WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural sustainability concepts

  1. Design and Concept of an Energy System Based on Renewable Sources for Greenhouse Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Aschilean

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-organic greenhouses that are based on alternative resources for producing heat and electricity stand out as an efficient option for the sustainable development of agriculture, thus ensuring good growth and development of plants in all seasons, especially during the cold season. Greenhouses can be used with maximum efficiency in various agricultural lands, providing ideal conditions of temperature and humidity for short-term plant growing, thereby increasing the local production of fruit and vegetables. This paper presents the development of a durable greenhouse concept that is based on complex energy system integrating fuel cells and solar panels. Approaching this innovative concept encountered a major problem in terms of local implementation of this type of greenhouses because of the difficulty in providing electrical and thermal energy from conventional sources to ensure an optimal climate for plant growing. The project result consists in the design and implementation of a sustainable greenhouse energy system that is based on fuel cells and solar panels.

  2. Agriculture: Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  3. Tree Crops, a Permanent Agriculture: Concepts from the Past for a Sustainable Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reed Funk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available J. Russell Smith (1874–1966, a professor of geography at Columbia University, witnessed the devastation of soil erosion during his extensive travels. He first published his landmark text, Tree Crops, A Permanent Agriculture in 1929, in which he described the value of tree crops for producing food and animal feed on sloping, marginal, and rocky soils as a sustainable alternative to annual crop agriculture less suited to these lands. A cornerstone of his thesis was using wide germplasm collection and plant breeding to improve this largely underutilized and genetically unexploited group of plants to develop locally adapted, high-yielding cultivars for the many climatic zones of North America. Smith proposed an establishment of “Institutes of Mountain Agriculture” to undertake this work. For a variety of reasons, though, his ideas were not implemented to any great degree. However, our growing population’s increasing demands on natural resources and the associated environmental degradation necessitate that Smith’s ideas be revisited. In this review, his concepts, supported by modern scientific understanding and advances, are discussed and expanded upon to emphasize their largely overlooked potential to enhance world food and energy security and environmental sustainability. The discussion leads us to propose that his “institutes” be established worldwide and with an expanded scope of work.

  4. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  5. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  6. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  7. Sustainability through precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    As population and standard of living increase in many parts of the world, so will the need for food and other agriculturally-based products. To be sustainable, these increases in production must occur with minimum impact on the environment and with efficient use of production resources, including la...

  8. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  9. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  10. Sustainable agriculture: Developing a common understanding for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of sustainability has become central to all sectors all over the world, from agriculture to environment to business, engineering and industrialization. The principle of sustainability is the same all over these sectors. However, the understanding of the term may vary from sector to sector depending on how it may be ...

  11. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  12. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  13. Development of a concept for sustainable agriculture in the Elbe wetlands of Niedersachsen; Konzeptentwicklung fuer eine nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung in den niedersaechsischen Elbtalauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prueter, J. [Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz (NNA), Schneverdingen (Germany); Horlitz, T.; Sander, A. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Umweltplanung (ARUM), Hannover (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Since late 1997, a cooperative project headed by Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz has been investigating ''Models of conservation and its application in agriculture - goals, instruments and cost of sustainable, environment-friendly agriculture in the Elbe river valley in Niedersachsen''. The project receives funds in the context of the BMBF project ''Elbe river ecology''. Using the specific methods and tools of ecology, landscaping, agriculture and economics, the fundamentals for future interdisciplinary landscape development concepts will be established. The contribution presents the methodology of concept development and some exemplary goals for sustainable agricultural development in the context of the project. [German] Seit Ende 1997 widmet sich im Rahmen der BMBF-Forschungsfoerderung ''Elbe-Oekologie'' ein Verbundforschungsvorhaben unter Federfuehrung der Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz dem Thema ''Leitbilder des Naturschutzes und deren Umsetzung mit der Landwirtschaft - Ziele, Instrumente und Kosten einer umweltschonenden und nachhaltigen Landwirtschaft im niedersaechsischen Elbetal''. Mit den spezifischen Methoden und fachlichen Instrumenten der Oekologie, der Landschaftsplanung sowie der Agrarwissenschaften einschliesslich Oekonomie sollen Grundlagen fuer moegliche ressortuebergreifend getragene Konzepte fuer die zukuenftige Landschaftsentwicklung erarbeitet werden. Im folgenden werden methodische Grundlagen der Konzeptentwicklung und beispielhafte Zielaussagen fuer eine nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung aus dem laufenden Projekt vorgestellt. (orig.)

  14. Introduction: Features of environmental sustainability in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Ferrari, S; Rambonilaza, M

    2006-01-01

    This introductive paper aims to address the features of environmental sustainability in agriculture. Recent developments of the concept, which are discussed here, emphasise its multi-faceted nature and lead to various definitions as well as to different implications for policy measures in society...

  15. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  16. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been

  17. Dilemmas in sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the

  18. Contribution of Nuclear Science in Agriculture Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    radiation gave the scientific staff the chance to manage and plan suitable and accurate programs for achieving the sustainable concept of agricultural sector. The recognition of profitable and proper management practices makes the integration between different agricultural issues easier and more effective

  19. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  20. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  1. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 3 : Doing Participatory Research and Development. Couverture du livre Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management : A.

  2. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  3. The sustainability, base for the agriculture of next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero Haeberlin, I.B.

    1997-01-01

    It is defined the sustainability concept, their origin and the operation form to the interior of CORPOICA. It discusses the concept of sustained development and the characteristics that it should have the agricultural technology to involve the concept in the agricultural development, under the perspective of satisfying the necessities of people presently, maintaining options for the future generations. The sustainable agricultural development is analyzed in connection with the ecological, economic and social sustainability and the situation of the agricultural producer in the application of the concept. It thinks about the agriculture ecology like strategy guided to achieve a sustainable agriculture by means of the knowledge of the relationships that they are given among the production systems and the processes that govern the behavior and offer of the intervened ecosystems. Complementarity the technology use of under environmental impact and the development of productive systems adapted to the environment, taking advantage of the biodiversity. It concludes that the sustainability should be above all an ethical concept that makes part of the investigator's formation inside a holistic and interdisciplinary context

  4. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is......The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...

  5. Academics' conceptions of teaching sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade a growing number of universities have committed to ensuring that sustainability is integral to higher education with the intent of preparing eco-literate graduates who can make positive contributions to the sustainability of the environment. With particular consideration for the increasingly internationalised teaching environment of many higher education institutions, this study sought to explore how academics' conceptions of teaching sustainability might d...

  6. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and future aspects. ... of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of ... applications in agricultural, food, and water safety that could have significant ...

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, A MULTIDIMENSIONAL CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA MARIA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development imposed itself as a corollary of economic term "development". Sustainable development is meant to be the summation of economic, environmental and social considerations for the present and especially for the future. The concept of sustainable development plays an important role in european and global meetings since 1972, the year it has been set for the first time. Strategies necessary to achieve the objectives of sustainable development have been developed, indicators meant to indicate the result of the implementation of policies have been created, national plans were oriented towards achieving the proposed targets. I wanted to highlight the multidimensional character of the concept of sustainable development. Thus, using specialized national and international literature, I have revealed different approaches of one pillar to the detriment of another pillar depending on the specific field. In the different concepts of sustainable development, the consensus is undoubtedly agreed on its components: economic, social, environmental. Based on this fact, the concept of sustainability has different connotations depending on the specific content of each discipline: biology, economics, sociology, environmental ethics. The multidimensional valence of sustainable development consists of three pillars ability to act together for the benefit of present and future generations. Being a multidimensional concept, importance attached to a pillar over another is directed according to the particularities of each field: in economy profit prevails, in ecology care of natural resources is the most important, the social aims improving human living conditions. The challenge of sustainable development is to combine all the economic, environmental and social benefits and the present generation to come. Ecological approach is reflected in acceptance of limited natural resources by preserving natural capital. In terms of the importance of

  8. Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment: Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sustainable development in the context of Rwanda as the level of socio- political and ... envisaged by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) includes the .... sustainable agriculture and agri-business development in Rwanda is.

  9. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  10. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  11. Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockstrom, J.; Williams, J.; Daily, G.; Noble, A.; Matthews, N.; Gordon, L.; Wetterstrand, H.; DeClerck, F.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be

  12. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  13. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE New practices bring lasting food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-16

    Nov 16, 2010 ... Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the developing world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment.

  14. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  15. Sustainable food and agriculture: stakeholder's frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, B.; van der Goot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance, the notion of sustainability is open for discursive struggle. This article's primary objective is to acquire insight into the manner in which the principal stakeholders strategically use frames in their public communication about sustainable food and agriculture. A framing

  16. Sustainability Assessment and Reporting in Agriculture Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kassem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is a mainstream business activity that demonstrates the link between the organization’s strategy and commitment to a sustainable global economy. Sustainability indicators describe the environmental, social, economic and governance performance of Small and Medium‑sized Businesses/Enterprises (SMB/SME. Unfortunately, their implementations in the Czech Republic show a low level of engagement in sustainability assessment. The paper presents the results of the authors’ research in sustainability assessment of SMB/SMEs in the agriculture sector of the Czech Republic. An appropriate set of key performance indicators (KPIs in four dimensions (economy, environment, social and governance was developed to suit the SMB/SMEs sustainability assessment in the agriculture sector. A set of KPIs is proposed to help SMB/SMEs to avoid the barriers of sustainability assessment. These indicators are based mainly on Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture, Global Reporting Initiatives Frameworks and on current research state‑of‑the‑art. They have been created following the analysis of a number of agricultural enterprises over the world, particularly within European countries.

  17. Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, L.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Brown, G.G.

    2007-01-01

    We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does

  18. Sustainability development: Biofuels in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2017-01-01

    Biofuels are socially and politically accepted as a form of sustainable energy in numerous countries. However, cases of environmental degradation and land grabs have highlighted the negative effects to their adoption. Smallholder farmers are vital in the development of a biofuel industry. The study sort to assess the implications in the adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 129 smallholder farmers who were sampled from the Easter...

  19. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainable development has evolved from a mere perception for the protection of the environment, to a holistic approach, seeking to preserve not only the environment, but also to achieve sustainability in economics and social wellbeing. Globally, there is a major challenge to face in the agricultural sector: to produce more food, feed and other raw materials to satisfy the increasing demand of a growing population, whilst also contributing to economic prosperity, climate change mitigation / adaptation, social wellbeing and preserving natural capital such as soil, water, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nowadays, conventional approaches to agriculture are under threat. A more productive and resource efficient agriculture that integrates natural resource protection into its approach will help to meet all these challenges, enabling us to have more of everything - more food, more feed, more non-food crops, more biodiversity and natural habitats - while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, INSPIA is an innovative approach that has worked since 2013 towards demonstration that sustainable productive agriculture is possible thanks to the implementation of a host of best management practices (BMPs) capable of delivering the above achievements. The purpose on INSPIA is to make visible with European decision makers that a sustainable and productive agricultural model exists in a small scale in Europe and that wider dissemination is possible with enabling legislation. INSPIA is demonstrating sustainable agriculture through the implementation of BMPs and the measurement and monitoring of a set of defined indicators (economic, social and environmental ones). INSPIA promotes sustainable practices that protect biodiversity, soils and water and contribute towards maintaining ecosystems services. This holistic sustainable system of productive agriculture is based on the combination of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Integrated Pest

  20. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  1. Sustainability of Indian Agriculture: Towards An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    V M Rao

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a systemic framework to look at the prospects for sustainability of Indian agriculture. The framework is based on trends, indicators and assessment by experts spanning three domains which are the principal influences shaping the growth, efficiency and stability of agriculture. The domains are: natural resources covering land, water, climate and environment; human development comprising the characteristics of farmers as producers and entrepreneurs; and, technology and insti...

  2. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  3. Ants as tools in sustainable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    1. With an expanding human population placing increasing pressure on the environment, agriculture needs sustainable production that can match conventional methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) is more sustainable, but not necessarily as efficient as conventional non-sustainable measures. 2...... in multiple crops. Their efficiency is comparable to chemical pesticides or higher, while at lower costs. They provide a rare example of documented efficient conservation biological control. 3. Weaver ants share beneficial traits with almost 13 000 other ant species and are unlikely to be unique...... of agricultural systems, this review emphasizes the potential of managing ants to achieve sustainable pest management solutions. The synthesis suggests future directions and may catalyse a research agenda on the utilization of ants, not only against arthropod pests, but also against weeds and plant diseases...

  4. Sustainable agricultural water management across climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincentis, A.

    2016-12-01

    Fresh water scarcity is a global problem with local solutions. Agriculture is one of many human systems threatened by water deficits, and faces unique supply, demand, quality, and management challenges as the global climate changes and population grows. Sustainable agricultural water management is paramount to protecting global economies and ecosystems, but requires different approaches based on environmental conditions, social structures, and resource availability. This research compares water used by conservation agriculture in temperate and tropical agroecosystems through data collected from operations growing strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, and pistachios in California and corn and soybeans in Colombia. The highly manipulated hydrologic regime in California has depleted water resources and incited various adaptive management strategies, varying based on crop type and location throughout the state. Operations have to use less water more efficiently, and sometimes that means fallowing land in select groundwater basins. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the largely untouched landscape in the eastern plains of Colombia are rapidly being converted into commercial agricultural operations, with a unique opportunity to manage and plan for agricultural development with sustainability in mind. Although influenced by entirely different climates and economies, there are some similarities in agricultural water management strategies that could be applicable worldwide. Cover crops are a successful management strategy for both agricultural regimes, and moving forward it appears that farmers who work in coordination with their neighbors to plan for optimal production will be most successful in both locations. This research points to the required coordination of agricultural extension services as a critical component to sustainable water use, successful economies, and protected environments.

  5. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is crucial, for example, that local stakeholders provide input to the process. Participatory research and ... Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 2: Enabling Participatory Research and Development. Book cover Participatory ...

  6. Holistic Sustainability Assessment of Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a methodology for holistic sustainability assessment of green infrastructure, applied to agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH) in the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin. It builds upon prior work in the region through the use of detailed, crop-level management information...

  7. Comparative review of multifunctionality and ecosystem services in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiao; Tichit, Muriel; Poulot, Monique; Darly, Ségolène; Li, Shuangcheng; Petit, Caroline; Aubry, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Two scientific communities with broad interest in sustainable agriculture independently focus on multifunctional agriculture or ecosystem services. These communities have limited interaction and exchange, and each group faces research challenges according to independently operating paradigms. This paper presents a comparative review of published research in multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. The motivation for this work is to improve communication, integrate experimental approaches, and propose areas of consensus and dialog for the two communities. This extensive analysis of publication trends, ideologies, and approaches enables formulation of four main conclusions. First, the two communities are closely related through their use of the term "function." However, multifunctional agriculture considers functions as agricultural activity outputs and prefers farm-centred approaches, whereas ecosystem services considers ecosystem functions in the provision of services and prefers service-centred approaches. Second, research approaches to common questions in these two communities share some similarities, and there would be great value in integrating these approaches. Third, the two communities have potential for dialog regarding the bundle of ecosystem services and the spectrum of multifunctional agriculture, or regarding land sharing and land sparing. Fourth, we propose an integrated conceptual framework that distinguishes six groups of ecosystem services and disservices in the agricultural landscape, and combines the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services. This integrated framework improves applications of multifunctional agriculture and ecosystem services for operational use. Future research should examine if the framework can be readily adapted for modelling specific problems in agricultural management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainable development in agriculture: is it really sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.R.K.; Srinivas, K.; Kumar, L.R.; Gupta, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    Indian agriculture has achieved remarkable success in the food grain production due to inception of 'rainbow revolution', which made the country self-sufficient in food production. Sustainable agriculture (SA) is an ongoing process, in which people take actions leading to development of agriculture that meets their current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It advocates avoiding all those actions, which reduce the ability of future generations to meet out the present generations. It is based on the optimal interaction between clean environment, healthy economy, and vital society by avoiding trade-off of problems to other regions on to the future. Moreover, sustainable agriculture is the function of people's progress and nature's capacity. In fact, SA commits us to considering the long-term effect and to recognize our place within the ecosystem. It encourages a continuous reflection on the implications of human activity on the ecosystem. Empirical evidences shows that in the race of self-sufficiency in food grain production, we compromised a lot on social and environmental fronts. The aftermath of green revolution is not so sustainable as it showed reverse side too, in the form of environmental degradation and ecological imbalances. Such threats have led to the need for promoting sustainable development in agriculture. Due to several unsustainable activities which resulted in resource degradation in the form of top soil loss, ground water depletion and forest degradation. The average soil loss is estimated to be over 16 tonnes/ha/year. The ground water depletion resulted in several blocks as 'grey blocks' and 'dark blocks'. This happened mainly due to increase in number of tube-wells and free supply of electricity making the cost of pumping water very low. Rate of human induced land degradation is very high. Out of total geographical area of 329.0 million ha, 187 million ha (57.0 %) are reported to have degraded, of

  9. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  10. Sustainability in nursing: a concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Elf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe, explore and explain the concept of sustainability in nursing. Background Although researchers in nursing and medicine have emphasised the issue of sustainability and health, the concept of sustainability in nursing is undefined and poorly researched. A need exists for theoretical and empirical studies of sustainability in nursing. Design Concept analysis as developed by Walker and Avant. Method Data were derived from dictionaries, international healthcare organisations and literature searches in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Inclusive years for the search ranged from 1990 to 2012. A total of fourteen articles were found that referred to sustainability in nursing. Results Sustainability in nursing involves six defining attributes: ecology, environment, future, globalism, holism and maintenance. Antecedents of sustainability require climate change, environmental impact and awareness, confidence in the future, responsibility and a willingness to change. Consequences of sustainability in nursing include education in the areas of ecology, environment and sustainable development as well as sustainability as a part of nursing academic programs and in the description of the academic subject of nursing. Sustainability should also be part of national and international healthcare organisations. The concept was clarified herein by giving it a definition. Conclusion Sustainability in nursing was explored and found to contribute to sustainable development, with the ultimate goal of maintaining an environment that does not harm current and future generations′ opportunities for good health. This concept analysis provides recommendations for the healthcare sector to incorporate sustainability and provides recommendations for future research. PMID:24602178

  11. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  12. Sustainable agriculture a challenge for soil microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Moreno Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils: a solid foundation for life, was the theme of the celebration of 2015, the General Assembly of the UN, decides to declare as the International Year of Soils, considering that these are the foundation of agricultural development, the essential functions of ecosystems and food security. It is therefore a key to sustaining life on Earth element. During that year several actions that contributed to the awareness of their problems and protection of soil resources were made. One was that FAO, reviewed and published in June 2015, the World Soil Charter (originally developed in 1982. The World Soil Charter of Revised, as a preamble quote: 1. Soils are essential for life on Earth, but pressures on soil resources are reaching critical limits. Careful soil management is an essential factor of sustainable agriculture and also provides a valuable tool to regulate climate and a way to safeguard ecosystem services and biodiversity spring. 2. In the final document of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil in June 2012, "The future we want" economic and social importance of good management is recognized land, including land, particularly its contribution to economic growth, biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, food security, poverty eradication, empowerment of women, measures to address climate change and increase water availability.

  13. CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY – A LOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMIL DINGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve a definition of the concept of sustainability and of sustainable system from a logical perspective. In this respect, it introduces and defines (through the sufficiency predicates the concept of logically vivid system and, on this basis, are discussed a logical concept of sustainability, respectively of a sustainable system in general are discussed and built up. Sustainability is considered in light of identity preservation of the systems, as a static anchor, on one hand, and of the concept of automatic stabilizers as a dynamic anchor on the other side. Finally, the two sufficiency conditions for a logically vivid system be sustainable are identified: the presence of hyper-cycles, respectively the absence of positive feed-back.

  14. Sustainability of agricultural water use worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, M.; Tamea, S.; Dalin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Water is a renewable but limited resource. Most human use of freshwater resources is for agriculture, and global water demand for agriculture is increasing because of the growth in food demand, driven by increasing population and changing diets. Hence, measuring the pressure exerted by agriculture on freshwater sources is a key issue. The sustainability of water use depends on the water source renewability rate: the water use is not sustainable (depleting the water storage) where/when it exceeds the renewable freshwater availability. In this study, we explore the sustainability of rain and irrigation water use for the production of nine major crops, globally at a 5'x5' spatial resolution. We split the crop water use into soil moisture (from rainfall) and irrigation, with, for the first time, separating ground- and surface-water sources, which is a key distinction because the renewability of these two water sources can be very different. In order to physically quantify the extent to which crop water use is sustainable, we measure the severity of the source depletion as the number of years required for the hydrological cycle to replenish the water resource used by the annual crop production, namely the Water Debt. This newly developed indicator allows one to compare the depletion level of the three water sources at a certain location for a specific crop. Hence, we mapped, for each crop, the number of years required to replenish the water withdrawn from soil-, surface- and ground-water resources. Each map identifies the hotspots for each water source, highlighting regions and crops that threaten most the water resource. We found that the water debt with soil moisture is heterogeneous in space but always lower than one year indicating a non-surprising sustainability of rain-fed agriculture. Rice and sugarcane make the largest contribution to global soil moisture depletion. Water debt in surface water is particularly high in areas of intense wheat and cotton production

  15. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemianowska, Ewa; Wesołowski, Andrzej; Skibniewska, Krystyna A.; Tyburski, Józef; Gurzyński, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers' awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland) there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992) up till now (2013) the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  16. Sustainable agriculture and protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemianowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, environmental and social development should not degrade the environment but it should leave it for the next generations in the state that it is presently or even better. The principle of sustainable agriculture is to cover the human needs for food without damage to the environment. The aim of the article was to research the farmers’ awareness of the principle of sustainable agriculture and balanced fertilization and their influence on the environment. Among 100 farmers of the Tczew district (Poland there was done questionnaire research on the determination rates of nitrogen fertilizers and on the regulation of fertilizers usage in Poland. Most of farmers declared a good knowledge of good agricultural practices and of balanced fertilization and the awareness of threats issuing from their activities. At the same time in Poland since the announcement of the Nitrate Directive of the former European Common Market (1992 up till now (2013 the application of nitrogen fertilizers doubled and the yield of wheat increased only by 15%, which means the increase of environmental burden with this chemical element.

  17. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  18. Sustainability in nursing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Elf, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe, explore and explain the concept of sustainability in nursing. Although researchers in nursing and medicine have emphasised the issue of sustainability and health, the concept of sustainability in nursing is undefined and poorly researched. A need exists for theoretical and empirical studies of sustainability in nursing. Concept analysis as developed by Walker and Avant. Data were derived from dictionaries, international healthcare organisations and literature searches in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Inclusive years for the search ranged from 1990 to 2012. A total of fourteen articles were found that referred to sustainability in nursing. Sustainability in nursing involves six defining attributes: ecology, environment, future, globalism, holism and maintenance. Antecedents of sustainability require climate change, environmental impact and awareness, confidence in the future, responsibility and a willingness to change. Consequences of sustainability in nursing include education in the areas of ecology, environment and sustainable development as well as sustainability as a part of nursing academic programs and in the description of the academic subject of nursing. Sustainability should also be part of national and international healthcare organisations. The concept was clarified herein by giving it a definition. Sustainability in nursing was explored and found to contribute to sustainable development, with the ultimate goal of maintaining an environment that does not harm current and future generations' opportunities for good health. This concept analysis provides recommendations for the healthcare sector to incorporate sustainability and provides recommendations for future research. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Masduki; Aini Zakaria

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  20. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  1. Investigating the Sustainability of Perennial Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherlin, C. E.; Brunsell, N. A.; De Oliveira, G.; Crews, T.; Vico, G.

    2017-12-01

    The changing climate leads to uncertainties concerning the sustainability of certain agricultural resources, and with the additional stresses of an increasing global population, uncertainty in food security will greatly increase. To adhere to future food demands in the face of this changing climate, perennial agriculture has been a proposed solution. However, it is equally important to assure that perennial agriculture is not negatively affecting the climate in exchange for this proposed more robust food source. We chose to examine the interactions between perennial and annual agricultural crops by focusing on the efficiency of exchanges with the atmosphere. This is done using the omega decoupling factor for 4 different sites as a way of quantifying the contributions of radiation and stomatal conductance over the resulting water and carbon cycles. This gives us an indication of how the plant canopy is interacting with, and influencing the local microclimate. Ultimately, this should give us an indication of the ability of perennial crops to aid in the climate mitigation process. We hypothesized that the perennial site chosen would have omega values more similar to the omega values of a natural grassland rather than an annual crop site. Using AmeriFlux towers to determine the canopy values needed to calculate the omega decoupling factor, we focused on the Kernza perennial crops being grown at the Land Institute in Salina, Kansas (KLS), in comparison to a natural grassland in Manhattan, Kansas (KON), a typical land cover model in Lawrence, Kansas (KFS), and an annual crop site in Lamont, Oklahoma (ARM). These results will allow us to move forward in the investigation of perennial crops as a sustainable food source.

  2. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent. We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able to assess the situation on different scales and see how it is evolving, and also provide assistance for rational management that is compatible with farmers’ production targets.

  3. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  5. Assessing Agricultural Intensification Strategies with a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Davidson, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the growing global demand for food and bioenergy, agricultural production must nearly double by 2050, placing additional pressures on the environment and the society. Thus, how to efficiently use limited land, water, and nutrient resources to produce more food with low pollution (MoFoLoPo) is clearly one of the major challenges of this century. The increasingly interconnected global market provides a great opportunity for reallocating crop production to the countries and regions that use natural resources more efficiently. For example, it is estimated that optimizing the allocation of crop production around the world can mitigate 41% of nitrogen lost to the environment. However, higher efficiency in nutrients use does not necessarily lead to higher efficiency in land use or water use. In addition, the increasing share of international trade in food supply may introduce additional systemic risk and affect the resilience of global food system. Using the data/indicator from a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix and an international trade matrix, we developed a simple model to assess the trade-offs of international trade considering resource use efficiencies (including water, land, nitrogen, and phosphorus), economic costs and benefits, and the resilience of food system.

  6. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  7. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jahangir

    2005-01-01

    The report presents the current status of some selected CGPRT Crops (secondary crops) and examines their potentials in enhancing the sustainable development of diverse agriculture in Bangladesh. Agriculture in Bangladesh is composed of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry subsectors. This study deals primarily with crop agriculture and the scope of diversification is limited to crop rather than agricultural diversification.

  8. 18 Prerequisite for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Keywords: Prerequisite, agricultural development, sustainable .... into many areas of policy and public provision, reducing subsidies and bringing ... indirectly influence agricultural prices is often far greater than the effects of.

  9. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South- Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KENNY

    Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the existence of relationships between the ... Key words Sustainable practices, industrial agriculture, agricultural technology, rural economy. Introduction .... consumers. 4.19. 1.11.

  10. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  11. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... method for proposals on package solutions for sustainable renovation was described. The method consists of four steps, going from investigation of the house to proposal for sustainable renovation, detailed planning and commissioning after renovation. It could be used by teams of consultants...... of the building envelope and the electricity required to run the system. Positive impact on the indoor environment can be expected. Thermal comfort will be improved by insulation and air-tightness measures that will increase surface temperatures and reduce draught from e.g. badly insulated windows. A ventilation...

  12. Nepal's agriculture, sustainability and intervention : looking for new directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basnyat, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes that support sustainable agriculture. It argues that we know very little about how to intervene for sustainable agriculture, particularly for those areas where the Green Revolution has passed almost unnoticed and where degradation of natural

  13. Soil Degradation, Policy Intervention and Sustainable Agricultural Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasmal, J.; Weikard, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural growth in developing countries is jeopardized by soil degradation consequent upon intensive cultivation and use of increasing doses of chemical inputs. To pave the way to sustainable agricultural growth we develop a model that incorporates organic fertilizer into the

  14. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorramnia, K; Shariff, A R M; Rahim, A Abdul; Mansor, S

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system

  15. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.

  16. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The ratification of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by all member countries of the United Nations demonstrates the determination of the international community in moving towards a sustainable future. To enable and encourage accountability, independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability efforts are essential. Among all sectors, agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, namely environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of a sustainable agriculture and the feasibility of measuring it remain elusive, in part because it encompasses both biophysical and socio-economic components that are still poorly integrated. Therefore, we have been developing a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) on a national scale in order to measure country-level performance in agriculture. First proposed by Swaminathan for agricultural research and policy in 1990s, SAM is a collection of indicators measuring sustainable agriculture from environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The environmental dimension evaluates various impacts of agricultural production on the environment, such as water consumption and nutrient pollution. The economic dimension quantifies the costs and benefits for major stakeholders involved in agricultural production, including government, industry, farmers, and consumers. The social dimension considers three major aspects: 1) social welfare (e.g., hunger and poverty rate, nutritional quality, demography of rural community); 2) equity over sectors, space, and gender (e.g., access to resources/services and opportunities, distribution of income, land ownership and tenure rights); 3) systemic risk (e.g., fragility of the global agricultural production and trade system, resilience of a farm or a country to market and natural shocks). Translating the illustrative concepts into measureable indicators will not only provide an independent and transparent measurement of national performance in the

  17. Sustainable Absorption Panels from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail F.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has become a serious environmental problem and there are demands for alternative sustainable materials which capable to reduce the noise level at various frequency ranges. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the potential of turning the agricultural waste and waste paper into a sound absorption panel. For the purpose of this study, combination of two materials was under studied; coconut coir fibre from agriculture waste and shredded waste paper from the office. There were two main objective of the research; first is to develop absorption panels from coconut coir powder that available locally with a combination of shredded paper at different percentage of mixture. Second objective is to identify the absorption rate of the panels. The study encompasses the fabrication of the particle board using the coconut husk powder mix with shredded waste paper and using the gypsum powder as the binder for the two materials. Four acoustic panels of size 0.5m x 0.5m and 0.012 m thick were fabricated with different mix ratio; 25% of coconut coir powder mixed with 75% of shredded waste papers for sample 1, 50% both of the material for sample 2, 75% of coconut coir powder mixed with 25% of shredded waste paper for sample 3, and lastly 100% of coconut coir powder for sample 4. The absorption coefficient of the panels was tested in a reverberation chamber and in accordance with ISO 354:1985 standards. Based on the results, sample 1 gave the highest absorption coefficient compared to sample 2, 3 and 4. It can be concluded that the acoustic panel made from a mixture of 25% coconut coir powder with 75% shredded waste paper provided higher absorption coefficient compared to the performance of the other samples. This might be caused by the size of the coir powder which is very small, creating less void space in between the panel and thus causing it to absorb less sound. Since sound absorption is very much affected by the availability of void space of

  18. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  19. Sustainability Assessment and Reporting in Agriculture Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Kassem; Oldřich Trenz; Jiří Hřebíček; Oldřich Faldík

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is a mainstream business activity that demonstrates the link between the organization’s strategy and commitment to a sustainable global economy. Sustainability indicators describe the environmental, social, economic and governance performance of Small and Medium‑sized Businesses/Enterprises (SMB/SME). Unfortunately, their implementations in the Czech Republic show a low level of engagement in sustainability assessment. The paper presents the results of the authors’ r...

  20. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of ... less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. ... Agricultural waste management system (AWMS) was discussed and a typical ...

  1. Evolution of the concept of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    2000-01-01

    Topics like the sustainable development are analyzed before the years eighty; main models and criticize current. In her it is to synthesize the process of theoretical construction of the concept, making emphasis in the relativity of the development idea, in the relationship of the sustainability with the justness, and in their vision of the future. The neo liberal pattern of D.S is presented and the variations introduced by the World Bank as well as the proposals of construction of a model of community DS

  2. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  3. The Concept of Sustainable Strategy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Radomska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable development has been present in the field of management for many years, yet the challenges and rules of contemporary business mean that it remains topical. At the same time, the results of much research indicates an unsatisfactory level of execution of development concepts. Due to this, the subject of the study encompasses the implementation of the idea of sustainability in the strategy execution process, lending it a holistic and balanced nature. The purpose of the paper is an examination of the relationship between strategy implementation and the effectiveness of the strategy execution process. The relationships between the perspectives defined and results obtained by organizations were investigated. The research demonstrated the existence of a positive correlation of varied intensity. It is thus possible to identify a positive influence of the integration of the idea of sustainability with strategy execution, which is reflected in the effectiveness of activities undertaken.

  4. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  5. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension ... privatization of the public sector of national economies of developing nations has ... include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, ...

  6. Impact of promoting sustainable agriculture project on livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on impact assessment of Promoting Sustainable Agriculture Project ... the Fisher Index, Focused Group Discussion and descriptive statistical analysis. ... The qualitative analysis showed that 30%, 45% and 10% of men, women and ...

  7. Geography, sustainability and the concept of glocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Theodoor Verstappen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability focuses on the question whether our planet can sustain the present and future global human impact. The related environmental issues and particularly global changes, such as increasing temperatures, rising sea level, deforestation and deteriorating biodiversity, have become a key subject in earth science research. The social and economic components of sustainability, however, get less scientific attention and are often ignored in political and religious circles. Emphasis is on the symptoms of the issue rather than on coping strategies. Are the growing population numbers and social discrepancies compatible with sustainability and is the free market economy of our consumption society compatible with the ecological limits of growth, social balance and human aspirations? Sustainable development is a realistic concept only if its economic aspects are shouldered by social and environmental considerations and if regional and local diversity is respected. The globalization required today thus should be coupled with decentralized glocalization. In this interdisciplinary field of regional differentiation geography can make important contributions. Earth observation from satellites and data handling using geoinformation systems are essential tools.

  8. Agroecology as a Science of Integration for Sustainability in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A knowledge contribution is provided in order to understand agroecology as both a scientific discipline and a philosophical paradigm for promoting sustainability in agriculture. The peculiar character of agroecology as an applied science based on the systems paradigm is explored in the fields of research and tuition. As an organisational capability of connecting different hierarchical levels in accordance with the goal of sustainability, integration is shown as an emergent property of the evolution of agriculture as a human activity system.

  9. Identifying the characteristic of SundaParahiyangan landscape for a model of sustainable agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, M. Z.; Nurhayati, H. S. A.; Mugnisjah, W. Q.

    2017-10-01

    This study was an explorative study of the various forms of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Sundanese people in the context of sustainable agriculture. The qualitative method was used to identify SundaParahiyangan landscape by using Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal throughsemi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and field survey. The Landscape Characteristic Assessment and Community Sustainability Assessment were used to analyze the characteristic of landscape to achieve the sustainable agricultural landscape criteria proposed by US Department of Agriculture. The results revealed that the SundaParahiyangan agricultural landscape has a unique characteristic as a result of the long-term adaptation of agricultural society to theirlandscape through a learning process for generations. In general, this character was reflected in the typical of Sundanese’s agroecosystems such as forest garden, mixed garden, paddy field, and home garden. In addition, concept of kabuyutan is one of the TEKs related to understanding and utilization of landscape has been adapted on revitalizing the role of landscape surrounding the agroecosystem as the buffer zone by calculating and designating protected areas. To support the sustainability of production area, integrated practices of agroforestry with low-external-input and sustainable agriculture (LEISA) system can be applied in utilizing and managing agricultural resources.

  10. The scale concept and sustainable development: implications on the energetics and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between both the demographic growth and the water and energetic resources are focused. The planet scale and carrying capacity are discussed starting from the maximum and optimum sustainable concepts, both anthropocentric and biocentric. Two scenarios denominated 'sustainable agriculture' and 'sharing-water' are elaborated with the available resources of water, fertile lands and energy consumption, and with the population trends. (author)

  11. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  12. Contribution of nuclear techniques towards a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz Ugarte, O.

    1997-01-01

    The papers mentions the main nuclear techniques applied in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture, the technical support given to Cuba by the IAEA mainly in training and in the creation of a infrastructure (Laboratories) to enable the application of nuclear techniques to agricultural research related to soil fertility, plant nutrition and water usage

  13. Transition to Sustainable Fertilisation in Agriculture, A Practices Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, Suvi; Oosterveer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    It is argued that sustainability transition in agriculture requires a shift from a regime oriented towards increasing agricultural productivity to a regime in which the environmental and social effects of production are regarded as central. Practice theories represent an emerging perspective on

  14. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  15. SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS: TRANSLATING CONCEPT INTO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idqan Fahmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has proven to spur economic growth for many countries in the world. It has, however, also negative impacts in terms of widening income gap, environmental degradation etc. such that many are worried that the growth will not be sustainable. Triple bottom line was introduced to make the economic growth and company competitiveness more sustainable. Although to define the concept is easy, to make it implemented, especially by developing countries, is another matter. Education and research track by universities is suggested to be one best way to accelerate the implementation of the concept. A case of Graduate Program of Management and Business (MB-IPB is used to illustrate the attempt.Keywords: Sustainable Business Competitiveness, Triple Bottom Line, MB-IPB, 3PsABSTRAKGlobalisasi telah terbukti memacu pertumbuhan ekonomi pada berbagai belahan dunia, tetapi juga mempunyai banyak dampak negatif yang dirasakan dalam bentuk melebarnya kesenjangan pendapatan, kerusakan lingkungan dll. Akibatnya banyak khawatir bahwa pertumbuhan ekonomi yang terjadi tidak akan berkelanjutan. Konsep Triple Bottom Line diperkenalkan untuk membuat pertumbuhan ekonomi dan dayasaing perusahaan lebih berkelanjutan. Walaupun konsep ini relatif mudah untuk dijelaskan, menerapkannnya ternyata tidak mudah, terutama di negara berkembang. Jalur pendidikan dan penelitian merupakan salah satu cara terbaik yang dapat dilakukan universitas untuk mempercepat penerapan konsep. Kasus Program Pascasarjana Manajemen dan Bisnis (MB-IPB digunakan untuk mengilustrasikan upaya tersebut.Kata kunci: Dayasaing Bisnis Berkelanjutan, Triple Bottom Line, MB-IPB, 3P

  16. Exploring the international policy dimension of sustainability in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Leneman, H.; Groeneveld, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The report offers an overview of experiences in France and the United Kingdom as regards efforts to promote sustainability in agriculture. It also identifies international policy constraints on national efforts to promote sustainability. In addition, it explores opportunities for and threats to the

  17. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancing the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The 'neem cake' is the scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA Technical Unit Environment and Sustainable Development Innovation the Agro-Industrial System, developed a promising experiment to promote the use of 'neem cake' as an insecticide, and fertilizer of low cost in sustainable agriculture. [it

  18. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere - a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems. © 2016 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Cederholm Björklund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweden’s agriculture industry has faced many challenges in recent years. Among the most severe challenges are the decrease in the number of small and medium-sized farms, the decrease in the number of people employed in agricultural actvites, and the increase in governmental regulatons and legislaton governing such actvites. At the same tme, the demand that agriculture contributes to sustainable social and ecological development has increased. Although research shows that sustainable business model innovaton (SBMI contributes to the creaton of sustainable businesses and to the development of a sustainable society, Swedish agriculture has not been at the forefront in the use of SBMI. The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers to SBMI in Swedish agriculture in order to understand why farmers seldom engage in SBMI. This qualitatve study follows the Gioia methodology and data for the analysis were acquired in semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs at six family farms in Sweden. The paper makes a theoretcal contributon to the research on SBMI with its focus on sustainable entrepreneurship in the Swedish agricultural industry. The paper concludes that the barriers to SBMI are external, internal, and contextual.

  20. Plasma chemistry for concept of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Yu.; Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Tsymbaliuk, O.M.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Chunikhina, K.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Iukhimenko, V.V.; Veremii, Iu.P.; Prisyazhnevych, I.V.; Prysiazhna, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the exploration of the compatibility of the hybrid plasma-catalytic conversion of liquid hydrocarbons into syngas with the concept of sustainable development. The results of the experimental investigations indicate the high efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion of ethanol to syngas and the small amount of waste (a few percent of feedstock weight). The results of the simulation of the kinetics using ZDPlasKin code for traditional thermochemical and hybrid plasma-catalytic conversions indicate some differences in their mechanisms, which lead to the significant changes in the syngas ratio.

  1. Exploratory Landscape Metrics for Agricultural Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, E; de Noronha, M.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic growth and urban change have been an increasing concern for decision makers in recent decades. The monitoring, mapping, and analysis of agricultural land use change, especially in areas where urban change has been high, is crucial. The collision between traditional economic activities

  2. Agricultural Drought Analysis for Sustainable Smallholder Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates dry spell occurrence in the Mabogini Village—located within a semi- ... both the prevalence of agricultural dry spells as well as estimate the water deficits throughout the .... ΔSroot (mm day-1) is the water available in the.

  3. Environmentally sustainable agriculture and future developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is wi......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...

  4. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participatory research and development (PR&D) offers such an inclusive model. ... PR&D concepts and practices for practitioners, researchers, and academic. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  5. Sustainable nanomaterials using waste agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. Learning from nature, one can produce a wide variety of nanoparticles using completely safe and benign materials such as ...

  6. Constructing Sociotechnical Transitions Toward Sustainable Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charao Marques, F.; Kessler Dal Soglio, F.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of knowledge generation and ‘novelty production’ into new social arrangements within a sociotechnical transition scenario. The purpose is to contribute to the debate about convergences between creativity, learning and collective action for enhancing the sustainability

  7. Agricultural genomics and sustainable development: perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    era is to establish how genes and proteins function to bring about changes in phenotype. Some of ... within the context of sustainable development of African economies. The greatest .... these strategies, the genomes of many organisms have now been ... gene structure and order, e.g. between rice, wheat, corn, millets and ...

  8. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Mauchline, Tim H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere ? a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endoph...

  9. SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS: TRANSLATING CONCEPT INTO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idqan Fahmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Globalization has proven to spur economic growth for many countries in the world. It has, however, also negative impacts in terms of widening income gap, environmental degradation etc. such that many are worried that the growth will not be sustainable. Triple bottom line was introduced to make the economic growth and company competitiveness more sustainable. Although to define the concept is easy, to make it implemented, especially by developing countries, is another matter. Education and research track by universities is suggested to be one best way to accelerate the implementation of the concept. A case of Graduate Program of Management and Business (MB-IPB is used to illustrate the attempt.   Keywords: Sustainable Business Competitiveness, Triple Bottom Line, MB-IPB, 3Ps   /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  10. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Nguyen, Quang D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture. PMID:28676790

  11. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

  12. Concepts, operationalization and impacts of the agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Agricultural technology and information initiative is a national undertaking formed and implemented by the ... relevance in terms of quality and the resultant impact on the ..... at group level the initiative's accounting procedures and .... Trained farmers in cashew spraying to control powdery mildew .... Project internal report.

  13. Earth Observation for Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram; Gernot, Klepper

    2016-08-01

    The global and regional potentials of Earth Observation (EO) to contribute to food security and sustainable agriculture in the 2050-timeframe were analysed in the ESA study EO4Food, whose outcome will be presented (www.EO4Food.org). Emphasis was put on the global societal, economic, environmental and technological megatrends that will create demand for food and shape the future societies. They will also constitute the background for developments in EO for food security and sustainable agriculture. The capabilities of EO in this respect were critically reviewed with three perspectives 1) the role of EO science for society, 2) observables from space and 3) development of future science missions.It was concluded that EO can be pivotal for the further development of food security and sustainable agriculture. EO allows to support the whole economic and societal value chain from farmers through food industry to insurance and financial industry in satisfying demands and at the same time to support society in governing sustainable agriculture through verifyable rules and regulations. It has the potential to become the global source of environmental information that is assimilated into sophisticated environmental management models and is used to make agriculture sustainable.

  14. Sustainable environment management: impact of Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Fayyaz-ul-Hussan; Khan, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ever increasing demands of food are met through increased production by vertical or horizontal expansion. Vertical expansion needs increased inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, etc.) supply, leaving many negative effects on environment. Horizontal expansion limits the choice for future generations. Apart from agricultural activities, agro-based industries produce large amounts of waste material. Farm waste, along with industrial waste, used as fertilizer after necessary preparation would reduce the cost of production, increase production and clean the environment. Safe and proper disposal of saline water could reduce the risk of further salinization. Alternative methods of irrigation would solve the problem of waster logging. (author)

  15. Sustainable intensification in agriculture as a factor of achieving food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ending hunger, achieving food security and promoting sustainable development are at the top of the list of United Nations sustainable global development priorities after 2015. In addition to many positive effects, efforts of mankind regarding the reduction of rural poverty realized through the Green Revolution have had many negative effects, primarily related to natural resources. Irreversible devastation of land, air and water quality deterioration and jeopardizing biodiversity have been recognized as key elements of unsustainability of existing agricultural development concept. Consequently, there is a need for the adoption of a new concept of agricultural development, which will lie between intensive conventional and organic farming. The concept which has already been applied in some regions of the world and whose basic goal is to find a way to increase production with a negligible negative impact on the environment is sustainable agricultural intensification. The aim of this paper is to look at both positive and negative aspects of biotechnology development so far and point out the place and role the sustainable intensification concept should have in relation to conservation of natural resources and achievement of food security.

  16. Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Roy, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    This publication deals with the direct application of phosphate rock (PR) sources to agriculture. Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and its deficiency restricts crop yields severely. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic, and often extremely P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fibre production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers such as superphosphates are commonly recommended to correct P deficiencies, but most developing countries import these fertilizers, which are often in limited supply and represent a major outlay for resource-poor farmers. In addition, intensification of agricultural production in these countries necessitates the addition of P not only to increase crop production but also to improve soil P status in order to avoid further soil degradation. Hence, it is imperative to explore alternative P sources. Under certain soil and climate conditions, the direct application of PR, especially where available locally, has proved to be an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the more expensive superphosphates. PR deposits occur worldwide, but few are mined (for use mainly as raw materials to manufacture water-soluble P fertilizers). The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Coordinated Research Project called 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilizers, in particular rock phosphates'. This was implemented by institutes of developing and industrialized countries from 1993 to 1998. The results obtained yielded new information on: chemistry of soil P; tests for available soil P; phosphate nutrition of crops; agronomic effectiveness of PR products; and P fertilizer recommendations with particular emphasis on PR use. Within the framework of the integrated plant nutrition systems promoted by

  17. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOBRE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, a key component of the structure of economic branches, should be addressed directly related to the maintenance of natural resources and their exploitation in a controlled way or the enhancement of their own, without resorting to inconsistent stimulus elements that can in time generate dysfunctions in products and the environment. Looking at things from this perspective, there is a need for a sustainable agriculture approach, given its social, ecological and economic representativeness, with active and continuous character.

  18. Room for Sustainable Agriculture. Part 1 Advice. Part 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    An outline is given of the social dilemmas associated with agriculture and horticulture in the Netherlands. Ongoing innovation and accelerated sustainable development are essential to resolve these dilemmas. Given the importance of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture sector, there is every reason for the central government to play its part and help remove the obstacles to the continuing sustainable development of the sector. The Council recommends that the central government continues developing the Council's vision for agriculture and horticulture with the parties concerned, allows scope for the development of different agricultural business models, applies knowledge and innovation as drivers of continuing sustainable development, amends laws and regulations as necessary, and facilitates a permanent dialogue between the sector and society. The advisory report also sets out the Council's vision concerning the political and public debate on agriculture and horticulture. This debate is most clearly characterised by major and seemingly insurmountable differences of opinion. The Council hopes that its report will induce a shift in thinking about Dutch agriculture among politicians and society at large, so that the transitions considered necessary by the Council can be implemented more rapidly.

  19. Room for Sustainable Agriculture. Part 1 Advice. Part 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    An outline is given of the social dilemmas associated with agriculture and horticulture in the Netherlands. Ongoing innovation and accelerated sustainable development are essential to resolve these dilemmas. Given the importance of the Dutch agriculture and horticulture sector, there is every reason for the central government to play its part and help remove the obstacles to the continuing sustainable development of the sector. The Council recommends that the central government continues developing the Council's vision for agriculture and horticulture with the parties concerned, allows scope for the development of different agricultural business models, applies knowledge and innovation as drivers of continuing sustainable development, amends laws and regulations as necessary, and facilitates a permanent dialogue between the sector and society. The advisory report also sets out the Council's vision concerning the political and public debate on agriculture and horticulture. This debate is most clearly characterised by major and seemingly insurmountable differences of opinion. The Council hopes that its report will induce a shift in thinking about Dutch agriculture among politicians and society at large, so that the transitions considered necessary by the Council can be implemented more rapidly.

  20. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  1. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  2. Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  3. Building Integrated Design Practice under the Concept of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuexin

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of social economy, people are more demanding for architecture. Some advanced design concepts are gradually applied to the design of buildings. Under the concept of sustainable development, building integration design has also been widely used to promote the rapid development of architectural design. Integrated design concepts and sustainable development concepts play an important role to meet people’s requirements. This article will explore the concept of sustainable development under the concept of integrated architectural design and practice analysis, propose appropriate measures.

  4. Sustainable Nutrient Management in Chinese Agriculture:Challenges and Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has to raise agricultural productivity in its limited and shrinking farmland to guarantee food security for its huge and ever-growing population. Sustainable soil nutrient management is of paramount importance to the world's most populous country. Critical challenges the country is facing in sustaining soil fertility and in alleviating the hazardous impact of intensive fertilizer use are discussed in this paper. It is emphatically pointed out that national strategies as well as area-specific action plans with respect to scientific nutrient management are urgently needed to balance productivity and sustainability in the future. Relevant proposals for addressing those challenges are also presented.

  5. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  6. Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment; governance, policy and multifunctionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the

  7. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  8. Understanding robustness as an image of sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the research described in this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the conceptualisation of robustness in agricultural science as well as its relevance to sustainability. Robustness rapidly gained attention as a potential solution for a variety of

  9. Agricultural sustainability in the semi-arid Near East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture began in the eastern Mediterranean Levantine Corridor about 11000 years ago toward the end of the Younger Dryas when aridity had diminished wild food resources. During the subsequent Climatic Optimum, agricultural villages spread rapidly but subsequent climatic changes on centennial to millennial scales resulted in striking oscillations in settlement, especially in marginal areas. Natural climate change thus alternately enhanced and diminished the agricultural potential of the land. Growing populations and more intensive land us, both for agriculture and livestock, have led to changes in the structure of vegetation, hydrology, and land quality. Over the millennia, political and economic interventions, warfare and incursions by nomadic herding tribes all impacted sustainability of agriculture and the ability of the land to supports its populations. In much of the region today, agricultural land use is not sustainable given existing technology and national priorities. The Near Eastern case is instructive because of the quality of information, the length of the record, and the pace of modern change.

  10. Concept Maps for Evaluating Learning of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are used to assess student and cohort learning of sustainable development. The concept maps of 732 first-year engineering students were individually analyzed to detect patterns of learning and areas that were not well understood. Students were given 20 minutes each to prepare a concept map of at least 20 concepts using paper and pen.…

  11. Sustainability through service perspectives, concepts and examples

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfson, Adi; Martin, Patrick M; Tavor, Dorith

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the mutual relationship between service and sustainability. It covers methodologies and approaches and describes measurements and tools that can promote sustainability on the service market. Lastly, it presents the different applications of sustainability, together with examples of sustainable services. Environmental concerns have become integral to any decision-making process in the design and implementation of goods and services. With the increasing dominance of the service sector, and as service systems become more complex and interdisciplinary, the focus must move from the exchange of products to that of services. Newly created services should thus aim to incorporate sustainability into their designs while viewing sustainability as a service in its own right. Integrating sustainability in the service design and development process is essential to improving the sustainability of our society and preserving the environment. Moreover, doing so shifts the service boundaries from values that...

  12. Challenges for Sustainable Land Management through Climate-Smart Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew; Stringer, Lindsay

    2017-04-01

    There are increasing pushes for agricultural land management to be both sustainable and climate-smart (in terms of increasing productivity, building resilience to climate change and enhancing carbon storage). Climate-smart agriculture initiatives include conservation agriculture, based on minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation, and agroforestry. Such efforts address key international goals of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), but as yet have not seen widespread uptake. Based on analyses of different project interventions from across a range of southern African countries, we outline the inter-related challenges that are preventing adoption of climate-smart agriculture initiatives. We then identify routes to building multi-stakeholder partnerships and empowering communities through participatory monitoring with the aim of increasing uptake of such sustainable land management practices. Good practice examples remain largely restricted to local-level project interventions with significant donor (or private-sector) support, aligned to short-term community priorities relating to access to inputs or reduced labour requirements. Scaling-up to district- and national-level initiatives is yet to be widely successful due to problems of: limited policy coherence; a lack of communication between stakeholders at different levels; and limited understanding of long-term benefits associated with changes in agricultural practices. We outline opportunities associated with improved communication of climate information, empowerment of district-level adaptation planning and diversification of agricultural livelihood strategies as key routes to guide farmers towards more sustainable, and climate-smart, land management practices. Recent experiences in Malawi, which has experienced significant floods and an El Niño drought year in the last two years, are used to

  13. Geoethical remarks to sustainable development concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2013-04-01

    crust. Geological factors need to be reflected and respected in any concept of environmental sustainability. People have to improve permanently by an appropriate up-to-date geoeducation any knowledge of the behaviour of the Nature (including its predictability). The needed geoethical way of thinking and acting should be based on generally accepted moral and ethical principles achieved by mankind by various ways and experiences (in spite of some current contrary trends). It is necessary to seek new priorities emphasizing more and more the solidarity of human kind.

  14. Biotechnology: a tool for sustainable innovation in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, Rachele

    2015-01-01

    Feed 9.6 billion people, according to UN projections, will populate the planet in 2050. This is the challenge that agriculture is called to deal and that will be one of the topics carriers EXPO 2015. The answer to food needs of a population growing, in particular in the Countries in the developing world, will certainly not unique, but the road seems marked: it is that of an i ntensification sustainable a griculture, supported by innovation and research, able to enhance agricultural yields without adding to the budget input necessary for the production (energy, earth, water). [it

  15. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km 2 landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  16. Eco-efficient Agriculture: Concepts, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keating, B.A.; Carberry, P.S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Asseng, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Dixon, J.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-efficiency in the simplest of terms is about achieving more with less—more agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, for less input of land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency encompasses both the ecological and economic dimensions of

  17. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser , Bernhard; Stolze , Matthias; Oehen , Bernadette; Gessler , Cesare; Weibel , Franco; Bravin , Esther; Kilchenmann , Adeline; Widmer , Albert; Charles , Raffael; Lang , Andreas; Stamm , Christian; Triloff , Peter; Tamm , Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/be...

  18. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultural production. Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification. However, while there are many fallow-season and perennial crops that might be used in such a “bioeconomic” strategy for diversification, most are not yet well adapted and highly-marketable. Efforts are underway to enhance adaptation and marketability of many such crops. Critically, these efforts require a strategic approach that addresses the inherent complexity of these projects. We outline a suitable approach, which we term “sustainable commercialization”: a coordinated innovation process that integrates a new crop into the agriculture of a region, while intentionally addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability challenges via multi-stakeholder governance. This approach centers on a concerted effort to coordinate and govern innovation in three critical areas: germplasm development, multifunctional agroecosystem design and management, and development of end uses, supply chains, and markets. To exemplify the approach, we describe an ongoing effort to commercialize a new fallow-season crop, field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L..

  19. Sustainability Assessment of the Agricultural and Energy Systems of Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrke Gaudreau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve decision-making, sustainability-based approaches to assessment of options and undertakings demand that we move beyond narrowly defined considerations to address the full suite of requirements for progress towards sustainability. This paper reports on a sustainability assessment exercise that originally focused on burning agricultural residues, primarily peanut shells, for cooking applications in Senegal. The scope of assessment had to be expanded to address the agricultural and energy systems of Senegal, when closer examination revealed a complex set of energy and agricultural system interactions that could undermine the anticipated positive effects of initiatives centred primarily on peanut residue cookstoves. The case highlights the need to be open to expanding the scope of assessment to address underlying and/or unexpected issues that cannot be addressed appropriately at the project scale. In particular, the case illustrates how the assessment of an energy system may serve as an entry point into a deeper exploration of the context in which the energy system is embedded. The analysis also illustrates a situation in which different paths that may be followed, each with its own degree of uncertainty, path dependence, feasibility, fairness, cultural sensitivity, trade-off acceptability and possibilities for public judgement of overall desirability.

  20. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  1. Beyond agricultural innovation systems? Exploring an agricultural innovation ecosystems approach for niche design and development in sustainability transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigford, Ashlee Ann E.; Hickey, Gordon M.; Klerkx, Laurens

    2018-01-01

    Well-designed and supported innovation niches may facilitate transitions towards sustainable agricultural futures, which may follow different approaches and paradigms such as agroecology, local place-based food systems, vertical farming, bioeconomy, urban agriculture, and smart farming or digital

  2. Determinants of Sustainability Reporting in Food and Agriculture Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, sustainability reporting (SR has become an increasingly relevant topic in business and academia. However, it is still limited in food and agriculture sector in the Czech Republic and the European Union and only little information of the latest developments have thus far been presented. This paper provides current information dating from 2010 to 2014 from publications related to food and agriculture sector. The objective of the paper is to identify what determinants of SR are examined in the world initiatives to identify (in consistencies, gaps, and opportunities for our future research of this field. The paper focuses to new G4 Guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA systems of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nation. Finally, possible future research of SR including SR information systems are discussed by illuminating gaps and underexposed themes in the area of regulation and governance as well as stakeholder perception.

  3. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  4. Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

    2014-01-01

    Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Developing Awareness of the Sustainability Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Irene M.; Reid, Robin E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of the sustainability triad as a framework for teaching sustainability in the classroom. Uses a short case study of a national park to show how the triad can be used to determine if its three dimensions (economic, social, and environmental) are congruent or in conflict with each other. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Menozzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA. Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was applied on a sample of durum wheat producers to analyse intentions 1 to maintain 7% of the arable land as an EFA, and 2 to implement the private sustainability scheme. Structural equation modelling was applied to test for the relative importance of intention determinants. The farmers’ attitude and past behaviour positively affect intentions to implement the EFA, while perceived behavioural control and attitudes predict intentions to adopt the private sustainability scheme. These results suggest possible interventions that public authorities and supply chain leaders might implement to stimulate farmers’ sustainable behaviours. 

  7. Becoming more sustainable: concepts and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirages, D C [Maryland Univ., Dep. of Government and Politics, Harrison Program on the Future Global Agenda, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The automobile and associated mobility system have had a major economic and ecological impact on human societies. The industrial revolution, during which the internal combustion engine has played a major role, has shaped secular, materialistic societies and associated consumption patterns that cannot be sustained in a future world of eight billion people. Creating a more sustainable world means maximizing human satisfaction while minimizing human impact on nature. Becoming more sustainable is best envisioned as a continuing process in which constraints and possibilities change over time and space. The sustainable process raises major controversies including how to define and measure progress, how to apportion wealth among generations, and between free trade and environmental preservation. Sustainable mobility implies major changes in approaches to transportation including stressing psychological rather than physical mobility, designing speciality vehicles for emerging niches, and placing special emphasis on mass transit systems for emerging megacities. (author) 17 refs.

  8. Weed sustainable managment in agricultral and non-agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Arcangeli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is a way to assure the availability of natural resources for future generations.Weed managementin cultivated and not cultivated areas is part of sustainable agriculture as well, and has to face three important challenges:economical (to increase income and competitiveness of farm sector, social (give rural areas opportunity of economicdevelopment and improvement of living conditions, environmental (promote good agricultural practices andpreserve habitats, biodiversity and landscape. The first two challenges involve the in-depth study of models, the economicthreshold of intervention, the management of herbicide resistance phenomena, the study and development ofnew herbicide molecules, or even modern formulations, leading to the optimization of treatments with possible reductionof distributed doses per hectare. Environmental issues must be set in the studies to assess and manage the factorsleading to phenomena of diffuse or point pollution (i.e. water volumes, soil, etc.. However, a sustainable agricultureproduction must take into account consumers’ needs and concerns, especially about food health and safety withrespect to production methods (traditional, integrated and biological. In this context, the results obtained by the developmentof more advanced active principles, the spread of public and private Integrated Production Specifications(Disciplinari di Produzione Integrata and the greater and greater commitment by the institutions in charge of monitoringthe agro-pharmaceutical residues in agro-food products, can be set. The SIRFI SIRFI (Società Italiana per laRicerca sulla Flora Infestante, thanks to the multi-disciplinarity of the structures supporting it, always takes an activepart into innovation especially aimed to the identification of tools implementing farm activity sustainability.

  9. The problem of sustainability within the complexity of agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotes Torres, Alejandro; Cotes Torres, Jose Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the general systems theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agricultural and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for the development of scientific and technological advances concordant with the agricultural food chain needs of the XX century; which permit an orientation of not only work by profession is who lead the processes of animal and vegetable production, but also creates a sense of pertinence in all of the participants in the chain, highlighting the importance of studying by means of systemic thought, agronomy and animal science, as disciplines that approach to complexities of agriculture which is the angular stone of civilization, such as we know it at the moment

  10. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...... services as well as other promoting issues to overcome the behavioural, organizational, legal and social barriers that exist in sustainable renovation. A starting point for such a change has been to get an overview of the existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical...

  11. Risk identification of agricultural drought for sustainable Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, N. R.; Blanta, A.; Spyropoulos, N. V.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Drought is considered as one of the major natural hazards with a significant impact on agriculture, environment, society and economy. Droughts affect sustainability of agriculture and may result in environmental degradation of a region, which is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of agriculture. This paper addresses agrometeorological or agricultural drought within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with risk identification of agricultural drought, which involves drought quantification and monitoring, as well as statistical inference. For the quantitative assessment of agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the vegetation health index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI, are areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural drought-prone region of Greece, characterized by vulnerable agriculture. The results show that agricultural drought appears every year during the warm season in the region. The severity of drought is increasing from mild to extreme throughout the warm season, with peaks appearing in the summer. Similarly, the areal extent of drought is also increasing during the warm season, whereas the number of extreme drought pixels is much less than

  12. Novel combustion concepts for sustainable energy development

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Avinash K; Gupta, Ashwani K; Aggarwal, Suresh K; Kushari, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises research studies of novel work on combustion for sustainable energy development. It offers an insight into a few viable novel technologies for improved, efficient and sustainable utilization of combustion-based energy production using both fossil and bio fuels. Special emphasis is placed on micro-scale combustion systems that offer new challenges and opportunities. The book is divided into five sections, with chapters from 3-4 leading experts forming the core of each section. The book should prove useful to a variety of readers, including students, researchers, and professionals.

  13. An Underground Revolution: Biodiversity and Soil Ecological Engineering for Agricultural Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S Franz; Wagg, Cameron; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2016-06-01

    Soil organisms are an integral component of ecosystems, but their activities receive little recognition in agricultural management strategies. Here we synthesize the potential of soil organisms to enhance ecosystem service delivery and demonstrate that soil biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously (i.e., ecosystem multifunctionality). We apply the concept of ecological intensification to soils and we develop strategies for targeted exploitation of soil biological traits. We compile promising approaches to enhance agricultural sustainability through the promotion of soil biodiversity and targeted management of soil community composition. We present soil ecological engineering as a concept to generate human land-use systems, which can serve immediate human needs while minimizing environmental impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agroforestry—The Next Step in Sustainable and Resilient Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heron Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture faces the unprecedented task of feeding a world population of 9 billion people by 2050 while simultaneously avoiding harmful environmental and social effects. One effort to meet this challenge has been organic farming, with outcomes that are generally positive. However, a number of challenges remain. Organic yields lag behind those in conventional agriculture, and greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching remain somewhat problematic. In this paper, we examine current organic and conventional agriculture systems and suggest that agroforestry, which is the intentional combination of trees and shrubs with crops or livestock, could be the next step in sustainable agriculture. By implementing systems that mimic nature’s functions, agroforestry has the potential to remain productive while supporting a range of ecosystem services. In this paper, we outline the common practices and products of agroforestry as well as beneficial environmental and social effects. We address barriers to agroforestry and explore potential options to alter policies and increase adoption by farmers. We conclude that agroforestry is one of the best land use strategies to contribute to food security while simultaneously limiting environmental degradation.

  15. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  16. Sustainability concept for energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review is aimed to introduce historical background for the sustainability concept development for energy, water and environment systems. In the assessment of global energy and water resources attention is focussed in on the resource consumption and its relevancy to the future demand. In the review of the sustainability concept development special emphasize is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its relevancy to the historical background of the sustainability idea. In order to introduce measuring of sustainability the attention is devoted to the definition of respective criteria. There have been a number of attempts to define the criterions for the assessment of the sustainability of the market products. Having those criterions as bases, it was introduced a specific application in the energy system design

  17. Engage key social concepts for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. Hicks; A. Levine; A. Agrawal; X. Basurto; S. J. Breslow; C. Carothers; Susan Charnley; S. Coulthard; N. Dolsak; J. Donatuto; C. Garcia-Quijano; M. B. Mascia; K. Norman; M. R. Poe; T. Satterfield; K. St. Martin; P. S. Levin

    2016-01-01

    With humans altering climate processes, biogeochemical cycles, and ecosystem functions (1), governments and societies confront the challenge of shaping a sustainable future for people and nature. Policies and practices to address these challenges must draw on social sciences, along with natural sciences and engineering (2). Although various social science approaches...

  18. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  20. SOME PROBLEMS REGARDING THE AGRICULTURAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The old rural civilization which assured a long and miraculous surviving of the Romanian people, it is at present in a critical breaking up moment. Production and rural living standard have become lacked of competitiveness, traditions and customs are left and people move to cities. Production looks to be unefficient and not sustainable from an ethnical and social point of view. Under the pressure of this situation, and also of the international concerns (ONU 1972, FAOSARD, UE and European concerns (LEADER 199, EU RDP 2007-2013, sustainable development has become the core of the activity of Romanian scientists and authorities (SNDD 2013-2020-2030, PNDR 2007-2013 . Taking into consideration the previous research results and programmes, the present study approaches the need to pass to real actions based on the analysis of the thresholds of the affected space, some aspects of the agricultural and rural sustainable development, regarding: farm modernization as an economical and social imperative and mention some aspects of the rural sustainable development including also the preservation of cultural, natural and rural heritage.

  1. The role of culture in implementing the concept of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Environment degradation urges human to live in a sustaining way both for production and consumption mode. It covers any sector of human life include architecture. People are competing to implement the concept of sustainability using the latest technology while the culture has begun to be forgotten. Bearing in mind that by examining the culture related or daily activities, the sustainable development can be implemented with a solid base and fully accepted by the society. Hence, the benefit of sustainable development can be felt by the inhabitant sooner. The aim of this research is examining the local culture in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, and Gozo, Maltese Islands which has sustainability concept. The local culture can be a starting point in implementing the notion of sustainability through daily basis approach. This research uses the qualitative method and collects the data through observation and literature review. The result has shown that some of the cultures in selected area have sustainability values which can be developed further in term of the implementation of sustainable development. Thus, related to the sustainable development, the practitioners can shift to the deep-rooted local value rather than apply an alien concept in society.

  2. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  3. Ecologically sustainable chemical recommendations for agricultural pest control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-12-01

    Effective pest control remains an essential part of food production, and it is provided both by chemicals and by natural enemies within agricultural ecosystems. These methods of control are often in conflict because of the negative impact of chemicals on natural enemies. There are already well-established approaches such as those provided by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control-Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms for testing, collecting, and publishing information on responses of natural enemies to chemicals based on laboratory responses of specific organisms; however, these tests do not assess the cumulative impact of chemical inputs across an entire season or consider impacts on the complex communities of natural enemies that can provide effective pest control on a farm. Here, we explore the potential of different approaches for assessing the impact of chemicals on agricultural ecosystems and we propose a simple metric for sustainable chemical use on farms that minimizes overall impact on beneficial groups. We suggest ways in which the effectiveness of metrics can be extended to include persistence and habitat features. Such metrics can assist farmers in developing targets for sustainable chemical use as demonstrated in the viticultural industry.

  4. Applying the food multimix concept for sustainable and nutritious diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotor, F B; Ellahi, B; Amuna, P

    2015-11-01

    Despite a rich and diverse ecosystem, and biodiversity, worldwide, more than 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger. Of major concern are a degradation of our ecosystems and agricultural systems which are thought to be unsustainable thereby posing a challenge for the future food and nutrition security. Despite these challenges, nutrition security and ensuring well balanced diets depend on sound knowledge and appropriate food choices in a complex world of plenty and want. We have previously reported on how the food multimix (FMM) concept, a food-based and dietary diversification approach can be applied to meet energy and micronutrient needs of vulnerable groups through an empirical process. Our objective in this paper is to examine how the concept can be applied to improve nutrition in a sustainable way in otherwise poor and hard-to-reach communities. We have reviewed over 100 FMM food recipes formulated from combinations of commonly consumed traditional candidate food ingredients; on average five per recipe, and packaged as per 100 g powders from different countries including Ghana, Kenya, Botswana, Zimbabawe and Southern Africa, India, Mexico, Malaysia and the UK; and for different age groups and conditions such as older infants and young children, pregnant women, HIV patients, diabetes and for nutrition rehabilitation. Candidate foods were examined for their nutrient strengths and nutrient content and nutrient density of recipes per 100 g were compared with reference nutrient intakes for the different population groups. We report on the nutrient profiles from our analysis of the pooled and age-matched data as well as sensory analysis and conclude that locally produced FMM foods can complement local diets and contribute significantly to meet nutrient needs among vulnerable groups in food-insecure environments.

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE, VARIABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE'S RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gukurume Simbarashe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.

  6. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  7. The Cradle to Cradle concept - is it always sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Strandesen, Maria

    TerraSkin with a cellulose based reference paper was conducted. From this, energy systems and recycling infrastructure was found to be decisive parameters for the sustainability of C2C products. They are therefore not always sustainable. Moreover a literature study identified inherent sustainability......The Cradle to Cradle (C2C) concept has gained wide interest among especially designers over the past few years. This paper aims to investigate whether C2C products are in fact always sustainable and to explore whether an ideal C2C society is so too. An LCA comparing the C2C certified mineral paper...

  8. Integrated Systems Mitigate Land Degradation and Improve Agricultural System Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Rain-fed agricultural production supported by exogenous inputs is not sustainable because a continuous influx of expensive inputs (fertilizer, chemicals, fossil fuel, labor, tillage, and other) is required. Alternatives to traditional management allow natural occurring dynamic soil processes to provide the necessary microbial activity that supports nutrient cycling in balance with nature. Research designed to investigate the potential for integrated systems to replace expensive inputs has shown that healthy soils rich in soil organic matter (SOM) are the foundation upon which microbial nutrient cycling can reduce and eventually replace expensive fertilizer. No-till seed placement technology effectively replaces multiple-pass cultivation conserving stored soil water in semi-arid farming systems. In multi-crop rotations, cool- and warm-season crops are grown in sequence to meet goals of the integrated farming and ranching system, and each crop in the rotation complements the subsequent crop by supplying a continuous flow of essential SOM for soil nutrient cycling. Grazing animals serve an essential role in the system's sustainability as non-mechanized animal harvesters that reduce fossil fuel consumption and labor, and animal waste contributes soil nutrients to the system. Integrated systems' complementarity has contributed to greater soil nutrient cycling and crop yields, fertilizer reduction or elimination, greater yearling steer grazing net return, reduced cow wintering costs grazing crop residues, increased wildlife sightings, and reduced environmental footprint. Therefore, integrating crop and animal systems can reverse soil quality decline and adopting non-traditional procedures has resulted in a wider array of opportunities for sustainable agriculture and profitability.

  9. Optimal use of agrometeorological information for sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid regions of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surender, S.; Diwan, S.; Rao, V.U.M.

    2006-05-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture encompasses ecological, economic and social problems in which weather and climate can be of great importance. Despite considerable technological advancement and improved irrigation facilities, Indian farmers are still dependent on seasonal rains, which are highly variable both in time and space. Inclement weather events like droughts, floods, cold and heat waves, hails, squalls, tropical storms severely affect the agricultural production. Their harmful effects may be partially reduced if the occurrence of these events is predicted in advance and farmers are suitably advised to take preventive/corrective measures. With the objective to help the farmers maximize profits by decreasing weather related losses, increasing the timeliness of farm operations and to reduce environmental pollution through the optimal use of agricultural chemicals, the location specific/regional Agrometeorological Advisory Service was initiated in the year 1991. The forecasting skills of most of the weather parameters at Hisar have improved considerably over the years. Now, it is time to integrate and make use of vast agrometeorological information available online in preparing weather based advisories for in-season agricultural operations both for single locations and on a meso or regional scale as desired. This can be further strengthened through input from new technologies such as neural network, remote sensing, GIS, ground measurements and modeling applications along with traditional wisdom available with the farming communities should be integrated to further strengthen the location specific weather forecasting system for the development of sustainable and more efficient crop production systems. (author)

  10. Seeds of Knowledge: The Evolution of the Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Laurie L.

    The Louis Bromfield Sustainable Agriculture Library is located in Lucas, Ohio, at Malabar Farm State Park. Established in 1992, the library is jointly maintained by the Ohio State University Sustainable Agriculture Program and the Ohio Department of Agriculture. The library's namesake, Louis Bromfield, was a Pulitzer Prize-winning author and noted…

  11. Sustainable intensification of China's agroecosystems by conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in China started about 8000 BCE with cultivation of millet and rice. Thus, China's modern agriculture is rooted in a long evolutionary history of agricultural practices. China's population of 211 million in 1700 increased to 295 million in 1800, 400 million in 1900, 1266 million in 2000, and is 1409 million in 2017. Thus, China has to feed 18.5% of the world population on merely 7% of the world's arable land and with even scarcer water resources. Yet, between 1950 and 2017, the grain production in China increased at a faster rate than that of the population. Total grain production (million ton or Tg was 113 in 1949, 305 in 1970, 462 in 2000, and 603 in 2015. The high agricultural productivity is attributed to high consumption of fertilizers (58.8 Tg in 2015, pesticides (1.81 Tg in 2014, and irrigation (65.7 Mha in 2014. However, the high production is also associated with the severe problems of soil degradation (erosion, water contamination and air pollution. It is estimated that ~40% of China's arable land is degraded to some degree. Thus, there is a strong need for a paradigm shift of sustaining high productivity while restoring quality of natural resources of soil, water and air. In this context, conversion to a system-based conservation agriculture (CA may be an important strategy of sustainable intensification of agro-ecosystems for advancing and sustaining high production while restoring soil health, purifying water and air and improving the environment. The CA has been practiced in China since 1990s and was adopted on ~8.0 Mha in 2015. The available literature shows that conversion to CA increases soil organic C (SOC concentration and stocks mostly in the surface layer while also producing an equivalent agronomic yield. Therefore, a widespread adoption of CA in China would necessitate a deeper understanding of its ecological underpinnings. To be effective, site-specific CA practices must reduce risks of soil erosion under

  12. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  13. Embedding Sustainability and Renewable Energy Concepts into Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Cioca, L.

    2017-12-01

    Human society is facing an uncertain future due to the present unsustainable use of natural resources and the growing imbalance with our natural environment. Creation of a sustainable society is a complex multi-disciplinary and multi-stage project, believed to dominate our century, requiring collaboration, teamwork, and abilities to work with respect and learn from other disciplines and professions. Sustainable development means technological progress meeting the present needs without compromising future generation ability to meet its needs and aspirations. It has four aspects: environment, technology, economy, and societal organizations. Students are often taught to deal with technological developments and economic analysis to assess the process or product viability, but are not fully familiar with sustainability and optimization of technology development benefits and the environment. Schools in many disciplines are working to include sustainability concepts into their curricula. Teaching sustainability and renewable energy has become an essential feature today higher education. Sustainable and green design is about designs recognizing the constraints of the natural resource uses and the environment. It applies to all of engineering and science areas, as all systems interact with the environment in complex and important ways. Our project goals are to provide students with multiple and comprehensive exposures to sustainability and renewable energy concepts, facilitating the development of passion and skills to integrate them into practice. The expected outcomes include an increased social responsibility; development of innovative thinking skills; understanding of sustainability issues, and increasing student interests in the engineering and science programs. The project aims to incorporate sustainability and renewable energy concepts into our undergraduate curricula, employing the existing course resources, and developing new courses and laboratory experiments

  14. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Evaluating strategies for sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture through the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable intensification is an emerging model for agriculture designed to reconcile accelerating global demand for agricultural products with long-term environmental stewardship. Defined here as increasing agricultural production while maintaining or improving environmental quality, sustainable i...

  16. Evaluating agricultural trade-offs in the age of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanter, David R.; Musumba, Mark; Wood, Sylvia L.R.; Palm, Cheryl; Antle, John; Balvanera, Patricia; Dale, Virginia H.; Havlik, Petr; Kline, Keith L.; Scholes, R.J.; Thornton, Philip; Tittonell, Pablo; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    A vibrant, resilient and productive agricultural sector is fundamental to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Bringing about such a transformation requires optimizing a range of agronomic, environmental and socioeconomic outcomes from agricultural systems – from crop yields, to

  17. Agriculture and crop science in China:Innovation and sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbi Xu; Jiayang Li; Jianmin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is a regularly held event allowing crop scientists to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications. The 7th ICSC was held on August 14–19, 2016 in Beijing, China, with the theme "Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability". As a companion production for this great congress, the nine papers collected in this special issue feature important fields of crop science in China. This editorial first briefly introduces the 7th ICSC, followed by a brief discussion of the current status of, constraints to, and innovations in Chinese agriculture and crop science. Finally, the main scientific points of the papers published in this special issue are surveyed, covering important advances in hybrid rice breeding, minor cereals, food legumes, rapeseed, crop systems, crop management, cotton, genomics-based germplasm research, and QTL mapping. In a section describing future prospects, it is indicated that China faces a full transition from traditional to modern agriculture and crop science.

  18. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control.

  19. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  20. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  1. Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

    2015-01-01

    Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Sustainability Management in Agribusiness: Challenges, Concepts, Responsibilities and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable management has recently gained growing attention in the agribusiness sector. This is mainly due to a widespread discontent with the industrialization of agricultural production and food processing and growing public pressure on agribusiness firms to implement more sustainable management practices. In this paper we present the results of an explorative empirical study of sustainability management in German agribusiness firms. The study shows that agribusiness firms have developed a broad understanding of sustainability management and perceive a multi-facetted spectrum of societal demands they have to meet. The most important arguments for implementing more sustainable management practices are that companies have to make sure that they are trusted by society in the long run and that the perception of a company by external stakeholders has become more and more important. The companies surveyed know quite a number of sustainability programmes and standards, but the number of companies that actually participate in these initiatives is much smaller. Nonetheless, the majority of the respondents feels that their company is more successful with regard to sustainability management than industry average.

  3. Innovative Financial Approach for Agricultural Sustainability: A Case Study of Alibaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and agricultural finance are two important issues attracting attention from industry and academia. This research adopts an in-depth case study methodology to investigate the agricultural finance initiatives of Alibaba Group, and explores how the agricultural finance practices of an e-commerce platform facilitate its sustainability goal. A reference framework is proposed to prove the adoption of agricultural finance. The influence of three moderating variables, namely, IT support, financial attractiveness, and cooperation with other entities, is analyzed. We find that advanced IT support and financial attractiveness are two indispensable enablers for agricultural finance initiatives, and collaboration with other entities is necessary in adopting agricultural supply chain finance.

  4. Applying Andragogical Concepts in Creating a Sustainable Lifelong Learning Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Today, the world is changing, re-establishing the role of education to have a developed society. This article aims to explore the practical application of Andragogy as a key element for creating a sustainable lifelong learning society, to propose strategies for developing a lifelong learning society using andragogical concepts, to enhance…

  5. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same...... and relate it to an empirical study of sustainable tourism in eight protected areas and their regions in the Baltic. They are subject to large differences in human pressure. The political commitment to the related EU Natura 2000 networks has been taken as our point of departure for a more detailed analysis...... of accessibility and its related conflicts, and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies at an abstract conceptual level, but proves its relevance through...

  6. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  7. Towards an integral approach to sustainable agriculture and healthy nutrition : vision of the Scientific Council for Integral Sustainable Agriculture and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, van der W.J.; Huber, M.A.S.; Jetten, T.H.; Blom, P.; Egmond, Van N.D.; Lauwers, L.; Ommen, van B.; Vilsteren, van A.; Wijffels, H.H.F.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture and healthy nutrition are high on the social agenda. Work is now being done to face both challenges, often with measurable success. However, huge changes are still needed and some problems have even been exacerbated. Although agriculture and nutrition are closely linked, both

  8. Agriculture and Water Policy : Toward Sustainable Inclusive Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Syud Amer; Gautam, Madhur

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews Pakistan's agriculture performance and analyzes its agriculture and water policies. It discusses the nature of rural poverty and emphasizes the reasons why agricultural growth is a critical component to any pro-poor growth strategy for Pakistan. It supports these arguments by summarizing key results from recent empirical analysis where the relative benefits of agricultur...

  9. Modelling sustainable bioenergy potentials from agriculture for Germany and Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Sonja; Wiegmann, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for analyzing the sustainable potential of agricultural biomass for energy production. Available land and residue potentials are assessed up to 2030 for Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Two scenarios are presented: a ''business as usual'' scenario is compared to a sustainability scenario. The latter implements a comprehensive sustainability strategy, taking also into account non-agricultural land use such as building activity and nature conservation. On the one hand our model quantifies the conflict of objectives between enhanced extensification in agriculture and increased area for nature conservation. On the other hand the synergies in restricting built up area and increased mobilisation of agricultural residues are assessed. Additionally the impact of reduced subsidized agricultural exports from the EU is calculated, also as an indicator for the influence of world food markets on bioenergy potentials. Our results show that the sustainable energy potential from agricultural biomass is strongly restricted for Germany and the Czech Republic compared to their energy demand. But in Poland and Hungary native agricultural biomass provides a much higher potential for energy supply, even if sustainability is comprehensively considered. However, this is strongly influenced by the amount of agricultural exports of each country. For bioenergy from agricultural cultivation to remain a sustainable option in the energy sector, its influence on the food markets must be respected more thoroughly and a comprehensive approach to sustainable development in land use is a prerequisite. (author)

  10. Agriculture, trade and the environment: The impact of liberalization on sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Antle, J. (ed.); Lekakis, J. (ed.); Zanias, G. (ed.)

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record Revised papers selected from the international conference "European agriculture at the crossroads: Competition and sustainability" hosted by the Dept. of Economics of the University of Crete, in Rethimno, 1996. The conference examined the relationship between free trade and agricultural sustainability in the European Union.

  11. Are Organic Standards Sufficient to Ensure Sustainable Agriculture? Lessons From New Zealand’s ARGOS and Sustainability Dashboard Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Merfield, Charles; Moller, Henrik; Manhire, Jon; Rosin, Chris; Norton, Solis; Carey, Peter; Hunt, Lesley; Reid, John; Fairweather, John; Benge, Jayson; Le Quellec, Isabelle; Campbell, Hugh; Lucock, David; Saunders, Caroline; MacLeod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Our review concludes that organic standards need to account for a broader set of criteria in order to retain claims to ‘sustainability’. Measurements of the ecological, economic and social outcomes from over 96 kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy farms in New Zealand between 2004 and 2012 by The Agricultural Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) project showed some enhanced ecosystem services from organic agriculture that will assist a “land-sharing” approach for sustainable land management. H...

  12. Interdependence of Agricultural Production and Environment and the Road to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curić Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.

  13. Agricultural innovations strategies for sustainable food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, recent trends of slowing agricultural productivity ... land and water constraints, under-developed agricultural sector and climate change. ... is needed to (i) improve small holder productivity and market access (ii) keep trade open (iii) ...

  14. Integrated weed management for sustainable rice production: concepts, perspectives and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartalingam Rajan

    2002-01-01

    Weed management has always been in some way integrated with cultural and biological methods, probably occurring more fortuitously than purposefully. Experience has shown that repeated use of any weed control technique especially in monocultures production systems results in rapid emergence of weeds more adapted to the new practice. In intensive high input farming systems, heavy selection pressure for herbicide tolerant weeds and the environmental impacts of these inputs are important tissues that require a good understanding of agroecosystem for successful integration of available options. Rice culture, in particular flooded rice culture has always employed integration through an evolution of management practices over the generations. However, a vast majority office farmers in Asia have yet to achieve the high returns realised by farmers elsewhere, where a near optimum combination of high inputs are being effectively integrated for maximum productivity. In addition to technological and management limitations, farmers in developing countries are faced with social, economic and policy constraints. On the other hand, farmers who had achieved considerable increases in productivity through labour replacing technologies, in particular direct seeding with the aid of herbicides, are now faced with issues related to environmental concerns due to high levels of these inputs. The issues facing weed scientists and farmers alike in managing weeds effectively and in a manner to ensure sustainability have become more challenging than ever before. In the last two decades, no issue has been discussed so. intensively as Sustainable Farming, Sustainable Agriculture or Alternative Agriculture within the broader global concept of Sustainable Development. To address these challenges a clear perspective of sustainable farming is essential. This paper addresses these concepts, perspectives and options for choices in weed management for sustainable rice production. (Author)

  15. Nitrogen, sustainable agriculture and food security. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of modern agriculture on natural resources has become a major global concern. Population growth and expanding demand for agricultural products constantly increase the pressure on land and water resources. A major point of concern for many intensively managed agricultural systems with high

  16. Integrated crop management: an approach to sustainable agricultural development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, F.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Keulen, van H.; Breman, H.

    1996-01-01

    In developing countries, agriculture is being intensified to produce more food and agricultural products. In most agricultural development strategies, the order of priorities is on: (i) increasing yields, (ii) crop protection, and (iii) human health, environmental and social aspects. This sequential

  17. INTELLIGENT NETWORKS, SMART GRIDS CONCEPT, CRUCIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin RADU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented the concept of smart grids, a very important technology for sustainable development. In the context of globalization of the world lives in an increasingly complex security environment, with rapid changes, some obvious, others less obvious implications in the short, medium or long term, international, national, local and up to every citizen. All countries in the globalized world economy is facing energy problems in terms of climate change have intensified in the twentieth century.

  18. SOIL CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN OIL PALM CULTIVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halus Satriawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many have been concerned with the oil palm cultivation since it may also put land resources in danger and bring about environmental damage. Poor practices in managing agricultural land very often occur due to the inadequate knowledge of soil conservation. Application of soil and water conservation is to maintain the productivity of the land and to prevent further damage by considering land capability classes. This research was aimed at obtaining soil and water conservation techniques which are the most appropriate and optimal for oil palm cultivation areas based on land capability classes which can support sustainable oil palm cultivation. Several soil conservation techniques had been treated to each different class III, IV, and VI of the studied area. These treatment had been performed by a standard plot erosion. The results showed for the land capability class III, Cover plants + Manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce leaching of N (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest erosion (3,73t/ha, and N leaching (0,25%. On land capability class IV, Sediment Trap + cover plants+ manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce organic C and P leaching (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest runoff (127,77 m3/ha, erosion (12,38t/ha, organic C leaching (1,14 %, and P leaching (1,28 ppm. On land capability class VI, there isn’t significant effect of soil conservation, but Bench Terrace + cover plants +manure has the lowest runoff, erosion and soil nutrient leaching.

  19. BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENTS ASSISTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard KATA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides identification and assessment of barriers to the implementation of the instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP that support sustainable development of agriculture. This issue has been studied on the example of individual farms of south-eastern Poland, which benefited from programs to support sustainable agriculture in 2004-2013. The introduction of agriculture on the path of sustainable development depends on institutional factors (including political, which can induce farmers to take into account the environment and future generations in their microeconomic decisions. It has been shown that the most important barriers to the efficient and effective implementation of programs in support of sustainable agriculture are financial and information and education constraints.

  20. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  1. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  2. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  3. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy: Critical environmental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Moore-O'Leary, K. A.; Johnston, D. S.; Abella, S.; Tanner, K.; Swanson, A.; Kreitler, J.; Lovich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists - including those from academia, industry, and government agencies - have only recently begun to quantify trade-off in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  4. Farm Education and the Effect of a Farm Visit on Children's Conception of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Pia; Jeronen, Eila; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2015-01-01

    Personal connections to agriculture have decreased considerably in Finland during the last few decades due to structural changes in agriculture. In this study, we will elucidate the understanding and conception of agriculture amongst urban pupils who have grown up during the 21st century. The research strategy consists of intervention in form of a…

  5. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  6. CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT IN TIMES OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dębicka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rate of economic, technological, political and legal changes, as well as the com-plexity of predicting demand, behavior and preferences of consumers, along with expand-ing markets contribute to the growing importance of sustainable supply chain in the com-pany’s operation, playing a special role in the decision making process and adaptation to the consumer needs of. In order, therefore, to achieve a competitive advantage, it is nec-essary to maintain the high level of innovation, which should result in the implementation of new solutions, ideas and concepts that contribute to the competitiveness on a global scale.

  7. The energy inside the concept of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szauer, Maria Teresa

    1999-01-01

    The intimately bound of two thematic basic conceptual schemes are shown: The climatic change and the paper of the energy inside the concept of sustainable development. It is presented a description of the green house effect, their causes and consequences. They are analyzed, making emphasis in the differences among the countries of the north and of the south, the consumption of natural resources, the population's growth, and the deforestation like main causes of the climatic change. Lastly is discussed the international negotiations related with the topic

  8. Prerequisite for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa in thelast decade or so, a substantial proportion of the people in Africa still live inacute poverty and suffer immensely from inadequate access to economic and social resources. As the agricultural sector dominates the economics of ...

  9. Quantitative population epigenetics - a catalyst for sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauß, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of quantitative population epigenetics and the related importance of stress can lead to a paradigm shift, away from a high-input and high-output agriculture with a maximum utilization of the genetic potential to an ecological intensification, to a low-input and high-output agriculture which is optimization and harmonization of limiting stress factors to achieve maximum results with limited environmental or ecological resources.

  10. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  11. [Theories and methodologies of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project--a case study of Xuemeiyang land consolidation project in Changtai County, Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanmei; Wu, Cifang; Cheng, Chengbiao; Qiu, Lingzhang; Huang, Shengyu; Zheng, Ruihui

    2002-09-01

    The concept and characteristics of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project were discussed in this paper. Principles, basic methods and procedures of engineering designs on agricultural land consolidation project were put forward, which were successfully adopted for designing agricultural land consolidation in Xuemeiyang region of Changtai County, including diversity designs of sustainable land use, engineering designs of soil improvement, roads, ditches, and drains for protecting existent animal environments, and design of ecological shelter-forests in farmland. Moreover, from sustainable economic, ecological and social points, the results of these engineering designs were evaluated based on fouteen important indexes. After carrying out these engineeringdesigns, the eco-environments and agricultural production conditions were significantly improved, and the farm income was increased in planned regions.

  12. Integrating irrigation and drainage management to sustain agriculture in northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah; Ritzema, Henk

    2018-01-01

    In Iran, as in the rest of the world, land and water for agricultural production is under pressure. Integrating irrigation and drainage management may help sustain intensified agriculture in irrigated paddy fields. This study was aimed to investigate the long-term effects of such management

  13. Role of an explorative model for learning about sustainable agricultural development in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen, van A.; Ridder, de N.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural development is complex, highly dynamic and differs among varying contexts. Decision-making for sustainable agricultural development cannot be based on generalized science-based knowledge, but should include context-specific knowledge and values of local stakeholders. Computer models

  14. Sustainable land management : strategies to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Rheenen, van T.; Dhillion, S.; Elgersma, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In large parts of the world, the reduction in the viability of agriculture and rural areas is an escalating problem. "Sustainable Land Management" offers a contemporary overview of the strategies employed to cope with the marginalisation of agriculture, through analyses of case studies and regional

  15. Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization for Smallholders: What Is It and How Can We Implement It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers are the main producers of the world’s food and they will have to increase production by up to 100 percent by 2050 to feed the growing population. This must be achieved while preserving natural resources and that is why sustainable agricultural mechanization (SAM will be fundamental to the process. SAM is climate-smart and environmentally benign and essentially means no-till conservation agriculture, which requires specific mechanization inputs. Principally, these are seeders and planters capable of penetrating soil surface vegetative cover to deposit seed and fertilizer at the required depth and spacing; and equipment for management of cover crops and weeds. Mechanization is required not only for crop production, but also for processing and along the entire value chain. Mechanization inputs are usually expensive and so specialist service provision will be the indicated way forward. This will need collaboration from both the private and public sectors and will involve public-private partnerships to be developed in one form or another. Given the poor track record of public sector mechanization provision, the delivery of SAM should be firmly in the hands of the private sector that should be committed to SAM principles or otherwise be incentivized to the concept through smart subsidies. Improved information flows via smallholder farmer-friendly innovation platforms; and continuing development and testing of SAM technologies via regional centres of excellence will both be required—especially for sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Nepal Terrace Farmers and Sustainable Agriculture Kits (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partnering to support sustainable growth This project is a unique private-public partnership ... They will use a stall-based franchise model and local vendors. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  17. Use of elicitors as an approach for sustainable agriculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... elicitors act in cellular defense mechanism of crops, to improve protection and management for sustainable ... mechanisms governing resistance to plant diseases and therefore could ..... Emerging MAP kinase pathways in ...

  18. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  19. Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books. Special Reference Briefs: SRB 95-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD.

    Prepared by the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) staff and volunteers, this annotated bibliography provides a list of 85 recently published books pertaining to sustainable agriculture. AFSIC focuses on alternative farming systems (e.g., sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic, and organic) that maintain agricultural…

  20. Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program(SANREM CRSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the history and current program of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP). SANREM Objectives include increasing stakeholder income generation capacity, empowering stakeholders, particularly women, enhancing decentralized resource management, strengthening local institutions, improving market access for smallholders and communities, and promoting sustainable and environmentally sound developme...

  1. Assessing the Sustainability of Agricultural and Urban Forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy Robertson; Andy. Mason

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), published the National Report on Sustainable Forests-2010 (USDA Forest Service 2011) (hereafter, National Report) several years ago and will be releasing a subsequent version of the report in 2017. Based on the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators for Forest Sustainability, the National...

  2. Biofertilizers: a potential approach for sustainable agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Trishna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Das, Bannhi; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-02-01

    The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity. Exploitation of microbes as biofertilizers is considered to some extent an alternative to chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector due to their extensive potentiality in enhancing crop production and food safety. It has been observed that some microorganisms including plant growth promoting bacteria, fungi, Cyanobacteria, etc. have showed biofertilizer-like activities in the agricultural sector. Extensive works on biofertilizers have revealed their capability of providing required nutrients to the crop in sufficient amounts that resulted in the enhancement of crop yield. The present review elucidates various mechanisms that have been exerted by biofertilizers in order to promote plant growth and also provides protection against different plant pathogens. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology.

  3. Protecting agriculture against nuclear radiations: conception and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann Hans-Joerg

    1997-01-01

    In case of atomic and chemical (AC) accident or attacks the agriculture is severely affected. This became clearly after the Chernobyl disaster, after which the authorities mobilized and increased the efforts to protect the agriculture. In Switzerland the Federal Commission for AC protection has undertaken the necessary actions in collaboration with the Federal Office for Agriculture. The protection of agriculture against radioactive fallout has many aspects. One of these concerns the requirement of informing farmers with all the necessary instruction to ensure the protection of rural population and animals, foods and forages, to make them able to take essential protection measures without exterior assistance, and to provide the agriculture buildings with simple and durable tools necessary in case of emergency intervention. To implement these requirements on Confederation level educational programs were developed to instruct agriculture agents and advisors on basic notions of radioactivity and radiation protection. These programs are thought to make the farmer aware with the implications of nuclear chemical and nuclear menace and the measures of protecting its enterprise by own means. Special instructions are to be applied by the enterprise chiefs to ensure first that the personnel protection is the top priority and then how to minimize and limit the damage produced by the radiation accident

  4. An Empirical Study on Sustainable Agriculture Land Use Right Transfer in the Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture land use right transfer (ALURT is a new policy designed to meet the demand of the sustainable development of agriculture in China. In the Heihe river basin (HRB, ALURT has also recently been introduced to cope with the emerging challenges in agriculture. In this paper, we empirically study the long-term viability of this new policy in HRB using a sustainability assessment. We collect the documents of ALURT contracts, statistical data of ALURT performance, and conduct interviews with its users. The main finding is that the centralized institutional structure of ALURT in HRB compromises its long-term viability. In particular, the power imbalance under the regulation of the intermediate agency, which causes the dissatisfaction of the participants, is threatening the application of the ALURT policy in the long run. Therefore, we suggest that the role of the intermediate agency in ALURT needs to be redefined, to better serve the sustainable development of agriculture in HRB.

  5. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.

  6. Transformation and sustainability in agriculture : connecting practice with social theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2011-01-01

    Public pressure and societal changes induce interventions and policies, which aim to transform agriculture and food provision. This book shows that for upscaling novel practices and organizational models it is important to include meso-level regime aspects in analysis and practice. The argument

  7. The Impact of Agriculture and Tourism Potentials on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rural areas, which inhabit the greater proportion of the population, mostly in developing nations, are the main sources of primary products (agriculture and minerals) for urban and industrial areas, hence the rural dwellers are regarded as the set of population that provide engine of in the development process of a nation ...

  8. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Sustainable Agriculture Evaluation for Red Soil Hill Region of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; XU Meng-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural sustainability for economic development is important and a complex issue throughout the world; however,it is difficult to synthetically evaluate its use in the policy making process. The objective of this study was to evaluate sustainable agriculture in the red soil hill region of Southeast China through a newly proposed method combining four separate sub-systems: regional population (P), resource (R), environmental (E), and socio-economic (S). This new index system was proposed to appraise synthetically the agricultural sustainability of the red soil hill region from 1988 to 1996 with a two-step method assessing: a) the agricultural sustainability in each province independently and b) the relative sustainability of each province to the whole region. The first step only provided a development trend for each province based on its original situation, while the second step provided additional information on the comparative status of each province in agricultural development to the region as a whole. Higher index scores were found for the economy and resource categories denoting improvement. However, lower scores in the environment category indicated the improvement was achieved at the cost of deteriorating ecological surroundings due to an increasing population that demanded more from the agro-ecosystem and put heavier pressures on it. Results also showed that water and soil losses in this region were the major obstacles encountered in sustainable agriculture development. The assessment results were verified when compared with results from another method. This suggested that the new assessment system was reliable and credible in evaluating agricultural sustainability on a regional scale.

  10. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  11. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to financial support was limited due to lack of collateral and high production risk where farmers' production is solely based on natural and unreliable rainfall patterns and therefore unsustainable. Strategies to improve food security should receive priority to support sustainable resource management, increase access ...

  12. Bioavailable soil P as a main key for sustainable agriculture: its functional model determined using isotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C.; Guiraud, G.; Marol, C.

    1994-12-31

    Sustainable agriculture is defined in many ways. In all of them, two main complementary concepts appear: this agriculture must firstly satisfy the human needs of foods for the present and secondly must not compromise the ability for the future generations to meet their needs. Therefore, concerning P, the sustainability in an ecosystem can be maintained if, and only if: (i) bioavailable soil P is not a limiting factor of crop yields in the considered conditions; (ii) all the parameters describing the available soil P will be unmodified each time that P is simultaneously taken by crops and returned to soils; (iii) P inputs and outputs must be without negative consequences on environment. Whatever the ecosystem, P nutrition can be described in terms of fluxes of P between soil and plant roots. The isotopic exchange method gives informations not only on bioavailable soil P but also on potential fluxes of P between soil and soil-solution. As roots take phosphorus in the soil solution it is concluded that this method can be used to predict not only potential P uptake by plants or crops in native soils but also the contribution to crop nutrition of a P application in soil. Isotopic tracers of P seem to be, at the present time, the simplest tool useful to describe, with a high accuracy, the main link of P cycle in sustainable agriculture: the bioavailable soil P. (authors). 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (authors).

  13. Bioavailable soil P as a main key for sustainable agriculture: its functional model determined using isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.C.; Guiraud, G.; Marol, C.

    1994-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is defined in many ways. In all of them, two main complementary concepts appear: this agriculture must firstly satisfy the human needs of foods for the present and secondly must not compromise the ability for the future generations to meet their needs. Therefore, concerning P, the sustainability in an ecosystem can be maintained if, and only if: (i) bioavailable soil P is not a limiting factor of crop yields in the considered conditions; (ii) all the parameters describing the available soil P will be unmodified each time that P is simultaneously taken by crops and returned to soils; (iii) P inputs and outputs must be without negative consequences on environment. Whatever the ecosystem, P nutrition can be described in terms of fluxes of P between soil and plant roots. The isotopic exchange method gives informations not only on bioavailable soil P but also on potential fluxes of P between soil and soil-solution. As roots take phosphorus in the soil solution it is concluded that this method can be used to predict not only potential P uptake by plants or crops in native soils but also the contribution to crop nutrition of a P application in soil. Isotopic tracers of P seem to be, at the present time, the simplest tool useful to describe, with a high accuracy, the main link of P cycle in sustainable agriculture: the bioavailable soil P. (authors). 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (authors)

  14. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Rubino; Maurizia Catalano; Antonio Lonigro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being coll...

  15. Elimination Method of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA: A Simple Methodological Approach for Assessing Agricultural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byomkesh Talukder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present world context, there is a need to assess the sustainability of agricultural systems. Various methods have been proposed to assess agricultural sustainability. Like in many other fields, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA has recently been used as a methodological approach for the assessment of agricultural sustainability. In this paper, an attempt is made to apply Elimination, a MCDA method, to an agricultural sustainability assessment, and to investigate its benefits and drawbacks. This article starts by explaining the importance of agricultural sustainability. Common MCDA types are discussed, with a description of the state-of-the-art method for incorporating multi-criteria and reference values for agricultural sustainability assessment. Then, a generic description of the Elimination Method is provided, and its modeling approach is applied to a case study in coastal Bangladesh. An assessment of the results is provided, and the issues that need consideration before applying Elimination to agricultural sustainability, are examined. Whilst having some limitations, the case study shows that it is applicable for agricultural sustainability assessments and for ranking the sustainability of agricultural systems. The assessment is quick compared to other assessment methods and is shown to be helpful for agricultural sustainability assessment. It is a relatively simple and straightforward analytical tool that could be widely and easily applied. However, it is suggested that appropriate care must be taken to ensure the successful use of the Elimination Method during the assessment process.

  16. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  17. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  18. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Roonnaphai, Nareenat

    2006-01-01

    The objective of Phase I Thailand country study are to review and analyses past trends in the production, marketing, consumption, processing and related policies of major CGPRT crops, of which maize, cassava and soybean are selected. In addition, analysis of trade liberalization, agro-industries using the three selected crops, production, marketing and processing potentials and threats are conducted in an attempt to seek policy recommendations for the development of sustainable, diversified a...

  19. Transitions to sustainable management of phosphorus in Brazilian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; Rodrigues, Marcos; Soltangheisi, Amin; de Carvalho, Teotonio S; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Benites, Vinicius de M; Gatiboni, Luciano C; de Sousa, Djalma M G; Nunes, Rafael de S; Rosolem, Ciro A; Andreote, Fernando D; Oliveira, Adilson de; Coutinho, Edson L M; Pavinato, Paulo S

    2018-02-07

    Brazil's large land base is important for global food security but its high dependency on inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilizer for crop production (2.2 Tg rising up to 4.6 Tg in 2050) is not a sustainable use of a critical and price-volatile resource. A new strategic analysis of current and future P demand/supply concluded that the nation's secondary P resources which are produced annually (e.g. livestock manures, sugarcane processing residues) could potentially provide up to 20% of crop P demand by 2050 with further investment in P recovery technologies. However, the much larger legacy stores of secondary P in the soil (30 Tg in 2016 worth over $40 billion and rising to 105 Tg by 2050) could provide a more important buffer against future P scarcity or sudden P price fluctuations, and enable a transition to more sustainable P input strategies that could reduce current annual P surpluses by 65%. In the longer-term, farming systems in Brazil should be redesigned to operate profitably but more sustainably under lower soil P fertility thresholds.

  20. The concept of computer software designed to identify and analyse logistics costs in agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study comprised research, development and computer programming works concerning the development of a concept for the IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process-based approach. As a result of research and programming work an overall functional and IT concept of software was developed for the identification and analysis of logistics costs for agricultural enterprises.

  1. Recycling of Treated Sewage Sludge in Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural utilization of organic wastes amendments has been shown to be a sound alternative for both waste recycling and soil fertility improvement. Also, attention had been paid to use the biological agents that most cheap and safe for agricultural application in poor sandy soils. In this respect, irradiated sewage sludge and individual and dual inoculants of Azospirillum, Rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi were applied for reclamation and development of low fertile sandy soil. The fertilizer value of sewage sludge has been known for a long time, but the concomitant problems of heavy metals in soil, as a result of its continuous applications, have only been recognized recently. Most of the studies were devoted to follow up the effect of high concentrations of metals when sewage sludge was applied, but no attention has been accelerated about its effect on soil microorganisms. Adverse effects of sewage sludge on microbial activity and populations of cyanobacteria, Rhizobium, Mycorrhizae and total microbial biomass have been detected in some cases of Europe. For example, N 2 fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria was found to be inhibited at concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of 127 Zn, 37 Cu, 21 Ni, 3.4 Cd, 52 Cr, and 71 Pb. Impact of bio fertilizers combined with irradiated sewage sludge on micro nutrients, e.g. Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb availability to clover and wheat plants, and productivity of both crops was the main objective of this study. In this connection, nuclear technology may offer a safety method against pathogenic effects of sewage sludge applied into agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, irradiated sludge is considered as safely source of organic wastes as well as the benefits on enrichment the low fertile soil with available nutrients, which act as a limiting factor for crop production. The N, P and K nutrients uptake by either shoots or grains of tested crops were positively and significantly affected by application of sewage sludge as well as bio

  2. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  3. Analysis of a sustainable gas cooled fast breeder reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Akansha; Chirayath, Sunil S.; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Thorium-GFBR breeder for actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. • A mixture of 232 Th and 233 U is used as fuel and LWR used fuel is used. • Detailed neutronics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulics analysis has been presented. • Run this TGFBR for 20 years with breeding of 239 Pu and 233 U. • Neutronics analysis using MCNP and Brayton cycle for energy conversion are used. - Abstract: Analysis of a thorium fuelled gas cooled fast breeder reactor (TGFBR) concept has been done to demonstrate the self-sustainability, breeding capability, actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. Simultaneous use of 232 Th and used fuel from light water reactor in the core has been considered. Results obtained confirm the core neutron spectrum dominates in an intermediate energy range (peak at 100 keV) similar to that seen in a fast breeder reactor. The conceptual design achieves a breeding ratio of 1.034 and an average fuel burnup of 74.5 (GWd)/(MTHM) . TGFBR concept is to address the eventual shortage of 235 U and nuclear waste management issues. A mixture of thorium and uranium ( 232 Th + 233 U) is used as fuel and light water reactor used fuel is utilized as blanket, for the breeding of 239 Pu. Initial feed of 233 U has to be obtained from thorium based reactors; even though there are no thorium breeders to breed 233 U a theoretical evaluation has been used to derive the data for the source of 233 U. Reactor calculations have been performed with Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP/MCNPX. It is determined that this reactor has to be fuelled once every 5 years assuming the design thermal power output as 445 MW. Detailed analysis of control rod worth has been performed and different reactivity coefficients have been evaluated as part of the safety analysis. The TGFBR concept demonstrates the sustainability of thorium, viability of 233 U as an alternate to 235 U and an alternate use for light water reactor used fuel as a

  4. Ecological networks: a spatial concept for multi-actor planning of sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.; Rooij, van S.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the ecological network concept as a suitable basis for inserting biodiversity conservation into sustainable landscape development. For landscapes to be ecologically sustainable, the landscape structure should support those ecological processes required for the landscape to

  5. Sustainability of three modified soil conservation methods in agriculture area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, M. A.; Sara, F. H.; Christanto, N.; Sartohadi, J.; Samodra, G.; Widicahyono, A.; Ardiana, N.; Widiyati, C. N.; Astuti, E. M.; Martha, G. K.; Malik, R. F.; Sambodo, A. P.; Rokhmaningtyas, R. P.; Swastanto, G. A.; Gomez, C.

    2018-04-01

    Recent innovations in soil conservation methods do not present any breakthrough. Providing more attractive soil conservation methods from the farmer’s perspective is however still of critical importance. Contributing to this soil research gap we attempt to evaluate the sustainable use of three modified conservation methods, namely JALAPA (Jala Sabut Kelapa - geotextile made of coconut fibres), wood sediment trap, and polybag system compared to traditional tillage without conservation method. This research provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the performance of each conservation measures. Therefore, in addition to the total sediment yield value and investment cost – as quantitative analysis, we also evaluate qualitatively the indicator of soil loss, installation, maintenance, and the durability of conservation medium. Those criteria define the sustainability use of each conservation method. The results show that JALAPA is the most effective method for controlling soil loss, but it also requires the most expensive cost for installation. However, our finding confirms that geotextile is sensitive to sun heating by which the coconut fibre can become dry and shrink. Wood sediment trap is the cheapest and easiest to install; however it is easily damaged by termite. Polybag method results in the highest productivity, but requires more time during the first installation. In terms of the farmer’s perspective, soil conservation using polybag system was the most accepted technique due to its high benefits; even if it is less effective at reducing soil loss compared to JALAPA.

  6. Technological Approaches to Sustainable Agriculture at a Crossroads: An Agroecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Altieri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Most efforts to improve agricultural production remain focused on practices driven by an intensification agenda and not by an agroecological one. Agroecology transcends the reformist notion of organic agriculture and sustainable intensification proponents who contend that changes can be achieved within the dominant agroindustrial system with minor adjustments or “greening” of the current neoliberal agricultural model. In the technological realm, merely modifying practices to reduce input use is a step in the right direction but does not necessarily lead to the redesign of a more self sufficient and autonomous farming system. A true agroecological technological conversion calls into question monoculture and the dependency on external inputs. Traditional farming systems provide models that promote biodiversity, thrive without agrochemicals, and sustain year-round yields. Conversion of conventional agriculture also requires major social and political changes which are beyond the scope of this paper.

  7. Drought, climate change and sustainability of water in agriculture: A roadmap towards the NWRS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel El Chami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of drought, extreme events and high wind velocities in South Africa are expected to increase in the next century as a result of the changing climate. The National Water Resource Strategy 2 (NWRS2 has set out the general and strategic directions for water resources management in the country for the next 20 years. However, the strategy does not draw a framework tailored specifically for agricultural use, with specific measures and goals. Therefore, to reach sustainability of water in agriculture, four major strategic goals are suggested, on which research institutions can focus and promote through good governance. The strategy emphasises: (1 crop research to find new drought-and heat- tolerant and resistant breeds and varieties; (2 intensified research in agricultural practices; (3 increasing the efficiency of water use within agriculture; and (4 integrating all these strategic goals within a sustainable research framework. Finally, the research calls for rapid action and implementation.

  8. Factors Affecting the Greenhouse Owners’ Attitude toward Sustainable Agriculture in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hooshmandan Moghaddam Fard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low compliance of greenhouse production with the principles of sustainable agriculture, a meaningful effort in this regard needs to be done. One of the important factors affecting the success of future planning is the positive attitude of greenhouse owners toward sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this descriptive- correlational study was to investigate factors affecting greenhouse owners’ attitude toward sustainable agriculture. The validity of the questionnaire was verified by a panel of experts in the related field and to obtain its reliability, calculated alpha Cronbach coefficient was higher than 0.75 for different parts. The statistical population consisted all greenhouse owners in Zanjan province (N=80 and based on Krejci and Morgan sampling Table and using randomized sampling method 66 greenhouse owners selected. Results showed that majority of greenhouse owner use moderately of information channels and mass media. The majority of greenhouse owners (59.6 percent had a medium level of knowledge regarding sustainable agriculture and Majority of them (73.7 percent had a positive attitude toward sustainable agriculture. Correlation coefficient showed that greenhouse owners’ attitude had a positive meaningful correlation with information using level, income from the greenhouse, number of educational classes and their job satisfaction but a negative meaningful correlation with the number of household members participating in the activity. Regression analysis revealed that five variable of information using level, the number of household members participating in activity, knowledge and daily time spending in the greenhouse were explained 55.4 percent of greenhouse owners’ attitude toward sustainable agriculture.

  9. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  10. Integrated nutrient management, soil fertility, and sustainable agriculture: Current issues and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Goletti, F.; Gruhn, P.; Yudelman, M.

    2000-01-01

    Metadata only record The challenge for agriculture over the coming decades will be to meet the world's increasing demand for food in a sustainable way. Declining soil fertility and mismanagement of plant nutrients have made this task more difficult. In their 2020 Vision discussion paper, Peter Gruhn, Francesco Goletti, and Montague Yudelman point out that as long as agriculture remains a soil-based industry, major increases in productivity are unlikely to be attained without ensuring that ...

  11. a legal assessment and review of the concept of sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    7 Farrell, A., Sustainability and Decision-making: The EPA's Sustainable ... Ardeleanu, G., Petrariu, R., Sustainable Development Strategies (2012), 54; .... 16 Elliott, J., A. An Introduction to Sustainable Development (2006), 8; Sneddon, Ch., .... taking a long-term perspective in the financial market (2012), 5; Lei, K., Zhou, S., ...

  12. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  13. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  15. The art of 'doing' sustainable agricultural innovation: approaches and attitudes to facilitating transitional projects

    OpenAIRE

    Loeber, A.; Vermeulen, T.; Barbier, M.; Elzen, B.

    2012-01-01

    The management of projects for sustainable innovation is characterised by a variety of intricacies. Facilitators play a central role in dealing with these challenges. Adopting an empirical approach, this chapter discusses the practical approaches and attitudes that facilitators develop to deal with such challenges in the domain of agricultural innovation. To that end, the paper presents a list of four intricacies inherent in running projects that seek to enhance sustainable development, based...

  16. The Kosovo Agriculture Market and the Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Pllana; Iliriana Miftari; Njazi Bytyqi; Sali Aliu; Jehona Shkodra

    2013-01-01

    Considering marketing as main contributor to the contemporary development, it has encouraged us to raise discussion regarding the role of the marketing in business decision-making and economic development as a whole. The concept of marketing is becoming a necessity tool for survival and the development of different business enterprises. The main objective of the study was to find out about the level at which Kosovo enterprises understand and apply marketing and how do they distinguish marketi...

  17. Factors Affecting Attitude of the Greenhouse Owner towards Sustainable Agriculture in Alborz province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Jamshidi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of greenhouse owner as the basis of agricultural production towards sustainable agriculture could be grounds for increasing the sustainability of this type of cultivation system. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the attitude of greenhouse owners towards sustainability in the Alborz province. The target population for this study consisted of all active greenhouse owners in the Alborz province (N=366. The sample size was determined by using Cochran’s formula (n=155 and using the proportional stratified random sampling method. The validity was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (0.85. The results showed that the attitude of 41 percent of the respondents towards sustainability was positive. Also, there were significant differences between the attitudes of the respondents in the group with related education and unrelated education group. Correlation analysis showed that the there is a positive relation between attitude towards searching behavior and the use of communication channels. In addition, the results of multiple regression analysis indicated that about 40 percent of the attitudes of greenhouse owner towards sustainable agriculture are explained by 4 variables. The result of this study indicate that by using different means of providing information and training, we can change the attitudes of greenhouse owners and lead them to produce more sustainable and healthy product.

  18. McSustainability and McJustice: Certification, Alternative Food and Agriculture, and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hatanaka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative food and agriculture movements increasingly rely on market-based approaches, particularly voluntary standards and certification, to advance environmental sustainability and social justice. Using a case study of an ecological shrimp project in Indonesia that became certified organic, this paper raises concerns regarding the impacts of certification on alternative food and agriculture movements, and their aims of furthering sustainability and justice. Drawing on George Ritzer’s McDonaldization framework, I argue that the ecological shrimp project became McDonaldized with the introduction of voluntary standards and certification. Specifically, efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control became key characteristics of the shrimp project. While the introduction of such characteristics increased market access, it also entailed significant costs, including an erosion of trust and marginalization and alienation of farmers. Given such tradeoffs, in concluding I propose that certification is producing particular forms of environmental sustainability and social justice, what I term McSustainability and McJustice. While enabling the expansion of alternative food and agriculture, McSustainability and McJustice tend to allow little opportunity for farmer empowerment and food sovereignty, as well as exclude aspects of sustainable farming or ethical production that are not easily measured, standardized, and validated.

  19. The plurality of values in sustainable agriculture models: diverse lock-in and coevolution patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael Plumecocq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western economies, several agriculture models coexist. For instance, intensive agriculture organization, which has increased yields while causing major pollution and resource depletion, competes with alternative models, which tackle these sustainability issues and lead to lower yields. An agronomical typology of current agriculture models in Western societies is proposed that describes multiple sustainability issues through an agroecological perspective. However, in order to choose between these agroecological pathways, we must understand their social structure and the principles underlying them. Thus, our purpose is to characterize the institutional aspects of the alternative models using socioeconomic convention theory. We conducted a series of workshops with specialists in the natural sciences (agronomy, landscape ecology, and entomology and social sciences (economics and sociology to describe sustainable agriculture models. This characterization revealed the values underlying six different sustainable agriculture models, their forms of organization, and the institutions governing them. We discuss the implications of the coexistence of these six models in light of sustainable transition issues. From this coexistence perspective, transition (i refers to an intertwined process of legitimation and disqualification, and (ii means seeing pathways as the multiplicity and degree of interconnection between models. Therefore, we (i identified the elements in each model that legitimize its mode of organization, and (ii disqualified the elements that are incompatible with the principles underlying the model's practices. Moreover, we emphasize that multiple transition pathways are possible based on complex, complementary combinations of different models. This revealed the intricate processes of competition and complementarity involving these models. Finally, our study on the coexistence, interdependence, and coevolution of multiple agriculture models

  20. The Challenges of Agricultural Finance in Nigeria: Constraints to Sustainable Agricultural and Economic Revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAMOGBIELE Akinola

    2013-07-01

    Using mainly, the secondary data sourced from the reports of these institutions, the CBN, journals, interviews and presentations of various stakeholders, the study concluded that though important as a factor of production, finance per se, cannot work in isolation of other factors to successfully achieve the much expected result in agricultural sector. These identified factors include among others, policy inconsistency and somersaults, absence of commodities marketing and pricing institutions, lack of effective and adequate storage, inadequate insurance coverage and more importantly, corruption.

  1. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  2. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  3. Prevention and Rehabilitation of Degraded Land to Achieve Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankong, Patcharin

    2010-01-01

    Rapid population growth and the challenge of food security combined with burgeoning urban development have put multiple pressures on land and water resources. Worldwide soil degradation is currently estimated at 1.9 billion hectares and is increasing at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Once land resources are degraded, rehabilitation usually requires a long-term effort and is often expensive. To mitigate land and soil degradation, effective soil conservation and suitable rehabilitation practices are required and should be chosen according to the levels and causes of soil degradation. The basic principles of soil conservation and management for preventing land degradation are: (i) to control soil erosion by practices such as terracing, reduced tillage in combination with mulching, intercropping or grass strips, (ii) to improve soil fertility through organic and inorganic fertilizers, and (iii) to prevent accumulation of harmful substances. Natural rehabilitation of degraded land can be a practical and low-cost alternative. For example, soil stabilization through vegetative measures has been used to control wind and water erosion and simultaneously improve soil health by increasing soil organic matter and nutrient availability. Nevertheless, if land has been degraded by mining and/or contaminated by heavy metals or organic pollutants, the surrounding farmlands can also be affected through surface runoff from the contaminated site, thereby rendering them unfit for cultivation. In this case, phytoremediation technologies, defined as the use of plants and trees to remove, immobilize, transform or degrade contaminants in polluted soil or water, in combination with for instance constructed wetlands and/or microbial interactions can be used to remediate polluted land as well as to prevent contamination of farmlands. Therefore both on-farm management and off-site remediation are important to protect and improve agricultural land resources, hence improve crop

  4. A solar vehicle based on sustainable design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Z.; Sah, J.M.; Passarella, R.; Ghazilla, R.A.R.; Ahmad, N.; Jen, Y.H.; Khai, T.T.; Kassim, Z.; Hasanuddin, I.; Yunus, M. [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering, Centre for Product Design and Manufacture

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a newly constructed solar vehicle that was built specifically for the 2009 World Solar Challenge (WSC) using off-the-shelf parts. Researchers at the Centre for Product Design and Manufacture at the University of Malaya designed and built the solar car which uses solar energy to charge its batteries. Although the total investment for this sustainable product concept is small compared to other solar vehicles, the car's performance has met expectations. Most of the electrical and mechanical parts can be recycled and reused after the WSC event. The photovoltaic (PV) and maximum power point trackers (MPPT) can be re-used for home applications. The DC motor and the controller can be attached to a bicycle and the aluminium parts which make-up the main body structure can be recycled. The design will result in nearly zero waste. The study showed that the process of combining mechanical and electrical components is not an easy task, particularly at the design stage because of the specific characteristics and functions of the individual parts. This paper described how readily available, off-the-shelf mechanical and electrical components were integrated for the solar vehicle. The conceptual design and the performance of the prototype were also presented. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  6. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel SUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By transition process, which is presented in the Republic of Serbia for many years, rural areas are also covered in great extent. Changes in national agricultural policy, in terms of orientation towards rural development and multifunctional agriculture, have led to situation that process of development must involve all stakeholders, from governmental institutions, via local community, to population of rural areas. Such approach to rural development could initiate easier integration into international institutions and European Union, as well as to strengthening of cross-border cooperation within the mentioned area of economy. The most part of the Carpathians in the Republic of Serbia is taken by the national park „Đerdap“ and its protected zone. Within the mentioned protected area, sustainable use of agricultural land is based on traditional system of mountain agriculture that provides a high degree of ecological rationality and represents a very good foundation for development of integral and organic production.Opening toward the international community and peculiarly clear commitment of Serbia to European integrations,requires a new definition of role and importance of agricultural sector. Therefore, it is estimated that now is the perfect time for establishment of concrete conceptual framework and Strategy that will answer to key questions within the agro-food sector. In this context, authors’ intention (they are also the members of the research team of IAE Belgrade which is the holder of the project III 46006 - Sustainable agriculture and rural development in function of Republic of Serbia strategic goals achievement within the Danube region is to evaluate a social sustainability of agriculture in the area of the Carpathians in Serbia. Because of that, research is focused to administrative area of next municipalities: Golubac, Kučevo, Majdanpek, Kladovo and Negotin. Considering microeconomic character of research, it was used the

  7. Design of Concept of Sustainable Marketing Communication Strategy for a Ideal Industrial Enterprise and Practical Applications of this Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šujaková, Monika; Golejová, Simona; Sakál, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the contribution the authors deal with the design and use of a sustainable marketing communication strategy of an ideal industrial enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The concept of an ideal enterprise is designed to increase the enterprise's sustainable competitiveness through the formation of a corporate image. In the framework of the research, the practical application of the draft concept was realized through a semi-structured interview in the form of propositional logic.

  8. Can precision agriculture increase the profitability and sustainability of the production of potatoes and olives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van Frits K.; Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel; Fountas, Spyros; Kempenaar, Corné

    2017-01-01

    For farmers, the application of Precision Agriculture (PA) technology is expected to lead to an increase in profitability. For society, PA is expected to lead to increased sustainability.The objective of this paper is to determine for a number of common PA practices how much they increase

  9. Agricultural entrepreneurship and sustainability - is it a good or bad fit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.

    2009-01-01

    In today’s Dutch agriculture emphasis is put on entrepreneurship, social responsibility and sustainability. But do these fit together? In economic theories entrepreneurs are seen as movers of the markets, seekers of profit opportunities and innovators. Not all farmers however meet these conditions

  10. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  11. Sustainable Agriculture: enhancement of the 'neem cake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna, Mariani

    2015-01-01

    The 'neem cake' scrap processing of the industrial chain producing neem oil and azadirachtin. The ENEA laboratories have developed a promising trial to promote the use of neem cake as a low-cost insecticide and fertilizer in sustainable agriculture. [it

  12. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Kwon, Oh-Jung; Paul, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC.

  13. Scalar alignment and sustainable water governance: The case of irrigated agriculture in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture plays a significant role in global food security and poverty reduction. At the same time its negative impacts on water and land resources threaten environmental sustainability. With the objective of improving the understanding on the complexity of governing water resources for

  14. Upland agricultural and forestry development in the Amazon: sustainability, criticality and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel Adilson S. Serrao; Daniel Nepstad; Robert. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of agricultural and forestry development in the Amazon basin, and presents and discusses the main land use systems in evidence today in that region. These are logging, shifting-cultivation and ranching. The issue of sustainability is addressed, and current Amazonian land use is interpreted in light of ecological impacts and long-run...

  15. Agricultural and Food Production in Hungary: On the Road to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Csaba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years Hungarian agriculture has lost its position. Rapid growth in the world’s population requires an increase in food production since one seventh of the population is still starving. The development of agricultural production and the food industry is the basis for the development of rural areas. Hungary produces two per cent of the EU agricultural output, which is far behind its potential. Agriculture, food industry and food trade can only develop together. We need to find the most favourable forms of coexistence with multinational chains sustainably. Food industry is a critical point in the product line, it lags behind the performance of European countries, and resources are insufficient. Long-term co-operation between farmers and processors is inadequate; the common organizations of the markets are minimal. Today, sustainability is increasingly emphasized, environmental and nature protection has been appreciated. The agriculture and forestry sectors are not only suitable for production of food and other raw materials, but they can also replenish resources and have a beneficial effect on biodiversity as well. Today’s problems can only be solved by taking sustainability into consideration. Agri-food industry that complies with the requirements can play a major role in rural employment and value creation.

  16. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lubell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.

  17. The scale concept and sustainable development: implications on the energetics and water resources; O conceito de escala e o desenvolvimento sustentavel: implicacoes sobre os recursos energeticos e hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    1999-07-01

    The relationships between both the demographic growth and the water and energetic resources are focused. The planet scale and carrying capacity are discussed starting from the maximum and optimum sustainable concepts, both anthropocentric and biocentric. Two scenarios denominated 'sustainable agriculture' and 'sharing-water' are elaborated with the available resources of water, fertile lands and energy consumption, and with the population trends. (author)

  18. Development Model Sustainable Promoted by the Family Agriculture in Function of Environmental Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Agra Zamith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to indicate directions of alternatives to self-sustainable development outlined at the principle of a family socioeconomic context, and sustainability, environmental  protection  promoted  by  family  agriculture.  The  inclusion  of  Family agriculture model in the discussion, of the preliminary verification of the agricultural production methods used by family units at the time ensuring the livelihood and allows the marketing  of  surplus  production  levels.  The  method  employed  was  the  hypothetical- deductive, with explanatory purpose, which means corresponded to the selection of authors who have the necessary support to the understanding of the precautionary principle in environmental law.

  19. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  20. An Auto-Photographic Study of Undergraduate Students' Conceptions of Ocean Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-I; Li, Yuh-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' understandings of ocean sustainability and the pedagogical influence of higher education on those conceptions. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptions of ocean sustainability of 54 university students of various academic disciplines enrolled in the 2014/2015 semester course…

  1. Defining sustainability as a social-cultural concept: Citizen panels visiting dairy farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    The important role of values is very evident when it comes to citizens' concept of sustainability. The present paper had the objective to define sustainability as a socio-cultural concept for livestock production systems. The main research question was: how do Dutch citizens value various aspects of

  2. Making rainfed agriculture sustainable through environmental friendly technologies in Pakistan: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza B. Baig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an agricultural country spreading over an area of about 79. 6 million hectares (Mha with an arid and semi arid climate. Of 79. 6 Mha, about 23 Mha is suitable for crop production and nearly 25 percent of the total cultivated area is designated for rainfed agriculture. Unfortunately, rain-fed agriculture is constrained with multifarious problems such as moisture stress, soil erosion and crusting, nutrient deficiency, depletion and poor nutrient use efficiency, and weed infestation limiting the yield potential of these lands. In addition, deforestation and poor crop husbandry techniques are commonly noticed features. To meet the food requirements, farmers bring all the available pieces of lands under plough including steep slopes. Farming on steep slopes if not managed on scientific lines, results in severe erosion. The problems faced by the farmers are due to the unsustainable practices they adopt to practice dryland agriculture, limiting the productive potential of these important ecosystems. However, their potential can be improved by adopting suitable rainwater harvesting techniques; employing scientific soil and water conservation methods and using sustainable agricultural practices. This paper highlights some important issues associated with the rainfed agriculture of Pakistan. Working strategies for realizing optimum and sustainable yields have been outlined while conserving both land and water resources.

  3. The Potential of Religion in the Promotion and Implementation of the Concept of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Ryszard F.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents religion's potential where the promotion and implementation of the concept of sustainable development are concerned. First inspired by Lynn White in the 1960s, discussion on religion's role in the ecological crisis now allows for an honest assessment of the ecological potential of various religious traditions and their contribution to the building of a sustainable world. This article on the one hand points to the religious inspirations behind the concept of sustainable development, and on the other highlights the joint action of representatives of religion and science in the name of sustainable development, as well as the involvement of religions in the concept's implementation.

  4. THE CONCEPT OF “SAFETY NET” AND ITS APPLICATION IN AMERICAN AND CANADIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Soliwoda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This aim of the article was  to provide a multi-faceted presentation of the possibilities of aplication the concept of "safety net" in agriculture in the United States and Canada. Literature review, elements of heuristic methods, and the documentaty method- in comparative terms - were used.  . The theoretical basis of the concept of safety nets in agriculture refer to the achievements earned by many schools and streams  in economics and finance. An in-depth analysis is based on an "eclectic" and interdisciplinary approach. In practice, the "architecture" of safety nets in agriculture in the U.S.  and Canada is quite complex and is based on relationships between the individual components. The role of risk management systems for agriculture will be strengthened.

  5. Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture Stressed by Changing Extremes of Drought and Excess Moisture: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wheaton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the climate changes, the effects of agriculture on the environment may change. In the future, an increasing frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves, and excess moisture, is expected. Past research on the interaction between environment and resources has focused on climate change effects on various sectors, including agricultural production (especially crop production, but research on the effects of climate change using agri-environmental indicators (AEI of environmental sustainability of agriculture is limited. The aim of this paper was to begin to address this knowledge gap by exploring the effects of future drought and excess moisture on environmental sustainability of agriculture. Methods included the use of a conceptual framework, literature reviews, and an examination of the climate sensitivities of the AEI models. The AEIs assessed were those for the themes of soil and water quality, and farmland management as developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Additional indicators included one for desertification and another for water supply and demand. The study area was the agricultural region of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. We found that the performance of several indicators would likely decrease in a warming climate with more extremes. These indicators with declining performances included risks for soil erosion, soil salinization, desertification, water quality and quantity, and soil contamination. Preliminary trends of other indicators such as farmland management were not clear. AEIs are important tools for measuring climate impacts on the environmental sustainability of agriculture. They also indicate the success of adaptation measures and suggest areas of operational and policy development. Therefore, continued reporting and enhancement of these indicators is recommended.

  6. The impact of marketing systems on soil sustainability of agriculture in developing countries : a method and an application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Tilburg, van A.

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with soil-sustainability problems of agriculture in developing countries, in particular with soil erosion. The aim of our study is to develop a comprehensive model that explains the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices with respect to soil conservation. Our

  7. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  8. Soil nitrogen balance assessment and its application for sustainable agriculture and environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabindra; Nath; Roy

    2005-01-01

    .M.A.,Stoorvogel,J.J.,Windmeijer,P.N.,Calculating soil nutrient balances in Africa at different scales:Ⅱ,District scale.Fert.Res.,1993,35:237-250.[18]Van der Pol,F.,Soil mining:An Unseen Contributor to Farm Income in Southern Mali,Amsterdam:The Royal Tropical Institute,1992.[19]Van der Pol,F.,Traore,B.,Soil nutrient depletion by agricultural production in southern Mali,Fert.Res.,1993,36:79-90.[20]Pieri,C.,Fertilité des terres de savanes.bilan de trente arns de recherche et de développement agricoles au sud du Sahara,Paris:Ministère de la Coopération et CIRAD-IRAT,1989.[21]Frissel,M.J.,Cycling of mineral nutrients in agricultural ecosystems,London:Elsevier,1978.[22]Smaling,E.M.A.,Fresco,L.O.,A decision support model for monitoring nutrient balances under agricultural land use (NUTMON),Geoderma,1993,60:235-256.[23]Smaling,E.M.A.,An agro-ecological framework for integrated nutrient management with special reference to Kenya,Ph.D.Thesis:Wageningen Agricultural University,1993.[24]Wendt,J.,Assessing systems sustainability through high-precision evaluation for soil nutrient capital.Paper presented at "Scaling soil nutrient balances" workshop,Nairobi,2003.[25]Shepherd,K.D.,Walsh,M.G.,Development of reflectance spectral libraries for characterization of soil properties,Soil Sci.Soc.Am.,2002,66(3):988-998.[26]Roy,R.N.,Misra,R.V.,Lesschen,J.P.et al.,Assessment of soil nutrient balance-Approaches and methodologies,Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bull.,2004,14,,[27]Roy,R.N.,Misra,R.V.,Montanez,A.,Decreasing reliance on mineral nitrogen-Yet more food,Ambio,2002,31 (2):177-183.[28]Roy,R.N.,Integrated plant nutrition systems-Basic concepts,development and results of the trial network,initiation of project activities in AGLN,and need for cooperation,in Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems,Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bull.,1995,12.[29]Peltonen,J.,New Fertilìzer Products,Proc,IFA-FAO Agriculture Conference "Global Food Security and the Role of Sustainable Fertilization",Rome,2003.[30]Roy,R.N.,Misra,R.V.,Economic and

  9. Evaluating strategies for sustainable intensification of US agriculture through the Long-Term Agroecosystem Research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegal, S.; Bestelmeyer, B. T.; Archer, D. W.; Augustine, D. J.; Boughton, E. H.; Boughton, R. K.; Cavigelli, M. A.; Clark, P. E.; Derner, J. D.; Duncan, E. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Harmel, R. D.; Heilman, P.; Holly, M. A.; Huggins, D. R.; King, K.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Liebig, M. A.; Locke, M. A.; McCarty, G. W.; Millar, N.; Mirsky, S. B.; Moorman, T. B.; Pierson, F. B.; Rigby, J. R.; Robertson, G. P.; Steiner, J. L.; Strickland, T. C.; Swain, H. M.; Wienhold, B. J.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Yost, M. A.; Walthall, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is an emerging model for agriculture designed to reconcile accelerating global demand for agricultural products with long-term environmental stewardship. Defined here as increasing agricultural production while maintaining or improving environmental quality, sustainable intensification hinges upon decision-making by agricultural producers, consumers, and policy-makers. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network was established to inform these decisions. Here we introduce the LTAR Common Experiment, through which scientists and partnering producers in US croplands, rangelands, and pasturelands are conducting 21 independent but coordinated experiments. Each local effort compares the outcomes of a predominant, conventional production system in the region (‘business as usual’) with a system hypothesized to advance sustainable intensification (‘aspirational’). Following the logic of a conceptual model of interactions between agriculture, economics, society, and the environment, we identified commonalities among the 21 experiments in terms of (a) concerns about business-as-usual production, (b) ‘aspirational outcomes’ motivating research into alternatives, (c) strategies for achieving the outcomes, (d) practices that support the strategies, and (e) relationships between practice outreach and adoption. Network-wide, concerns about business as usual include the costs of inputs, opportunities lost to uniform management approaches, and vulnerability to accelerating environmental changes. Motivated by environmental, economic, and societal outcomes, scientists and partnering producers are investigating 15 practices in aspirational treatments to sustainably intensify agriculture, from crop diversification to ecological restoration. Collectively, the aspirational treatments reveal four general strategies for sustainable intensification: (1) reducing reliance on inputs through ecological intensification, (2) diversifying management

  10. Women in sustainable agriculture and food biotechnology key advances and perspectives on emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume describes the contributions made by women scientists to the field of agricultural biotechnology, the most quickly adopted agricultural practice ever adopted. It features the perspectives of women educators, researchers and key stakeholders towards the development, implementation and acceptance of this modern technology. It describes the multiplying contemporary challenges in the field, how women are overcoming technological barriers, and their thoughts on what the future may hold. As sustainable agricultural practices increasingly represent a key option in the drive towards building a greener global community, the scientific, technological and implementation issues covered in this book are vital information for anyone working in environmental engineering. Provides a broad analysis of the science of agriculture, focusing on the contributions of women to the field, from basic research to applied technology Offers insights into hot topics in the field across the life cycle, from genetic engineering t...

  11. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and

  12. Rooftop greenhouses in educational centers: A sustainability assessment of urban agriculture in compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Ana; Pons, Oriol; Cuerva, Eva; Rieradevall, Joan; Josa, Alejandro

    2018-06-01

    Today, urban agriculture is one of the most widely used sustainability strategies to improve the metabolism of a city. Schools can play an important role in the implementation of sustainability master plans, due their socio-educational activities and their cohesive links with families; all key elements in the development of urban agriculture. Thus, the main objective of this research is to develop a procedure, in compact cities, to assess the potential installation of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in schools. The generation of a dynamic assessment tool capable of identifying and prioritizing schools with a high potential for RTGs and their eventual implementation would also represent a significant factor in the environmental, social, and nutritional education of younger generations. The methodology has four-stages (Pre-selection criteria; Selection of necessities; Sustainability analysis; and Sensitivity analysis and selection of the best alternative) in which economic, environmental, social and governance aspects all are considered. It makes use of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and Multi-Criteria Decision Making, through the Integrated Value Model for Sustainability Assessments and the participation of two panels of multidisciplinary specialists, for the preparation of a unified sustainability index that guarantees the objectivity of the selection process. This methodology has been applied and validated in a case study of 11 schools in Barcelona (Spain). The social perspective of the proposed methodology favored the school in the case-study with the most staff and the largest parent-teacher association (social and governance indicators) that obtained the highest sustainability index (S11); at a considerable distance (45%) from the worst case (S3) with fewer school staff and parental support. Finally, objective decisions may be taken with the assistance of this appropriate, adaptable, and reliable Multi-Criteria Decision-Making tool on the vertical integration and

  13. On sustainable development of uranium mining industry in China based on the concept of ecological security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shali; Tai Kaixuan

    2011-01-01

    Ecological security is an important issue for sustainable development of mining industry, on which the development of nuclear industry and nuclear power is based. But uranium mining and processing has larger effect on ecological environment which mainly include tailings, waste rock, waste water, and radiation effects. In this paper, the dialectical relationship between ecological security and sustainable relationship is analyzed, the ecological safety concept at home and abroad is compared and the role that ecological safety plays in the sustainable development of uranium mining based on analysis of restricting factors on uranium mining in China from the perspective of ecological security is also probed into. To achieve sustainable development of the uranium mining industry in China, an ecological security concept from four aspects must be established: 1) the concept of ecological security management; 2) the scientific concept of ecological security; 3) the concept of ecological security investment; and 4) the concept of ecological security responsibility. (authors)

  14. Agricultural Water Use Sustainability Assessment in the Tarim River Basin under Climatic Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proper agricultural water management in arid regions is the key to tackling climatic risks. However, an effective assessment of the current response to climate change in agricultural water use is the precondition for a group adaptation strategy. The paper, taking the Tarim River basin (TRB as an example, aims to examine the agricultural water use sustainability of water resource increase caused by climatic variability. In order to describe the response result, groundwater change has been estimated based on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS–Noah land surface model (NOAH data. In order to better understand the relationship between water resource increase and agricultural water consumption, an agricultural water stress index has been established. Agricultural water stress has been in a severe state during the whole period, although it alleviated somewhat in the mid–late period. This paper illustrates that an increase in water supply could not satisfy agricultural production expansion. Thus, seasonal groundwater loss and a regional water shortage occurred. Particularly in 2008 and 2009, the sharp shortage of water supply in the Tarim River basin directly led to a serious groundwater drop by nearly 20 mm from the end of 2009 to early 2010. At the same time, a regional water shortage led to water scarcity for the whole basin, because the water consumption, which was mainly distributed around Source Rivers, resulted in break-off discharge in the mainstream. Therefore, current agricultural development in the Tarim River basin is unsustainable in the context of water supply under climatic risks. Under the control of irrigation, spatial and temporal water allocation optimization is the key to the sustainable management of the basin.

  15. The emerging roles of agricultural insurance and farmers cooperatives on sustainable rice productions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopulisa, C.; Rismaneswati; Ramlan, A.; Suryani, I.

    2018-05-01

    Rice is the main staple food of most Asian countries including Indonesia. Most of the rice producers are constituted by small individual farmers characterized with mostly landless, have a less farming capitals and less access to pool resources and of course are confronted with various risk. Agriculture is faced with a lot of uncertainly most of which are not within the control of farmers. Global climatic change, climatic disasters, fluctuation of global economic and competitiveness of multinational company make difficulties of farmers to pursue his sustainable farming activity. The challenge and the role of government is to reduce uncertainly and to improve resiliency of the small farmer. Agriculture insurance shall focus on risk factors that are difficult to manage or cannot be managed by small farmers and it is should be viewed as just one aspect of the “holistic” risk management strategy. Technology, market, consumer, behaviour, development will always move forward, and no individual farmers can adapt this change alone, so small farmers need to corporate with each other that can optimized the resources they have. Cooperative could create possibilities, value added, shortening the supplied chain, made a product more effective and efficient, and finally can complete in domestic and global markets. Therefore, agriculture insurance as well a farmer cooperative may play an important role on sustainability of rice production in Indonesia. Nowadays and in the future agriculture sustainability is a not merely of technology problems but also a matter of economic-social-culture and politic issues within local, national, and international context.

  16. SOME ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT AGRICULTURAL LAND USE AREAS WITHIN THE TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapinos N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Land Fund in Ukraine is experiencing excessive human impact, which is reflected in its performance exceeding the allowable agricultural development and land structure imbalance. The environmental condition of land resources close to critical. Among the largest land area occupied by agricultural land (71% of which - 76% is arable land. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. Throughout the widespread land degradation processes, among which the most ambitious is the erosion (about 57.5% of the territory, pollution (20% of the territory, flooding (about 12% of the territory. Sustainable (balanced land is one of the key factors of sustainable nature of territorial entities and may be formed of a priority, taking into account environmental factors. In ecological optimization based on value criteria ekolohostabilizuyuchyh and anthropogenic pressures lands should necessarily provide for withdrawal of intensive land use, which in its modal properties can not ensure sustainability of land use. However, today in Ukraine within the territories of communities no project development to optimize land use on the basis of sustainable development. Accordingly, the purpose of the article was the study of certain aspects of Land Management sustainable development of agricultural land within the territories of local communities. The current structure of the land fund of Ukraine was actually formed in the Soviet period, under the influence of policies of extensive agricultural development. Violation environmentally acceptable ratio of arable land, natural grasslands and forests negatively affected the stability and condition of land, which is confirmed by relevant research. In such circumstances, balancing the land proposed to carry out in two stages - the ecological and economic. In ecological optimization criteria based on land value necessarily

  17. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  18. Beyond Cliche--Reclaiming the Concept of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In closing his 2008 Myer Lecture, the scientist and environmentalist Dr. Tim Flannery said that this century will be defined by the search for sustainability. How perilous therefore that nowadays there is so much overuse of the word "sustainability" that it has become a cliche. Today's tertiary students studying architecture and…

  19. Aquatic microphylla Azolla: a perspective paradigm for sustainable agriculture, environment and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollah, Bharati; Patra, Ashok Kumar; Mohanty, Santosh Ranjan

    2016-03-01

    This review addresses the perspectives of Azolla as a multifaceted aquatic resource to ensure ecosystem sustainability. Nitrogen fixing potential of cyanobacterial symbiont varies between 30 and 60 kg N ha(-1) which designates Azolla as an important biological N source for agriculture and animal industry. Azolla exhibits high bioremediation potential for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn. Azolla mitigates greenhouse gas emission from agriculture. In flooded rice ecosystem, Azolla dual cropping decreased CH4 emission by 40 % than did urea alone and also stimulated CH4 oxidation. This review highlighted integrated approach using Azolla that offers enormous public health, environmental, and cost benefits.

  20. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  1. Sustainable agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the work of NEPED — the Nagaland. Environmental Protection ... led processes that stress traditional knowl- edge, and the creation of ... Peru's national research institute (INIA) and the ... from the American University of Beirut. (AUB) set out in ...

  2. Sustainable management of agriculture activity on areas with soil vulnerability to compaction trough a developed decision support system (DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Fantinato, Luciano; Rasera, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    One of the main environmental effects of agriculture is the negative impacts on areas with soil vulnerability to compaction and undersurface water derived from inputs and treatment distributions. A solution may represented from the "Precision Farming". Precision Farming refers to a management concept focusing on (near-real time) observation, measurement and responses to inter- and intra-variability in crops, fields and animals. Potential benefits may include increasing crop yields and animal performance, cost and labour reduction and optimisation of process inputs, all of which would increase profitability. At the same time, Precision Farming should increase work safety and reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture and farming practices, thus contributing to the sustainability of agricultural production. The concept has been made possible by the rapid development of ICT-based sensor technologies and procedures along with dedicated software that, in the case of arable farming, provides the link between spatially-distributed variables and appropriate farming practices such as tillage, seeding, fertilisation, herbicide and pesticide application, and harvesting. Much progress has been made in terms of technical solutions, but major steps are still required for the introduction of this approach over the common agricultural practices. There are currently a large number of sensors capable of collecting data for various applications (e.g. Index of vegetation vigor, soil moisture, Digital Elevation Models, meteorology, etc.). The resulting large volumes of data need to be standardised, processed and integrated using metadata analysis of spatial information, to generate useful input for decision-support systems. In this context, a user-friendly IT applications has been developed, for organizing and processing large volumes of data from different types of remote sensing and meteorological sensors, and for integrating these data into user-friendly farm management support

  3. Measuring Baseline Agriculture-Related Sustainable Development Goals Index for Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nhemachena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has become the main focus of the global development agenda as presented in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. However, for countries to assess progress, they need to have reliable baseline indicators. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a composite baseline index of the agriculture-related SDGs in Southern Africa to guide progress reporting. The paper identified eight of the SDG indicators related to the agriculture sector. The paper relies on data for indicators from five SDGs (SDGs 1, 2, 6, 7 and 15. Applying the arithmetic mean method of aggregation, an agriculture-related SDG composite index for Southern Africa between zero (0 = poor performance and 100 (best possible performance was computed for thirteen countries that had data on all identified indicators. The results show that the best performing countries (Botswana, Angola, Namibia, Zambia and South Africa in the assessment recorded high scores in SDGs 1, 2 and 7. The three countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe and Madagascar that performed poorly on both SDG 1 and 2 also had the least scores on the overall agriculture-related SDG composite index. The water stress indicator for SDG 6 recorded the worst performance among most countries in the region. Possible approaches to improve the contribution of agriculture to SDGs may include investing more resources in priority areas for each agriculture-related SDG depending on baseline country conditions. The implementation, monitoring and evaluation of regional and continental commitments in the agriculture sector and the SDGs are critical for achievement of the targets at the national and local levels. While the methods employed are well-grounded in literature, data unavailability for some of the SDGs in some countries presented a limitation to the study, and future efforts should focus on collecting data for the other SDGs in order to permit a wider application.

  4. Generalization of Water Pricing Model in Agriculture and Domestic Groundwater for Water Sustainability and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Fadzli Ramli, Mohammad; Iryanto; Rohana Goh, Siti; Zaki, Mohd Faiz M.

    2018-03-01

    The water requirement greatly increased due to population growth, increased agricultural areas and industrial development, thus causing high water demand. The complex problems facing by country is water pricing is not designed optimally as a staple of human needs and on the other hand also cannot guarantee the maintenance and distribution of water effectively. The cheap water pricing caused increase of water use and unmanageable water resource. Therefore, the more optimal water pricing as an effective control of water policy is needed for the sake of ensuring water resources conservation and sustainability. This paper presents the review on problems, issues and mathematical modelling of water pricing based on agriculture and domestic groundwater for water sustainability and conservation.

  5. Facilitating Transformation and Competence Development in Sustainable Agriculture University Education: An Experiential and Action Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Migliorini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to strengthen the connection between academia and society has received increased attention over the past years. The importance of bringing university students closer to stakeholders in society as part of their learning process is high regarding sustainable agriculture, because of its applied approach. University programs based on experiential and action-oriented learning have been developed over the past decades, but more knowledge is needed about the impact of these educational activities. In a short course in sustainable agriculture at the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Bra, Italy, we examined the impacts of experiential and action-oriented learning on competency development as well as transformational impacts on the students. We found that students improve on several core competences as a result of their participation in the short course, and also signs of deep transformational processes among the students.

  6. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  7. Nested archetypes of vulnerability in African drylands: where lies potential for sustainable agricultural intensification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, D.; Ordoñez, J. C.; Kok, M. T. J.; Janssen, P.; Hilderink, H. B. M.; Tittonell, P.; Van Dijk, H.

    2017-09-01

    Food production is key to achieving food security in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Since agricultural productivity is limited, however, due to inherent agro-ecological constraints and land degradation, sustainable agricultural intensification has been widely discussed as an opportunity for improving food security and reducing vulnerability. Yet vulnerability determinants are distributed heterogeneously in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa and sustainable intensification cannot be achieved everywhere in cost-effective and efficient ways. To better understand the heterogeneity of farming systems’ vulnerability in order to support decision making at regional scales, we present archetypes, i.e. socio-ecological patterns, of farming systems’ vulnerability in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa and reveal their nestedness. We quantitatively indicated the most relevant farming systems’ properties at a sub-national resolution. These factors included water availability, agro-ecological potential, erosion sensitivity, population pressure, urbanisation, remoteness, governance, income and undernourishment. Cluster analysis revealed eight broad archetypes of vulnerability across all drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. The broad archetype representing better governance and highest remoteness in extremely dry and resource-constrained regions encompassed the largest area share (19%), mainly indicated in western Africa. Moreover, six nested archetypes were identified within those regions with better agropotential and prevalent agricultural livelihoods. Among these patterns, the nested archetype depicting regions with highest erosion sensitivity, severe undernourishment and lower agropotential represented the largest population (30%) and area (28%) share, mainly found in the Sahel region. The nested archetype indicating medium undernourishment, better governance and lowest erosion sensitivity showed particular potential for sustainable agricultural intensification, mainly in

  8. Agriculture expansion, wood energy and woody encroachment in the Miombo woodlands: striving towards sustainability in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is mostly done at the expense of forests and woodlands in the tropics. In Sub-Saharan Africa, forests are also critical as providers of wood energy for domestic consumption with a clear majority of households depending on firewood and charcoal as primary source of energy. Using Zambia as a case study, we look at the link between agricultural expansion, wood energy and the sustainability of forest resources. Zambia has been identified as having one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, but there is large uncertainty in these estimates. The government of Zambia has identified charcoal production as one of the main of drivers of forest cover loss and is targeting this practice in their national strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Other assessment however indicate that agricultural expansion is by far the main driver of deforestation and charcoal production is sustainable in Zambia. These competing evaluations call for a better understanding of the drivers of change. Using two national-scale vegetation surveys and remote sensing data, we compare and validate historical forest cover loss estimates to improve their accuracy. We attribute the change and their associated emissions to specific drivers of deforestation. The ecological properties of areas under change are compared to stable areas over time. Our results from national permanent plots indicate a woody encroachment process in Zambia, a potential ecological response to rising CO2 levels. We found that despite large emissions from deforestation, forests and woodlands have been acting as a carbon sink. This research addresses directly the potential feedbacks and responses to competing demands on forests coming from different sectors, including for agriculture and energy, to set the baseline on which to evaluate forest sustainability now and in the future given potentially new ecological conditions. It provides policy relevant

  9. The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture.

  10. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  11. Strategies of Transition to Sustainable Agriculture in Iran II- Inputs Replacement and Designing Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustainable agricultural development is an important goal in economic planning and human development worldwide. A range of processes and relationships are transformed, beginning with aspects of basic soil structure, organic matter content, and diversity and activity of soil biota. Eventually, major changes also occur in the relationships among weed, insect, and disease populations, and in the balance between beneficial and pest organisms. Ultimately, nutrient dynamics and cycling, energy use efficiency, and overall system productivity are impacted. Measuring and monitoring these changes during the conversion period helps the farmer evaluate the success of the conversion process, and provides a framework to determine the requirements for sustainability. After improving resource use efficiency, replacement of ecological inputs with chemical inputs as second step and redesign of agro-ecosystems is as final step in transition of common to sustainable agriculture. The study was investigated to evaluation of Iran’s agricultural systems status. Materials and Methods Using organic and ecological inputs than chemicals is the second step for transition to sustainable agriculture. This study was performed to assess and measure the status of inputs replacement and agro-ecosystem designing based on ecological principle in Iran. For this purpose, we used 223 studied researches on agronomical and medicinal plants. After, they analyzed based on functional and structural characteristics and then used. Considering to the importance of multi-functionality in sustainable agriculture, in this study we considered the multiple managements for inputs replacement. The using functions in the study were: improving fertility and bio-chemical characteristics of soil, ecological managements of pest and diseases, reducing the energy usage, and increasing biodiversity. Using the organic and biological inputs, remaining the plant residual on soil, using

  12. Microbial Phosphorus Solubilization and Its Potential for Use in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Alori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of excess conventional Phosphorus (P fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity, in order to meet constantly increasing global food demand, potentially causes surface and ground water pollution, waterway eutrophication, soil fertility depletion, and accumulation of toxic elements such as high concentration of selenium (Se, arsenic (As in the soil. Quite a number of soil microorganisms are capable of solubilizing/mineralizing insoluble soil phosphate to release soluble P and making it available to plants. These microorganisms improve the growth and yield of a wide variety of crops. Thus, inoculating seeds/crops/soil with Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM is a promising strategy to improve world food production without causing any environmental hazard. Despite their great significance in soil fertility improvement, phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms have yet to replace conventional chemical fertilizers in commercial agriculture. A better understanding of recent developments in PSM functional diversity, colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application should facilitate their use as reliable components of sustainable agricultural systems. In this review, we discussed various soil microorganisms that have the ability to solubilize phosphorus and hence have the potential to be used as bio fertilizers. The mechanisms of inorganic phosphate solubilization by PSM and the mechanisms of organic phosphorus mineralization are highlighted together with some factors that determine the success of this technology. Finally we provide some indications that the use of PSM will promote sustainable agriculture and conclude that this technology is ready for commercial exploitation in various regions worldwide.

  13. Evaluating Water Use for Agricultural Intensification in Southern Amazonia Using the Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lathuillière

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment (WFSA in the Xingu Basin of Mato Grosso (XBMT, Brazil, with the objectives of (1 tracking blue (as surface water and green water (as soil moisture regenerated by precipitation consumption in recent years (2000, 2014; and (2 evaluating agricultural intensification options for future years (2030, 2050 considering the effects of deforestation and climate change on water availability in the basin. The agricultural sector was the largest consumer of water in the basin despite there being almost no irrigation of cropland or pastures. In addition to water use by crops and pasture grass, water consumption attributed to cattle production included evaporation from roughly 9463 ha of small farm reservoirs used to provide drinking water for cattle in 2014. The WFSA showed that while blue and green water consumptive uses were within sustainable limits in 2014, deforestation, cattle confinement, and the use of irrigation to increase cropping frequency could drive water use to unsustainable levels in the future. While land management policies and practices should strive for protection of the remaining natural vegetation, increased agricultural production will require reservoir and irrigation water management to reduce the potential threat of blue water scarcity in the dry season. In addition to providing general guidance for future water allocation decisions in the basin, our study offers an interpretation of blue and green water scarcities with changes in land use and climate in a rapidly evolving agricultural frontier.

  14. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  15. Can Precision Agriculture Increase the Profitability and Sustainability of the Production of Potatoes and Olives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits K. van Evert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For farmers, the application of Precision Agriculture (PA technology is expected to lead to an increase in profitability. For society, PA is expected to lead to increased sustainability. The objective of this paper is to determine for a number of common PA practices how much they increase profitability and sustainability. For potato production in The Netherlands, we considered variable rate application (VRA of soil herbicide, fungicide for late blight control, sidedress N, and haulm killing herbicide. For olive production in Greece, we considered spatially variable application of P and K fertilizer and lime. For each of the above scenarios, we quantified the value of outputs, the cost of inputs, and the environmental costs. This allowed us to calculate profit as well as social profit, where the latter is defined as revenues minus conventional costs minus the external costs of production. Social profit can be considered an overall measure of sustainability. Our calculations show that PA in potatoes increases profit by 21% (420 € ha−1 and social profit by 26%. In olives, VRA application of P, K, and lime leads to a strong reduction in nutrient use and although this leads to an increase in sustainability, it has only a small effect on profit and on social profit. In conclusion, PA increases sustainability in olives and both profitability and sustainability in potatoes.

  16. GREEN CONCEPTS AND MATERIAL FLOW COST ACCOUNTING APPLICATION FOR COMPANY SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochman Marota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Health equipment and furniture become a complementary factor for good health services to the communities. Management of health equipment and furniture is started by manufacturers within the industry scope and sustainable business processes. This study aimed to apply green concepts and MFCA at PT XYZ, and to analyze their effects on the dimensions of the company sustainability. To measure the effects of green concepts and MFCA on the dimensions of corporate sustainability, a multiple regression analysis was used. The analysis showed that they gave significant effects from the results of the F test, t test and probability test. From these results, a number of suggestions for improvement of production process performance as managerial implications for maintaining the stability of the company sustainability index were formulated.Keywords: efficiency and effectiveness of production cost, green concepts, the company sustainability, material flow cost accounting

  17. Sustainability of energy crops. Four papers by the Centre for Agriculture and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Van Kuik, M.; Van Zeijts, H.

    1998-07-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 CLM developed a method for assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of producing and using energy from agricultural and forest biomass. The method has much in common with environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). CLM has also co-ordinated a concerted action called 'Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'. LCA is at present the best available instrument for assessing the ecological sustainability of energy crops. CLM focused on three topics disseminating the results of the concerted action; updating the work on bioethanol, and proposals for new financial instruments. The results are presented in this report. First, the results from the concerted action and work carried out by CLM were disseminated. Papers were presented at the international conference on 'Implementation of solid biofuels for carbon dioxide mitigation', 29-30 September 1997, Uppsala, Sweden, and at the international workshop on 'Environmental aspects of energy crop production', 9-10 October 1997, Brasimone, Italy. In addition, a paper was written on the need to co-ordinate policy options to stimulate the production and use of energy crops from an energy, agricultural and environmental point of view. Second, a study on bioethanol was carried out in which data obtained elsewhere on the use of bioethanol as a transport fuel were revised and updated. The sustainability of bioethanol production from sugar beet was compared with that of bioethanol from winter wheat. Using bioethanol from sugar beet replaces more fossil energy than bioethanol from winter wheat. For both crops, the costs per ton avoided CO2 decrease over time to 2010, but are still higher than electricity routes. The third action was the development of proposals for new financial instruments to stimulate energy production from biomass in the agricultural and forestry sector. This proposal was presented at the ALTENER Seminar on 'Financial incentives for

  18. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those princ...

  19. A DSS for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Basil D; Papathanasiou, Jason; Bournaris, Thomas; Voudouris, Kostas

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions developed in the framework of the Interreg-Archimed project entitled WaterMap (development and utilization of vulnerability maps for the monitoring and management of groundwater resources in the ARCHIMED areas). Its aim is to optimize the production plan of an agricultural region taking in account the available resources, the environmental parameters, and the vulnerability map of the region. The DSS is based on an optimization multicriteria model. The spatial integration of vulnerability maps in the DSS enables regional authorities to design policies for optimal agricultural development and groundwater protection from the agricultural land uses. The DSS can further be used to simulate different scenarios and policies by the local stakeholders due to changes on different social, economic, and environmental parameters. In this way, they can achieve alternative production plans and agricultural land uses as well as to estimate economic, social, and environmental impacts of different policies. The DSS is computerized and supported by a set of relational databases. The corresponding software has been developed in a Microsoft Windows XP platform, using Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Access, and the LINDO library. For demonstration reasons, the paper includes an application of the DSS in a region of Northern Greece.

  20. Ecological mechanisms underlying the sustainability of the agricultural heritage rice-fish coculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Wu, Xue; Li, Nana; Yuan, Yongge; Yang, Haishui; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Chen, Xin

    2011-12-13

    For centuries, traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security throughout the world. Recognizing the ecological legacy in the traditional agricultural systems may help us develop novel sustainable agriculture. We examine how rice-fish coculture (RF), which has been designated a "globally important agricultural heritage system," has been maintained for over 1,200 y in south China. A field survey demonstrated that although rice yield and rice-yield stability are similar in RF and rice monoculture (RM), RF requires 68% less pesticide and 24% less chemical fertilizer than RM. A field experiment confirmed this result. We documented that a mutually beneficial relationship between rice and fish develops in RF: Fish reduce rice pests and rice favors fish by moderating the water environment. This positive relationship between rice and fish reduces the need for pesticides in RF. Our results also indicate a complementary use of nitrogen (N) between rice and fish in RF, resulting in low N fertilizer application and low N release into the environment. These findings provide unique insights into how positive interactions and complementary use of resource between species generate emergent ecosystem properties and how modern agricultural systems might be improved by exploiting synergies between species.

  1. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  2. Designing sustainable energy landscapes : concepts, principles and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels, in combination with climate change, necessitates a transition to sustainable energy systems. Such systems are characterized by a decreased energy demand and an increase in the use of renewables. The objective of this dissertation is to advance the planning and design

  3. Consumer-oriented Sustainable Energy Concepts; Consumentgerichte Duurzame Energieconcepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, H.J. [Universiteit Twente UT, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    A study on the willingness of potential buyers of newly built houses to invest in energy efficient systems in order to realize a sustainable dwelling [Dutch] Een onder zoek naar de bereidheid van potentiele kopers van nieuwbouw woningen tot het investeren in energetische systemen om te komen tot een duurzame woning.

  4. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  5. The Concept of Sustainable Development as a Paradigm of Development of Sosiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to studying the concept of sustainable development as a new paradigm of development of humanity. The genesis of the evolution of the views of scientists on the goals, essence, and problems of the introduction of this concept are considered. The interpretation of the concept of “sustainable development” by scientists and practitioners is analyzed, and the main approaches to understanding its essence are grouped. The basic principles of sustainable development are singled out. The main approaches to assessing sustainable development of socio-economic systems at different levels, their content, goals, and features of application are investigated. The views of scientists on the path to achieving sustainable development are considered, and the key discussion aspects in solving this problem are identified. It is shown that the concept of sustainable development has undergone a long evolution and continues to develop in accordance with new global challenges. Sustainable development is associated with the formation of a fundamentally new attitude towards man: on the one hand, as a subject of the ecological and economic system, on the other hand, as the main goal of its development. It is substantiated that the transition to sustainable development on a global scale is possible only with the obligatory condition of coherence of all objects and subjects of this process, which is systemic in nature and connects all levels of the socio-economic system (the global, national, regional, local one and various spheres of its functioning (the economic, social, ecological one.

  6. The role of collaborations in the development and implementation of sustainable livestock concepts in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, de E.M.; Carsjens, G.J.; Eilers, Catharina H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of collaborations in the development and implementation of sustainable livestock farming. The study reflects upon the experiences with two innovative pig farming concepts in the Netherlands that aim to address sustainability-related concerns regarding the economic

  7. Innovative type of Reproduction of Agriculture of the Komi Republic - the Basis of its Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The necessity of transition of agriculture to sustainability is complicated by the necessity to increase production of local environmentally safe food, unemployment indigenous growth of living standards of the peasant community, stable and balanced nature management. Due to the difficult economic conditions of natural and agricultural development for the Komi Republic principle of food self-sufficiency is unacceptable, but the production of basic food products, for which favorable there are conditions, is objective necessity in the short term. Priority directions of development of the agricultural and fisheries sectors: the production of socially significant food products - potatoes, vegetables of the local range, milk, fresh meat, eggs, dietary, preservation and development of traditional industries, and collecting wild mushrooms and berries and its processing. Off forecast in the northern agricultural areas three scenarios selected: a base (slow), optimistic and pessimistic. For all versions of the forecast to be considered systemic crisis of the agricultural sector of the North is ongoing. Functioning of on sector under a particular scenario will depend on the factors and conditions that affect the stability of the agricultural enterprises and farms. At the base, especially under unfavorable conditions, negative external factors and conditions will prevail. The baseline scenario of recent years assumes the maintenance of the rate of change indicators of agriculture, of the levels of state industry conditions of interbranch exchange in agriculture, of access to economic entities in the financial markets, of the pricing and taxation policies, of relatively low investment opportunities to upgrade production capacity. In this embodiment the growth of agricultural production and its reduction will occur in suburban (peripheral areas). The optimistic scenario will be characterized by protectionist policies of the state, increase investment to improve soil fertility

  8. Interactive design of farm conversion : linking agricultural research and farmer learning for sustainable small scale horticulture production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  9. IAHE Hydrogen Civilization Conception for the Humankind Sustainable Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor A Goltsov; Lyudmila F Goltsova; T Nejat Veziroglu

    2006-01-01

    There are generalized of a novel Hydrogen Civilization (HyCi-) conception of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy. The HyCi-Conception states that at this rigorous, severe historical period the humankind still has a real possibility to save the biosphere and makes living out of humanity be possible and real process. The above objective can be achieved by the only way, the way of advantageous all-planetary work along the direction of ecologically clean vector 'Hydrogen energy → Hydrogen economy → Hydrogen civilization'. The HyCi-Conception includes three constituent, mutually conditioned parts: industrially-ecological, humanitarian-cultural and geopolitical-internationally legislative ones. Legislative-economical mechanism of transition to hydrogen civilization is formulated, and the most important possible stages of HyCi-transition are indicated and discussed. (authors)

  10. A Review of Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post independence period, the most important challenge in India has been to produce enough food for the growing population. Hence, high-yielding varieties are being used with infusion of irrigation water, fertilizers, or pesticides. This combination of high-yielding production technology has helped the country develop a food surplus as well as contributing to concerns of soil health, environmental pollution, pesticide toxicity, and sustainability of agricultural production. Scientists and policy planners are, therefore, reassessing agricultural practices which relied more on biological inputs rather than heavy usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Organic farming can provide quality food without adversely affecting the soil’s health and the environment; however, a concern is whether large-scale organic farming will produce enough food for India’s large population. Certified organic products including all varieties of food products including basmati rice, pulses, honey, tea, spices, coffee, oilseeds, fruits, cereals, herbal medicines, and their value-added products are produced in India. Non edible organic products include cotton, garments, cosmetics, functional food products, body care products, and similar products. The production of these organic crops and products is reviewed with regard to sustainable agriculture in northern India.

  11. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  12. Environmental Accounting: Concepts, Practive and Assessment of Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Vardon, Michael; Harrison, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of sustainable development requires accounting for the depletion and degradation of natural resources and other environmental impacts of economic development. The United Nations System of Integrated Economic and Environmental Accounting (SEEA) provides a system that links economic activities to changes in the environment and natural resources. SEEA has guided the development of environmental accounts by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. This paper describes how SEEA...

  13. Sustainable Design and Renewable Energy Concepts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lawrence

    2009-07-01

    The energy use of residential and non-residential buildings in the US makes up a full 50% of the total energy use in the country. The Architects role in positively altering this equation has become more and more apparent. A change in the paradigm of how buildings are designed and the integration of renewable energy sources to meet their energy requirements can have tremendous impacts on sustainability, energy consumption, environment impacts, and the potential for climate change.

  14. Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike; Hornborg, Sara; Green, Bridget S

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environm......Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global......-offs, LCA can be a useful decision support tool and avoids problem shifting from one concern (or activity) to another. The integrated, product-based and quantitative perspective brought by LCA could complement existing tools. One example is to follow up fuel use of fishing, as the production and combustion...... performance could likewise facilitate the transition to low-impact fisheries. Taking these steps in an open dialogue between fishers, managers, industry, NGOs and consumers would enable more targeted progress towards sustainable fisheries...

  15. Cyanobacterial Farming for Environment Friendly Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Innovations and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainendra Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply of food and energy without posing any threat to environment is the current demand of our society in view of continuous increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy. Cyanobacteria have recently emerged as potential candidates who can fulfill abovementioned needs due to their ability to efficiently harvest solar energy and convert it into biomass by simple utilization of CO2, water and nutrients. During conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy, these biological systems produce oxygen as a by-product. Cyanobacterial biomass can be used for the production of food, energy, biofertilizers, secondary metabolites of nutritional, cosmetics, and medicinal importance. Therefore, cyanobacterial farming is proposed as environment friendly sustainable agricultural practice which can produce biomass of very high value. Additionally, cyanobacterial farming helps in decreasing the level of greenhouse gas, i.e., CO2, and it can be also used for removing various contaminants from wastewater and soil. However, utilization of cyanobacteria for resolving the abovementioned problems is subjected to economic viability. In this review, we provide details on different aspects of cyanobacterial system that can help in developing sustainable agricultural practices. We also describe different large-scale cultivation systems for cyanobacterial farming and discuss their merits and demerits in terms of economic profitability.

  16. Linked sustainability challenges and trade-offs among fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Julia L; Watson, Reg A; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Cottrell, Richard S; Nash, Kirsty L; Bryndum-Buchholz, Andrea; Büchner, Matthias; Carozza, David A; Cheung, William W L; Elliott, Joshua; Davidson, Lindsay N K; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Dunne, John P; Eddy, Tyler D; Galbraith, Eric; Lotze, Heike K; Maury, Olivier; Müller, Christoph; Tittensor, Derek P; Jennings, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Fisheries and aquaculture make a crucial contribution to global food security, nutrition and livelihoods. However, the UN Sustainable Development Goals separate marine and terrestrial food production sectors and ecosystems. To sustainably meet increasing global demands for fish, the interlinkages among goals within and across fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture sectors must be recognized and addressed along with their changing nature. Here, we assess and highlight development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change. We demonstrate that some countries are likely to face double jeopardies in both fisheries and agriculture sectors under climate change. The strategies to mitigate these risks will be context-dependent, and will need to directly address the trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, such as halting biodiversity loss and reducing poverty. Countries with low adaptive capacity but increasing demand for food require greater support and capacity building to transition towards reconciling trade-offs. Necessary actions are context-dependent and include effective governance, improved management and conservation, maximizing societal and environmental benefits from trade, increased equitability of distribution and innovation in food production, including continued development of low input and low impact aquaculture.

  17. A Need for Education in Water Sustainability in the Agricultural Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study draws upon the definition of water sustainability from the National Water Research Institute as the continual supply of clean water for human uses and for other living beings without compromising the water welfare of future generations. Currently, the greatest consumer of water resources worldwide is irrigation. The move from small-scale, family farms towards corporately owned and market driven, mass scale operations have drastically increased corn production and large-scale factory hog farming in the American Midwest—and the water quality related costs associated with this shift are well-documented. In the heart of the corn belt, the state of Iowa has dealt with issues over the past two decades ranging from flooding of historic proportions, to yield destroying droughts. Most recently, the state's water quality is intensely scrutinized due to nutrient levels higher than almost anywhere else in the world. While the changed agricultural landscape is ultimately responsible for these environmental costs, they can be mitigated if the farmers adopt practices that support water sustainability. However, many Iowa farmers have yet to embrace these necessary practices because of a lack of proper education in this context. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore how water sustainability is being conceptualized within the agricultural realm, and ultimately, how the issues are being communicated and understood within various subgroups in Iowa, such as the farmers, the college students, and the general public.

  18. The Role of Agricultural Management in Sustaining Zayandeh-rud Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Emami Heidari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural practices plays a vital role in reducing the use of limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions which could result in their sustainability. In this research, the role of managing agriculture in sustaining flow of Zayandeh-rud was studied by calculation of rice water requirement (actual evapotranspiration in paddy fields of Zarrin-shahr by using method of FAO-56 and comparing the results assuming a shift in cropping pattern from rice to other crops. Rice water requirement was estimated at 1485 mm and the volume of water required for irrigation of paddy fields with area of about 6630 Hectare was estimated at 77 MCM. Volume of irrigated waterwas also evaluated by water balance method, confirmed the reliability of FAO-56 method. The results show that, replacing rice or wheat-rice cropping pattern with some possible crops such as bean, maize, walnut, apple and grape decreases irrigation requirements about 27, 15, 24, 29 and 40 MCM, respectively. Generalizing results for the total paddy fields in Isfahan Province with estimated area of about 20000 Hectare will result in an increase of about 3.4 to 9.1 m3/s in Zayandeh-rud discharge during critical months of June to October, when the river flow highly decreases, causing sustainable flow of the river through the year.

  19. Indonesia-Madagascar partnership in agricultural linkages (impartial aims for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Widodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting in 2011 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA through the Program of Third Country Experts (TCE invited Indonesian scientists to be involved in the development endeavors for African Countries, including Madagascar especially in attempt to increase productivity of rice as main staple food of Malagasy. Initiation of bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and Madagascar had been stimulated from JICA-TCE, furthermore for developing Indonesian soybean to Madagascar from 2013 to 2015. Madagascar and many African Countries are grouped into the countries requesting global aid for taming hunger as declared under Millennium Development Goals (MDGs ended 2015 that continued into Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 2030. Fortunately, there is a similarity of languages in Indonesia and Madagascar East and West Africa as heritage from the ancient voyage before western occupation or even Before Christ (BC era as reflected in the relief at wall of Borobudur a Buddhist temple in Magelang Central Java Indonesia. Based on historical background, there is an opportunity to propose Indonesia- Madagascar Partnership in Agricultural Linkages (IMPARTIAL as a new alliance for attaining sustainable development in developing countries at the southern hemisphere. Implementing agricultural innovation to provide adequate food and renewable energy for daily modern livelihood is a key to attain sustainability.

  20. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those principles in our daily lives. A corollary concept, and one that supports sustainable design, is that of bio-regionalism - the idea that all life is established and maintained on a functional community basis and that all of these distinctive communities (bio-regions have mutually supporting life systems that are generally self-sustaining. The concept of sustainable design holds that future technologies must function primarily within bioregional patterns and scales. They must maintain biological diversity and environmental integrity contribute to the health of air, water, and soils, incorporate design and construction that reflect bio-regional conditions, and reduce the impacts of human use. Sustainable design, sustainable development, design with nature environmentally sensitive design, holistic resource management - regardless of what it's called, "sustainability," the capability of natural and cultural systems being continued over time, is the key. Sustainable design must use an alternative approach to traditional design and the new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural resources of the local, regional, and global environments. Sustainable park and recreation development will succeed to the degree that it anticipates and manages human experiences. Interpretation provides the best single tool for shaping experiences and sharing values. By providing an awareness of the environment, values are taught that are

  1. Sustainability: Teaching an Interdisciplinary Threshold Concept through Traditional Lecture and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levintova, Ekaterina M.; Mueller, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties in teaching global sustainability in the introductory political science classes is the different emphases placed on this concept and the absence of the consensus on where the overall balance between environmental protection, economic development, and social justice should reside. Like many fuzzy concepts with which students…

  2. Thinking about sustainable development: Engaging with societal and ecological concepts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Mario A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ' strategies in, for example, providing ICT services in resource constrained environments. The concept of panarchy (linked set of hierarchies) focuses attention on the various linked scales in any ICT4D system and the possible impact of modularity and feedback...

  3. Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Kerry, Rout George; Das, Gitishree; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been functioning as a co-evolution between plants and microbes showing antagonistic and synergistic interactions with microorganisms and the soil. Microbial revitalization using plant growth promoters had been achieved through direct and indirect approaches like bio-fertilization, invigorating root growth, rhizoremediation, disease resistance etc. Although, there are a wide variety of PGPR and its allies, their role and usages for sustainable agriculture remains controversial and restricted. There is also variability in the performance of PGPR that may be due to various environmental factors that might affect their growth and proliferation in the plants. These gaps and limitations can be addressed through use of modern approaches and techniques such as nano-encapsulation and micro-encapsulation along with exploring multidisciplinary research that combines applications in biotechnology, nanotechnology, agro biotechnology, chemical engineering and material science and bringing together different ecological and functional biological approaches to provide new formulations and opportunities with immense potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  5. Nutritional Sustainability: Aligning Priorities in Nutrition and Public Health with Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Dimick, Dennis; Marshall, Elizabeth; Nelson, Gerald Charles; Mein, Jonathan R; Gustafson, David I

    2017-09-01

    Nutrition science-based dietary advice urges changes that may have a great impact on agricultural systems. For example, the 2016 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends greatly increased fruit and vegetable consumption, but the present domestic production is insufficient to accommodate large-scale adoption of these guidelines. Increasing production to the extent needed to meet the DGA will necessitate changes in an already stressed agriculture and food system and will require nutrition and agriculture professionals to come together in open and collegial discourse. All involved need to understand the stress placed on the food system by increasing populations, changing diets, and changing environments, and recognize the major diet-based public health challenges. Furthermore, there is a need to understand the intricate interplay of the myriad parts of the food system and the vast amount of work necessary to make even small changes. New systems approaches are needed, especially at the research level, where nutrition, public health, agriculture, and the food industry work together to solve interconnected problems. Future well-being depends on a sustainable food system that continues to deliver optimal health with minimal impact on the environment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Membrane technology for sustainable treated wastewater reuse: agricultural, environmental and hydrological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Gideon; Gillerman, Leonid; Bick, Amos; Manor, Yossi; Buriakovsky, Nisan; Hagin, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in agricultural fields in which secondary wastewater of the City of Arad (Israel) is reused for irrigation. For sustainable agricultural production and safe groundwater recharge the secondary effluent is further polished by a combined two-stage membrane pilot system. The pilot membrane system consists of two main in row stages: Ultrafiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO). The UF stage is efficient in the removal of the pathogens and suspended organic matter while the successive RO stage provides safe removal of the dissolved solids (salinity). Effluents of various qualities were applied for agricultural irrigation along with continuous monitoring of the membrane system performance. Best agricultural yields were obtained when applying effluent having minimal content of dissolved solids (after the RO stage) as compared with secondary effluent without any further treatment and extended storage. In regions with shallow groundwater reduced soil salinity in the upper productive layers, maintained by extra membrane treatment, will guarantee minimal dissolved solids migration to the aquifers and minimize salinisation processes. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  8. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Next-Generation Bio-Products Sowing the Seeds of Success for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have recently been recognized as meta-organisms due to a close symbiotic relationship with their microbiome. Comparable to humans and other eukaryotic hosts, plants also harbor a “second genome” that fulfills important host functions. These advances were driven by both “omics”-technologies guided by next-generation sequencing and microscopic insights. Additionally, these new results influence applied fields such as biocontrol and stress protection in agriculture, and new tools may impact (i the detection of new bio-resources for biocontrol and plant growth promotion, (ii the optimization of fermentation and formulation processes for biologicals, (iii stabilization of the biocontrol effect under field conditions, and (iv risk assessment studies for biotechnological applications. Examples are presented and discussed for the fields mentioned above, and next-generation bio-products were found as a sustainable alternative for agriculture.

  10. SUSTAINABLE DIVERSIFIED AGRICULTURE AND LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE HIMALAYA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Bajracharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil and land resources play a vital role in sustaining the local livelihoods of rural communities in the Himalaya. Most of the arable land has already been brought under cultivation, hence the ever-increasing demand for food and fiber has left farmers with no choice but to intensify agriculture. However, producing more crops and greater quantities of food, fiber and other materials on the same parcel of land can to soil fertility and productivity decline with overall degradation of land quality. Therefore, ways and means to intensify agriculture to enhance productivity without degrading the soil and land resource base have become imperative. Agro-forestry, agro-slivi-pastoral systems, and the adoption of a variety of crop, soil and water management and conservation practices offer potential to deliver multiple benefits without sacrificing the very resource upon which the human population depends. Presented herein are findings on approaches to sustainable intensification of agriculture and land management related to soil OM management and C sequestration for multiple benefits, and, agro-forestry as a crop diversification strategy with both livelihood, and climate change adaptation/mitigation benefits. The results indicate that sustainable soil management practices could lead to significant SOC accumulations (4-8 t/ha over 6 yrs. SOC and soil C stocks tend to increase with elevation due to cooler climate and slow decomposition rates. Carbon stocks for the 3 LU types was in the order CF>AF/LH>AG, suggesting that diversified cropping practices including agro-forestry have good potential sequester C while providing livelihood opportunities and climate adaptive capacity for local farming communities. Biochar amendment increased growth of both coffee plants and radish with mixed grass/weed biochar being most effective. Biochar application also significantly decreased emission of GHGs, especially N2O.

  11. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment....... This is investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more...

  12. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Adiprasetyo; Sukisno Sukisno; Nanik Setyowati; Sempurna Ginting; Merakati Handajaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1) find out if sustaina...

  13. Sustainability of ancestral methods of agricultural production in Perú: ¿keep or replace?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Eduardo Vargas Huanca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the success of some Andean products such as quinoa, potatoes or maca in international food trade and the growing environmental degradation facing developing countries, resulting from intensive exploitation activities; Our research seeks to show the trend that is assumed from the academic / scientific community and public officials in the food sector in Peru, against the need to maintain sustainable various ancestral modes of agricultural production (case quinoa, for it analyze quantitative and qualitative obtained from public institutions and Peruvian universities.

  14. Irrigated agriculture and groundwater resources - towards an integrated vision and sustainable relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Garduño, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is the largest abstractor, and predominant consumer, of groundwater resources, with large groundwater-dependent agro-economies now having widely evolved especially in Asia. Such use is also causing resource depletion and degradation in more arid and drought-prone regions. In addition crop cultivation practices on irrigated land exert a major influence on groundwater recharge. The interrelationship is such that cross-sector action is required to agree more sustainable land and water management policies, and this paper presents an integrated vision of the challenges in this regard. It is recognised that 'institutional arrangements' are critical to the local implementation of management policies, although the focus here is limited to the conceptual understanding needed for formulation of an integrated policy and some practical interventions required to promote more sustainable groundwater irrigation.

  15. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  16. The Battle Between "Good" and "Better": a Strategic Marketing Perspective on Codes of Conduct for Sustainable Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2006-01-01

    Code-of-conduct organizations (CCOs) for sustainable agriculture, such as Fair Trade and Eurep-Gap, are rapidly changing the face of agribusiness. Yet, there is little understanding of how these organizations contribute to sustainability. This study therefore presents a case study of the strategies

  17. Final report TransForum WP-046 : images of sustainable development of Dutch agriculture and green space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.L.P.; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Vervoort, J.M.; Beers, P.J.; Veldkamp, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the project “Images of sustainable development of Dutch agriculture and green space” three PhD candidates studied the topic of images in sustainable development. Frans Hermans focused on the topic of societal images and their role and influence in innovation projects. The title of his subproject

  18. Evaluating Tourist Destination Performance: Expanding the Sustainability Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluations are a critical tool in promoting the sustainability of tourist destinations. The literature shows a lack of consensus on basic terminology and definitions of destination performance. While research focuses on business efficiency, areas such as development effectiveness, social equality, and environmental integrity are still not well understood, even though these are salient elements of sustainable development. This paper provides a framework for evaluating destination performance under the 4E rubric of economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental quality, which reflects a more holistic and effective destination performance. The information entropy weight method and a multi-factor comprehensive evaluation model are developed and applied to an international destination, Zhangjiajie, China, which was selected as a case study to test the framework developed. Results show that the economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental quality aspects should be considered when evaluating tourism development performance. The empirical analysis shows that based on these criteria, Zhangjiajie’s destination performance improved measurably during the test period from 2005 to 2009. The results indicate that significant events, natural disasters, and financial crises influence performance most.

  19. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  20. Sustainable technological development in chemistry. Improving the quality of life through chemistry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The importance of agricultural products, their potential conversion to energy sources and their applications for fibre-reinforced construction materials is emphasized. Another potentially important technology is the conversion of sunlight into electricity such as occurs in the leaves of plants. Parallels with nature exist, even though conversions with inorganic materials have, until now, been promising. The ability to control chemical reactions is the subject throughout all the following chapters. The goal is to achieve high reaction efficiencies and to use fewer basic materials, both of which will lead to a reduction in environmental stress. Sustainable developments in chemistry can be described by two approaches: (1) Improvements in society, with challenges for chemistry; and (2) Improvement in the chemical sector itself. Both approaches are dealt with in this report. Five areas for development have been chosen in the discussions for `DTO-Chemie`: Integrated plant conversion (IPC), in particular Valorisation of plant parts for raw materials and energy; Biomass conversion (C1 Chemistry), in particular Technologies for (among others) C1-based chemicals and energy carriers; Photovoltaic cells (PSC), in particular Technologies for the conversion of solar light into electricity; Process Technology in Fine chemistry (PFC), in particular Methodology of manufacturing processes for Fine chemicals; and Sustainable Construction Materials (FRC); in particular Techniques for using fibre-reinforced composites in construction applications. These areas can be viewed as clusters of technologies, with a strong chemistry and agricultural component, which are necessary for achieving a sustainable future. Furthermore, it is important to recognise that technology requires a progressive development (technology lifecycle). The five areas of technology development are tested against a number of criteria: (1) Sustainability / leap / volume; (2) Horizon 2050; (3) Commitment from industry

  1. Scenarios reveal pathways to sustain future ecosystem services in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiangxiao; Carpenter, Stephen R; Booth, Eric G; Motew, Melissa; Zipper, Samuel C; Kucharik, Christopher J; Chen, Xi; Loheide, Steven P; Seifert, Jenny; Turner, Monica G

    2018-01-01

    Sustaining food production, water quality, soil retention, flood, and climate regulation in agricultural landscapes is a pressing global challenge given accelerating environmental changes. Scenarios are stories about plausible futures, and scenarios can be integrated with biophysical simulation models to explore quantitatively how the future might unfold. However, few studies have incorporated a wide range of drivers (e.g., climate, land-use, management, population, human diet) in spatially explicit, process-based models to investigate spatial-temporal dynamics and relationships of a portfolio of ecosystem services. Here, we simulated nine ecosystem services (three provisioning and six regulating services) at 220 × 220 m from 2010 to 2070 under four contrasting scenarios in the 1,345-km 2 Yahara Watershed (Wisconsin, USA) using Agro-IBIS, a dynamic model of terrestrial ecosystem processes, biogeochemistry, water, and energy balance. We asked (1) How does ecosystem service supply vary among alternative future scenarios? (2) Where on the landscape is the provision of ecosystem services most susceptible to future social-ecological changes? (3) Among alternative future scenarios, are relationships (i.e., trade-offs, synergies) among food production, water, and biogeochemical services consistent over time? Our results showed that food production varied substantially with future land-use choices and management, and its trade-offs with water quality and soil retention persisted under most scenarios. However, pathways to mitigate or even reverse such trade-offs through technological advances and sustainable agricultural practices were apparent. Consistent relationships among regulating services were identified across scenarios (e.g., trade-offs of freshwater supply vs. flood and climate regulation, and synergies among water quality, soil retention, and climate regulation), suggesting opportunities and challenges to sustaining these services. In particular, proactive

  2. Challenges and Alternatives to Sustainable Management of Agriculture and Pastoral Ecosystems in Asian Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is no question that human must produce additional 70% food to feed the new 2.2 billion of people on the planet by 2050, but the question is where to grow the additional food. The demand for the additional food lies not only in producing the basic resources needed to sustain a healthy lifestyle, but also from a changing diet, especially in rapidly developing countries in the dryland regions around the world. It is forecast that this demand for meat will require an additional 0.2 billion tons per year by 2050, which is almost a doubling of present meat consumption. These new demands create mounting pressures on agriculture and pastoral ecosystems and the reported trajectory of warmer and drier climate in the future increases uncertainties in food security, adding further stresses to the already stressed nations in the Asian dryland belt. Different approaches are being either proposed or practiced in the region but the question is whether or not the current practices are sustainable or optimal in addressing the emerging issues. Given the complexity and interplay among the food, water and energy, what are alternatives to ensure a sustainable trajectory of regional development to meet the new food demand? This presentation reviews existing practices and proposes alternative solutions, by specifically examining the trade-offs between different ecosystem services that drylands in Asian may provide. Preliminary analysis suggested that the current trajectory of meat and milk production is likely not on a sustainable pathway.

  3. Extending the scope of eco-labelling in the food industry to drive change beyond sustainable agriculture practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ackerman, Marco A; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine

    2017-12-15

    New consumer awareness is shifting industry towards more sustainable practices, creating a virtuous cycle between producers and consumers enabled by eco-labelling. Eco-labelling informs consumers of specific characteristics of products and has been used to market greener products. Eco-labelling in the food industry has yet been mostly focused on promoting organic farming, limiting the scope to the agricultural stage of the supply chain, while carbon labelling informs on the carbon footprint throughout the life cycle of the product. These labelling strategies help value products in the eyes of the consumer. Because of this, decision makers are motivated to adopt more sustainable models. In the food industry, this has led to important environmental impact improvements at the agricultural stage, while most other stages in the Food Supply Chain (FSC) have continued to be designed inefficiently. The objective of this work is to define a framework showing how carbon labelling can be integrated into the design process of the FSC. For this purpose, the concept of Green Supply Chain Network Design (GSCND) focusing on the strategic decision making for location and allocation of resources and production capacity is developed considering operational, financial and environmental (CO 2 emissions) issues along key stages in the product life cycle. A multi-objective optimization strategy implemented by use of a genetic algorithm is applied to a case study on orange juice production. The results show that the consideration of CO 2 emission minimization as an objective function during the GSCND process together with techno-economic criteria produces improved FSC environmental performance compared to both organic and conventional orange juice production. Typical results thus highlight the importance that carbon emissions optimization and labelling may have to improve FSC beyond organic labelling. Finally, CO 2 emission-oriented labelling could be an important tool to improve the

  4. Model of Numerical Spatial Classification for Sustainable Agriculture in Badung Regency and Denpasar City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigunasih, N. M.; Lanya, I.; Subadiyasa, N. N.; Hutauruk, J.

    2018-02-01

    Increasing number and activity of the population to meet the needs of their lives greatly affect the utilization of land resources. Land needs for activities of the population continue to grow, while the availability of land is limited. Therefore, there will be changes in land use. As a result, the problems faced by land degradation and conversion of agricultural land become non-agricultural. The objectives of this research are: (1) to determine parameter of spatial numerical classification of sustainable food agriculture in Badung Regency and Denpasar City (2) to know the projection of food balance in Badung Regency and Denpasar City in 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 (3) to specify of function of spatial numerical classification in the making of zonation model of sustainable agricultural land area in Badung regency and Denpasar city (4) to determine the appropriate model of the area to protect sustainable agricultural land in spatial and time scale in Badung and Denpasar regencies. The method used in this research was quantitative method include: survey, soil analysis, spatial data development, geoprocessing analysis (spatial analysis of overlay and proximity analysis), interpolation of raster digital elevation model data, and visualization (cartography). Qualitative methods consisted of literature studies, and interviews. The parameters observed for a total of 11 parameters Badung regency and Denpasar as much as 9 parameters. Numerical classification parameter analysis results used the standard deviation and the mean of the population data and projections relationship rice field in the food balance sheet by modelling. The result of the research showed that, the number of different numerical classification parameters in rural areas (Badung) and urban areas (Denpasar), in urban areas the number of parameters is less than the rural areas. The based on numerical classification weighting and scores generate population distribution parameter analysis results of a standard

  5. Flexible Ridesharing New Opportunities and Service Concepts for Sustainable Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Handke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Individual mobility is one of the most important needs of modern society and an important link between private, public and economic life. In contrast, transport also entails severe environmental and social burdens, foiling current efforts for sustainable development. As the main source of CO2 emissions, transport is a prominent driver for climate change, and individual car traffic is responsible for nearly a third of the total energy consumption. However, we have to consider that many commuters feel indeed very dependent on their car. Here, ridesharing promises to contribute to environmental protection, while still offering individual mobility. Although ridesharing options have been discussed since many years, internet and smartphones provide completeley new opportunities to find ridesharing partners today. Thus, this book deals with current efforts on implementing flexible internet- and phone-based ridesharing services. With a main focus on the users‘ perspective, their demands and acceptance limits, we ai...

  6. Efficient, equitable and sustainable energy policy in a small open economy: Concepts and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop three broadly defined concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy of a small open economy, namely, efficiency, equity, and sustainability which are applied to Singapore. By analysing the historical energy and economic data and examining energy policies and programs implemented, this study finds that (1) energy intensity improves over time and three strategies employed to improve energy efficiency - tariffs, deregulation and setting energy standards - are found to have some positive effects. (2) A utility rebate programme is implemented and revised continuously to achieve equity in energy consumption across Singapore households. (3) By the weak concept of sustainability, Singapore is considered marginally sustainable. Institutional, technological and market-based approaches are being implemented to increase energy efficiency, improve energy equity and secure sustainability. - Highlights: • Three concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy are developed. • Efficiency, equity and sustainability are the three concepts. • Three strategies are identified in improving energy efficiency. • A utility rebate programme is to achieve equity in energy consumption across households. • Institutional and market-based approaches are to secure sustainable energy supply.

  7. Enabling a sustainable and prosperous future through science and innovation in the bioeconomy at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sara F; Poon, Jacquelyne S; Lepage, Etienne; Bilecki, Lori; Girard, Benoit

    2018-01-25

    Science and innovation are important components underpinning the agricultural and agri-food system in Canada. Canada's vast geographical area presents diverse, regionally specific requirements in addition to the 21st century agricultural challenges facing the overall sector. As the broader needs of the agricultural landscape have evolved and will continue to do so in the next few decades, there is a trend in place to transition towards a sustainable bioeconomy, contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emission and our dependency on non-renewable resources. We highlight some of the key policy drivers on an overarching national scale and those specific to agricultural research and innovation that are critical to fostering a supportive environment for innovation and a sustainable bioeconomy. As well, we delineate some major challenges and opportunities facing agriculture in Canada, including climate change, sustainable agriculture, clean technologies, and agricultural productivity, and some scientific initiatives currently underway to tackle these challenges. The use of various technologies and scientific efforts, such as Next Generation Sequencing, metagenomics analysis, satellite image analysis and mapping of soil moisture, and value-added bioproduct development will accelerate scientific development and innovation and its contribution to a sustainable and prosperous bioeconomy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Land quality, sustainable development and environmental degradation in agricultural districts: A computational approach based on entropy indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambon, Ilaria; Colantoni, Andrea; Carlucci, Margherita; Morrow, Nathan; Sateriano, Adele; Salvati, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes. A diachronic analysis (1960–2010) was performed at the Italian agricultural district scale to identify environmental factors associated with spatial heterogeneity in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI). In 1960, diversification in the level of land sensitivity measured using two common indexes of entropy (Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness) increased significantly with the ESAI, indicating a high level of land sensitivity to degradation. In 2010, surface area classified as “critical” to LD was the highest in districts with diversification in the spatial distribution of ESAI values, confirming the hypothesis formulated above. Entropy indexes, based on observed alignment with the concept of LD, constitute a valuable base to inform mitigation strategies against desertification. - Highlights: • Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas. • Entropy indexes can inform mitigation strategies against desertification. • Assessing spatial diversification in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation. • Mediterranean rural areas have an evident diversity in agricultural systems. • A diachronic analysis carried out at the Italian agricultural district scale.

  9. Land quality, sustainable development and environmental degradation in agricultural districts: A computational approach based on entropy indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.zambon@unitus.it [Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea [Department of Agricultural and Forestry scieNcEs (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Carlucci, Margherita [Department of Social and Economic Science, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Morrow, Nathan [Tulane University, Payson Program in International Development at the School of Law, New Orleans (United States); Sateriano, Adele; Salvati, Luca [Italian Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184 Rome (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes. A diachronic analysis (1960–2010) was performed at the Italian agricultural district scale to identify environmental factors associated with spatial heterogeneity in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI). In 1960, diversification in the level of land sensitivity measured using two common indexes of entropy (Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness) increased significantly with the ESAI, indicating a high level of land sensitivity to degradation. In 2010, surface area classified as “critical” to LD was the highest in districts with diversification in the spatial distribution of ESAI values, confirming the hypothesis formulated above. Entropy indexes, based on observed alignment with the concept of LD, constitute a valuable base to inform mitigation strategies against desertification. - Highlights: • Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas. • Entropy indexes can inform mitigation strategies against desertification. • Assessing spatial diversification in the degree of land sensitivity to degradation. • Mediterranean rural areas have an evident diversity in agricultural systems. • A diachronic analysis carried out at the Italian agricultural district scale.

  10. Ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: a spatially explicit approach to support sustainable soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzangohar, Mohsen; Crossman, Neville D; MacEwan, Richard J; Wallace, D Dugal; Bennett, Lauren T

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation has been associated with a lack of adequate consideration of soil ecosystem services. We demonstrate a broadly applicable method for mapping changes in the supply of two priority soil ecosystem services to support decisions about sustainable land-use configurations. We used a landscape-scale study area of 302 km(2) in northern Victoria, south-eastern Australia, which has been cleared for intensive agriculture. Indicators representing priority soil services (soil carbon sequestration and soil water storage) were quantified and mapped under both a current and a future 25-year land-use scenario (the latter including a greater diversity of land uses and increased perennial crops and irrigation). We combined diverse methods, including soil analysis using mid-infrared spectroscopy, soil biophysical modelling, and geostatistical interpolation. Our analysis suggests that the future land-use scenario would increase the landscape-level supply of both services over 25 years. Soil organic carbon content and water storage to 30 cm depth were predicted to increase by about 11% and 22%, respectively. Our service maps revealed the locations of hotspots, as well as potential trade-offs in service supply under new land-use configurations. The study highlights the need to consider diverse land uses in sustainable management of soil services in changing agricultural landscapes.

  11. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-04-29

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  12. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  13. An Introspective view of Sustainable Cohousing with The Malaysian Housing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi Norhaslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development strategies are becoming demanded in assisting in wealth distribution and improving living conditions for mankind. A sustained community is one of the sustainable development agendas that encourage community involvement and participation in contributing to sustainability. Moreover, with the rapid population growth, especially in urban cities as the proportion of urban dwellers will reach two-thirds of the world population, this will lead to several problems including the social life changing intensely. Sustainable Cohousing is one of the suggested answers for an innovative form of neighbourly accommodation. Generally, Cohousing is formed by a group of people who are committed to living as a community and who actively participate in the design and operation to shape their own neighbourhood. Through this concept, the community can decide how they can implement sustainability principles in terms of social, economical and environmental terms in their neighbourhood. Therefore, it is important to bring back the sense of togetherness amongst the people and improve their social wellbeing through an effective neighbourhood. The objective of this study is to isolate the basic concept of Cohousing and to identify the conceptual framework of Sustainable Cohousing that may apply to improving the sustainable living in Malaysia. The research methodology was through identifying and reviewing the issues in existing literature on cohousing chosen from various dimensions, such as principles and elements, sustainable value, development model and so on, which can be suited with the Malaysian culture. The findings of this research are useful for property development practitioners and policy makers in promoting sustainability through the new concept of modern housing.

  14. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  15. Sustainability Learning”: An Introduction to the Concept and Its Motivational Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hansmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper clarifies the concept of sustainability learning and specifically analyzes motivational aspects. Mastering the challenges of sustainability requires individual learning as well as learning processes on different levels of human systems ranging from groups and organizations to human societies, and mankind as a whole. Learning processes of individuals play a fundamental role, since individuals constitute and shape the larger social aggregates. Learning processes on the level of social aggregates are important since social systems embed and influence individuals. Therefore, sustainability learning needs to be understood as a multi-level concept, comprising individual learning as well as learning processes of human systems. Transdisciplinarity and mutual learning between science and society are considered fundamental approaches of sustainability learning, and hence increase the capacity of mankind to manage human-environment systems in sustainable ways. Based on systemic considerations, the two-fold role, in which motivations act as determinants and targeted outcomes of sustainability learning processes, is explained together with the outstanding role that cooperation, hence cooperative motivation, plays for sustainable development. Finally, the multifaceted, controversial discourses on what sustainability ultimately means (for the scientific community, for a given cultural or political entity, organization, or individual person are considered.

  16. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  17. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  18. Developing Sustainable Agromining Systems in Agricultural Ultramafic Soils for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Susan Kidd

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultramafic soils are typically enriched in nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr, and cobalt (Co and deficient in essential nutrients, making them unattractive for traditional agriculture. Implementing agromining systems in ultramafic agricultural soils represent an ecological option for the sustainable management and re-valorisation of these low-productivity landscapes. These novel agroecosystems cultivate Ni-hyperaccumulating plants which are able to bioaccumulate this metal in their aerial plant parts; harvested biomass can be incinerated to produce Ni-enriched ash or “bio-ore” from which Ni metal, Ni ecocatalysts or pure Ni salts can be recovered. Nickel hyperaccumulation has been documented in ~450 species, and in temperate latitudes these mainly belong to the family Brassicaceae and particularly to the genus Odontarrhena (syn. Alyssum pro parte. Agromining allows for sustainable metal recovery without causing the environmental impacts associated with conventional mining activities, and at the same time, can improve soil fertility and quality and provide essential ecosystem services. Parallel reductions in Ni phytotoxicity over time would also permit cultivation of conventional agricultural crops. Field studies in Europe have been restricted to Mediterranean areas and these only evaluated the Ni-hyperaccumulator Odontarrhena muralis s.l. Two recent EU projects (Agronickel and LIFE-Agromine have established a network of agromining field sites in ultramafic regions with different edapho-climatic characteristics across Albania, Austria, Greece and Spain. Soil and crop management practices are being developed so as to optimize the Ni agromining process; field studies are evaluating the potential benefits of fertilization regimes, crop selection and cropping patterns, and bioaugmentation with plant-associated microorganisms. Hydrometallurgical processes are being up-scaled to produce nickel compounds and energy from hyperaccumulator biomass. Exploratory

  19. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Imrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine the socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan taking into account economic, environmental, social and environmental opportunities of the country; to find the rationale for the concept of sustainable development to eliminate major differences specific to regional economic development, management of economic and social development of the regions.Methods. Historical and comparative analysis, system approach, analysis of statistical and mathematical materials.Findings. We identified the advantages of the concept of sustainable development; cunducted the analysis of the dynamics of development of the leading industries in the region; studied the most promising sectors of the regions from the economic and geographic point of view.Conclusion. We identified socio-economic aspects of sustainable development of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  20. Fairly sustainable forestry: seven key concepts for defining local sustainability in a global ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. we increasingly restrict wood production in the name of sustainability while going abroad for a growing share of the wood we consume, even though our own forest resources per capita are far greater than the global average. The unintended consequence is that we transfer impacts (positive and negative) of our timber harvesting and wood consumption to other...

  1. Exploring Corn-Ethanol As A Complex Problem To Teach Sustainability Concepts Across The Science-Business-Liberal Arts Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oches, E. A.; Szymanski, D. W.; Snyder, B.; Gulati, G. J.; Davis, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    The highly interdisciplinary nature of sustainability presents pedagogic challenges when sustainability concepts are incorporated into traditional disciplinary courses. At Bentley University, where over 90 percent of students major in business disciplines, we have created a multidisciplinary course module centered on corn ethanol that explores a complex social, environmental, and economic problem and develops basic data analysis and analytical thinking skills in several courses spanning the natural, physical, and social sciences within the business curriculum. Through an NSF-CCLI grant, Bentley faculty from several disciplines participated in a summer workshop to define learning objectives, create course modules, and develop an assessment plan to enhance interdisciplinary sustainability teaching. The core instructional outcome was a data-rich exercise for all participating courses in which students plot and analyze multiple parameters of corn planted and harvested for various purposes including food (human), feed (animal), ethanol production, and commodities exchanged for the years 1960 to present. Students then evaluate patterns and trends in the data and hypothesize relationships among the plotted data and environmental, social, and economic drivers, responses, and unintended consequences. After the central data analysis activity, students explore corn ethanol production as it relates to core disciplinary concepts in their individual classes. For example, students in Environmental Chemistry produce ethanol using corn and sugar as feedstocks and compare the efficiency of each process, while learning about enzymes, fermentation, distillation, and other chemical principles. Principles of Geology students examine the effects of agricultural runoff on surface water quality associated with extracting greater agricultural yield from mid-continent croplands. The American Government course examines the role of political institutions, the political process, and various

  2. Architectural dimension of sustainability: Re-establishing the concept of recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building related processes as water pollution, landfill waste, energy use and related emissions of global warming gases, material and land loss, are undisputable proofs of the devastating effects of the construction industry on our environment. Given that only a small percentage of a total building stock is made out of new work, it is not enough to develop strategies and principles for a sustainable design only for the new projects, but for the existing buildings as well. Therefore, it is essential that, through repurposing, we consider what can be done with what we already have if we are to significantly benefit sustainability agenda in the future. This research focuses on the concept of architectural recycling as a method for achieving sustainable architectural design. In the first place, two concepts, two extremes in dealing with existing buildings will be analysed: 1 preservation as radical stasis and 2 destruction as radical change. This analysis will enable the formulation of the concept of architectural recycling as the ‘preservation through change’, viewed as a sustainable response to rapidly changing conditions. The elaboration of the concept of architectural recycling, as a key method for responding to the sustainability agenda, is the focus of this paper. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 36035: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social Aspects of Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts

  3. The Construction of a Solidarity Sustainability Concept Theoretical Contributions to the Reach of Socio-Environmentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has as general objective to draw up considerations about the concept of sustainability having as its apparatus its intimate connection with solidarity, so that the studies traced are presented as theoretical contributions to socio-environmentalism. In this context, the following specific objectives were listed: analyze the main aspects of Sustainability, focusing on the social dimension; to study Solidarity in its historical and conceptual aspects; and to understand the close correlation between both categories. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  4. Strategies of Transition to Sustainable Agriculture in Iran I- Improving Resources Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fast switch to sustainable agriculture patterns is not impossible for many farmers. However to achieve perfect sustainable in agro-ecosystems which are friendly with environment, changing conventional to sustainable agriculture should be carried slowly. For this purpose, three effective steps were mentioned: first level is increasing of inputs efficiency such as fertilizer and chemical pesticides which used in conventional agriculture now. Second level is related to changing inputs by friendly environmental inputs as alternative inputs and the final level is redesigning of the agro-ecosystems that its function is based on series of ecological process. On the other hand, achieving sustainable agriculture requires higher efficiency of inputs and many process should be replaced by friendly environmental inputs with chemical inputs and new system is designed based on ecological principles. The objective of this study was to offer approaches for improving inputs use efficiency as first step to transition from conventional to sustainable agriculture. Material and Methods In order to evaluate the transition status from conventional to sustainable agriculture in agro-ecosystems of Iran, scientific resource and researches that was performed about increasing of inputs efficiency as first step to transition from conventional to sustainable agriculture was studied. For this purpose, 177 studies that had been performed about using different inputs and its efficiency in various crops were assessed. Applied inputs included water, nitrogen and herbicides and studied plants included cereals (wheat, barley, rice, maize and sorghum, beans (bean, pea and lentil, oil crops (canola, sunflower, safflower and sesame, medicinal plants, potato, sugar beet and cotton. In this study, average and range of inputs use efficiency in different crops and also the relationship between increasing of inputs application with their use efficiency was assessed. In the

  5. On Establishing of the Concept of «Smart» Sustainable City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korepanov Oleksiy S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at carrying out a comparative analysis of different approaches to the definition of concepts of «smart city» and «smart sustainable city», as well as formalizing these concepts for their implementation, which will potentially contribute to spreading of both the concept and the national practice of sustainable urban development, including the economic, environmental, and general justice issues. The main reasons connected with the key role of cities in the social and economic aspects of people’s life over the world and the enormous influence on the ecological stability are considered; the main current scientific sources concerned with the research on «smart» cities are covered, and their comparative analysis is carried out. The definitions of other alternative concepts such as «digital» city, «intellectual» city, «virtual» city, etc., representing more concrete and less inclusive levels of development of city, are considered in detail and presented. The differences between the concept of «smart city» and other related terms in three categories are discussed. A detailed analysis of different keywords from different sources is carried out. Based on the carried out analysis, six primary categories have been identified: smart life, smart people, smart environment and sustainability, smart management, smart mobility and smart economy, which are important for understanding the essence of «smart» sustainable city.

  6. Emergy evaluation of agricultural sustainability of Northwest China before and after the grain-for-green policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiuhong; Shen, Jianxiu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    China’s grain-for-green policy (GFGP) was implemented with the goal of improving ecological security. Consequently, agricultural energy and agrochemical inputs have been significantly increased to improve food security and to increase the income of farmers in the regions where the GFGP was implemented. In analysis of the sustainability of the agricultural system affected by the GFGP, it is essential to consider both economic profitability and environmental sustainability. Using Yanchi County as a case study area, this study used an emergy synthesis to examine the sustainability of the agricultural system before and after the GFGP in Northwest China. We found that the total emergy input and energy output of the agricultural system in the study area increased from 1991 to 2008; however, the sustainability of the system declined, and this decline was especially evident after the GFGP was launched in 2001. Increasing inputs of non-renewable purchased resources will not only reduce the effectiveness of the GFGP in Northwest China, but also hinder the implementation of the energy-saving and emission-reduction policy that China launched in 2005. We suggest that sustainable agricultural development in Northwest China should be based on effective use of renewable resources and development of a low-carbon agricultural economy. - Highlights: • The total emergy input and energy output of the study system increased from 1991 to 2008. • The change of each emergy index was more evident after the GFGP launched in 2001. • The increase in input of non-renewable purchased resources will gradually reduce the function of the GFGP in West China. • Agricultural development in West China should be based on organic agriculture

  7. Key factors for achieving profitable biogas production from agricultural waste and sustainable biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Biswas, Rajib

    2013-01-01

    Based on numerous investigations on increasing the biogas yield of manure, a new concept was developed to increase the economical operation of manure based biogas plants by combining up concentration of manure with a more specific treatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber fraction...... by implementing the treatment on the digested solid fraction. Catch crops have been identified as a sustainable co-substrate for biogas production with a high biogas potential. For exploiting this biomass for profitable biogas production, the biomass yield per hectare, harvest costs, TS concentration and specific...

  8. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concept for Sustainable Aviation: Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael. T.; Armstrong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In response to growing aviation demands and concerns about the environment and energy usage, a team at NASA proposed and examined a revolutionary aeropropulsion concept, a turboelectric distributed propulsion system, which employs multiple electric motor-driven propulsors that are distributed on a large transport vehicle. The power to drive these electric propulsors is generated by separately located gas-turbine-driven electric generators on the airframe. This arrangement enables the use of many small-distributed propulsors, allowing a very high effective bypass ratio, while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated but connected to the propulsors through electric power lines. Because of the physical separation of propulsors from power generating devices, a new class of vehicles with unprecedented performance employing such revolutionary propulsion system is possible in vehicle design. One such vehicle currently being investigated by NASA is called the "N3-X" that uses a hybrid-wing-body for an airframe and superconducting generators, motors, and transmission lines for its propulsion system. On the N3-X these new degrees of design freedom are used (1) to place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to minimize total pressure losses and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 14 motor-driven fans on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge of the hybrid-wing-body airframe to maximize propulsive efficiency by ingesting thick airframe boundary layer flow. Through a system analysis in engine cycle and weight estimation, it was determined that the N3-X would be able to achieve a reduction of 70% or 72% (depending on the cooling system) in energy usage relative to the reference aircraft, a Boeing 777-200LR. Since the high-power electric system is used in its propulsion system, a study of the electric power distribution system was performed to identify critical dynamic and

  10. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J. M.; Willem Erisman, Jan; de Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-02-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3-1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25-30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10-20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2-2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  11. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Westhoek, Henk; Erisman, Jan Willem; De Vries, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  12. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    to nutrient losses to air and water. This paper discusses the sustainable recycling N resources in biosolids and biowastes in agriculture in Australia using specific recent research examples from Western Australia, including lime amended biosolids, alum sludge and dewatered biosolids cake, and from Tasmania, papermill sludge. The primary focus is the N fertiliser replacement value of different biosolids and biowaste types under different environmental conditions, and management issues relating to the sustainable recycling of N. Experimental work included field trials and soil incubation studies. The findings are compared with research findings conducted in different climatic regions and soil types across Australia (Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales) and internationally.

  13. Renewable energy for sustainable urban development: Redefining the concept of energisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissing, Christian; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of energisation. The chronological development of this concept is investigated by means of a literature review, and a subsequent critique is offered of current definitions and usage of the concept. Building upon these first insights, two planned cases of energisation in post-apartheid South Africa are contrasted to an unplanned one: they are the national electrification programme, the integrated energy centres initiative, and a wood fuelled local economy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town's biggest township. Especially the latter case, based on original data collection by the authors, provides a new understanding of specific elements affecting energisation. Finally, a new and detailed definition of the concept of sustainable energisation is developed by systematically reiterating three key elements: the target group, the concept of energy services, and sustainable development.

  14. Renewable energy for sustainable urban development: Redefining the concept of energisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissing, Christian [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Blottnitz, Harro von, E-mail: Harro.vonBlottnitz@uct.ac.z [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of energisation. The chronological development of this concept is investigated by means of a literature review, and a subsequent critique is offered of current definitions and usage of the concept. Building upon these first insights, two planned cases of energisation in post-apartheid South Africa are contrasted to an unplanned one: they are the national electrification programme, the integrated energy centres initiative, and a wood fuelled local economy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town's biggest township. Especially the latter case, based on original data collection by the authors, provides a new understanding of specific elements affecting energisation. Finally, a new and detailed definition of the concept of sustainable energisation is developed by systematically reiterating three key elements: the target group, the concept of energy services, and sustainable development.

  15. Renewable energy for sustainable urban development. Redefining the concept of energisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissing, Christian [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Von Blottnitz, Harro [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of energisation. The chronological development of this concept is investigated by means of a literature review, and a subsequent critique is offered of current definitions and usage of the concept. Building upon these first insights, two planned cases of energisation in post-apartheid South Africa are contrasted to an unplanned one: they are the national electrification programme, the integrated energy centres initiative, and a wood fuelled local economy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town's biggest township. Especially the latter case, based on original data collection by the authors, provides a new understanding of specific elements affecting energisation. Finally, a new and detailed definition of the concept of sustainable energisation is developed by systematically reiterating three key elements: the target group, the concept of energy services, and sustainable development. (author)

  16. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  17. Practicing joint responsibility for sustainable regional development: introducting the concept of regional management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lawrence, F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available of additional factors should be taken into account if real sustainable change is to take place over the medium to long term. It introduces the concept of regional management as a complimentary approach to district development and builds on key national debates...

  18. The potential and sustainability of agricultural land use in a changing ecosystem in southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Matthias; Caviezel, Chatrina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    Southern Greenland currently experiences an increase in summer temperatures and a prolonged growing season (Masson-Delmotte et al. 2012), resulting in an increased potential regarding agricultural land use. Subsequently, the agricultural sector is expected to grow. Thereby, a higher hay production and grazing capacity is pursued by applying more efficient farming practices (Greenland Agriculture Advisory Board 2009). However, agricultural potential at borderline ecotones is not only influenced by factors like temperature and growing season but also by other ecologic parameters. In addition, the intensification of land use in the fragile boreal - tundra border ecotone has various environmental impacts (Perren et al. 2012; Normand et al. 2013). Already the Norse settlers practiced animal husbandry in southern Greenland between 986-1450 AD. Several authors mention the unadapted land use as main reason for the demise of the Norse in Greenland, as grazing pressure exceeded the resilience of the landscape and pasture economy failed (Fredskild 1988; Perren et al. 2012). During the field work in summer 2014, we compared the pedologic properties of already used hay fields, grazed land, birch woodland and barren, unused land around Igaliku (South Greenland), in order to estimate the potential and the sustainability of the land use in southern Greenland. Beside physical soil properties, nutrient condition of the different land use types, the shrub woodland and barren areas was analyzed. The results of the study show that the most suitable areas for intensive agricultural activity are mostly occupied. Further on, the fields, which were used by the Norse, seem to be the most productive sites nowadays. Less productive hay fields are characterized by a higher coarse fraction, leading to a reduced ability to store water and to an unfavorable nutrient status. An intensification of the agricultural land use by applying fertilizer would lead to an increased environmental impact

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN UNION’S REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen\tValentina\tRADULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich natural potential for agriculture in Romania is contrasting with the low level of economic performance. Progress toward sustainable development in rural areas depends on processes that lead to increased valuation of the natural resources by cropping and livestock breeding, capturing more value by growing the number of processing stages performed at national level for food production, improvements in the distribution of benefits with special focus on rural population, harnessing the benefits of stewarding natural ecosystems that play a key role for the overall wellbeing of the population, diversifying the structure of economic activities, and encouraging entrepreneurial involvement. European policies of rural development are supporting most of these processes, but within the national context there encountered specific challenges born by the low level of maturation for property relationships, fragmentation of land ownership and cropping plots, cultural patterns that create strong resistance to change, and lack of financial resources. The paper highlights several aspects in order to assess at what extent the Romanian agriculture is making progress toward European requirements.

  20. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  1. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshabah Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue.

  2. The Trofobiose Theory and organic agriculture: the active mobilization of nutrients and the use of rock powder as a tool for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner L. Polito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is to link some relevant concepts on the use of ecological agricultural practices to the production of food crops. In a special topic the Trofobiose Theory, as well as the principle of Active Dissolution of Rocks are considered as important tools in improving the sustainability of Organic, Biodynamic and Process Agricultures.O objetivo principal deste trabalho é estabelecer relação entre alguns conceitos relevantes sobre o uso de práticas agro-ecológicas na produção de alimentos. Em um tópico especial, a Teoria da Trofobiose bem como os princípios da Dissolução Ativa de Rochas são considerados como importantes ferramentas na implementação da sustentabilidade no processo de Agriculturas Orgânica e Biodinâmica.

  3. Role of marine macroalgae in plant protection & improvement for sustainable agriculture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham M. Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are plant-like organisms with simple internal structures that generally live in coastal areas. They mainly include different communities of red, brown and green macroalgae. Marine macroalgae commonly occupy intertidal and sublittoral-to-littoral zones on rocks and other hard substrata. They are considered to be an excellent natural biosource in different aspects of agricultural fields. They have great proficiency in improving soil physical and chemical properties. Marine macroalgae are also characterized by producing a large array of biologically active biocidal substances against plant-infecting pathogens. Unfortunately, most available literatures on marine macroalgae and their derivatives mainly focused on their pharmaceutical applications but their potential utilization in sustainable agriculture development is still often regarded as a secondary goal. However, a relatively considerable dataset on marine macroalgae showed that they could play a major role in plant protection and improvement. This review summarizes different aspects of potential macroalgal applications in agriculture. Commercial production and exploitation of specific compounds with interesting biotechnological importance from marine macroalgae including microbicides, nematicides, insecticides, biofertilizers, biostimulators and soil conditioners are highlighted and discussed in detail. Bioactive compounds like fatty acids (in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, proteins (amino acids, bioflavonoids, sulfated polysaccharides, carotenoids, polyphenols and carbohydrates are considered to have bactericidal, antiviral and fungicidal effects against some plant-infecting pathogens. These biocontrol agents provide multiple benefits and act as useful pointers for improving cultivation practices in diverse habitats. Marine macroalgae can be generally considered as promising multifunctional bioinoculants and ecofriendly environmental tools in recent trends

  4. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  5. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the adoption level of practices associated with more sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices. Additionally, the motivations for and barriers to the adoption of these practices by farmers are investigated. Data were collected through...... closed questionnaires taken by a random sample of farmers in the Southwest, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the second half of 2013. Overall, sustainable agricultural practices recommended in the literature and analysed in this study are being not fully adopted by farmers of the studied area. The results...... showed that financial motivation is associated with farmers adopting new, more sustainable technology, whereas the lack of information on and lack of technical support for these technologies are significant barriers. Other results, research implications, limitations and suggestions for future research...

  6. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  8. Mechanization of Conservation Agriculture for Smallholders: Issues and Options for Sustainable Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is an increasingly adopted production system to meet the goals of sustainable crop production intensification in feeding a growing world population whilst conserving natural resources. Mechanization (especially power units, seeders, rippers and sprayers is a key input for CA and smallholder farmers often have difficulties in making the necessary investments. Donors may be able to provide mechanization inputs in the short term, but this is not a sustainable solution as a machinery input supply chain needs to be built up to continue availability after external interventions cease. Local manufacture should be supported, as was the case in Brazil, but this is a slow development process, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. A more immediate solution is to equip and train CA service provision entrepreneurs. With the right equipment, selected for the needs of their local clientele, and the right technical and business management training, such entrepreneurs can make a livelihood by supplying high quality CA and other mechanization services on a fully costed basis. Elements of the required training, based on extensive field experience, are provided. To catalyse the growth of CA providers’ business, the market can be stimulated for an initial period by issuing e-vouchers for services and inputs.

  9. Estimated costs of Sustaining Agricultural Production Through Erosional Control and Replenishment of Nutrient Losses in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major causes of nutrient depletion in sub-Saharan Africa. Highlights of losses from erosion can be used to explain why agricultural production in this region is not sustainable. annual macronutrient losses were calculated from experimental results at 8 sites in Kenya between 1986 and 1990. these losses were used along with the current local prices of fertiliser to estimate the annual national budget required for there replenishment. On average, 5.72, 29.3 and 0.82 kg ha -1 yr -1 of N, P and K, respectively, were lost annually. These losses are determined by soil types, slope, crop cover characteristics and rainfall amounts. soil losses can be reduced by terracing, contour farming and intercropping to improve crop cover. These efforts reduce the adverse effects of sporadic rainfall on fragile soil types. in order to ensure sustainability however, control measures have to be supplemented by national additions of 64 000 t, 323 000 t and 10 000 t of N, P and K respectively per year. The equivalent costs of these fertilisers will be Ksh 1,408 Ksh 8721 Ksh 220 million for the respective nutrients. This would require a total of some US$256 million (Ksh 10 349 million) annually from the national budget

  10. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum

  11. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  12. Subsidies and sustainable development. Case studies in the Flemish agricultural and housing policies; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Casestudies in het Vlaamse landbouw- en woonbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 2nd research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. Attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies. In the 1st paper the concept and method are discussed. The method was used for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 2e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Aandacht wordt besteed aan een toepassing van de methodologie om subsidies in kaart te brengen. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  13. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  14. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  15. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part B - General refurbishment concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vares, S.; Pulakka, S.; Toratti, T. [and others

    2012-11-01

    This report is the second part of the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). The following list shows the sustainability assessment criteria defined by the SUSREF project. These are Durability; Impact on energy demand for heating; Impact on energy demand for cooling; Impact on renewable energy use potential; Impact on daylight; Environmental impact of manufacture and maintenance; Indoor air quality and acoustics; Structural stability; Fire safety; Aesthetic quality; Effect on cultural heritage; Life cycle costs; Need for care and maintenance; Disturbance to the tenants and to the site; Buildability. This report presents sustainability assessment results of general refurbishment concepts and gives recommendations on the basis of the results. The report covers the following refurbishment cases - External insulation - Internal insulation - Cavity wall insulation - Replacement Insulation during renovation.

  16. Interpretations of the Concept of Sustainability Amongst the UK’s Leading Food and Drink Wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide an exploratory review of the interpretations of the concept of sustainability amongst the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers, as revealed by the sustainability agendas and achievements reported on their corporate websites. Design/Methodology/Approach – The paper begins with short introductions to sustainability, corporate sustainability and sustainability reporting, and food and drinks wholesaling within the UK. The empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ corporate websites. Findings and implications – There are marked variations in the extent to which the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues, but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermined its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. Limitations – The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality – Within the food and drinks supply chain, wholesalers have a pivotal role at the interface between producers, manufacturers, retail and service providers, and as such they can play in promoting sustainability. However, the role of the UK’s wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature, so this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing.

  17. Barriers and opportunities in realising sustainable energy concepts--an analysis of two Swiss case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christian; Gisler, Priska

    2003-01-01

    What assists and what hinders sustainable energy use in being put into effect? Two case studies of sustainable energy concepts--the Zurich Solarstromboerse, where electricity can be purchased that is produced by solar panels, and the Swiss CO 2 -law, a consensus oriented implementation of the Kyoto-protocol--were analysed in order to investigate this question. In both case studies the unfolding of the sustainable energy concepts is reconstructed as a process starting with an abstract idea moving to a concrete realisation. This process passes through a series of different social worlds and is, in turn, affected by them. These social worlds are e.g. those of the concerned scientists, the professional investors, energy suppliers or governmental agencies. The case studies reveal three neuralgic challenges that have to be met when a concept advances from idea to realisation through the social worlds: Firstly, the translation between social worlds changes the content of the idea. Secondly, the way each social world looks at things (socially) constructs best solutions to problems and hides others. Thirdly, the actual dynamics of the social world within which it is finally implemented must be adopted by the idea. In order to integrate these neuralgic points, scientists as well as other inventors have to retain responsibility for their sustainable energy ideas and are requested to follow them through the social worlds in order to critically survey and eventually influence their 'content in flux'

  18. THE CONCEPT OF LOCAL-SMART-HOUSING: TOWARDS SOCIO-CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY OF VERNACULAR SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHosein GhaffarianHoseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent decades have witnessed the widespread manifestation of intelligent building design development around the world. Meanwhile, the concept of smart housing as one of the main issues of intelligent building design development has stimulated various architects and designers to make use of it for the sake of sustainable housing. However, this study represents a gap in smart housing design owing to the lack of a deep consideration on cultural values of users for ensuring the socio-cultural sustainability as one of the objectives of sustainable smart housing designs. Accordingly, the study puts forward the concept of local-smart-housing through utilization of appropriate vernacular architectural features and cultural values of vernacular settlements in smart housing design in order to reinforce the sociocultural sustainability. Meanwhile, this study is limited to the Malay context in order to identify the vernacular features of Malay vernacular settlement’s functional spaces for utilization in smart housing design to make them culturally responsive. Correspondingly, this study proposes the concept of local-smart-housing based on the incorporation of intelligent building design and utilization of vernacular features for enhancing the quality of life for users.

  19. Sustainable agriculture: how to make it work? : a modeling approach to support management of a mixed ecological farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfert, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: sustainable agriculture; organic farming; whole farm management; decision support; farming systems research; designing; modeling; beta-gamma integration

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to develop a model that helps

  20. Sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture: Aspirations and barriers in the regional agroecosystems of the LTAR network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustainable intensification of agriculture in the United States will require major shifts in producer decision-making, markets, and public policies. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is working to better understand how these shifts may be accomplished. Through a common experime...

  1. Integrated assessment of agricultural land use policies on nutrient pollution and sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Feng, S.; Loon, van M.; Luo, X.; Kang, C.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Wolf, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Qu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution in Chinese lakes is a major problem. To reduce nutrient pollution and enhance sustainable development in Taihu Basin, China, an integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural land use policies has been performed, using the technical coefficient generator TechnoGIN and the

  2. Linking ecology and aesthetics in sustainable agricultural landscapes: Lessons from the Palouse region of Washington, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Klein; William G. Hendrix; Virginia I. Lohr; Jolie B. Kaytes; Rodney D. Sayler; Mark E. Swanson; William J. Elliot; John P. Reganold

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by international escalation in agricultural sustainability debates, we explored the promise of landscape-scale conservation buffers to mitigate environmental damage, improve ecological function, and enhance scenic quality. Although the ecological benefits of buffer vegetation are well established by plot- and field-scale research, buffer adoption by farmers is...

  3. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system; the case for nitrogen and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinsven, van J.J.M.; Erisman, J.W.; Vries, de W.; Westhoek, H.

    2015-01-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic

  4. Possibilities for Near-term Bioenergy Production and GHG-Mitigation through Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture and Forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Bentsen, Niclas S; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate climate change it is necessary to further increase the deployment of renewable energy, including bioenergy. This analysis shows how this can be achieved in Danish agriculture and forestry before 2020. The key is a sustainable intensification and we show through three scenarios how...

  5. Governance challenges of cocoa partnership projects in Indonesia: seeking synergy in multi-stakeholder arrangements for sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, A.; Glasbergen, P.; Leroy, P.; Darmastuti, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates multi-stakeholder arrangements initiated by businesses and NGOs from the North that aim to enhance a more sustainable agricultural production at specific localities in Southern countries. We aim to better understand the search for concerted action in multi-actor arrangements.

  6. The Sustainable Expression of Ecological Concept in the Urban Landscape Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junyan; Zhou, Tiejun; Xin, Lisen; Tan, Yuetong; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend of development of human society, also the inevitable outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress, while urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage, the urban population density, traffic congestion, shortage of resources, environmental pollution, ecological degradation, has become the focus of human society. In order to create an environment of ecological and harmonious, beautiful, sustainable development in the urban landscape, This paper discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design and sustainable development of urban landscape design.

  7. Incorporating Sustainability and Green Design Concepts into Engineering and Technology Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radian G. Belu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human society is facing an uncertain future due to the present day unsustainable use of natural resources and the growing imbalance with our natural environment. Sustainability is an endeavour with uncertain outcomes requiring collaboration, teamwork, and abilities to work with respect and learn from other disciplines and professions, as well as with governments, local communities, political and civic organizations. The creation of a sustainable society is a complex and multi-stage endeavour that will dominate twenty first century.  Sustainability has four basic aspects: environment, technology, economy, and societal organization. Schools with undergraduate engineering or engineering technology programs are working to include sustainability and green design concepts into their curricula. Teaching sustainability and green design has increasingly become an essential feature of the present day engineering education. It applies to all of engineering, as all engineered systems interact with the environment in complex and important ways. Our project main goals are to provide the students with multiple and comprehensive exposures, to what it mean to have a sustainable mindset and to facilitate the development of the passion and the skills to integrate sustainable practices into engineering tools and methods. In this study we are describing our approaches to incorporating sustainability and green design into our undergraduate curricula and to list a variety of existing resources that can easily be adopted or adapted by our faculty for this purpose. Our approaches are: (1 redesigning existing courses through development of new curricular materials that still meet the objectives of the original course and (2 developing upper division elective courses that address specific topics related to sustainability, green design, green manufacturing and life-cycle assessment. 

  8. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, agriculture in West Africa has been marked by dramatic shifts with the coverage of single crops, increasing pressure over the available arable land. Yet, West African countries are still striving to achieve sustainable production at an increased scale for global market needs. Market-driven rapid intensification is often a major cause for cropland area expansion at the expense of deforestation and soil degradation, especially to export commodities in times of high prices. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is nowadays an important export-oriented crop, being produced under intensive cultivation regimes in several tropical regions. Particularly, among the main cashew production areas, West Africa is the most recent and dynamic in the world, accounting for 45% of the world cashew nuts production in 2015. Considering its global market values, several developing countries rely on cashew nuts as national economy revenues, namely in Guinea-Bissau. Considering the intensive regime of cashew production in Guinea-Bissau, and as widely recognized, intensive agriculture linked with extensification can negatively impact ecosystems, affecting natural resources availability, soil erosion and arability compromised by excessive salinity. Ultimately this will result in the disruption of carbon - nitrogen cycle, important to the agricultural ecosystem sustainability. As such, tree intercropped with legumes as cover crops, offers a sustainable management of the land area, thus creating substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, as it enhances diversification of products outputs and proving to be more sustainable than forestry and/or agricultural monocultures. Soil fertility improvement is a key entry point for achieving food security, and also increment agriculture commodities of the agro-system. Without using inorganic fertilizers, the green solution for improving soil management is to incorporate adapted multi-purpose legumes as cover crops

  9. Planning support concept to implementation of sustainable parking development projects in ancient Mediterranean cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Jajac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a planning support concept (PSC to implementation of sustainable parking development projects (SPDP in ancient Mediterranean cities. It is conceptualized by the logic of decision support systems and a multicriteria analysis approach. The purpose of the concept is to support setting of implementation priorities for subprojects (construction of new and/or improvement of existing parking within a SPDP. Analysing the existing and a planned state of parking within the city a goal tree is established. Subprojects are defined accordingly. Objectives from the last hierarchy level within the goal tree are used as criteria for assessment of defined subprojects. Representatives of stakeholders provided criteria weights by application of AHP and SAW methods. PROMETHEE II was used for priority ranking and PROMETHEE V ensured a definition of project’s implementation phases. The result of the presented concept is the implementation plan for such projects. The concept is tested on the city of Trogir.

  10. Improved phosphorus use efficiency in agriculture: a key requirement for its sustainable use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, J J; Smit, A L; Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A

    2011-08-01

    Mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers processed from fossil reserves have enhanced food production over the past 50 years and, hence, the welfare of billions of people. Fertilizer P has, however, not only been used to lift the fertility level of formerly poor soils, but also allowed people to neglect the reuse of P that humans ingest in the form of food and excrete again as faeces and urine and also in other organic wastes. Consequently, P mainly moves in a linear direction from mines to distant locations for crop production, processing and consumption, where a large fraction eventually may become either agronomically inactive due to over-application, unsuitable for recycling due to fixation, contamination or dilution, and harmful as a polluting agent of surface water. This type of P use is not sustainable because fossil phosphate rock reserves are finite. Once the high quality phosphate rock reserves become depleted, too little P will be available for the soils of food-producing regions that still require P supplements to facilitate efficient utilization of resources other than P, including other nutrients. The paper shows that the amounts of P applied in agriculture could be considerably smaller by optimizing land use, improvement of fertilizer recommendations and application techniques, modified livestock diets, and adjustment of livestock densities to available land. Such a concerted set of measures is expected to reduce the use of P in agriculture whilst maintaining crop yields and minimizing the environmental impact of P losses. The paper also argues that compensation of the P exported from farms should eventually be fully based on P recovered from 'wastes', the recycling of which should be stimulated by policy measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  12. Cyanobacteria: A precious bio-resource in agriculture, ecosystem and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar eSingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in view the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters, generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, syngas and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  13. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  14. Stakeholder cooperation in implementation of the sustainable development concept: Montenegrin tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Pjerotic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving diverse stakeholders in tourism planning is receiving growing recognition. Tourism destination planning is a complex process, due to the existence of a wide variety of stakeholders with a wide range of opinions, multiple problem visions and different interests. Despite the complexity of the planning process one feature acknowledged for successful destination management planning is high level of stakeholder cooperation. The paper examines the level of stakeholder cooperation on the specific example of the sustainable development concept implementation in Montenegrin tourism. It starts with two hypotheses: first, the development level of instruments for managing tourist destination depends on stakeholder cooperation level in a particular destination, and second, implementation of the sustainable development concept is positively correlated with the development of instruments for managing tourist destination. The results have indicated poor implementation of tourism development plans and low level of stakeholder cooperation.

  15. Is sustainable resource utilisation a relevant concept in Avanersuaq? The walrus case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Heide-Jorgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne

    2018-01-01

    analyse how walruses acquire multiple values as they circulate in different networks. Sustainable resource utilisation, we conclude, is a concept that is relevant in Avanersuaq and beyond, because it works as a biological standard, and hence organises laws, norms, and practices of formal management......This article addresses the role of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in present-day Avanersuaq from anthropological and biological perspectives, and asks whether or not sustainable resource utilisation is a useful concept in northwest Greenland. We describe the relations that unfold...... around walrus and walrus hunting, in the communities living adjacent to the North Water polynya on the eastern side of Smith Sound. We examine the interplay of walrus population abundance, hunting practices, uses, and formal (governmental) and informal (traditional) ways of regulating the hunt, and we...

  16. THE ACCEPTANCE OF SUSTAINABLE FOOD CONCEPT: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION IN STENDEN UNIVERSITY HOTEL, THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Tjun Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As customers concern more about the environment, sustainable food demands, which are locally produced, organic, seasonal, and vegetarian or semi-vegetarian, are increasing. Besides, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB explains that behavior is guided by intentions with the factors of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to predict food choices; food purchasing habits and intake; and attitudes and preferences. Therefore, the research purpose is to examine customers’ acceptance of The Netherlands restaurant implementing sustainable food concept using TPB. Data analysis of 10 semi structured interviews shows that the customers of Restaurant NL are more likely guided by external factors of subjective norms: work related dine-in; others’ encouragement to eat more healthy and more responsibly, as the intentions are to have sustainable benefits.

  17. The Concept Of A Sustainable Approach To Corporate Real Estate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemba Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is conceptual in nature and presents the assumptions of a holistic approach to corporate real estate management. The approach is based on the imperative of sustainability, which has become a determinant of the proposed Sustainable Corporate Real Estate Management (SCREM model. Moreover, the authors indicate that in addition to the presence of the sustainability imperative, corporate real estate management requires the integration and formalization of knowledge about the concepts of corporate real estate management (CREM with those of corporate social responsibility (CSR. This approach is intended to enable the identification and improvement of real estate management processes and, as a result, contribute to more efficient and effective corporate real estate management and continuous and flexible development of enterprises, as well as boosting economic growth and building prosperity for present and future generations.

  18. Giving sustainable agriculture really good odds through innovative rainfall index insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, C. P.; Muneepeerakul, R.

    2017-12-01

    Population growth, increasing demands for food, and increasingly uncertain and limited water availability amidst competing demands for water by other users and the environment call for a novel approach to manage water in food production systems to be developed now. Tapping into broad popularity of crop insurance as a risk management intervention, we propose an innovative rainfall index insurance program as a novel systems approach that addresses water conservation in food production systems by exploiting two common currencies that tie the food production systems and others together, namely water and money. Our novel methodology allows for optimizing diverse farm and financial strategies together, revealing strategy portfolios that result in greater water use efficiency and higher incomes at a lower level of water use. Furthermore, it allows targeted interventions to achieve reduction in irrigation water, while providing financial protection to farmers against the increasing uncertainty in water availability. Not only would such a tool result in efficiently less use of water, it would also encourage diversification in farm practices, which reduces the farm's vulnerability against crop price volatility and pest or disease outbreaks and contributes to more sustainable agriculture.

  19. Design of Sustainable Agricultural Buildings. A Case Study of a Wine Cellar in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Conti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research concerns the design of an agricultural building with a high degree of sustainability, located in a farm in the south of the Tuscany region, Italy. The building, intended mainly as a wine cellar, offers innovative construction solutions of high deconstructability and has features of low environmental impact, economic competitiveness and constructive simplicity. In particular, the design of the basement cellar involves the use of gabions and stones for the realization of the foundations, the ground retaining walls and all other bearing walls. A different solution is adopted for the external wall which remains entirely above ground. It is also made by gabions, but it is externally covered with a coat of straw bales and is plastered with clay or lime. The roof-bearing structure is made of steel beams and galvanized steel sheets. A layer of fertile soil is arranged on the roof to form a green roof system. This research aims to spread the design criteria of deconstructable buildings, based on the use of natural materials with low environmental and economic impact. Where it is not possible to employ natural materials, reusable or recyclable materials are used.

  20. The quality management system: an element for the competitiveness and sustainability of agricultural production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Fonseca C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of the increasing globalization of markets, changing consumer habits, frequent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses (FBI, social organizations and governments seeking production and food supply include the assurance of safeness in all links in the chain. One way to achieve it, is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS for certification in agricultural production units, the process addresses the farm give the perspective of general systems theory, shaped by production subsystems and support; them develop both technical and management activities that seek to streamline processes while maintaining standards of sustainability and social responsibility to achieve food production with previously established quality criteria. the process of developing and implementing the QMS requires the construction and operation of support documents and manuals on issues of organization, and organization of producers, which are structured to meet the requirements of a standard, protocol or code of conduct; their compliance is verified through inspections that could lead to the granting of certification or seal of product quality or service, the process can be developed individually by a producer or a producer organization.

  1. Smallholder Farmers’ Perceptions on Climate Change and the Use of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Makate

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing regions with high levels of poverty and a dependence on climate sensitive agriculture, studies focusing on climate change adaptation, planning, and policy processes, have gained relative importance over the years. This study assesses the impact of farmer perceptions regarding climate change on the use of sustainable agricultural practices as an adaptation strategy in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa. In this empirical approach, we adopt methods that account for the plausibility that unmeasured characteristics exist, which are correlated with perceptions and the adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices. We use a unique and representative dataset collected in December 2012 and June 2013, from smallholder farmers in the Chinyanja Triangle. The results indicate that farmer’s perceptions significantly influence the use of sustainable agricultural practices. Specifically, we established that farmer perceptions considerably impact the use of grain legume rotations, inorganic fertilizers, compost, and farmyard manure. Our results highlight the need for a serious and perhaps equal consideration of farmer perceptions regarding climate change, as important inputs to climate change adaptation policies targeted at enhancing climatic resilience in smallholder farming communities. This is plausible as the adaptation and pliability of farmers to the effects of climate change should be a social process involving the collective efforts from various stakeholders.

  2. Operationalising the Sustainable Knowledge Society Concept through a Multi-dimensional Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirescu, Horatiu; Sharma, Ravi S.

    Since the early 21st Century, building a Knowledge Society represents an aspiration not only for the developed countries, but for the developing ones too. There is an increasing concern worldwide for rendering this process manageable towards a sustainable, equitable and ethically sound societal system. As proper management, including at the societal level, requires both wisdom and measurement, the operationalisation of the Knowledge Society concept encompasses a qualitative side, related to vision-building, and a quantitative one, pertaining to designing and using dedicated metrics. The endeavour of enabling policy-makers mapping, steering and monitoring the sustainable development of the Knowledge Society at national level, in a world increasingly based on creativity, learning and open communication, led researchers to devising a wide range of composite indexes. However, as such indexes are generated through weighting and aggregation, their usefulness is limited to retrospectively assessing and comparing levels and states already attained; therefore, to better serve policy-making purposes, composite indexes should be complemented by other instruments. Complexification, inspired by the systemic paradigm, allows obtaining "rich pictures" of the Knowledge Society; to this end, a multi-dimensional scorecard of the Knowledge Society development is hereby suggested, that seeks a more contextual orientation towards sustainability. It is assumed that, in the case of the Knowledge Society, the sustainability condition goes well beyond the "greening" desideratum and should be of a higher order, relying upon the conversion of natural and productive life-cycles into virtuous circles of self-sustainability.

  3. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  4. The sustainability of communicative packaging concepts in the food supply chain. A case study: part 2. Life cycle costing and sustainability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobon, A.; Cordero, P.; Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G.; Ostergaard, S.R.; Antvorskov, H.; Robertsson, M.; Smolander, M.; Hortal, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-paper series dealing with the sustainability evaluation of a new communicative packaging concept. The communicative packaging concept includes a device that allows changing the expiry date of the product as function of temperature during transport and storage:

  5. AN INNOVATIVE SYSTEM FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemicals (both inorganic and organic) in drainage discharge from watersheds have raised concerns about the quality of surface water resources. For example, hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has been related to the nutrients discharging from agricultural watersheds...

  6. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzadilla, A.; Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international

  7. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  8. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce A; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-12-05

    Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems. These studies document the speed with which pathogens evolve to overcome crop resistance genes and pesticides. They also show that crop pathogens can be disseminated very quickly across and among continents through human activities. In this review, we discuss how the peculiar architecture of agro-ecosystems facilitates pathogen emergence, evolution and dispersal. We present four example pathosystems that illustrate both pathogen specialization and pathogen speciation, including different time frames for emergence and different mechanisms underlying the emergence process. Lastly, we argue for a re-design of agro-ecosystems that embraces the concept of dynamic diversity to improve their resilience to pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Booij, C.J.H.; Tscharntke, T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the

  10. The Capacity-Building Stewardship Model: assessment of an agricultural network as a mechanism for improving regional agroecosystem sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Duff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working lands have potential to meet agricultural production targets while serving as reservoirs of biological diversity and as sources of ecological services. Yet agricultural policy creates disincentives for this integration of conservation and production goals. While necessary, the development of a policy context that promotes agroecosystem sustainability will take time, and successful implementation will depend on a receptive agricultural audience. As the demands placed on working lands grow, there is a need for regional support networks that build agricultural producers' capacity for land stewardship. We used a social-ecological system framework to illustrate the Healthy Grown Potato Program as an agricultural network case study. Our Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reflects a 20-year experience working in collaboration with potato growers certified under an ecolabel in Wisconsin, USA. The model applies an evolving, modular farm stewardship standard to the entire farm - croplands and noncroplands. The model demonstrates an effective process for facilitating communication and shared learning among program participants, including agricultural producers, university extension specialists, nonprofit conservation partners, and industry representatives. The limitation of the model in practice has been securing funding to support expansion of the program and to ensure that the ecolabel standard is responsive to changes in the social-ecological system. Despite this constraint, the Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reveals an important mechanism for building regional commitment to conservation, with agricultural producers in a leadership role as architects, adopters, and advocates for stewardship behavior. Our experience provides important insight for the application of agri-environment schemes on private lands. The durability of a conservation ethic on working farms is likely to be enhanced when networks engage and support producers in an

  11. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Humans live in constant interaction with nature. That is part and parcel of being a biological creature on this planet. On one hand, humans exploit the available resources to survive, and at the same time, humans are deeply dependent on the continued capacity of nature to sustain their lives......, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...

  12. Sustainable agriculture, soil management and erosion from prehistoric times to 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Infante Amate, Juan; González Molina, Manuel; Fernández, David Soto; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    The rational use of soil requires the selection of management practices to take profit of the beneficial functions of plant growth, water and nutrient storage, and pollutants removal by filtering and decomposition without altering its properties. However, the first evidence of important and widespread erosion peaks can generally be found with the arrival of the first farmers all over the world. In areas with a long land-use history such as the Mediterranean, clear signs indicating the advanced degradation status of the landscape, such as heavily truncated soils, are visible throughout. Soil conservation practices are then aimed at reducing erosion to geological rates, in equilibrium with long-term soil formation rates, while maximizing agricultural production. The adoption of such practices in most areas of the world are as old as the earliest soil erosion episodes themselves. This work firstly reviews historical evidence linking soil management and soil erosion intensity, with examples from N Europe and the Mediterranean. In particular, work by the authors in olive orchards will be presented that shows how significant variations in soil erosion rates between could be linked to the historical soil management. The potential of historical documents for calibrating a soil erosion model is shown as the model, in this case RUSLE-based and combining tillage and water erosion, adequately represents the measured erosion rate dynamics. Secondly, results from present-day, long-term farm experiments in the EU are reviewed to evaluate the effect of different soil management practices on physical soil properties, such as bulk density, penetration resistance, aggregate stability, runoff coefficient or sediment yield. Finally, we reflect upon model and field data that indicate how future global climate change is expected to affect soil management and erosion and how the examples used above hold clues about sustainable historical management practices that can be used successfully

  13. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena PETRESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of the level of labor productivity in agriculture for each development region of Romania. Labor productivity in agriculture was analyzed by two parameters, namely: the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture for the period 2011 – 2012. The level of labor productivity is influenced by the quality of biological and bio-capacity of plants and animals as well, as well as the equipment and quality of work performed. From the factorial analysis it can be noticed a decrease of labor productivity caused by a decrease in the value of agricultural production.

  14. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy – critical ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-O'Leary, Kara A.; Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Johnston, Dave S.; Abella, Scott R.; Tanner, Karen E.; Swanson, Amanda C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists – including those from academia, industry, and government agencies – have only recently begun to quantify trade-offs in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  15. Phosphate Rocks: Sustainable Secondary Source for Uranium and their Agricultural Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, P.C.; Harris, A.H.; Winston, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The current, ongoing, intensive development of the international phosphate industry is destined to impinge onto at least two major aspects of nuclear energy in the immediate future. The first contact will come in the evaluation of the economic viability and potential sustainability of sedimentary phosphorites as a secondary source for uranium. The second impact will be in the determination of whether or not there exists significant uranium contamination in the utilization of phosphate fertilizers on agricultural systems. There are no adequate substitutes for phosphatic fertilizers. Phosphorous derived from these fertilizers is absolutely essential for the maintenance, growth, and yield of crop plants as well as the survival of all living systems. If the current (6.748 billion), let alone projected, global population (±9 billion, 2040) is without a continuing, uninterrupted, and increasing supply of this ubiquitous commodity for the agricultural system, the world will face certain global famine. The most severely impacted will be those emerging and third world tropical nation-states with phosphate-poor soil systems. The fundamental reason we have been able to feed the bulk of humanity today and avoid a predicted Malthusian future famine is in large part due to the use of phosphate fertilizers. Accompanying the benefits of phosphate-based fertilizers are potentially serious side effects that need to be examined. Phosphate based fertilizers contain heavy metals, led by uranium. Some of the resulting problems are the questions of: the quantitative dimensions of uranium contained in phosphate fertilizers that is lost into the environment (soil and aqueous systems) and how, whether, and under what conditions does the metal enter the biosphere's food chain (animals, plants, and water). Therefore, the downside to the use of phosphate fertilizers is that the uranium in those fertilizers can be transferred to agricultural systems and subsequently to ground- and running

  16. From Concept to Commerce: Developing a Successful Fungal Endophyte Inoculant for Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R; Doohan, Fiona M; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2018-02-11

    The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley). A careful screening and selection procedure and extensive controlled environment testing of fungal endophyte strains, followed by multi-year field trials has resulted in the validation of an endophyte consortium suitable for barley crops grown on relatively dry sites. Our approach can be adapted for any crop or environment, provided that the set of first principles we have developed is followed. Here, we report how we developed the successful pipeline for the production of an economically viable fungal endophyte inoculant for barley cultivars.

  17. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in

  18. Partnering for change in chains : on the capacity of partnerships to promote sustainable change in global agricultural commodity chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzer, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships mirror the changing nature of the relationships among state, business and civil society organizations, and are often considered as innovative mechanisms to overcome single actor failure in the context of globalization. This thesis analyzes the capacity of partnerships to promote sustainable change in global agricultural commodity chains, using the global coffee, cotton and cocoa chains as main fields of application for the empirical analyses. All three chains are characterized by...

  19. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-05

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  20. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in the transition towards more sustainable production systems. Agronomic efficiency measures the technical performance. If it could be improved, environmental damage could be reduced while, at the sam...

  1. THE CHALLENGE OF THE PERFORMANCE CONCEPT WITHIN THE SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nisenbaum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the notion of performance and its appropriation within the research fields related to sustainability and computational design, focusing on the design processes of the architectural and urban fields. Recently, terms such as “performance oriented design” or “performance driven architecture”, especially when related to sustainability, have been used by many authors and professionals as an attempt to engender project guidelines based on simulation processes and systematic use of digital tools. In this context, the notion of performance has basically been understood as the way in which an action is fulfilled, agreeing to contemporary discourses of efficiency and optimization – in this circumstance it is considered that a building or urban area “performs” if it fulfills certain objective sustainability evaluation criteria, reduced to mathematical parameters. This paper intends to broaden this understanding by exploring new theoretical interpretations, referring to etymological investigation, historical research, and literature review, based on authors from different areas and on the case study of the solar houses academic competition, Solar Decathlon. This initial analysis is expected to contribute to the emergence of new forms of interpretation of the performance concept, relativizing the notion of the “body” that “performs” in different manners, thus enhancing its appropriation and use within the fields of sustainability and computational design.

  2. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  3. Towards a sustainable agriculture in 2030. An essay on transition; Naar een duurzame landbouw in 2030. Een essay over transitie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hees, E.M.; Van der Weijden, W.J.; Hin, C.J.A.

    2002-05-01

    Sustainable development of the agricultural sector in the Netherlands is high on the list of priorities in the environmental policy of the Netherlands. In this report special attention is paid to sustainability indicators which can be used in the transition of a Dutch National Environmental Balance towards a Dutch National Sustainability Balance. The report consists of three parts: (1) an essay in the form of an imaginary review from the year 2030 back to the transition process of the agricultural sector from the year 2000 onwards; (2) 14 texts on proposals for economical, socio-cultural and ecological indicators; and (3) four maps which present chances for offering 'green' services in Dutch agricultural areas. [Dutch] Een van de sectoren waar duurzame ontwikkeling hard nodig is, is de landbouw. Het 4e Nationaal Miliebeleidsplan (NMP4) noernt de landbouw naast de energiesector en biodiversiteit als een prioritaire sector. In dit rapport is een visie neergelegdeen met speciale aandacht voor duurzaamheidindicatoren. Die indicatoren zouden bouwstenen kunnen zijn voor de voorgenomen overgang van een Nationale Milieubalans naar een Nationale Duurzaamheidsbalans. Dit rapport bestaat uit drie uiteenlopende delen: een essay in de vorm van een denkbeeldige terugblik vanuit het jaar 2030 naar het transitieproces dat de landbouw vanaf 2000 heeft doorgemaakt; een 14-tal tekstuele bijIagen, met onder meer voorstellen voor te hanteren economische, sociaal-culturele en ecologische indicatoren; en een viertal kaart-bijlagen waarop staat aangegeven waar in het Nederlandse landbouwareaal kansen liggen voor groene diensten.

  4. Sustainable Development Compromise[d] in the Planning of Metro Vancouver’s Agricultural Lands—the Jackson Farm Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Holden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research provides analysis of the case of the Jackson Farm development application, embedded within the particular dynamics of the municipal, regional, and provincial sustainability land use policy culture of the Metro Vancouver region, in Canada. Within a culture of appreciation of the increasing need for sustainability in land use policy, including the protection of agricultural lands at the provincial level through the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR, to urban intensification and protection of the green zone at the regional scale, lies a political conflict that comes into focus in individual land use decisions, within municipalities struggling for autonomy. This case is neither driven strictly by “the politics of the highest bidder” nor by policy failure; the case of the Jackson Farm is instead a case of the challenges of implementing inter-governmental coordination and collaborative governance in a context of both significant sustainability policy and urban growth. The process can be seen to follow an ecological modernization agenda, seeking “win–win” alternatives rather than recognizing that typical compromises, over time, may tip the direction of development away from sustainability policy goals. Understanding the twists, turns, and eventual compromise reached in the case of the Jackson Farm brings to light the implications of the shift in the regional planning culture which may necessitate a less flexible, more structured prioritization of competing goals within plans and policies in order to meet sustainability goals. We highlight this, and present an alternative implementation process within the existing policy regime with potential to aid the specific goal of agricultural land protection.

  5. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  6. The Role of Social Networks in Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating adaptation into subsistence farming systems is an important strategy to reduce damages related to climate change and to protect livelihoods in developing countries. Using a dataset of 450 farm households collected from three agro-ecological zones, this study examines rural networks, assesses farm-level institutional support and documents any existing structural gaps on climate change adaptation in the agricultural sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, a social network analysis method is used. The study findings reveal that farmers reported a decrease in crop production and increase in pests and diseases due to climate change. Further, changing crop varieties, sowing dates, input mixes and planting trees are the key measures adopted by farmers. Lack of information, finances and resources are the key adaptation constraints. The study findings show that only 28% and 13% of the respondents do not have access to financial services and climate adaptation knowledge, respectively. Support to farmers mainly consists of marketing information and farm equipment from community-based organizations, while private institutions offer weather forecasting services. Public institutions are poorly represented in the network analysis. We also found that extension services are key institutions in the climate adaptation network, while agricultural credits, post-harvest services and marketing of produce were dominant but weakly connected in the financial support network. We also found that with an increase in the provision of services at the farm level, farmers not only adapt more but also move from low-cost and short-term measures to advanced measures. This study proposes an integrated framework to improve the stakeholders’ networking through different kind of partnerships and better adaptation to climate change.

  7. The concept of sustainable development as a methodological base to form strategy for enterprises of oil complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the need for the enterprises of the oil complex as a methodological basis of their strategy concept of sustainable development, according to which natural resources are treated as natural capital, similar in quality funds. The author of the article analyzed the research of Russian and foreign scientists on the theory of sustainable development from different perspectives, as well as the Concept of the Russian Federation transition to sustainable development, the main criteria for sustainability, particularly management of industrial enterprises in the field of nature and the environment. It was found that the implementation of sustainable development ideas "oil for future generations" is not only a moral and environmental dimension, and financial performance. If companies invest in the exploration work sufficient to sustain growth of proved reserves of raw materials, it will inevitably raise the level of its capitalization.

  8. Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  9. Giving meaning to the concept of sustainability in architectural design practices : Setting out the analytical framework of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    The question of how to give meaning to the concept of sustainability in architectural design practices is highly contested today. Although architects, engineers, clients, politicians, and others seem to agree that sustainability must be addressed, behind this apparent consensus many ambiguities,

  10. Teaching Art a Greener Path: Integrating Sustainability Concepts of Interior Design Curriculum into the Art Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy; Crane, Tommy J.

    2014-01-01

    Interior design is seldom integrated within the general art education curriculum because the subject matter is generally segregated as a commercial art. However, the importance of interior design concepts of sustainability in art education can really help a student understand the scale and proportion of space and mass, and how sustainability is…

  11. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  12. [Discussion on agricultural product quality and safety problem from ecological view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Dong, Nan; Lyu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety.

  13. Introduction and domestication of woody plants for sustainable agriculture in desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Soloway, Elaine; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2014-05-01

    plantation in arid conditions. 5) Balanites aegyptiaca is potentially a good biomass crop and good feed for grazers as goats. We illuminated differences related to drought tolerance between two distinct ecotypes. Attempts to develope sustainable agriculture based on local species will save resources (water, fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides), keep endangered plant species and enhance vegetation reestablishment.

  14. Towards a life-cycle based european sustainability footprint framework: theory, concepts, applications

    OpenAIRE

    PELLETIER NATHANIEL; MAAS Rob; GORALCZYK MALGORZATA; WOLF Marc-Andree

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is central to the policy objectives of the European Commission, but an integrated sustainability assessment framework in support of policy analysis and development is currently lacking. Arriving at an integrated sustainability assessment framework requires clearly articulated definitions of sustainability and sustainable development. Here, we describe the conceptual basis for the proposed European Sustainability Footprint - an integrated sustainability assessment framework for ...

  15. Seeing GMOs from a Systems Perspective: The Need for Comparative Cartographies of Agri/Cultures for Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Herrero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also failed to account for both the conceptual and material networks of relations agricultural biotechnologies require, create and/or perform. This paper takes as a starting point that agricultural biotechnologies cannot be usefully assessed as isolated technological entities but need to be evaluated within the context of the broader socio-ecological system that they embody and engender. The paper then explores, compares and contrasts some of the methodological tools available for advancing this systems-based perspective. The article concludes by outlining a new synthesis approach of comparative cartographies of agri/cultures generated through multi-sited ethnographic case-studies, which is proposed as a way to generate system maps and enable the comparison of genetically modified (GM food with both conventional and alternative agri-food networks for sustainability assessment. The paper aims to make a unique theoretical and methodological contribution by advancing a systems-based approach to conceptualising and assessing genetically modified organisms (GMOs and proposing a synthesised methodology for mapping networks of relations across different agri/cultures.

  16. Sustainable agriculture in Ilha da Madeira - Portugal | Agricultura sustentável na Ilha da Madeira - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Miller de Souza Caldas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ilha da Madeira is an autonomous region of Portugal located in Atlantic Ocean, in center coordinates 32º43'N 17º43'O, is considered the largest island of archipelago of  the same name. The island covers an area of 740 km². The island has many climate peculiarities mainly influenced by altitude and barriers formed by sharp reliefs, and that they provide North / South axis. Climate variability existing of the island is defined in two types temperate in north and subtropical climate in south. The part of North is cooler and wetter than the south, due to winds from North and end up having a barrier relief inherent to region. Since the year of 1419, the island was subject to various economic and agricultural cycles. Actually, the agricultural occupation of the territory is predominantly winery, horticultural and fruit production. The study was conducted from January to May 2016. Data in census institutes and scientific articles were compared for discussion. The data of production, area of cultivation were intertwined with sustainable agriculture like organic farming and possibilities was available for openings boundaries according to adjustment of the culture temperature, photoperiod and precipitation, and may contribute to increase economy and quality of life in island. The agriculture of the island is formed basically by agriculture family subsistence, involving more than 45,000 people, representing 20% of Madeira population resulting only 3% of the region's economy.

  17. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  18. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    As a multifunctional activity and land use, urban agriculture supports a range of objectives, from urban greening to food security. However, it is often left out of urban policy. As a result of the highly contextual and cross-cutting nature of urban agriculture, there are relatively few comprehen...

  19. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  20. The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

  1. The concept of community poverty reduction in coastal area of Surabaya based on sustainable livelihood approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, A. M.; Soewarni, I.; M, M., Sir

    2018-04-01

    Multidimensional poverty becomes a trademark of fisherman community including the community in Surabaya. The fishermen in Surabaya belong to a society with quite apprehensive welfare in all aspects covering economy, social, and environment. Therefore, this research aims to organize poverty reduction concept in coastal area of Surabaya based on sustainable livelihood which assesses poverty through 5 (five) livelihood assets i.e. human asset, natural asset, social asset, physical asset, and financial asset. This research is a qualitative research using rationalistic approach with explorative, descriptive, and perspective nature. Primary data collected using Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and secondary data collected through agency and literature survey. Purposive sampling was employed in getting the sample. Then, the data were analyzed using content analysis, statistics descriptive analysis, and delphi analysis. The results show that sustainable livelihood level in coastal area of Surabaya indicates the human asset is 65% at the SLA level and the lowest is social asset which is 20%, and financial asset is the most affecting factors of poverty in coastal area of Surabaya since the expense for fuel cannot be compared to the fish catched. Community empowerment is the concept proposed to overcome the poverty problems in coastal area of Surabaya.

  2. EL PROBLEMA DE LA SOSTENIBILIDAD DENTRO DE LA COMPLEJIDAD DE LOS SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCION AGROPECUARIOS THE PROBLEM OF SUSTAINABILITY WITHIN THE COMPLEXITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cotes Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la sostenibilidad es una temática que desde finales del siglo XX, ha venido preocupando cada vez mas a los diferentes sectores de la sociedad; pasando a ser uno de los temas de mayor interés para empresarios, consumidores, académicos e investigadores, que conforman las diferentes cadenas agroalimentarias del mundo. Este artículo presenta desde el punto de vista de la Teoría General de Sistemas, algunos elementos de reflexión critica, abordando la problemática de la sostenibilidad desde la complejidad de los sistemas de producción agropecuarios, partiendo desde la concepción filosófica original de la agricultura, hasta llegar a plantear algunas consideraciones que se deben tener en cuenta para el desarrollo de avances científicos y tecnológicos acordes con las necesidades de las cadenas agroalimentarias del siglo XXI; las cuales permiten orientar no solo el trabajo de los profesionales que lideran los procesos de producción animal y vegetal, sino que crea un sentido de pertenencia en todos los participantes de la cadena, resaltando la importancia de estudiar a través de un pensamiento sistémico, la Agronomía y la Zootecnia, como disciplinas que se aproximan a las complejidades de la Agricultura la cual es la piedra angular de la civilización, tal y como la conocemos actualmente.The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the General Systems Theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agriculture and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for

  3. Concept for Sustained Plant Production on ISS Using VEGGIE Capillary Mat Rooting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth in microgravity presents unique challenges associated with maintaining appropriate conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment, maturation and harvest. They include maintaining appropriate soil moisture content, nutrient balance, atmospheric mixing and containment. Sustained production imposes additional challenges of harvesting, replanting, and safety. The VEGGIE is a deployable (collapsible) plant growth chamber developed as part of a NASA SBIR Phase II by Orbitec, Madison, WI. The intent of VEGGIE is to provide a low-resource system to produce fresh vegetables for the crew on long duration missions. The VEGGIE uses and LED array for lighting, an expandable bellows for containment, and a capillary matting system for nutrient and water delivery. The project evaluated a number of approaches to achieve sustained production, and repeated plantings, using the capillary rooting system. A number of different root media, seed containment, and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated and effects on seed germination and growth were evaluated. A number of issues limiting sustained production, such as accumulation of nutrients, uniform water, elevated vapor pressure deficit, and media containment were identified. A concept using pre-planted rooting packs shown to effectively address a number of those issues and is a promising approach for future development as a planting system for microgravity conditions.

  4. Concept of ‘Good Urban Governance’ and Its Application in Sustainable Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badach, Joanna; Dymnicka, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary urban theory and practice in the post-industrial era is increasingly often turning towards an approach based on sustainable development. That concept bearing the traits of a paradigm has grown on the ground of broad quest for an alternative to the existing development model of the industrial civilisation. It has gained wide social acceptance and is the basis for many development and environmental programmes at the level of national and local government. It puts in a new light the socio-cultural, ecological and energy-related aspects of space as well as its value and aesthetics. A model of governing the city called ‘good urban governance’ is in a very close relation with the concept of sustainable development. It is based on the principles of inclusiveness, citizenship, accountability, processuality and effectiveness. Although this approach is not entirely novel, it stays valid and open to new challenges connected with satisfying human needs in the urban built environment on the basis of new contemporary conceptualisations such as ‘smart governance’, ‘governing the smart city’, ‘network governance’ and ‘governance networks’. The advantages of this approach based on the assumption of multidimensionality and subjectivity, matching the various and seemingly contradicting interests with a sense of responsibility for the quality of life in the urban environment are often underlined both in literature and in academic debate. The aim of this article is an attempt to present selected practices in spatial planning which employ the principles of the idea of co-governance. It will include various methodological assumptions and criteria applied in ‘good urban governance’. The intention will be to show its new research and application possibilities in countries like Poland where the idea of governance and sustainable development remains a matter of theory.

  5. Seeing Northern European Fjord and Mountain Agriculture Through Farmers' Eyes: A Critical Step in Promoting Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernués

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a minor contributor to local economies in European mountain and fjord areas where tourism is predominant; however, it is essential to maintain the agricultural landscape and other important nonmarket functions of mountain agroecosystems. Policy-makers have aimed to support agriculture in these areas, but farmers' perspectives are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze (1 the main characteristics of livestock farming systems and the recent changes they have undergone, (2 farmers' perceptions of different functions of agriculture, (3 farmers' goals, and (4 the relationships among these elements in order to support more targeted policy-making in fjord and mountain areas in Scandinavian countries. We collected data from 27 farms and conducted univariate and multivariate (principal components and cluster analyses. Most recent changes in farming have been related to improving working conditions and increasing tourist activity. According to the farmers, the main nonmarket functions of agriculture were (1 maintaining cultural heritage and rural development, (2 delivering environmental services, and (3 promoting traditional agriculture. The farmers' primary goals were (1 innovating for better farming, (2 improving the family's quality of life, and (3 achieving economic objectives. We identified 2 clusters of farmers based on divergent perceptions of rural development and the goal of improving the family's quality of life. These results point to the importance of integrated policies that address agricultural, environmental, and rural development together and take into account farmers' diverse perceptions and goals.

  6. Agriculture, food, and nutrition interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Fifteen systematic reviews and seven economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. All interventions had some impact on health or on risk factors for health outcomes, except those related to genetically modified foods. Impact on health inequalities was rarely measured. All interventions with economic evaluations were very cost-effective, had cost savings, or net benefits. In addition to impacting health (inclusive social development), all interventions had the potential to impact on inclusive economic development, and some, on environmental sustainability, though these effects were rarely assessed. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions with expected positive health impacts but with concurrent, rigorous evaluation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured by future primary studies and systematic reviews, as does impact of interventions on all dimensions of sustainable development.

  7. Agriculture, food, and nutrition interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Haby

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included. To classify as “sustainable,” interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Fifteen systematic reviews and seven economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. All interventions had some impact on health or on risk factors for health outcomes, except those related to genetically modified foods. Impact on health inequalities was rarely measured. All interventions with economic evaluations were very cost-effective, had cost savings, or net benefits. In addition to impacting health (inclusive social development, all interventions had the potential to impact on inclusive economic development, and some, on environmental sustainability, though these effects were rarely assessed. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions with expected positive health impacts but with concurrent, rigorous evaluation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured by future primary studies and systematic reviews, as does impact of interventions on all dimensions of sustainable development.

  8. Dynamics of sustainability in integrated agriculture : aquaculture systems in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phong, L.T.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: Mekong Delta; IAA; ECOPATH; Nutmon; LCA; environmental impact; sustainability

    In the Mekong Delta (MD), intensification and modernization of crop, fish and livestock production causes concern about sustainable use of natural resources. The objectives of this research were to

  9. The mediating role of environmental emotions in transition from knowledge to sustainable use of groundwater resources in Iran's agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Raeisi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of groundwater resources has created numerous environmental consequences in Iran. Many water experts believe that this crisis can be overcome by fostering sustainable environmental behavior in the utilization of groundwater resources and increasing the farmers' environmental knowledge, attitude and emotions. The objective of this study was to investigate transformation of environmental knowledge to sustainable use of groundwater resources through the analysis of the mediating role of environmental emotions in Iran's agriculture. This research was carried out via a survey technique within the category of descriptive-correlation and causal-relational research. All the wheat producing farmers of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, which is a clear example of critical conditions for groundwater resources in Iran (N=168,873, constituted the statistical population of the study of whom 384 participants were selected using a stratified random sampling method. The research instrument was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by a panel of professionals in agricultural extension, education and water management. The reliability of the items of the questionnaire was also evaluated via a pilot study and Cronbach's alpha (0.70≤α≤0.84. The results of the causal analysis indicated that environmental knowledge (β=0.309 and environmental emotions (β=0.565 have the significant influence on sustainable environmental behavior in the utilization of groundwater among wheat farmers. Therefore, it can be said environmental emotions is an important mediating factor for potentially improving water stakeholders' sustainable environmental behavior. Keywords: Sustainable environmental behavior (SEB, Groundwater, Environmental knowledge (EK, Environmental emotions (EE, Causal analysis

  10. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based on our approach and the analysis of the collected data which was enabled by use of a commercially available comprehensive agricultural data collection software.

  11. Urban Elementary Students' Conceptions of Learning Goals for Agricultural Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…

  12. On the concept and legal nature of sustainable development: Does 'environmental law' exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    reflects the governing modus operandi of the covert power-holders. When this issue is observed from the aspect of national law, some legal scholars consider that 'environmental law' is a branch of law. However, this standpoint is based on the normativists' misconception that the law equals the norm. As a matter of fact, the norm is only a source for the creation of law, whereas law implies the entire body of legal relations and legal institutes. With this in mind, the essential condition for establishing a branch of law is that it has to be rooted in judicature. Thus, 'environmental law' cannot be designated as a branch of law. Moreover, as the principle of sustainable development in the national legislation is rooted neither in the judicature nor in the legal perception, this fact has given rise to the conclusion that it may be qualified as a purely declarative legal-political principle. In that context, the author discusses the concept and the classification of legal principles as a necessary presumption for shaping the regulatory legal nature of the principle of sustainable development. Finally, in this article, the author discusses the actual foundations of environmental, economic and social aspect of the idea of sustainable development in the system of neo-liberal global capitalism (imperialism, with specific reference to the ruling method of covert power-holders.

  13. Self-Organization and the Bypass: Re-Imagining Institutions for More Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sherwood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the social dynamics of agrofood movements in Ecuador as examples of self-organization (i.e., locally distributed and resolved development, this article departs from a preoccupation with innovation by means of design and the use of scaling as a metaphor for describing research contributions in agriculture and food. The case material highlights that much development is contingent, unpredictable, and unmanageable as well as unbound to fixed spaces or places. In their study of people’s daily practice, the authors do not find clear boundaries between dichotomies of internal–external, lay–expert, traditional–modern, or local–global organization, but heterogeneous blends of each. For the purposes of sustainable development, this highlights the need for attention to be paid to relationships (social, material, and biological, adaptation (the capacity to innovate, and responsibility (adherence to norms of sustainability. Far from romanticizing self-organization, the authors acknowledge that people and their institutions share varying degrees of complicity for the goods as well as the bads of their economic activity, such as mass soil degradation, agrobiodiversity loss, and poisoning by pesticides. Nevertheless, even under highly difficult conditions, certain actors effectively bypass the limitations of formal institutions in forging a socio-technical course of action (i.e., policy for relatively healthy living and being. As such, the authors have come to appreciate self-organization as a neglected, if paradoxical, resource for policy transition towards more sustainable agriculture and food.

  14. Building agribusiness model of LEISA to achieve sustainable agriculture in Surian Subdistrict of Sumedang Regency West Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwendah, E.; Priyatna, T.; Kusno, K.; Deliana, Y.; Wulandari, E.

    2018-03-01

    Building agribusiness model of LEISA is needed as a prototype of sustainable regional and economic development (SRRED) in the watersheds (DAS) of West Java Province. Agribusiness model of LEISA is a sustainable agribusiness system applying low external input. The system was developed in the framework of optimizing local-based productive resources including soil, water, vegetation, microclimate, renewable energy, appropriate technology, social capital, environment and human resources by combining various subsystems including integrated production subsystems of crops, livestock and fish to provide a maximum synergy effect, post-harvest subsystem and processing of results, marketing subsystems and supporting subsystems. In this study, the ecological boundary of Cipunegara sub-watershed ecosystem, administrative boundaries are Surian Subdistricts in Sumedang. The purpose of this study are to identify the potency of natural resources and local agricultural technologies that could support the LEISA model in Surian and to identify the potency of internal and external inputs in the LEISA model. The research used qualitative descriptive method and technical action research. Data were obtained through interviews, documentation, and observation. The results showed that natural resources in the form of agricultural land, water resources, livestock resources, and human labor are sufficient to support agribusiness model of LEISA. LEISA agribusiness model that has been applied in the research location is the integration of beef cattle, agroforestry, and agrosilvopasture. By building LEISA model, agribusiness can optimize the utilization of locally based productive resources, reduce dependence on external resources, and support sustainable food security.

  15. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  16. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  17. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  18. Sustainability assessment of straight vegetable oil used as self-supply biofuel in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero Armans, Grau; Esteban Dalmau, Bernat; Puig Vidal, Rita; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Rius Carrasco, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes and analyses a model for an agricultural fuel self-supply exploitation. The model is based on the current extended crop rotation of wheat and barley in Anoia region (Catalonia, Spain). The introduction of rapeseed to the current crop rotation and its conversion into oil to be used as agricultural fuel is presented. Life cycle assessment methodology is used to carry out an environmental and an economic assessment. Environmental results show a preference for the vegetable oil...

  19. The Concept of Directly Connected Impervious Areas and Its Implication on Sustainable Development in Urban Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Hwang, Junsik; Choi, Hyun Il

    2017-04-01

    The concept of directly connected impervious area (DCIA) or efficient impervious areas (EIA) refers to a subset of impervious cover, which is directly connected to a drainage system or a water body via continuous impervious surfaces. The concept of DCIA is important in that it is regarded as a better predictor of stream ecosystem health than the total impervious area (TIA). DCIA is a key concept for a better assessment of green infrastructures introduced in urban catchments. Green infrastructure can help restore water cycle; it improves water quality, manages stormwater, provides recreational environment even at lower cost compared to conventional alternatives. In this study, we evaluated several methods to obtain the DCIA based on a GIS database and showed the importance of the accurate measurement of DCIA in terms of resulting hydrographs. We also evaluated several potential green infrastructure scenarios and showed how the spatial planning of green infrastruesture affects the shape of hydrographs and reduction of peak flows. These results imply that well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced to urban catchments for flood risk managements and quantitative assessment of spatial distribution of DCIA is crucial for sustainable development in urban environment.

  20. Towards sustainable and multifunctional agriculture in farmland landscapes: Lessons from the integrative approach of a French LTSER platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagnolle, Vincent; Berthet, Elsa; Gross, Nicolas; Gauffre, Bertrand; Plumejeaud, Christine; Houte, Sylvie; Badenhausser, Isabelle; Monceau, Karine; Allier, Fabrice; Monestiez, Pascal; Gaba, Sabrina

    2018-06-15

    Agriculture is currently facing unprecedented challenges: ensuring food, fiber and energy production in the face of global change, maintaining the economic performance of farmers and preserving natural resources such as biodiversity and associated key ecosystem services for sustainable agriculture. Addressing these challenges requires innovative landscape scale farming systems that account for changing economic and environmental targets. These novel agricultural systems need to be recognized, accepted and promoted by all stakeholders, including local residents, and supported by public policies. Agroecosystems should be considered as socio-ecological systems and alternative farming systems should be based on ecological principles while taking societal needs into account. This requires an in-depth knowledge of the multiple interactions between sociological and ecological dynamics. Long Term Socio-Ecological Research platforms (LTSER) are ideal for acquiring this knowledge as they (i) are not constrained by traditional disciplinary boundaries, (ii) operate at a large spatial scale involving all stakeholders, and (iii) use systemic approaches to investigate biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study presents the socio-ecological research strategy from the LTSER "Zone Atelier Plaine & Val de Sèvre" (ZA PVS), a large study area where data has been sampled since 1994. Its global aim is to identify effective solutions for agricultural development and the conservation of biodiversity in farmlands. Three main objectives are targeted by the ZAPVS. The first objective is intensive monitoring of landscape features, the main taxa present and agricultural practices. The second objective is the experimental investigation, in real fields with local farmers, of important ecosystem functions and services, in relation to pesticide use, crop production and farming socio-economic value. The third aim is to involve stakeholders through participatory research, citizen science and