable Agriculture in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaninee, Hassan Sadough; Veisi, Hadi; Gorbani, Shiva; Falsafi, Peyman; Liaghati, Houman

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes heterogeneous research with a focus on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of farmers and the components of sustainable agriculture literacy through an interdisciplinary, systematic literature review for the time frame from 1996 to 2013. The major research databases were searched and 170 papers were identified. Paper…

  3. Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Tewari, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, has been advocated as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with rising crude oil prices, global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Second-generation bioethanol is produced from lignocellulosic feedstock by its saccharification, followed by microbial fermentation and product recovery. Agricultural residues generated as wastes during or after processing of agricultural crops are one of such renewable and lignocellulos...

  4. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel SUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By transition process, which is presented in the Republic of Serbia for many years, rural areas are also covered in great extent. Changes in national agricultural policy, in terms of orientation towards rural development and multifunctional agriculture, have led to situation that process of development must involve all stakeholders, from governmental institutions, via local community, to population of rural areas. Such approach to rural development could initiate easier integration into international institutions and European Union, as well as to strengthening of cross-border cooperation within the mentioned area of economy. The most part of the Carpathians in the Republic of Serbia is taken by the national park „Đerdap“ and its protected zone. Within the mentioned protected area, sustainable use of agricultural land is based on traditional system of mountain agriculture that provides a high degree of ecological rationality and represents a very good foundation for development of integral and organic production.Opening toward the international community and peculiarly clear commitment of Serbia to European integrations,requires a new definition of role and importance of agricultural sector. Therefore, it is estimated that now is the perfect time for establishment of concrete conceptual framework and Strategy that will answer to key questions within the agro-food sector. In this context, authors’ intention (they are also the members of the research team of IAE Belgrade which is the holder of the project III 46006 - Sustainable agriculture and rural development in function of Republic of Serbia strategic goals achievement within the Danube region is to evaluate a social sustainability of agriculture in the area of the Carpathians in Serbia. Because of that, research is focused to administrative area of next municipalities: Golubac, Kučevo, Majdanpek, Kladovo and Negotin. Considering microeconomic character of research, it was used the

  5. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  6. A Review of Lean Concept and its Application to Sustainable Construction in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedolapo Ekundayo Ogunbiyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The UK Government has recognised the importance of the construction industry in achieving the overall goals of sustainable development. Therefore the Government has put several policies and strategies in place to achieve a more sustainable construction. Sustainable construction is considered as the application of sustainable practices and sustainable development principles to the activities of the construction sector. Lean construction is a new production philosophy which has the potential of bringing innovative changes in the construction industry. The Lean principles focus on the minimisation of both material and process wastes which in turn contribute to sustainable construction in terms of energy consumption and improvement in health and safety etc. This study aims at exploring the concept of sustainable construction and examines how the lean approach can impact on the sustainability practices within the construction industry. The study uses literature review to achieve the stated aim. The findings revealed that the application of lean construction principle, tools and methods have direct contributions to the attainment of sustainable practices within the construction industry. However, the study postulates that the better understanding of lean concept, proper implementation and integration of lean and sustainability concepts are required for lean construction to contribute to sustainable construction.

  7. Evaluating the vapour shift concept in agriculture: some aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Metselaar, K.; van Dam, J. C.; Klik, A.

    2009-04-01

    Human population growth leads to an increasing pressure on freshwater resources. By 2050 Falkenmark et al. (2004) estimate a global water deficit for crop production of 5800 km3.y-1. This has important consequences for management of fresh water resources at different scales, and new strategies at different scales are required. One of the strategies suggested is that of managing crops in such a way that the use of rainfall and irrigation is shifted as much as possible from evaporation towards transpiration, a so-called vapour shift. The suggested savings are in the order of 330 km3.y-1, and are based on estimates of the magnitude of three processes: Reducing early season evaporation; increasing canopy cover; and increasing yield levels. The vapour shift concept was evaluated empirically, and in a simulation study. The empirical evaluation using results for wheat, maize, millet, cotton, and barley suggests the estimate of potential savings is 37% lower than the estimate by Falkenmark et al. (2004). The uncertainty is large and due to the limited number of experiments in which a separation of evapotranspiration in evaporation and transpiration has been made over the entire growing season. This suggests that theoretical support for the vapour shift concept should become more important. In the simulation approach two management options, mulching and planting density, are evaluated for a site in India for an irrigated wheat crop using a simulation approach for water limited crop yield. Given the simulation model used, and the management options investigated, the assumption implicit in the vapour shift concept - decreasing evaporation with increasing yield level - does not hold in irrigated areas, or in areas in which water is the most limiting factor. This suggests that vapour shift will be largest in those areas where nutrients and pests- and diseases are still limiting or reducing crop yields, and measures are taken to reduce those limitations.

  8. Technology-Driven and Innovative Training for Sustainable Agriculture in The Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Innovative training in 'Sustainable Agriculture' for an increasingly STEM-dependent agricultural sector will require a combination of approaches and technologies for global agricultural production to increase while offsetting climate change. Climate change impacts the water resources of nations as normal global weather patterns are altered during El Nino events. Agricultural curricula must incorporate awareness of 'climate change' in order to find novel ways to (1) assure global food security; (2) improve soil productivity and conservation; (3) improve crop yields and irrigation; (4) inexpensively develop site specific principles of crop management based on variable soil and associated hydrological properties; and (5) improve precision farming. In February 2015, Central State University (CSU), Ohio became an 1890 Land-Grant institution vital to the sustainability of Ohio's agricultural sector. Besides agricultural extension, the agriculture curriculum at CSU integrates multidisciplinary courses in science, technology engineering, agriculture, and mathematics (STEAM). The agriculture program could benefit from a technology-driven, interdisciplinary soil science course that promotes climate change education and climate literacy while being offered in both a blended and collaborative learning environment. The course will focus on the dynamics of microscale to mesoscale processes occurring in farming systems, those of which impact climate change or could be impacted by climate change. Elements of this course will include: climate change webinars; soil-climate interactions; carbon cycling; the balance of carbon fluxes between soil storage and atmosphere; microorganisms and soil carbon storage; paleoclimate and soil forming processes; geophysical techniques used in the characterization of soil horizons; impact of climate change on soil fertility; experiments; and demonstrations.

  9. Sustainable Manufacturing and Design: Concepts, Practices and Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam A. Kishawy; Marc A. Rosen

    2012-01-01

    An investigation is reported on the importance of integrating sustainability with manufacturing and design, along with other objectives such as function, competitiveness, profitability and productivity. The need of utilizing appropriate tools like design for environment, life cycle assessment and other environmentally sound practices that are cognizant of the entire life cycle of a process or product is highlighted. It is likely that sustainability and environmental stewardship will be increa...

  10. Multi-objective optimisation for a sustainable groundwater resources and agricultural management in arid coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Heck, Vera; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of freshwater in coastal arid regions, coupled with an ongoing population growth, makes optimal water management crucial. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits the agricultural opportunities. To solve these problems, a simulation based integrated water management system has been developed to ensure a long-term profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management. Within the system, a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation, are connected in an optimisation module, optimising the water management. To reduce the computational complexity of the optimisation procedure, surrogate models are applied which describe the behaviour of the groundwater and agriculture process models regarding the most relevant variables for management. Furthermore, the optimisation problem is decomposed into a two-step optimisation. An analytical inner optimisation estimates irrigation practices and crop patterns, while an outer evolutionary optimisation algorithm determines the overall water abstraction scenarios, based on results of the inner optimisation. By these two features, consequent surrogate model application and decomposition of optimisation, the computational complexity of the optimisation problem is reduced considerably, allowing the consideration of specific regional and temporal aspects in the management tool. The methodology is demonstrated by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability, multi-objective optimisation is performed. Optimisation runs for different simulation periods and management strategies show that a

  11. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  12. Soil nitrogen balance assessment and its application for sustainable agriculture and environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabindra; Nath; Roy

    2005-01-01

    .M.A.,Stoorvogel,J.J.,Windmeijer,P.N.,Calculating soil nutrient balances in Africa at different scales:Ⅱ,District scale.Fert.Res.,1993,35:237-250.[18]Van der Pol,F.,Soil mining:An Unseen Contributor to Farm Income in Southern Mali,Amsterdam:The Royal Tropical Institute,1992.[19]Van der Pol,F.,Traore,B.,Soil nutrient depletion by agricultural production in southern Mali,Fert.Res.,1993,36:79-90.[20]Pieri,C.,Fertilité des terres de savanes.bilan de trente arns de recherche et de développement agricoles au sud du Sahara,Paris:Ministère de la Coopération et CIRAD-IRAT,1989.[21]Frissel,M.J.,Cycling of mineral nutrients in agricultural ecosystems,London:Elsevier,1978.[22]Smaling,E.M.A.,Fresco,L.O.,A decision support model for monitoring nutrient balances under agricultural land use (NUTMON),Geoderma,1993,60:235-256.[23]Smaling,E.M.A.,An agro-ecological framework for integrated nutrient management with special reference to Kenya,Ph.D.Thesis:Wageningen Agricultural University,1993.[24]Wendt,J.,Assessing systems sustainability through high-precision evaluation for soil nutrient capital.Paper presented at "Scaling soil nutrient balances" workshop,Nairobi,2003.[25]Shepherd,K.D.,Walsh,M.G.,Development of reflectance spectral libraries for characterization of soil properties,Soil Sci.Soc.Am.,2002,66(3):988-998.[26]Roy,R.N.,Misra,R.V.,Lesschen,J.P.et al.,Assessment of soil nutrient balance-Approaches and methodologies,Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bull.,2004,14,,[27]Roy,R.N.,Misra,R.V.,Montanez,A.,Decreasing reliance on mineral nitrogen-Yet more food,Ambio,2002,31 (2):177-183.[28]Roy,R.N.,Integrated plant nutrition systems-Basic concepts,development and results of the trial network,initiation of project activities in AGLN,and need for cooperation,in Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems,Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bull.,1995,12.[29]Peltonen,J.,New Fertilìzer Products,Proc,IFA-FAO Agriculture Conference "Global Food Security and the Role of Sustainable Fertilization",Rome,2003.[30]Roy,R.N.,Misra,R.V.,Economic and

  13. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  14. Agricultural Mechanism of Spreading Catastrophe Risk in China and Legislation Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces agricultural catastrophe and its characteristics,and conducts comparative analysis on existing mechanism of spreading agricultural catastrophe risk,indicating that the mechanism of administrative remedy has the greatest efficiency and highest cost;the mechanism of social assistance has the lowest cost,but its efficiency is lowest and there are unstable factors;market mechanism,namely the insurance of agricultural catastrophe,is the rational choice of agricultural department in mechanism of risk spreading.This paper analyzes the status quo of China’s insurance of agricultural catastrophe,indicating that the main body of management in China’s insurance of agricultural catastrophe is missing.In addition,the market demand is critically scanty,and insurance of agricultural catastrophe lacks external development environment.The gap of China’s insurance law of agricultural catastrophe has become the greatest obstacle to the development of insurance of agricultural catastrophe.From legislative purpose,basic principle,nature,main body of legal relations,management range,policy support,supervision and management and so on,the legislation conception of China’s insurance of agricultural catastrophe is put forward.

  15. Assessment of teachers' ability to integrate science concepts into secondary agriculture programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Jason A.

    For the past two decades, the idea of integrating more science concepts into the agricultural education curriculum has been gaining support. The purposes of this study were two fold: (1) To assess the knowledge base and interest levels among agriculture instructors in teaching concepts related to science; (2) To assess how such a change in the curriculum would impact current agricultural education programs. The sample was derived from the population of agriculture instructors teaching in Missouri secondary schools. For this descriptive correlational research, an instrument was developed to assess the instructors' perceived level of competence to teach selected science grade level expectations (GLE) and their relationship to the agricultural education curriculum and programs. A second instrument, solicited from the American Board for Certification in Teacher Excellence, was used to assess the general biological science knowledge of the teachers. Agriculture instructors perceive that they are competent to teach and integrate science GLEs into the agriculture curriculum. However, their scores on the examination of knowledge of biological science brings into question their competence to teach this subject matter. Teachers believe integrating science into the agriculture curriculum will benefit their program and their students; however, they unsure if their classes should count for science credit or if FFA programs and activities are a good match for a more science-based curriculum.

  16. An Analysis of Suburban Agricultural Land Allocation System and Sustainable Development Strategy-Taking Kaifeng Suburban as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Ming-zhou; ZHAO Shu-mao

    2001-01-01

    Based on the system theory, this paper discusses the structure and efficiency of agricultural land use in Kaifeng Suburban. Such present problems as benefit deviation from resource allocation,distinguished unemployment and four kinds of contribution of urban agriculture land use are revealed. Then,in the view of sustainable development, some resolution measures to the problems are advanced out. These suggestions include farmland protection, ecological agriculture, sustainable land use and input decrease of synthetic matter.

  17. Еstimation of regional marketing attractiveness according to the sustainable development conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Bilovodska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretic and methodical approaches to the estimation of regional marketing attractiveness according to the sustainable development conception are offered and the corresponding estimation of the Sumy, Poltava and Chernigov regions is done.

  18. Еstimation of regional marketing attractiveness according to the sustainable development conception

    OpenAIRE

    O.A. Bilovodska; Yu.M. Melnyk

    2012-01-01

    Theoretic and methodical approaches to the estimation of regional marketing attractiveness according to the sustainable development conception are offered and the corresponding estimation of the Sumy, Poltava and Chernigov regions is done.

  19. A REVIEW OF WEED MANAGEMENT IN INDIA: THE NEED OF NEW DIRECTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K VERMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are the major deterrent to the development of sustainable crop production. Since weeds dictate most of the crop production practices and causes enormous losses (37 per cent due to their interference. Farmers follow several practices for managing weeds in different crops/cropping systems, of which at present the use of herbicides are on the top due to the scarcity of labors. The sustainability of these systems is being questioned because of environmental, social, and economic concerns caused by global competition, production cost, soil erosion, environmental pollution, and concern over the quality of rural life. Enhancing the crop competitiveness through preventive methods, cultural practices, mechanical methods, plant breeding, biotechnology, biological control and crop diversification will be the central thesis in new paradigms of weed management. Integration of above techniques will be key to sustainable weed management that maintain or enhance the crop productivity, profitability and environmental quality. This article explores the scope of sustainable weed management, growing concerns over herbicide resistance, environmental and health hazards of pesticides including herbicides and declining profitability are the major challenges of ‘high input’ agriculture. The goal of this review is to facilitate the development of ecologically based alternative methods for sustainable weed management that will support crop production systems, which require less tillage, herbicide and other inputs. To accomplish this goal, research efforts must be radically expanded in crop ecology and in the development of ecologically based technologies for weed management. Adoption of sustainable agricultural practices reduces the intensity of soil manipulation thereby creates an unfavorable condition for weed seed germination, reduces the organic matter depletion and soil erosion. Thus, the sustainable approaches could be an option for weed and soil

  20. Proceedings of the IFPRI/FAO Workshop on Plant Nutrient Management, Food Security, and Sustainable Agriculture: The future through 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Gruhn, P.; Goletti, F. (ed.); Roy, R N

    1998-01-01

    The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) led an international initiative entitled A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture and the Environment. In support of the 2020 Vision, IFPRI, in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, sponsored a workshop in Viterbo, Italy, May 16-17 1995 on Plant Nutrient Management, Food Security, and Sustainable Agriculture: The Future through 2020.

  1. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those princ...

  2. Participatory Development of Key Sustainability Concepts for Dialogue and Curricula at The Ohio State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Bullock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ohio State University (OSU is one of the many universities committed to sustainability within its operations, traditions, and university framework. The university continues to evolve in relation to its sustainability goals, and currently seeks to both build on and deepen the culture of sustainability at OSU. One way to do this is through increasing the sustainability literacy of students on campus, by creating an introductory sustainability curriculum, which would put forth the definitions, concepts, and initiatives that represent sustainability at Ohio State. However, before such a curriculum can be developed, it is important to first understand the current sustainability perceptions at OSU: what definition does the university want to embrace? What is most pertinent to teach OSU students? Twenty sustainability leaders across the university were interviewed in a participatory development process to produce consensus-based, local definitional concepts that are not only beneficial for student knowledge, but for OSU sustainability progress as a whole. The results of their recommendations have provided a solid framework from which the university can build in its future curricular efforts, and provides insights that may be particularly helpful in promoting sustainability in other large American universities. This study also describes a case of using participatory development (PD methods, which have been under-utilized in a higher education setting, particularly in sustainability implementation.

  3. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The non-agricultural economy (small and medium-sized enterprises in industry, services, rural tourism has a low share in Romania's rural area. To start a business in the countryside can be both an advantage and a risk. The investments in the non-agricultural and food economy, while contributing to gross value added increase through the processing of agricultural and non-agricultural raw products from local resources, have another great advantage, by creating new jobs and by using and maintaining the local (rural labour, revitalization of rural localities, mainly those in the less-favoured and remote rural areas. The paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. The socioeconomic analysis based on current data and future forecasts is the basis in drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in the less-developed regions and also for the economic revitalization.

  4. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits. PMID:26697861

  5. Consumer-oriented Sustainable Energy Concepts; Consumentgerichte Duurzame Energieconcepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, H.J. [Universiteit Twente UT, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    A study on the willingness of potential buyers of newly built houses to invest in energy efficient systems in order to realize a sustainable dwelling [Dutch] Een onder zoek naar de bereidheid van potentiele kopers van nieuwbouw woningen tot het investeren in energetische systemen om te komen tot een duurzame woning.

  6. Conceptions of the sustainability-pedagogy relationship: should sustainability issues be introduced in higher education curricula?

    OpenAIRE

    Baughan, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers whether sustainability issues can and should be included in higher education curricula. The notion of sustainability-informed curricula has already been examined in a range of published studies, but the present study focuses on views and perspectives of two specific staff groups, under-represented in earlier research, these being professional service staff with roles in sustainability, and educational development staff. Consequently, and following a fuller contextualisati...

  7. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  8. Soil nitrogen balance assessment and its application for sustainable agriculture and environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabindra Nath Roy; Ram Vimal Misra

    2005-01-01

    Soil nitrogen balance assessment (SNBA) serves as an effective tool for estimating the magnitude of nitrogen loss/gain of the agro-eco systems and to appraise their sustainability.SNBA brings forth awareness of soil fertility problems, besides providing information relating to the resultant release of nitrogen into the environment consequent to agricultural practices.Quantitative information relating to nitrogen escape into the environment through such exercises can be gainfully utilized for identification of causative factors, enhancing fertilizer use efficiency and formulating programmes aimed at plugging N leakages. An overview of nitrogen balance approaches and methodologies is presented. A deeper understanding and insight into the agro-eco systems provided by the SNBA exercises can lay the basis for the formulation of effective agronomic interventions and policies aimed at promoting sustainable agriculture and a benign environment.

  9. SALSA: a simulation tool to assess ecological sustainability of agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ingrid Strid; Elmquist, Helena; Nybrant, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    In order to assess the ecological sustainability of agricultural production systems, there is a need for effective tools. We describe an environmental systems analysis tool called SALSA (Systems Ana/ysis for Sustainable Agriculture). It consists of substance/material flow models in which the simulation results are interpreted with life-cycle assessment methodology. The application of SALSA is demonstrated in a case study in which three different ways of producing pigs are compared with respect to energy input and the environmental impacts of global warming, eutrophication, and acidification. The scenario that combined a low-protein diet without soy meal with an improved manure-management technique with low nitrogen losses was the best for all impact categories studied. The strength of the SALSA models was their capacity to capture consequences of management options that had an influence on several processes on a farm, which enabled the type of complex studies we describe. PMID:16092274

  10. Community Essay: Seeking a dialogue: a targeted technology for sustainable agricultural systems in the American Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christianson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This Community Essay aims to start a dialogue on the role of targeted environmental technologies in “sustainable agriculture.” Using the new water-quality technology of denitrification bioreactors as a specific example, we focus on the question: are edge-of-field technologies such as bioreactors simply band-aid approaches to sustainable agriculture? Or can they be part of a comprehensive paradigm shift? Denitrification bioreactors are a novel approach for reducing the amount of nitrate in on-farm agricultural drainage, a pollutant that has caused water-quality concerns at both local and national scales. We first address whether or not denitrification bioreactors might qualify singularly as a "sustainable technology" within the conceptual continuum of weak to strong sustainability. Then we introduce a broader perspective on the potential role that targeted technologies might play in multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We suggest that denitrification bioreactors are one technology that can, in a small way, mediate a shift in agrarian paradigms. A transition toward sustainability is a long and gradual process requiring the incorporation of a wide range of approaches including targeted technologies and multifunctional landscapes. While the issues presented here are hardly exhaustive, it is our hope that this commentary spurs broader dialogue within the sustainable agriculture community about the role of technology in the future of agriculture. We are seeking to encourage broader philosophical reflection on work being done in the name of a sustainable agriculture.

  11. Relationship between Attitude, Knowledge, and Support towards the Acceptance of Sustainable Agriculture among Contract Farmers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmariana Azman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture practices are known as the best techniques by which to cultivate crops. To ensure the continuity of such practices, farmers should accept and apply this method on their yield. There is an abundance of international studies which have found that attitude, knowledge and support are the main factors to impinge on the acceptance of sustainable agriculture among farmers, but studies on the same scenario are lacking for Malaysia. Filling this research gap is the main objective of this study, which seeks to elucidate the relationship between attitude, knowledge and support towards the acceptance of sustainable agriculture among contract farmers in Malaysia. This is a quantitative study, and a total of 326 respondents were involved in the data collection process. The data were gained through a developed questionnaire. The resulting analysis proves that there is a significant relationship between contract farmers’ attitudes and their acceptance of sustainable agriculture (r=0.498, p=0.00.Contract farmers’ knowledge and their acceptance of sustainable agriculture are also shown to demonstrate a significant relationship (r= 0.348, 0.00.Additionally, there is support for a significant correlation between knowledge and acceptance of sustainable agriculture (r=0.365, p=0.00. In conclusion, farmers should have positive attitudes and adequate knowledge, and should obtain support from several parties to encourage them to embed sustainable agriculture within their farming practices.

  12. Land Markets and Agricultural Land Use Efficiency and Sustainability: Evidence from East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benin, Samuel; Place, Frank; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Pender, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Land markets, including land sales and short-term land rentals, have an important role to play for efficient and sustainable land management and agricultural development, especially where markets for other factors of production are imperfect or missing. This study utilises data from the highlands of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda to examine the impact of land markets on various types of land investment and management practices, crop yield, and land quality. The results highlight the relative long...

  13. Organic Farming as an Innovative Farming System Development Model toward Sustainable Agriculture in Bali

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming has been promoted and developed in Bali since 2006 by the government in collaboration with private businesses and certification bodies. This research aimed to synthesize the development of Balinese organic production as an effort toward sustainable agriculture. Data from the in-depth interview and critical review were analyzed. As of 2012, the following have been certified as organic farms: 22 groups of food crop and horticulture farms such as rice/red rice, vegetables, flower...

  14. Sustainable management and conservation of biota in agricultural soils of the Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Senicovscaia, Irina

    2012-01-01

    In present research the ways and methods of the sustainable management and conservation of the soil biota in the modern agricultural ecosystems of the Republic of Moldova are considered. The database of invertebrates, microorganisms and enzymatic activities of different zonal soils in the long-term field experiments has been developed and constantly is updated with a view to the operative evaluation of the degradation processes and ecological effectiveness of the land management. The current ...

  15. Solutions From Above : Using Rooftop Agriculture to Move Cities Towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Nina; Foss, Joshua; Quesnel, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Cities present many opportunities to improve socio-ecological sustainability through efficiencies of scale and access to resources and services. These benefits are often compromised by rapidly increasing urban populations demanding energy, water, resources and food that are sourced, produced and transported from rural areas in unsustainable ways. A systems level approach to understanding the complex challenges cities face is required to strategically plan for the future. Rooftop agriculture i...

  16. The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture. PMID:23305424

  17. CONSTRUCTING SOCIOTECHNICAL TRANSITIONS TOWARD SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: LESSONS FROM ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Flávia Charão; Dal Soglio, Fábio Kessler; Ploeg, Jan Douwe Van Der

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of knowledge generation and ‘novelty production' into new social arrangements within a sociotechnical transition scenario. The purpose is to contribute to the debate about convergences between creativity, learning and collective action for enhancing the sustainability into agriculture. By raising a Multilevel, Multi-actor and Multi-aspect analytic framework, built with elements from Multilevel Perspective and Actor Oriented Approach, we have examined emerging ‘...

  18. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to f...

  19. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yan-bing

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher soc...

  20. Farmers’ Sustainable Agriculture Perception in the Vietnam Uplands: the Case of Banana Farmers in Quang Tri Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Thanh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Upland farmers in Vietnam are associated with the lowest income and face serious issues of natural resources degradation and environmental pollution because of poor agricultural practices. To persuade the upland farmers to adopt sustainable practices, it is vital first to assess their perception of sustainable agriculture. This study aimed to measure banana farmers’ perception towards sustainable agriculture and its determinants in the Vietnam uplands based on a case study in Quang Tri province. Stratified sample technique was used to randomly select 300 respondents from 2 upland districts of Quang Tri. The primary data were gathered by using a structured questionnaire with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.84. The results showed that the majority (84.7% of the farmers had low to mode rate perceptions of sustainable agriculture. Farmers had positive perceptions towards sustainable agriculture in issues related to protection of agricultural resources, negative effects of agrochemicals on human health and the environment, input application, crop rotation, product consumption and roles of farmer groups; whereas, they had moderate perceptions about issues related to production profits, plant residue use and modern technology application. In addition, the study revealed that agricultural programs on TV, education, ethnic group, economic status and credit use were the factors that affected farmers’ sustainable agriculture perceptions.

  1. Design of a Household Concept Motivating Sustainable Consumption Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Fredrik; Bylund, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In common households today the awareness of the electricity, water and waste consumption are rather low. This generates a behavior that conicts with the existing goals of sustainable living. Together with Stockholm City and other companies The Interactive Institute is working with a project called Stockholm Royal Seaport, where the goal is to implement a solution for how smart grids and visualizations in the household could motivate a change of this behavior. This master thesis examines how t...

  2. Sustainability: Teaching an Interdisciplinary Threshold Concept through Traditional Lecture and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levintova, Ekaterina M.; Mueller, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties in teaching global sustainability in the introductory political science classes is the different emphases placed on this concept and the absence of the consensus on where the overall balance between environmental protection, economic development, and social justice should reside. Like many fuzzy concepts with which students…

  3. IAHE Hydrogen Civilization Conception for the Humankind Sustainable Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are generalized of a novel Hydrogen Civilization (HyCi-) conception of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy. The HyCi-Conception states that at this rigorous, severe historical period the humankind still has a real possibility to save the biosphere and makes living out of humanity be possible and real process. The above objective can be achieved by the only way, the way of advantageous all-planetary work along the direction of ecologically clean vector 'Hydrogen energy → Hydrogen economy → Hydrogen civilization'. The HyCi-Conception includes three constituent, mutually conditioned parts: industrially-ecological, humanitarian-cultural and geopolitical-internationally legislative ones. Legislative-economical mechanism of transition to hydrogen civilization is formulated, and the most important possible stages of HyCi-transition are indicated and discussed. (authors)

  4. USE OF THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naumov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the concept of sustainable development in the management of complex technological systems has been revealed. The basic approaches to the definition of sustainable development indicators have been described. The reasonability of use of the concept of sustainable development in transport and forwarding enterprises management has been shown. The system of indicators for evaluation of the freight forwarding enterprises sustainable development has been proposed. The mentioned system of indicators allows to consider the main results of freight forwarders functioning as the elements of the macro logistics system of the transportation services market. This system of indicators cold be defined as a basic tool for forming the strategies of freight forwarders sustainable development.

  5. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  6. The Cradle to Cradle concept - is it always sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Strandesen, Maria

    conflicts of the C2C concept relating to: 1) 100% closed loop recycling is not thermodynamically practical 2) addition of biological nutrients to the environment may result in loss of biodiversity and 3) even an ideal C2C society will experience resource scarcity and loss of biodiversity as a result of...

  7. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pekka Peura; Patrik Sjöholm

    2015-01-01

    This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE) and Distributed Energy (DE) including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable ener...

  8. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area. PMID

  9. Sustainability of energy crops. Four papers by the Centre for Agriculture and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1994 and 1996 CLM developed a method for assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of producing and using energy from agricultural and forest biomass. The method has much in common with environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). CLM has also co-ordinated a concerted action called 'Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'. LCA is at present the best available instrument for assessing the ecological sustainability of energy crops. CLM focused on three topics disseminating the results of the concerted action; updating the work on bioethanol, and proposals for new financial instruments. The results are presented in this report. First, the results from the concerted action and work carried out by CLM were disseminated. Papers were presented at the international conference on 'Implementation of solid biofuels for carbon dioxide mitigation', 29-30 September 1997, Uppsala, Sweden, and at the international workshop on 'Environmental aspects of energy crop production', 9-10 October 1997, Brasimone, Italy. In addition, a paper was written on the need to co-ordinate policy options to stimulate the production and use of energy crops from an energy, agricultural and environmental point of view. Second, a study on bioethanol was carried out in which data obtained elsewhere on the use of bioethanol as a transport fuel were revised and updated. The sustainability of bioethanol production from sugar beet was compared with that of bioethanol from winter wheat. Using bioethanol from sugar beet replaces more fossil energy than bioethanol from winter wheat. For both crops, the costs per ton avoided CO2 decrease over time to 2010, but are still higher than electricity routes. The third action was the development of proposals for new financial instruments to stimulate energy production from biomass in the agricultural and forestry sector. This proposal was presented at the ALTENER Seminar on 'Financial incentives for

  10. Integration of the concepts of sustainability into teaching at post-secondary institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara Allison

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incorporation of the concepts of sustainability into teaching at two post-secondary public education residential institutions, Northern Arizona University (NAU) and the University of South Carolina (USC). A total of 17 faculty members, six administrators, and 31 students were interviewed in the study. An individual case record for each participating institution was developed. The two case records were then qualitatively cross-case analyzed to derive crosscutting themes and patterns at the two participating institutions. Based on the findings of this study, several major themes emerged across the two post-secondary public institutions. Sustainability was consistently viewed by faculty members, administrators, and students as a very broad term. While faculty members and administrators differentiated between the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability, students commonly associated sustainability more narrowly with an ecological meaning. Several common factors that influenced faculty members' and administrators' understanding of sustainability included literature, campus-wide training, personal influences, and professional networking. Common methods used by faculty to incorporate the concepts of sustainability into teaching included assigned readings, class discussions, and class projects. Key benefits of incorporating the concepts of sustainability into teaching included increased student awareness, collaboration, vision development, and social implications, while key challenges included time, support, assessment, student understanding, and more realistic classroom experiences. Key driving forces for faculty members and administrators for incorporating the concepts of sustainability into teaching were the initiatives specifically developed at the institutions. Based on the common themes at the two institutions studied, it is recommended that post-secondary institutions desiring to deploy the concepts

  11. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment...... investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more...... (LCA) methods. The different LCA based methodologies consider different environmental exchanges and are often rather complex.In this context, the authors raise the question, whether a simplified LCA method which is only based on energy considerations can be used as a tool for quick overviews. This is...

  12. Flexible Ridesharing New Opportunities and Service Concepts for Sustainable Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Handke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Individual mobility is one of the most important needs of modern society and an important link between private, public and economic life. In contrast, transport also entails severe environmental and social burdens, foiling current efforts for sustainable development. As the main source of CO2 emissions, transport is a prominent driver for climate change, and individual car traffic is responsible for nearly a third of the total energy consumption. However, we have to consider that many commuters feel indeed very dependent on their car. Here, ridesharing promises to contribute to environmental protection, while still offering individual mobility. Although ridesharing options have been discussed since many years, internet and smartphones provide completeley new opportunities to find ridesharing partners today. Thus, this book deals with current efforts on implementing flexible internet- and phone-based ridesharing services. With a main focus on the users‘ perspective, their demands and acceptance limits, we ai...

  13. Interactive Design of Farm Conversion : linking Agricultural Research and Farmer Learning for Sustainable Small Scale Horticulture Production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  14. An Introspective view of Sustainable Cohousing with The Malaysian Housing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi Norhaslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development strategies are becoming demanded in assisting in wealth distribution and improving living conditions for mankind. A sustained community is one of the sustainable development agendas that encourage community involvement and participation in contributing to sustainability. Moreover, with the rapid population growth, especially in urban cities as the proportion of urban dwellers will reach two-thirds of the world population, this will lead to several problems including the social life changing intensely. Sustainable Cohousing is one of the suggested answers for an innovative form of neighbourly accommodation. Generally, Cohousing is formed by a group of people who are committed to living as a community and who actively participate in the design and operation to shape their own neighbourhood. Through this concept, the community can decide how they can implement sustainability principles in terms of social, economical and environmental terms in their neighbourhood. Therefore, it is important to bring back the sense of togetherness amongst the people and improve their social wellbeing through an effective neighbourhood. The objective of this study is to isolate the basic concept of Cohousing and to identify the conceptual framework of Sustainable Cohousing that may apply to improving the sustainable living in Malaysia. The research methodology was through identifying and reviewing the issues in existing literature on cohousing chosen from various dimensions, such as principles and elements, sustainable value, development model and so on, which can be suited with the Malaysian culture. The findings of this research are useful for property development practitioners and policy makers in promoting sustainability through the new concept of modern housing.

  15. Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application

  16. Community Essay: Seeking a dialogue: a targeted technology for sustainable agricultural systems in the American Corn Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Christianson; John Tyndall

    2011-01-01

    This Community Essay aims to start a dialogue on the role of targeted environmental technologies in “sustainable agriculture.” Using the new water-quality technology of denitrification bioreactors as a specific example, we focus on the question: are edge-of-field technologies such as bioreactors simply band-aid approaches to sustainable agriculture? Or can they be part of a comprehensive paradigm shift? Denitrification bioreactors are a novel approach for reducing the amount of nitrate in on-...

  17. A Review of Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post independence period, the most important challenge in India has been to produce enough food for the growing population. Hence, high-yielding varieties are being used with infusion of irrigation water, fertilizers, or pesticides. This combination of high-yielding production technology has helped the country develop a food surplus as well as contributing to concerns of soil health, environmental pollution, pesticide toxicity, and sustainability of agricultural production. Scientists and policy planners are, therefore, reassessing agricultural practices which relied more on biological inputs rather than heavy usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Organic farming can provide quality food without adversely affecting the soil’s health and the environment; however, a concern is whether large-scale organic farming will produce enough food for India’s large population. Certified organic products including all varieties of food products including basmati rice, pulses, honey, tea, spices, coffee, oilseeds, fruits, cereals, herbal medicines, and their value-added products are produced in India. Non edible organic products include cotton, garments, cosmetics, functional food products, body care products, and similar products. The production of these organic crops and products is reviewed with regard to sustainable agriculture in northern India.

  18. Searching on a Model for Sustainable Agricultural Higher Education Center (SAHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has used a mixed methodology with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study population included three groups; the post-graduate students, professors and academic staff at two universities, Khouzestan Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University and Bu-Ali Sina University. For collecting quantitative data among 320 students, 175 were selected using random sampling and based on the Morgan table. In order to collect qualitative data, 41 professors and academic staff of the two universities were selected based on a criterion purposeful sampling. Gathering tool in quantitative part was a questionnaire including three-parts. The questionnaire's reliability was tested by Cronbach's Alpha technique and the total mean reliability of scales was 84% (α=0.84. For collecting qualitative data, semi-structured interviews were used. A summarized content analysis was used in order to analyze the interviews' data. Quantitative data analysis was conducted in two parts: descriptive and analytical. Results showed that a sustainable agricultural higher education needs a series of factors, characteristics and conditions. These factors at economic, social, cultural, and environmental dimensions include: financial and credit, employment and entrepreneurship, the agricultural productivity, social issues, building culture, and environmental awareness. Results also indicated that a sustainable university should address four elements of education, research, management and planning, and outreach programs in a pool of two-way communication between these elements and the real needs of society and environment.

  19. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  20. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM BASED ON RAMBUTAN TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN DRY LAND

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Bachrul; Jayadi, Muhammad; Ahmad, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    South Sulawesi has a dry land area of 1.802.510 hectares, which is scattered in several districts. To create bright prospects for agriculture in dry land, the concept of integrated farming can be applied. One of the integrated farming system that can be applied in dryland is hedgrow farming systems with livestock combination. This research aims to develop an integrated farming system based on rambutan as one of the business that can increase revenue and continuity of production (productivity)...

  1. The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Haumaier, Ludwig; Guggenberger, Georg; Zech, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Many soils of the lowland humid tropics are thought to be too infertile to support sustainable agriculture. However, there is strong evidence that permanent or semi-permanent agriculture can itself create sustainably fertile soils known as 'Terra Preta' soils. These soils not only contain higher concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium, but also greater amounts of stable soil organic matter. Frequent findings of charcoal and highly aromatic humic substances suggest that residues of incomplete combustion of organic material (black carbon) are a key factor in the persistence of soil organic matter in these soils. Our investigations showed that 'Terra Preta' soils contained up to 70 times more black carbon than the surrounding soils. Due to its polycyclic aromatic structure, black carbon is chemically and microbially stable and persists in the environment over centuries. Oxidation during this time produces carboxylic groups on the edges of the aromatic backbone, which increases its nutrient-holding capacity. We conclude that black carbon can act as a significant carbon sink and is a key factor for sustainable and fertile soils, especially in the humid tropics.

  2. A Need for Education in Water Sustainability in the Agricultural Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study draws upon the definition of water sustainability from the National Water Research Institute as the continual supply of clean water for human uses and for other living beings without compromising the water welfare of future generations. Currently, the greatest consumer of water resources worldwide is irrigation. The move from small-scale, family farms towards corporately owned and market driven, mass scale operations have drastically increased corn production and large-scale factory hog farming in the American Midwest—and the water quality related costs associated with this shift are well-documented. In the heart of the corn belt, the state of Iowa has dealt with issues over the past two decades ranging from flooding of historic proportions, to yield destroying droughts. Most recently, the state's water quality is intensely scrutinized due to nutrient levels higher than almost anywhere else in the world. While the changed agricultural landscape is ultimately responsible for these environmental costs, they can be mitigated if the farmers adopt practices that support water sustainability. However, many Iowa farmers have yet to embrace these necessary practices because of a lack of proper education in this context. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore how water sustainability is being conceptualized within the agricultural realm, and ultimately, how the issues are being communicated and understood within various subgroups in Iowa, such as the farmers, the college students, and the general public.

  3. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  4. Transition to Sustainable Energy Neutral Districts before 2050. Innovative Concepts and Pilots for the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Epema, T. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Willems, E.M.M. [Cauberg-Huygen Consulting Engineers, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch project 'Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development' focuses on the transition to sustainable, energy neutral districts in 2050, particularly in energy concepts and decision processes. The main objective of the technical research is to develop four to six innovative energy concepts for 2050 for the four Dutch cities of Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen and Tilburg, as well as the roadmap for realising this target. Firstly, 14 variations of six general energy concepts have been developed and calculations conducted on the energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 by means of an Excel model designed for this purpose. Three concepts are based on the idea of an energy hub (smart district heating, cooling and electricity networks, in which generation, storage, conversion and exchange of energy are all incorporated): the geo hub (using waste heat and/or geothermal energy), the bio hub (using waste heat and/or biomass) and the solar hub (using only solar energy). The fourth concept is the so-called all-electric concept, based predominantly on heat pumps, PV and conversion of high temperature heat from vacuum collectors to electricity. The fifth concept uses only conventional technologies that have been applied since the second half of the previous century, and the sixth one uses only hydrogen. Calculations show that by implementing the hub concepts, the energy neutrality in 2050 ranges from 130 % (solar hubs) to 164% (geo hubs), excluding personal transport within the district. With the all-electric concept, an energy neutrality of 157% can be reached. Hydrogen only and Conventional concepts perform worse, but nevertheless reach an energy neutrality of around 115% in 2050. The energy neutrality shows the extent to which a district, in which the given concept is implemented, can supply itself with sustainable energy generated within the boundaries of that district. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts

  5. URBAN AGRICULTURE: A STRATEGY TO SUSTAIN URBAN ENVIRONMENT (CASE STUDY: QAZVIN CITY)

    OpenAIRE

    REZAEI QALEH, Marzieh; MEDI, Hossein; SHEYBANI, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Urbanization and gardening, due to the hot and dry weather in Iran, always have been coordinated and interconnected trends. The combination of these two trends could create the concept of Iranian sustainable city. These cities were a combination of gardens and farms in the midst of urban context that offered favorable environmental conditions for citizens and natural urban organs and provided coordination with difficult climate conditions and water supply shortages. In fact, these c...

  6. Innovative type of Reproduction of Agriculture of the Komi Republic - the Basis of its Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The necessity of transition of agriculture to sustainability is complicated by the necessity to increase production of local environmentally safe food, unemployment indigenous growth of living standards of the peasant community, stable and balanced nature management. Due to the difficult economic conditions of natural and agricultural development for the Komi Republic principle of food self-sufficiency is unacceptable, but the production of basic food products, for which favorable there are conditions, is objective necessity in the short term. Priority directions of development of the agricultural and fisheries sectors: the production of socially significant food products - potatoes, vegetables of the local range, milk, fresh meat, eggs, dietary, preservation and development of traditional industries, and collecting wild mushrooms and berries and its processing. Off forecast in the northern agricultural areas three scenarios selected: a base (slow), optimistic and pessimistic. For all versions of the forecast to be considered systemic crisis of the agricultural sector of the North is ongoing. Functioning of on sector under a particular scenario will depend on the factors and conditions that affect the stability of the agricultural enterprises and farms. At the base, especially under unfavorable conditions, negative external factors and conditions will prevail. The baseline scenario of recent years assumes the maintenance of the rate of change indicators of agriculture, of the levels of state industry conditions of interbranch exchange in agriculture, of access to economic entities in the financial markets, of the pricing and taxation policies, of relatively low investment opportunities to upgrade production capacity. In this embodiment the growth of agricultural production and its reduction will occur in suburban (peripheral areas). The optimistic scenario will be characterized by protectionist policies of the state, increase investment to improve soil fertility

  7. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  8. Sustainability Learning”: An Introduction to the Concept and Its Motivational Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Hansmann

    2010-01-01

    This theoretical paper clarifies the concept of sustainability learning and specifically analyzes motivational aspects. Mastering the challenges of sustainability requires individual learning as well as learning processes on different levels of human systems ranging from groups and organizations to human societies, and mankind as a whole. Learning processes of individuals play a fundamental role, since individuals constitute and shape the larger social aggregates. Learning processes on the le...

  9. Supermaterials. Inspiring sustainable materials for the concept elevator car of the 2020.

    OpenAIRE

    Takala, Kaisa

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a research of sustainable materials that could be used in elevator car design in near future. Thesis objective is to provide visionary concept, which functions as an inspiring tool for KONE. The theory part of the thesis is divided into three parts. First part presents forecasts of current megatrends and visions made by different organizations how to create sustainable world. In the second part of the thesis is mapped how construction and building industries and cities are ...

  10. The beginnings of prehistoric agriculture in the Russian Far East: Current evidence and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav V. Kuzmin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation with studies of prehistoric plant cultivation in the Russian Far East is presented. A critical analysis of existing concepts and models of the oldest agriculture in this region is also included. Reliable data allows us to conclude that humans in the southern Russian Far East (Primorye Province began to cultivate millet at c. 4700–4600 BP (c. 3600–3400 calBC in the context of the early Zaisanovka cultural complex of the Late Neolithic. The most probable source area for prehistoric agriculture in the Russian Far East was neighbouring Northeast China (Manchuria.

  11. Interactions between Niche and Regime: An Analysis of Learning and Innovation Networks for Sustainable Agriculture across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Julie; Maye, Damian; Kirwan, James; Curry, Nigel; Kubinakova, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reveal, and contribute to an understanding of, the processes that connect learning and innovation networks in sustainable agriculture to elements of the mainstream agricultural regime. Drawing on the innovations and transition literature, the paper frames the analysis around niche-regime interaction using the notion of…

  12. The Battle Between "Good" and "Better": a Strategic Marketing Perspective on Codes of Conduct for Sustainable Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Code-of-conduct organizations (CCOs) for sustainable agriculture, such as Fair Trade and Eurep-Gap, are rapidly changing the face of agribusiness. Yet, there is little understanding of how these organizations contribute to sustainability. This study therefore presents a case study of the strategies

  13. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  14. Research about the understanding of the concept of sustainability from the perspective of farmers and consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Courvoisier, Numa

    2012-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has been increasingly used during the last two decades in response to the realization of the issues the food system is facing. If this concept sounds like a key for solving those issues, there is a wide diversity of interpretations of the idea behind the term. Obviously, no entity within the system would claim to be “unsustainable”. As a consequence, there is a confusion regarding what is sustainable, and what is not. The goal of this research is to understand...

  15. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  16. Next-Generation Bio-Products Sowing the Seeds of Success for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have recently been recognized as meta-organisms due to a close symbiotic relationship with their microbiome. Comparable to humans and other eukaryotic hosts, plants also harbor a “second genome” that fulfills important host functions. These advances were driven by both “omics”-technologies guided by next-generation sequencing and microscopic insights. Additionally, these new results influence applied fields such as biocontrol and stress protection in agriculture, and new tools may impact (i the detection of new bio-resources for biocontrol and plant growth promotion, (ii the optimization of fermentation and formulation processes for biologicals, (iii stabilization of the biocontrol effect under field conditions, and (iv risk assessment studies for biotechnological applications. Examples are presented and discussed for the fields mentioned above, and next-generation bio-products were found as a sustainable alternative for agriculture.

  17. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various

  18. Sustainable Agriculture- Mandatory Approach for Regional and National Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Sorcaru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a considerable agricultural potential, Tecuci Plain being one of the nationalagricultural regions with high potential, which can generate economic growth at regional and alsonational level.The study main objective is to analyze thedynamics of the main crops, livestock andcrop production in the region, for each administrative unit, between 1970-2011 trying to determinethe major trends and patterns, identifying the favorable and restriction factors and also thepossibilities of thedevelopment of primary economic activities by practicing a sustainableagriculture.The research usedthe data obtainedfrom the Bucharest National Instituteof Statistics,but also fromlocal institutions(Galati&VasluiCounty Department of StatisticsandGalati&VasluiDepartment for Agriculture andRural Development. We also used the cartographic method in orderto highlight the dynamics of the agricultural activities whichcan beanytimeanalyzed bythelocalauthoritiesdirectlyresponsible forthe evolution ofthe region′sagriculturein the last twodecades.The results reflected significantagriculturaldisparities betweenthe ruraladministrativeunitsfromthecentreof theregion(nearTecuci City and the ones from north and south,disparitieswhich webelieveareclosely related totheimplementationof sustainable agriculture.

  19. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  20. Sustainable Agricultural Model of High Output, Low Input and Less Pollution in Paddy Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Long-fei; HUANG Yi-bin; WENG Bo-qi; LIU Zhong-zhu; LIU Xia-shi

    2001-01-01

    A model of sustainable agriculture of "high output, low input and less pollution" (HLL model)in paddy (Oryza L. )fields has been developed. About 10 - 13t/ha of rice and 3 - 4t/ha of fish were harvested by adopting the comprehensive technical system. The amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide decreased by about 50%, thus greatly controlled the environmental pollution, and simultaneously decreased the methane emission. It was concluded that these comprehensive techniques for this model should be popularized.

  1. INTENSIFIED LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Barry

    1998-01-01

    If the viability and sustainability of smallholder agriculture is to be maintained and food security is to be enhanced in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), intensified, market-oriented livestock production needs to be promoted. This paper presents empirical evidence to support this contention. Twenty-five years ago there were half as many people in SSA as there are today and population is projected to increase by 2.6 times to 1,294 million in 2050. Growing population pressure on land in combination w...

  2. Model describes sustainable long-term recycling of saline agricultural drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Letey, John; Birkle, David E.; Jury, William A.; Kan, Iddo

    2003-01-01

    Due to high water tables, the western San Joaquin Valley is prone to high salinity in drainage water, which requires appropriate manage-ment and disposal in order to sustain agricultural productivity. We developed a model that describes a farming system for irrigating a salt-tolerant crop with high-salinity drainage water from a salt-sensitive crop. The farming system would include the collection of subsurface drainage water from the salt-sensitive crop, which would then be combined with good...

  3. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Adiprasetyo; Sukisno Sukisno; Nanik Setyowati; Sempurna Ginting; Merakati Handajaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1) find out if sustaina...

  4. Teaching and Learning in sustainable agriculture curricula: A case study of faculty work as learning at a land grant university

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jennifer Louise

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences called for a dynamic approach to teaching and learning in colleges of agriculture. In response, innovative faculty at colleges and universities are implementing new frameworks for undergraduate education in the agricultural sciences. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore the experience of faculty teaching and learning in sustainable agriculture education curricula at a land grant university. A qualitative research methodology employi...

  5. Conservation agriculture, a sustainable production alternative for the (sub)tropical highlands : toward an integrated evaluation of the system

    OpenAIRE

    Govaerts, Bram

    2007-01-01

    (Sub)tropical highlands of the world are densely populated and intensively cropped. Agricultural sustainability problems resulting from soil erosion and fertility decline have arisen throughout this agro-ecological zone. Major changes are needed in land, livestock and water management in line with traditional lifestyles and customs to remedy the agricultural system. Can conservation agriculture, based on three basic principles (1) minimal soil movement, (2) retention of rational amounts of cr...

  6. Implementation of Sustainable Tourism Concept by the Tourists Visiting National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta SZYMAŃSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze tourists’ attitudes and behavior in the national parks, in terms of the principles and criteria of sustainable tourism. The problem is the lack of sustainable behavior of tourists visiting the national parks.The article consists of four basic parts. The idea of sustainable tourism as a “subsystem” of sustainable development and the theoretical model of sustainable tourist are the main goals and principles described in the first part. The second part contains a presentation of the place of research and a methodology of survey performed in 2009 and 2010 on a group of 769 tourists that visited the national parks in northeastern Poland. In the last two parts, the tourist model consistent with the concept of sustainable tourism is compared with the market realities observed in the course of the empirical survey performed in the national parks. The results show that the concept of sustainable tourism is not sufficiently understood by tourists. Thus, the rules of this form of tourism are not properly observed by them. This requires, above all, an educational effort carried out over a number of years.

  7. Productivity ranges of sustainable biomass potentials from non-agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Vivian; Fuss, Sabine; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Weddige, Ulf; Beringer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Land is under pressure from a number of demands, including the need for increased supplies of bioenergy. While bioenergy is an important ingredient in many pathways compatible with reaching the 2 °C target, areas where cultivation of the biomass feedstock would be most productive appear to co-host other important ecosystems services. We categorize global geo-data on land availability into productivity deciles, and provide a geographically explicit assessment of potentials that are concurrent with EU sustainability criteria. The deciles unambiguously classify the global productivity range of potential land currently not in agricultural production for biomass cultivation. Results show that 53 exajoule (EJ) sustainable biomass potential are available from 167 million hectares (Mha) with a productivity above 10 tons of dry matter per hectare and year (tD Mha‑1 a‑1), while additional 33 EJ are available on 264 Mha with yields between 4 and 10 tD M ha‑1 a‑1: some regions lose less of their highly productive potentials to sustainability concerns than others and regional contributions to bioenergy potentials shift when less productive land is considered. Challenges to limit developments to the exploitation of sustainable potentials arise in Latin America, Africa and Developing Asia, while new opportunities emerge for Transition Economies and OECD countries to cultivate marginal land.

  8. Challenges and Alternatives to Sustainable Management of Agriculture and Pastoral Ecosystems in Asian Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is no question that human must produce additional 70% food to feed the new 2.2 billion of people on the planet by 2050, but the question is where to grow the additional food. The demand for the additional food lies not only in producing the basic resources needed to sustain a healthy lifestyle, but also from a changing diet, especially in rapidly developing countries in the dryland regions around the world. It is forecast that this demand for meat will require an additional 0.2 billion tons per year by 2050, which is almost a doubling of present meat consumption. These new demands create mounting pressures on agriculture and pastoral ecosystems and the reported trajectory of warmer and drier climate in the future increases uncertainties in food security, adding further stresses to the already stressed nations in the Asian dryland belt. Different approaches are being either proposed or practiced in the region but the question is whether or not the current practices are sustainable or optimal in addressing the emerging issues. Given the complexity and interplay among the food, water and energy, what are alternatives to ensure a sustainable trajectory of regional development to meet the new food demand? This presentation reviews existing practices and proposes alternative solutions, by specifically examining the trade-offs between different ecosystem services that drylands in Asian may provide. Preliminary analysis suggested that the current trajectory of meat and milk production is likely not on a sustainable pathway.

  9. SMALL FARMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: IS SMALL MORE SUSTAINABLE?

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Gerard E.; Ikerd, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A new, post-industrial, paradigm for agriculture is emerging under the concept of sustainable agriculture. The sustainability paradigm has emerged to solve problems created by the industrial model, primarily environmental pollution and resource base degradation. The role of farm size in this transformation to a more sustainable agriculture is the issue addressed. Using a descriptive approach, and relying on a survey of the literature including emerging paradigms and observations, we conclude ...

  10. Sustainable Development and Sustainability: Landscape Approach as a Practical Interpretation of Principles and Implementation Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per; Elbakidze, Marine; Stryamets, Natalya; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2011-01-01

    The situation for governors and managers of natural resources has increased in complexity. Previously it was enough to sustain the yields of wood, food and energy. Today, maintenance of ecosystem services, conservation of biodiversity, rural development and human wellbeing are new additional objectives. At the same time there are new risks and uncertainties linked to climate change, economic globalisation, energy security and water supply. Consequently, adaptive and holistic research, governa...

  11. Between activism and science : grassroots concepts for sustainability coined by Environmental Justice Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Alier, Joan; Anguelovski, Isabelle; Bond, Patrick; Del Bene, Daniela; Demaria, Federico; Gerber, Julien-Francois; Greyl, Lucie; Haas, Willi; Healy, Hali; Marín-Burgos, Victoria; Ojo, Godwin; Porto, Marcelo; Rijnhout, Leida; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz; Spangenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In their own battles and strategy meetings since the early 1980s, EJOs (environmental justice organizations) and their networks have introduced several concepts to political ecology that have also been taken up by academics and policy makers. In this paper, we explain the contexts in which such notions have arisen, providing definitions of a wide array of concepts and slogans related to environmental inequities and sustainability, and explore the connections and relations between them. These ...

  12. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  13. Application of Linear and Non-linear Programming Model to Assess the Sustainability of Water Resources in Agricultural Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Abolghasem Mortazavi; Reza Hezareh; Sina Ahmadi Kaliji; Samira Shayan Mehr

    2014-01-01

    Water resources sustainability is one of the major issues in the agricultural sustainability. In this study sustainability of water resources has been investigated by use of linear and non-linear models in six models based on optimal utilization of water resources in the north parts farms of Iran because of incorrect use of agricultural water resources, from 2011 to 2012. Also “gross margin per a unit of water consumption†and “employment per a unit of water consumption†are used as ind...

  14. Renewable energy for sustainable urban development: Redefining the concept of energisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of energisation. The chronological development of this concept is investigated by means of a literature review, and a subsequent critique is offered of current definitions and usage of the concept. Building upon these first insights, two planned cases of energisation in post-apartheid South Africa are contrasted to an unplanned one: they are the national electrification programme, the integrated energy centres initiative, and a wood fuelled local economy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town's biggest township. Especially the latter case, based on original data collection by the authors, provides a new understanding of specific elements affecting energisation. Finally, a new and detailed definition of the concept of sustainable energisation is developed by systematically reiterating three key elements: the target group, the concept of energy services, and sustainable development.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL-BASED ROAD TRANSPORT DEICING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow and ice removal on highways and public streets is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure. The issues to be addressed in selecting suitable deicing and anti-icing materials include cost, effectiveness, and damage to the pavement, vehicles and the environment. Considerable research has been carried out in recent years to develop alternative deicers with better performance and cost effectiveness. Among the developed deicer materials are agricultural based deicers that are considered to be sustainable and environmentally-beneficial materials. Iowa is one of the States that is rich in agricultural renewable resources, some of which are being processed for applications such as fuel. Any industrial process, including that of converting corn to ethanol or soy to bio-diesel, is likely to have a number of by-products generated. Rather than face disposal issues for these by-products, it would be desirable to find those that, with a minimum of additional processing, can be used as a deicing compound, either alone, or in combination with products currently in use. Currently, a number of agricultural based deicer materials have been developed or are still under development. However, little information is known about the actual manufacturing/refining process since most of the developed materials are all proprietary products (patented or commercial. Furthermore, no standard test specifying agricultural-based deicer is available. The study described in this paper focuses on the development of an improved agricultural based deicing product. The objective of this study was to evaluate deicer materials including traditional and alternative deicer materials on road skid resistance which is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure.

  16. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes: A Spatially Explicit Approach to Support Sustainable Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Forouzangohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km2 in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation. We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  17. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability. PMID:27136521

  18. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  19. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  20. Modernisation of Public Buildings in Polish Towns and the Concept of Sustainable Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the scale of energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Polish towns as representative of sustainable building. The study area is investigated from the perspective of challenges arising from the current policy in the EU. The article indicates that, given the age of public buildings in Poland, the best way to implement the concept of sustainable building is to improve their present stock. The modernisation of public buildings is discussed in terms of project location, project value, sources of funding (including EU funds, and the use of buildings undergoing modernisation. According to the research findings, the implementation of the sustainable building concept is determined by both, exogenous factors (EU directives and domestic laws, etc. and endogenous ones (e.g. human resources and their quality

  1. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  2. Figuring rural development: concepts and cases of land use, sustainability and integrative indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbes, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable economic development is essential for hundreds of millions of poor households in rural areas. This book represents a merger of environmental science and rural development economics. It elucidates the linkage between rational choice theory and theories on land use change. It builds a quantitative framework to connect the environmental method of Material Flow Analysis to basic issues of rural development such as agricultural intensification and food security. And finally, it develop...

  3. Integrating agricultural and environmental sustainability across generations: the never-ending quest for the golden fleece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Janssens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic agricultural sustainability strongly depends on a reliable energy resource that is capable of maintaining order in an open (agro-eco- system at the expense of the order of the environment. In this article, the integrative and complex challenges of combining efficient farming with environmental upgrading are analysed. Farming should be practiced within an appropriate, though moving agro-climax, the impact of which has become more important than that of the remaining natural ecosystems. Efficient use of resources and energy is not only important during the concentration phase of farming, but even more important during the dilution phase. The best way of improving the eco-capacity of farming systems is to increase the vitality of the agrosphere i.e. assimilation capacity of abiotic inputs necessary for crop intensification. This will require hands-on guidelines for the farmer amongst which integrated plant nutrition and the integration of organic and inorganic fertilisation will allow both sustainable and intensive production systems. The intergenerational adoption of the latter will be proof of their sustainable character.

  4. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  5. Key factors for achieving profitable biogas production from agricultural waste and sustainable biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Biswas, Rajib;

    2013-01-01

    Based on numerous investigations on increasing the biogas yield of manure, a new concept was developed to increase the economical operation of manure based biogas plants by combining up concentration of manure with a more specific treatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber fraction...... by implementing the treatment on the digested solid fraction. Catch crops have been identified as a sustainable co-substrate for biogas production with a high biogas potential. For exploiting this biomass for profitable biogas production, the biomass yield per hectare, harvest costs, TS concentration and specific...

  6. Emergy evaluation of agricultural sustainability of Northwest China before and after the grain-for-green policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China’s grain-for-green policy (GFGP) was implemented with the goal of improving ecological security. Consequently, agricultural energy and agrochemical inputs have been significantly increased to improve food security and to increase the income of farmers in the regions where the GFGP was implemented. In analysis of the sustainability of the agricultural system affected by the GFGP, it is essential to consider both economic profitability and environmental sustainability. Using Yanchi County as a case study area, this study used an emergy synthesis to examine the sustainability of the agricultural system before and after the GFGP in Northwest China. We found that the total emergy input and energy output of the agricultural system in the study area increased from 1991 to 2008; however, the sustainability of the system declined, and this decline was especially evident after the GFGP was launched in 2001. Increasing inputs of non-renewable purchased resources will not only reduce the effectiveness of the GFGP in Northwest China, but also hinder the implementation of the energy-saving and emission-reduction policy that China launched in 2005. We suggest that sustainable agricultural development in Northwest China should be based on effective use of renewable resources and development of a low-carbon agricultural economy. - Highlights: • The total emergy input and energy output of the study system increased from 1991 to 2008. • The change of each emergy index was more evident after the GFGP launched in 2001. • The increase in input of non-renewable purchased resources will gradually reduce the function of the GFGP in West China. • Agricultural development in West China should be based on organic agriculture

  7. Sustainability in Agricultural Mechanization: Assessment of a Combined Photovoltaic and Electric Multipurpose System for Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufic El Asmar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is dedicated to the assessment of the possibility of replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy as a source of power in modern agriculture. We examined the use of a completely sustainable agricultural mechanization system based on a renewable energy system and a battery powered, multi-purpose agricultural vehicle. This assessment is based on the RAMseS project, financed by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Program, which has led to the actual manufacturing of the system, at present being tested in Lebanon. In the present study, we assess the environmental and economic performance of the RAMseS system. We evaluate the external costs by means of a specific model that takes into account the life-cycle cost (LCC, economical indexes, and life-cycle emissions for the vehicle during its life span. The results are compared with those of a standard vehicle based on the internal combustion engine (ICEV. The results show that the RAMseS system can avoid the emission of about 23 ton of CO2equ per year. The life cycle cost (LCC assessment using MATLAB software shows that the LCC for the RAMseS vehicle and the ICEV are the same for a fuel unit price (pf of 1.45 €/L. Finally, we show that almost 52 % of the RAMseS LCC is due to the batteries of the electric vehicle. A 50% decrease in batteries unit cost would cause the LCC of two system to be the same at a fuel cost of 0.8 €/L. The final result is that the RAMseS system remains—at present— marginally more expensive than an equivalent system based on conventional fuels and internal combustion engines. Nevertheless, with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels, all electric agricultural mechanized system provide an alternative solution that is dependent only on renewable energy and recyclable resources.

  8. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  9. Barriers and opportunities in realising sustainable energy concepts--an analysis of two Swiss case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What assists and what hinders sustainable energy use in being put into effect? Two case studies of sustainable energy concepts--the Zurich Solarstromboerse, where electricity can be purchased that is produced by solar panels, and the Swiss CO2-law, a consensus oriented implementation of the Kyoto-protocol--were analysed in order to investigate this question. In both case studies the unfolding of the sustainable energy concepts is reconstructed as a process starting with an abstract idea moving to a concrete realisation. This process passes through a series of different social worlds and is, in turn, affected by them. These social worlds are e.g. those of the concerned scientists, the professional investors, energy suppliers or governmental agencies. The case studies reveal three neuralgic challenges that have to be met when a concept advances from idea to realisation through the social worlds: Firstly, the translation between social worlds changes the content of the idea. Secondly, the way each social world looks at things (socially) constructs best solutions to problems and hides others. Thirdly, the actual dynamics of the social world within which it is finally implemented must be adopted by the idea. In order to integrate these neuralgic points, scientists as well as other inventors have to retain responsibility for their sustainable energy ideas and are requested to follow them through the social worlds in order to critically survey and eventually influence their 'content in flux'

  10. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J. M.; Willem Erisman, Jan; de Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-02-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3-1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25-30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10-20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2-2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  11. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  12. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods. PMID:26196068

  13. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the adoption level of practices associated with more sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices. Additionally, the motivations for and barriers to the adoption of these practices by farmers are investigated. Data were collected throug...

  14. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    to nutrient losses to air and water. This paper discusses the sustainable recycling N resources in biosolids and biowastes in agriculture in Australia using specific recent research examples from Western Australia, including lime amended biosolids, alum sludge and dewatered biosolids cake, and from Tasmania, papermill sludge. The primary focus is the N fertiliser replacement value of different biosolids and biowaste types under different environmental conditions, and management issues relating to the sustainable recycling of N. Experimental work included field trials and soil incubation studies. The findings are compared with research findings conducted in different climatic regions and soil types across Australia (Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales) and internationally.

  15. Incorporating Sustainability and Green Design Concepts into Engineering and Technology Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radian G. Belu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human society is facing an uncertain future due to the present day unsustainable use of natural resources and the growing imbalance with our natural environment. Sustainability is an endeavour with uncertain outcomes requiring collaboration, teamwork, and abilities to work with respect and learn from other disciplines and professions, as well as with governments, local communities, political and civic organizations. The creation of a sustainable society is a complex and multi-stage endeavour that will dominate twenty first century.  Sustainability has four basic aspects: environment, technology, economy, and societal organization. Schools with undergraduate engineering or engineering technology programs are working to include sustainability and green design concepts into their curricula. Teaching sustainability and green design has increasingly become an essential feature of the present day engineering education. It applies to all of engineering, as all engineered systems interact with the environment in complex and important ways. Our project main goals are to provide the students with multiple and comprehensive exposures, to what it mean to have a sustainable mindset and to facilitate the development of the passion and the skills to integrate sustainable practices into engineering tools and methods. In this study we are describing our approaches to incorporating sustainability and green design into our undergraduate curricula and to list a variety of existing resources that can easily be adopted or adapted by our faculty for this purpose. Our approaches are: (1 redesigning existing courses through development of new curricular materials that still meet the objectives of the original course and (2 developing upper division elective courses that address specific topics related to sustainability, green design, green manufacturing and life-cycle assessment. 

  16. Information Surfaces in Systems Biology and Applications to Engineering Sustainable Agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Dashti, Hesam; Driver, James; Assadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology of plants offers myriad opportunities and many challenges in modeling. A number of technical challenges stem from paucity of computational methods for discovery of the most fundamental properties of complex dynamical systems. In systems engineering, eigen-mode analysis have proved to be a powerful approach. Following this philosophy, we introduce a new theory that has the benefits of eigen-mode analysis, while it allows investigation of complex dynamics prior to estimation of optimal scales and resolutions. Information Surfaces organizes the many intricate relationships among "eigen-modes" of gene networks at multiple scales and via an adaptable multi-resolution analytic approach that permits discovery of the appropriate scale and resolution for discovery of functions of genes in the model plant Arabidopsis. Applications are many, and some pertain developments of crops that sustainable agriculture requires.

  17. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  18. A Framework for Long-term Monitoring and Research for Agricultural Sustainability in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.; Locke, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the United States and has recently become a member of the USDA-ARS Long-term Agricultural Research (LTAR) Network. As the hydrologic gateway to the Gulf of Mexico, the LMRB links agricultural practices and associated runoff and nutrient loads from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio basins with the ecology of the Gulf of Mexico. We review the major challenges for agricultural sustainability in the region and outline a long-term research program within the LTAR Network to address these challenges. Despite the humid climate of the region, water quantity and quality issues are integral to the sustainability of the region. The geography of water-use in the region, current research at plot- to watershed-scales, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to meet growing production demand will be displayed.

  19. Application of Linear and Non-linear Programming Model to Assess the Sustainability of Water Resources in Agricultural Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolghasem Mortazavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water resources sustainability is one of the major issues in the agricultural sustainability. In this study sustainability of water resources has been investigated by use of linear and non-linear models in six models based on optimal utilization of water resources in the north parts farms of Iran because of incorrect use of agricultural water resources, from 2011 to 2012. Also “gross margin per a unit of water consumption” and “employment per a unit of water consumption” are used as indicators for assessing the sustainability of cropping patterns. The results show that cropping pattern of fractional goal programming (FGP model has been near to current situation and has shown realistic conditions according to expertise and advantage of this area in cultivation of certain crops. So the FGP model has desirability in each of indicators than other five models.

  20. Planning support concept to implementation of sustainable parking development projects in ancient Mediterranean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Jajac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a planning support concept (PSC to implementation of sustainable parking development projects (SPDP in ancient Mediterranean cities. It is conceptualized by the logic of decision support systems and a multicriteria analysis approach. The purpose of the concept is to support setting of implementation priorities for subprojects (construction of new and/or improvement of existing parking within a SPDP. Analysing the existing and a planned state of parking within the city a goal tree is established. Subprojects are defined accordingly. Objectives from the last hierarchy level within the goal tree are used as criteria for assessment of defined subprojects. Representatives of stakeholders provided criteria weights by application of AHP and SAW methods. PROMETHEE II was used for priority ranking and PROMETHEE V ensured a definition of project’s implementation phases. The result of the presented concept is the implementation plan for such projects. The concept is tested on the city of Trogir.

  1. Water use efficiency for increased agricultural productivity, sustainability and competitiveness in the Philippines: Technologies and practices, issues and problems, and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2011-01-01

    This electronic presentation describes current issues in water use efficiency as it relates to sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Philippines. Technologies, recommendations, and relevancy to the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) are discussed.

  2. The Trofobiose Theory and organic agriculture: the active mobilization of nutrients and the use of rock powder as a tool for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner L. Polito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is to link some relevant concepts on the use of ecological agricultural practices to the production of food crops. In a special topic the Trofobiose Theory, as well as the principle of Active Dissolution of Rocks are considered as important tools in improving the sustainability of Organic, Biodynamic and Process Agricultures.O objetivo principal deste trabalho é estabelecer relação entre alguns conceitos relevantes sobre o uso de práticas agro-ecológicas na produção de alimentos. Em um tópico especial, a Teoria da Trofobiose bem como os princípios da Dissolução Ativa de Rochas são considerados como importantes ferramentas na implementação da sustentabilidade no processo de Agriculturas Orgânica e Biodinâmica.

  3. Subsidies and sustainable development. Case studies in the Flemish agricultural and housing policies; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Casestudies in het Vlaamse landbouw- en woonbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 2nd research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. Attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies. In the 1st paper the concept and method are discussed. The method was used for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 2e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Aandacht wordt besteed aan een toepassing van de methodologie om subsidies in kaart te brengen. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  4. Influence of sustainable management on aggregate stability and soil organic matter on agricultural soil of southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugan-Coronado, Alicia; Arcenegui, Victoria; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Gomez-Lucas, Ignacio; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Intensive agriculture has increased crop yields but also posed severe environmental problems. Unsustainable land management such as excessive tillage can lead to a loss of soil fertility and a drastic reduction in the aggregate stability and soil organic matter content. However sustainable agriculture can keep good crop yields with minimal impact on ecological factors conserving the soil quality and its ecosystem services. Sustainable agriculture management promotes the maintenance of soil organic matter levels providing plant nutrients through the microbial decomposition of organic materials. Also this management has a positive effect on soil structure with the improvement of stability of aggregates. The resistance of soil aggregates to the slaking and dispersive effects of water (aggregate stability) is important for maintaining the structure in arable soils. Our purpose was to investigate and compare the effects of sustainable agricultural practices versus intensive agriculture on aggregate stability and soil organic matter. Three agricultural areas are being monitored in the southern of Spain, two of them with citrus orchards (AL) and (FE) and one with grapevine(PA). In all of them two agricultural treatments are being developed, organic with no-tillage management(O) and inorganic fertilization with herbicide application and intensive tillage (I). The sustainable agricultural management (manure, no tillage and vegetation cover) contributed to the improve of soil conditions, increasing organic matter and aggregate stability. Meanwhile, herbicide treatment and intensive tillage with inorganic fertilization managements resulted in the decreasing of aggregate stability and low levels of soil organic carbon. Soil organic matter content is generally low in all unsustainable treatments plots and tends to decline in aggregate stability and soil physical condition. In both treatments the crop yield are comparable.

  5. Using fuzzy cognitive mapping to understand farmers' perception of sustainable agricultural practices for enhanced food security in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Gray, S.; Crow, S.; Shariq, L.; Tamang, Bishal B.

    2012-01-01

    With the world population having reached unprecedented levels, the need for improved food security and sustainable agricultural practices has become all the more pressing. This is especially relevant for subsistence farmers, such as those in the Mid-hill region of Nepal, who typically rely on crop yields for sustenance and have limited access to opportunities for income generation. Although promoting agricultural development in areas like the Mid-hill region has been a priority for NGOs and r...

  6. Community supported agriculture in urban settings. A way for better understanding and complementation of sustainability - a Norwegian experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Friis Pedersen, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Norway covers an abundant wilderness, only 3 % of the land are cultivated. Population is scarce many places of the country, but like trends elsewhere, there are a concentration towards more urban settings. Urban citizens take action for future sustainable development through producing some of their own food. Politics protect land resources for agriculture, but agricultural areas are still decreasing. The official goal of 15 % production and market shares of organic products in 2020 can stimul...

  7. Forestry activity in Portugal within the context of the European Union: a cluster in agricultural economics for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Forestry activities may be important complements to a farmer’s income within the context of agricultural economics, or autonomous production, with determining factors upon rural dynamics and sustainable development. Taking these ideas into account, the objective of this study was to analyze the importance of forestry for sustainability in Portugal, namely in rural regions, comparatively with the context verified across other countries in the European Union. For this, data from the Euros...

  8. Bringing the principles of Organic Agriculture fully into practice can make organic the mainstream approach to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, D; Luttikholt, L.

    2014-01-01

    The reality of the present world falls far short of the vision of a sustainable world: over-reliance on cheap, non-renewable energy, declining biodiversity, loss of fertile soils, rampant pollution, threatened water supplies, poverty and inequity. The Principles of Organic Agriculture encompass a broad vision of a better world, of social and environmental harmony. Only by considering all dimensions of sustainability – societal, ecological, economic, and cultural – can we attain such a visio...

  9. The Concept of Sustainable Development and Its Impact on the Shaping of Modern International Relations through Global Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Rydz-Żbikowska Anna

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article is a depiction of the process of the molding of the concept of sustainable development as well as a look at the influence that this concept has exerted on contemporary international politics, especially taking into account agreements of worldwide scope. This article is also an effort at demonstrating that the foundations of the concept of sustainable development can be traced to certain economic theories. The final section of this article is devoted to the characteris...

  10. Environmental sustainability in an agricultural development project: a system dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saysel, Ali Kerem; Barlas, Yaman; Yenigün, Orhan

    2002-03-01

    Regional agricultural projects based on water resource development have many potential impacts on social and natural environments. In this research, potential long-term environmental problems of the Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP) related to water resources, land use, land degradation, agricultural pollution and demography are analysed from a systems perspective. The analysis focuses on the totality of environmental, social and economic issues. For this purpose, a system dynamics simulation model (GAPSIM) has been developed as an experimental platform for policy analysis. GAPSIM was validated, first 'structurally', using the tests suggested by the literature and then the model 'behaviour' was tested and calibrated with respect to available data. The reference behaviour of GAPSIM reveals that, as the irrigated lands are developed, GAP faces significant water scarcity because of the increased intensity of cotton, the crop with the highest demands for water. Simulation results also indicate that two key environmental factors, pesticide and fertilizer consumption may reach undesirable levels. Alternative irrigation water release strategies, development rates of irrigated fields and farm rotation practices appear as important policy tools in achieving long-term environmental sustainability. GAPSIM promises to be not only a useful laboratory for policy makers of GAP, but also a useful generic structure applicable to other similar regional development projects. PMID:12040958

  11. Sustaining agricultural production and food security in Southern Africa. An improved role for climate prediction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, E. [School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Pvt Bag 3, WITS 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Mukhala, E.; Masamvu, K. [Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Directorate, SADC Secretariat, Millennium Office Park, P/Bag 0095, Gaberone (Botswana); Walker, S. [Department Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300 (South Africa); Dilley, M. [Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP, International Environment House, Room B-13011-13 Chemin des Anemones, 1219 Chatelaine, Geneva, 10964-8000 (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    Livelihoods and household food security in the Southern African region can be extremely vulnerable to the negative effects of climate stress as shown by the 2002-2004 'complex emergency.' Climate prediction may prove a valuable resource in mitigating these effects. If climate prediction is applied successfully, it may be able to help guide responses in populations at risk to reduce vulnerability to climate stress. The study presented here seeks to understand what would constitute an improved role for climate prediction in contributing to sustaining agricultural production and food security in Southern Africa. Investigation undertaken during the 2002/2003 rainy season under regional conditions of elevated disaster risk shows, however, that a number of weaknesses and gaps persistently characterize climate information systems in the Southern African region, and constrain such systems' ability to benefit key sectors, particularly agriculture. The stakeholder identification of such gaps forms the basis for distilling concrete recommendations to improve process and organizational efficiency. Such recommendations, while developmental, should better enable institutions and stakeholders involved in climate prediction to fulfill their potential in supporting development of successful adaptation strategies in populations and sectors at risk.

  12. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    The optimality of irrigation strategies may be sought with respect to a number of criteria, including water requirements, crop yield, and profitability. To explore the suitability of different demand-based irrigation strategies, we link the probabilistic description of irrigation requirements under stochastic hydro-climatic conditions, provided in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):263-71], to crop-yield and economic analyses. Water requirements, application efficiency, and investment costs of different irrigation methods, such as surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, are described via a unified conceptual and theoretical approach, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. This allows us to analyze irrigation strategies with respect to sustainability, productivity, and economic return, using the same framework, and quantify them as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. We apply our results to corn ( Zea mays), a food staple and biofuel source, which is currently mainly irrigated through surface systems. As our analysis shows, micro-irrigation maximizes water productivity, but more traditional solutions may be more profitable at least in some contexts.

  13. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  14. Aspects of soil organic matter and nutrient cycling in relation to climate change and agricultural sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the world's soils and their organic matter content is highlighted against the backdrop of an anticipated anthropogenic climate change. Contrary to many recent publications, it is argued that the hazards of their degradation, under a transient scenario of global change, may diminish rather than increase. Terrestrial carbon sequestration, through the buildup of organic matter in soils, makes sense in its own right. Possibilities for restoring depleted organic matter levels are reviewed and special attention is given to historic examples of sustained doubling of soil carbon content, both in northwestern Europe and in the tropics. A plea is made to carry out research on the processes that have caused such a sustainable improvement in soil fertility with a view to emulating this for soils of the moist savannah zones of sub-Saharan Africa. A proposal is then made to make this operational in the onchocerciasis freed zone of West Africa, in combination with a recent World Bank initiative for large scale rock phosphate applications in tropical soils as a capital investment in integrated natural resources management - as a 'win-win' situation of increasing agricultural productivity in developing countries and of protecting global environmental conditions. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs

  15. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  16. The influence of human factor on financial sustainability of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ivanovich Ogorodnikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of functioning ofcomplex production systems in agroindustrial sphere — largecrop farms and livestock farms — shows that the basis for dynamic development of their productive activities is based on a reliable and stable operation of the complex biotech (human-machine systems. Urgent problems, whose solution promotes a dynamic and efficient operation of complex biotechnological systems, are to create mathematical models of the total biotech system, allowing sufficiently informatively guide the work of major agricultural organizations. This paper discusses an alternative methodological approach to assessing and forecasting financial sustainability of an enterprise. An important place among the factors that shape the financial stability of the economic entity, takes the human factor (decision maker. Financial sustainability of the enterprise is seen from the perspective of bio-approach that includes elements of the system MME (man, machine, and environment. This approach improves the results when evaluating the adequacy of the financial stability of companies in various states of the economy. Newly developed approaches and mathematical models to managesystems of biotechnology makeit possibleto significantly increase the productivity of animals, crop production and the level of socio-economic status of people in the country.

  17. The potential and sustainability of agricultural land use in a changing ecosystem in southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Matthias; Caviezel, Chatrina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased potential regarding agricultural land use. Subsequently, the agricultural sector is expected to grow. Thereby, a higher hay production and grazing capacity is pursued by applying more efficient farming practices (Greenland Agriculture Advisory Board 2009). However, agricultural potential at borderline ecotones is not only influenced by factors like temperature and growing season but also by other ecologic parameters. In addition, the intensification of land use in the fragile boreal - tundra border ecotone has various environmental impacts (Perren et al. 2012; Normand et al. 2013). Already the Norse settlers practiced animal husbandry in southern Greenland between 986-1450 AD. Several authors mention the unadapted land use as main reason for the demise of the Norse in Greenland, as grazing pressure exceeded the resilience of the landscape and pasture economy failed (Fredskild 1988; Perren et al. 2012). During the field work in summer 2014, we compared the pedologic properties of already used hay fields, grazed land, birch woodland and barren, unused land around Igaliku (South Greenland), in order to estimate the potential and the sustainability of the land use in southern Greenland. Beside physical soil properties, nutrient condition of the different land use types, the shrub woodland and barren areas was analyzed. The results of the study show that the most suitable areas for intensive agricultural activity are mostly occupied. Further on, the fields, which were used by the Norse, seem to be the most productive sites nowadays. Less productive hay fields are characterized by a higher coarse fraction, leading to a reduced ability to store water and to an unfavorable nutrient status. An intensification of the agricultural land use by applying fertilizer would lead to an increased environmental impact

  18. Irrigation Dynamics and Tactics - Developing a Sustainable and Profitable Irrigation Strategy for Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstal, J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation management is a dynamic process that adapts according to weather conditions and water availability, as well as socio-economic influences. The goal of water users is to adapt their management to achieve maximum profits. However, these decisions should take into account the environmental impact on the surroundings. Agricultural irrigation systems need to be viewed as a system that is an integral part of a watershed. Therefore changes in the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigated area, has an impact on the water quantity and quality available for other water users. A strategy can be developed for decision-makers using an irrigation system modelling tool. Such a tool can simulate the impact of the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigation area on its hydrology and agricultural productivity. This combination of factors is successfully simulated with the Ador model, which is able to reproduce on-farm irrigation and water delivery by a canal system. Model simulations for this study are supported with spatial analysis tools using GIS and remote sensing. Continuous measurements of drainage water will be added to indicate the water quality aspects. The Bear River Canal Company located in Northern Utah (U.S.A.) is used as a case study for this research. The irrigation area encompasses 26,000 ha and grows mainly alfalfa, grains, corn and onions. The model allows the simulation of different strategies related to water delivery, on-farm water use, crop rotations, and reservoirs and networks capacities under different weather and water availability conditions. Such changes in the irrigation area will have consequences for farmers in the study area regarding crop production, and for downstream users concerning both the quantity and quality of outflows. The findings from this study give insight to decision-makers and water users for changing irrigation water delivery strategies to improve the sustainability and profitability of

  19. Energy to infinity: Concepts of sustainability in five world energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study on the title subject is to gain insight into the consequences that are connected to the argument that sustainability, whatever its definition will be, must be aimed for. As a starting point four concepts that were developed by the Dutch Scientific Council for the Governmental Policy (WRR), are elaborated. The four sustainable concepts can be shown in a matrix combining high and low energy consumption per capita with the high and low use of fossil and nuclear energy, and renewable energy. The names of the concepts are risk-seeking ('high consumption' and 'high fossil', characterized by a flexible and robust nature), risk-taking ('low consumption' and 'high fossil', characterized by the fact that the interaction between man and nature bears risks), risk-accepting ('high consumption' and 'high renewable', characterized by a robust nature within limits), and risk-avoiding ('low consumption' and 'high renewable', characterized by a relatively fragile ecological system). Also a reference scenario is made, based on the present developments. The consequences of those concepts towards scenarios of the energy situation in the year 2040 are calculated and presented in the form of objective, non-conceptual indicators, f.e. world energy consumption and CO2 emission. Also the marginal conditions to realize the calculated energy situation are outlined, f.e. technology and knowledge transfer, and the energy infrastructure. Results are calculated for the world as a whole and for world 1 (the industrialized world) and world 2 (the developing world). The main conclusions are that (1) aiming at the realization of sustainability always implicates a trend break, a considerable change in all areas; (2) a risk-free future does not exist, although the nature of the risks differ; and (3) it is necessary to intensify and politicize the societal debate on sustainability in the coming years. 12 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appendices, 63 refs

  20. EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL SURVEYS ON CONCEPTIONS AND POSTURES OF TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Pierre; Caravita, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    International audience Education for a Sustainable Development (ESD) is more and better im-plemented around the world. We first define the competences in ESD, in-cluding values and practices that can sometimes strongly differ from those of teachers. Recent inquiries show significant differences among the teach-ers' conceptions on ESD, linked to their disciplines, with difficulty to consider the three dimensions of ESD (economical, social and envi-ronmental). Other more qualitative research...

  1. Changes in Agricultural Biodiversity: Implications for Sustainable Livelihood in the Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Saxena; R.K. Maikhuri; K.S. Rao

    2005-01-01

    Himalayan mountain system is distinguished globally for a rich biodiversity and for its role in regulating the climate of the South Asia.Traditional crop-livestock mixed farming in the Himalaya is highly dependent on forests for fodder and manure prepared from forest leaf litter and livestock excreta. Apart from sustaining farm production, forests provide a variety of other tangible and intangible benefits, which are critical for sustainable livelihood of not only 115 million mountain people, but also many more people living in the adjoining plains. Extension of agricultural landuse coupled with replacement of traditional staple food crops by cash crops and of multipurpose agroforestry trees by fruit trees are widespread changes. Cultivation of Fagopyrum esculentum,Fagopyrum tataricum, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica and Pisum arvense has been almost abandoned. Increasing stress on cash crops is driven by a socio-cultural change from subsistence to market economy facilitated by improvement in accessibility and supply of staple food grains at subsidized price by the government. Farmers have gained substantial economic benefits from cash crops. However, loss of agrobiodiversity implies more risks to local livelihood in the events of downfall in market price/demand of cash crops, termination of supply of staple food grains at subsidized price, pest outbreaks in a cash crop dominated homogeneous landscape and abnormal climate years. Indigenous innovations enabling improvement in farm economy by conserving and/enhancing agrobiodiversity do exist, but are highly localized. The changes in agrobiodiversity are such that soil loss and run-off from the croplands have dramatically increased together with increase in local pressure on forests. As farm productivity is maintained with forest-based inputs, continued depletion of forest resources will result in poor economic returns from agriculture to local people,apart from loss of global benefits from Himalayan forests

  2. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Peura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE and Distributed Energy (DE including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and sustainability management for anticipating, avoiding and reducing adverse impacts. The best consensus for defining DE is “facilities connected to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter”. Devices using fossil fuels but otherwise falling under this umbrella cannot be excluded from DE. This paper explores definitions of wind power in relation to its grid connections via DE. SE is more comprehensive embracing the whole field of energy management, with the exception of distributed fossil generation. SE is valuable for understanding, planning and implementing energy strategies in the transition process of the energy sector. SE also includes centralized energy. It is useful for planning at national or sub-national geographic regions. The combination Sustainable Distributed Energy (SDE is excellent for regional contexts and for creating regional renewable energy self-sufficiency, integrated with society-wide energy saving and energy efficiency programs.

  3. Preservation of the Environment through Sustainable Agriculture Practices: A Case Study on the Attitude of Crop Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. D’Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Undoubtedly agriculture over the years has been a remarkable source of income generator for the rural community to achieve a higher standard of living and to live on par with their urban brethren that are mostly involved in industrialization. The quest for a greater income should, however, not deter farmers from paying attention toward the preservation of the environment in terms of protecting the quality of land, air and water so that our present and future generation will be able to have sufficient resources for their survival. Thus, having a positive attitude toward practicing the elements of sustainable agriculture without doubt will help farmers to emphasize on the need to protect the environment. As such, this study is designed to understand contract farming entrepreneurs’ attitude toward the preservation of the environment through sustainable agriculture practices and the issues involved in determining their level of attitude. Approach: The study employed qualitative methodology in the form of a focus group discussion and the data was collected from seven contract farming entrepreneurs in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In the data collection process, the researcher played the role as the instrument and an interview guide that was developed prior to it enabled the researcher to achieve the objectives of the study. A couple of voice-recorders assisted in recording the discussion and it was later transformed into verbatim transcripts for data analysis. Results: The outcome of the study showed that in general, crop farmers face an upheaval task in possessing a positive attitude toward practicing sustainable agriculture in spite of having a sound knowledge about it. They perceive that much support is needed from the respective stakeholders that would enable them to embrace sustainable agriculture practices. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is recommended that various stakeholders could play more important

  4. Implementing AACN's recommendations for environmental sustainability in colleges of nursing: from concept to impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Patricia; Schenk, Elizabeth; Eide, Phyllis; Hahn, Laura; Postma, Julie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia; Oneal, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) released a guidance report titled Toward an Environmentally Sustainable Academic Enterprise: An AACN Guide for Nursing Education. The report was developed in response to a vivid slide presentation at an AACN meeting depicting the deleterious public and environmental health effects of global industrialization. Following the presentation, AACN members capitalized on the opportunity to provide national leadership to U.S. colleges of nursing in regard to environmental sustainability and stewardship. This article summarizes key features of the AACN plan and outlines one college's multifaceted implementation plan. The goal of the implementation plan was to translate the AACN recommendations from concept into college-specific actions. Specific steps taken by the college included the following: (a) increasing student and faculty awareness, (b) greening business operations, (c) increased participation in media events, (d) leveraging the impact of national sustainability initiatives, and (e) enhancing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Through this work, the college achieved not only a higher standard of sustainability within its own walls but also a richer appreciation of the importance of educating nurses as future stewards in an environmentally sustainable health care system. PMID:24939329

  5. Operationalising the Sustainable Knowledge Society Concept through a Multi-dimensional Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirescu, Horatiu; Sharma, Ravi S.

    Since the early 21st Century, building a Knowledge Society represents an aspiration not only for the developed countries, but for the developing ones too. There is an increasing concern worldwide for rendering this process manageable towards a sustainable, equitable and ethically sound societal system. As proper management, including at the societal level, requires both wisdom and measurement, the operationalisation of the Knowledge Society concept encompasses a qualitative side, related to vision-building, and a quantitative one, pertaining to designing and using dedicated metrics. The endeavour of enabling policy-makers mapping, steering and monitoring the sustainable development of the Knowledge Society at national level, in a world increasingly based on creativity, learning and open communication, led researchers to devising a wide range of composite indexes. However, as such indexes are generated through weighting and aggregation, their usefulness is limited to retrospectively assessing and comparing levels and states already attained; therefore, to better serve policy-making purposes, composite indexes should be complemented by other instruments. Complexification, inspired by the systemic paradigm, allows obtaining "rich pictures" of the Knowledge Society; to this end, a multi-dimensional scorecard of the Knowledge Society development is hereby suggested, that seeks a more contextual orientation towards sustainability. It is assumed that, in the case of the Knowledge Society, the sustainability condition goes well beyond the "greening" desideratum and should be of a higher order, relying upon the conversion of natural and productive life-cycles into virtuous circles of self-sustainability.

  6. The sustainability of communicative packaging concepts in the food supply chain. A case study: part 2. Life cycle costing and sustainability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobon, A.; Cordero, P.; Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G.; Ostergaard, S.R.; Antvorskov, H.; Robertsson, M.; Smolander, M.; Hortal, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-paper series dealing with the sustainability evaluation of a new communicative packaging concept. The communicative packaging concept includes a device that allows changing the expiry date of the product as function of temperature during transport and storage:

  7. Kyrgyz Republic - Agricultural Policy Update : Sustaining Pro-poor Rural Growth, Rural Challenges for Government and Donors

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Critical choices must now be made if growth is to be sustained. Significant potential exists for future growth, but bringing out this potential poses a major challenge for government policy. Agricultural strategy must shift its focus towards support for continuous productivity growth by peasant farms in a conducive marketing environment. Key priorities include completion of land reforms (e...

  8. Results of an Assessment to Identify Potential Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture on American Indian Reservations in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Brummer, Fara Ann; Hill, George C.; Lewis, Steve; Hebb, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports the results of survey research conducted with tribal producers between 2011 and 2012 on 19 of the largest American Indian reservations in Idaho, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington. The purpose of the research was to identify potential barriers to sustainable agriculture on reservation lands. This…

  9. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the bio-e

  10. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  11. Rice Ratoon Crop: A Sustainable Rice Production System for Tropical Hill Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Faruq

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and sustainable production of rice in tropical hill area is facing various problems where rice ratooning can overcome the limitations. In this study; 22 rice entries were transplanted into experimental tank placed in the hill slope following Completely Randomized Design with five replications to asses’ agronomic performance of main crop and ratoon crop where Entry 13 demonstrated highest grain yield per plant (42.06 ± 1.2 gm as main crop, as well as ratoon crop (3.37 ± 0.28 gm; Entry 19 produced lowest grain yield per plant (5.01 ± 0.31 gm as main crop and Entry 31 as ratoon crop (0.47 ± 0.03 gm. The grain yield per plant of both the main and ratoon crop demonstrated significant (** at 5% level and *** at 1% level positive correlation with number of tiller per plant (0.64 ** and 0.52; number of fertile tiller per plant (0.66 ** and 0.63 **; grain per panicle (0.72 ** and 0.53; fertile grain per panicle (0.80 *** and 0.63 and thousand-grain weight (0.66 ** and 0.54. The Duncan Multiple Range test and Analysis of Variance also confirmed the different grouping and significant differences of productivity and agronomic performances of the entries. The information of this investigation will helps the rice breeder as well as marginal rice farmers to consider rice ratooning as an important practice for sustainable rice production in tropical agriculture system for maximum gains.

  12. Cyanobacteria: A precious bio-resource in agriculture, ecosystem and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar eSingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in view the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters, generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, syngas and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  13. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  14. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  15. POLYCENTRIC SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL SYSTEMS VS POLARIZED DEVELOPMENT: THE ECOLOCI CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshina M. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of reforms in Russian regions centripetal processes have amplified. The formal centers of subjects of the Russian Federation became the main focuses of growth and development. These processes and conditions enhance differentiation and dependence of periphery from regional nuclei and centers. Keeping these conditions will intensify uneven development in the Russian regions in the future. Moreover major cities continue to accumulate negative effects on economic activities: environmental problems, social relationships, infrastructure congestion, traffic jams, etc. This model does not allow for sustainable polycentric development and, according to the researchers, limiting the further development of today's largest metropolitan area in the range of 50-60 years. Authors have tried to pay attention to necessity of overcoming of spatial polarization as a necessary condition of a sustainable development of regions. Based on the analysis of approaches to spatial development justified the need for a polycentric type of regional development on the basis of formation of sustainable development dots (ecoloci. The author proposes a concept and a definition of ecolocus as an open ecological and socioeconomic system, freely exchanged environmental, financial, material, human, informational, symbolic, and other kinds of resources with the environment, generating positive changes towards sustainable development and green economy

  16. Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisenkopfs, Talis; Kunda, Ilona; šumane, Sandra; Brunori, Gianluca; Klerkx, Laurens; Moschitz, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper explores the role of boundary work and boundary objects in enhancing learning and innovation processes in hybrid multi-actor networks for sustainable agriculture (LINSA). Design/Methodology/Approach: Boundary work in LINSA is analysed on the basis of six case studies carried out in SOLINSA project under a common methodology. In…

  17. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  18. Effects of extreme drought on agriculture soil and sustainability of different drought soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Geng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Content of microbial biomass carbon was selected as indicator for identifying effects of extreme drought on agriculture soil ecosystem. Through a series of prototype observation experiments, changing tendencies of microbial biomass carbon content and the proportion of microbial biomass carbon in soil organic carbon were identified. The optimum mass water content of soil for microbial biomass carbon was 19.5% and the demarcation point of microbial biomass carbon to drought was 14.3%, which could be used to demonstrate alters and degradation of soil ecosystem as well as the irrigation requirement of crops. We evaluated sustainability of different drought soil ecosystems after experiencing rainstorm with rehabilitation. The results suggested that soil ecosystem which was interfered by moderate drought could recover and its tolerance to drought was improved, as well as its function and activity. Soil ecosystem could barely recover from severe drought and could not adapt to severe drought stress. Soil ecosystem could not restore from extreme drought within a few days, the function and structure were damaged. We came to the conclusion that mass water content of soil should kept above 10% to avoid destroying function and structure while soil ecosystem would better be watered when mass water content was lower than 14.3% in order to maintain high productivity.

  19. Educational potential in the concept of the Arctic region sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarkov S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem-oriented analysis of the status and prospects of vocational education development of the Murmansk region in the concept of the Arctic sustainable development has been worked out. It has been shown that establishing the pivotal university on the basis of the Murmansk State Technical University is the most effective model for formation of the regional vocational training system and meets the priorities of the state Arctic and the national marine policy of the Russian Federation, the goals and objectives of sustainable socio-economic development of the Murmansk region. The necessity to provide the intellectual leadership of the region where just the higher engineering education creates human potential (capital has been substantiated; it has been pointed out that engineering education is the basis of innovative development of the Arctic economy

  20. Water footprint concept for a sustainable water resources management in Urmia Lake basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein; Aligholiniya, Tohid; Rasouli, Negar

    2015-04-01

    The fast shrinkage of Urmia Lake in West Azerbaijan, Iran is one of the most important environmental change hotspots. The dramatic water level reduction (up to 6 meters) has influential environmental, socio-economic and health impacts on Urmia plain and its habitants. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. The Urmia Lake sub basins are the agricultural cores of the region and the agricultural activities are the major water consuming sections of the basin. Land use changes and mismanagement in the land use decisions and policies is one of the most important factors in lake shrinkage in recent decades. Fresh water is the main source of water for agricultural usages in the basin. So defining a more low water consuming land use pattern will put less pressure on limited water resources. The above mentioned fact in this study has been assessed through water footprint concept. The water footprint concept (as a quantitative measure showing the appropriation of natural resources) is a comprehensive indicator that can have a crucial role in efficient land use management. In order to evaluate the water use patterns, the water footprint of wheat (as a traditional crop) and apple (recently most popular) have been compared and the results have been discussed in the aspect of the impacts on Lake Urmia demands and its dramatic drying process. Results showed that, higher blue water consumption in such a regions that have severe blue water scarcity, is a major issue and the water consuming pattern must be modified to meet the lake demands. Lower blue water consumption through regionalizing crops for each area is an efficient solution to meet lake demands and consume lower amounts of blue water. So the proper land use practices can be an appropriate method to rescue the lake in a long time period.