WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural subsidies

  1. Theory and Model of Agricultural Insurance Subsidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Kailiang; Long Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    The issue of agricultural insurance subsidy is discussed in this paper aiming to make it provided more rationally and scientifically.It is started with the connection between agricultural insurance and financial subsidy.It is really necessary and crucial to implement the financial insurance due to the bad operational performance,especially in the developing countries.But the subsidy should be provided more rationally because financial subsidy has lots of negative effects.A model in competitive insurance markets developed by Ahsan et al(1982)and a farmers'decision model arc developed to solve the optimal subsidized rate.Finally,the equation is got to calculate it.But a quantitative subsidized rate is not made here because the calculation should be under some restricted conditions,which are always absent in the developing countries.So the government should provide some subsidy for the ex ante research and preparation to get the scientific probability and premium rate.

  2. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  3. Evolution, Problems and Countermeasures of China's Subsidy Policy for Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Wen-Bin

    2011-01-01

    China's agricultural subsidy policy experiences three development stages. Detailed summing up is carried out for achievements of each stage. On the basis of this, this paper discusses problems existing in current agricultural subsidy policy, including high operational cost, out of balance of subsidy structure, little subsidy effort, lack of effective supervision and vacancy of benefit safeguarding mechanism. Finally, it presents suggestions for optimizing China's agricultural subsidy policy, ...

  4. Subsidy Policy System for Agricultural Natural Disasters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; LUO; Fengxian; YAN; Jun; GE

    2014-01-01

    From theories and cases,this paper analyzed current situation of subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters in China.Improvement and perfection of subsidy policies for agricultural natural disasters need clear classification and additional special subsidy plan.It is recommended to improve and perfect subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters through attaching importance to scientific studies on reduction and prevention of agricultural disasters and gradually supplementing agricultural disaster reduction and prevention system.

  5. Subsidy Policy System for Agricultural Natural Disasters in China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Rong; YAN, Fengxian; Ge, Jun

    2014-01-01

    From theories and cases, this paper analyzed current situation of subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters in China. Improvement and perfection of subsidy policies for agricultural natural disasters need clear classification and additional special subsidy plan. It is recommended to improve and perfect subsidy policy system for agricultural natural disasters through attaching importance to scientific studies on reduction and prevention of agricultural disasters and gradually su...

  6. Trade Externalities of Agricultural Subsidies and World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya R. Swain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Almost every country is spending a large proportion of its income on agricultural subsidies; still the agricultural farmers of developing countries are unable to compete globally. There is increase in dependence on food imports, and a decline in food self-reliance. The aim and objectives of this study is to highlight the multiplex nature and enormity of the trade externalities of agricultural subsidies. Approach: To understand the issues and process clearly, reference has been made to GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, policies of different countries in this regard, scholarly writings on the subject and the cases related to it. Doctrinaire methodology, which includes analytical, descriptive and comparative method, has been followed in this study. Results: Agricultural subsidies are cardinal facet of agriculture and have a major role to play in international trade. Even after separate Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, the World Trade Organization still failed in minimizing agricultural subsidies. Conclusion: The developing countries should unite and cooperate among themselves, which may help in advancing the cause of their own and scaling down agricultural subsidies, which has become a stumbling block to efforts to dismantle international trade barriers.

  7. Agricultural Dualism, Incidence of Child Labour and Subsidy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    This paper purports to examine the validity of the common belief that in a developing economy the backward agricultural sector should be subsidized as poorer group of the working population are employed in this sector that send their children out to work out of sheer poverty. A three-sector general equilibrium framework with agricultural dualism and child labour has been employed for the purpose of analysis. It finds that a price subsidy policy to backward agricultural sector is likely to agg...

  8. Decreasing Environmental Pollution Through Reducing Environmentally Damaging Subsidies : The Case of Agricultural Input Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Sabri Sami

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollution is the most typical example of negative externality regarded as one of the sources of market failure. Therefore, existence of environmental pollution requires government intervention in the economy in order to realize an efficient resource allocation. However, sometimes environmental pollution stems from some public policies intended to achieve non-environmental goals. This study reveals adverse effects of agricultural input subsidies, one of the public ...

  9. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  10. Analysis of Operating Costs of Subsidies in the Field of Agriculture of EU Countries

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    mics, University of South Bohemia, České Budějo vice, Czech RepublicJ. Svoboda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with comparison of agricultural subsidies in the member states of the EU in the period 2004-2012 based on the database Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. During the monitored period we found a slight increase of operational subsidies with the fact that variability shows a decreasing trend. In the structure of subsidies we can see a clear transition to payments separated from production with significant differences between original member states and new member states (NMS. With the help of cluster analysis the member states were divided into groups according to their operational subsidies, total production and costs. With the use of correlation analysis we assessed the relationships between production, costs and operational subsidies re-counted per ha of utilised agricultural area. The increase of subsidies will not occur in higher cost productivity and only very slightly will it occur in the higher share of subsidized costs.

  11. Do agricultural subsidies crowd out or stimulate rural credit market institutions? The case of EU Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan and Katarina Szegenyova Pokrivcak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of agricultural subsidies granted under the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on bank loans extended to farms. According to our theoretical analysis, subsidies may either stimulate or crowd out bank loans depending on the timing of subsidies, severity of credit constraint, type of subsidies and bank loans, and the relative cost of internal and external financing. In empirical analysis we use the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farm level panel data for the period 1995-2007. We employ the fixed effects and generalised method of moment (GMM models. The estimated results suggest that (i big farms tend to use subsidies to increase long-term loans, whereas small farms tend to use subsidies to obtain short-term loans; (ii subsidies tend to crowd out short-term loans for big farms and long-term loans for small farms; (iii when controlling for the endogeneity, the crowding out effect becomes smaller, but the positive causal effect of subsidies on bank loans remains significant.

  12. Subsidies and sustainable development. Case studies in the Flemish agricultural and housing policies; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Casestudies in het Vlaamse landbouw- en woonbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 2nd research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. Attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies. In the 1st paper the concept and method are discussed. The method was used for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 2e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Aandacht wordt besteed aan een toepassing van de methodologie om subsidies in kaart te brengen. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  13. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  14. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  15. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Franić

    2005-01-01

    After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in ...

  16. Debts, subsidies and performance of Russian agricultural enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Bezlepkina, I.; A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of capital structure and subsidizing program on technical efficiency of agricultural production on Russian farms. The agency cost, free cash flow, and credit evaluation concepts of finance theory complemented with features of Russian farming provide alternative explanations for the potential relationship between financing arrangements and farm-level performance. A panel of large-scale dairy farms from the Moscow Region over the period 1996-2000 is the focus of ...

  17. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  18. Problems in Construction of Subsidy System for Agricultural Product Identification and Countermeasures——A Case Study of Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yan

    2012-01-01

    In line with current situations of extension of Xinjiang’s agricultural products,the paper put forward and analyzed existing problems in extension works of agricultural product identification.The problems mainly include:(i) general identification of agricultural products is basically blank and both producers and consumers lack awareness of identification;(ii) creating(famous) brand is a weak point of agriculture in Xinjiang;(iii) certification of non-hazard,green and organic agricultural products lags behind;(iv) it neglects problem of agricultural product packaging.On the basis of these problems,the paper present our recommendations:(i) government provides financial subsidy to actively guide certification of agricultural products;(ii) it should increase financial fund input in brand construction and support(famous) brand construction of agricultural products;(iii) it should provide subsidy for those enterprises creating famous brand,to encourage agricultural producing and processing enterprises to strive for famous brands;(vi) it should stress agricultural product packaging from the source and provide subsidy for agricultural producers who have affixed the identification;(v) it should gradually promote agricultural product identification,to constantly improve the farmers’ awareness of agricultural product identification.

  19. African agricultural subsidy impacts food security, poverty, drought tolerance, and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Palm, C.; DeFries, R. S.; Nziguheba, G.; Droppelmann, K.; Nkonya, E.; Michelson, H.; Clark, C.; Kathewera, F.; Walsh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi has spearheaded an unprecedented policy change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2005 when it started a widespread agricultural inputs subsidy program (AISP) targeting small farmer maize production with mineral fertilizer and improved seeds. Since then, the mean N fertilizer load has increased significantly, from ~ 0 to a modest 35 kg N/ha or 7 times greater than SSA's average 5 kg N/ha average. During the tenure of AISP, Malawi has transitioned from a food aid recipient to an exporter. Maize yields each year of AISP are double the long-term average (0.8 tons/ha/yr, 1960-2005). In 2007, subsidy inputs combined with good rains led to of an unprecedented increase in national average yields of 2.7 tons/ha. National-scale assessments covering, agriculture, poverty, and environment such as this one are required to understand the trade-offs between development, climate and the environment. Environmentally, N2O emissions from fertilizer are a concern. First order estimates put emissions from AISP fertilizers at 2,600 Mg N2O/year (0.81 Tg CO2-e). While globally insignificant, these emissions may be equivalent to 16% of Malawi's annual fossil fuel and deforestation emissions. However, our partial nutrient budgets indicate that crop removal is still higher than N applied and therefore little loss of N to the environment is expected. Mineral fertilizers are a rapid first step to increase soil N after 40 years of serious depletion. Once restored, the soils will support robust agroforestry and other forms of organic inputs produced on-farm. Fertilizer use increases carbon sequestration on agricultural soils and reduces pressure to clear forests, which may partially compensate for the N2O emissions. We find evidence that AISP significantly increases food security and mitigates the impacts of drought on maize production. This is the first work linking the distribution of fertilizer subsidies to local crop yields using government records, remotely-sensed time series of

  20. Whole-farm planning under uncertainty : impacts of subsidy scheme and utility function on portfolio choice in Norwegian agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, G.; Hardaker, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the impacts of degree of risk aversion, subsidy scheme and choice of utility function on optimal farm plans in Norwegian agriculture. Data from a farm business survey (1991-1997) are combined with subjective judgements to formulate a two-stage utility-efficient programming model

  1. Diesel Subsidies and Yemen Politics: Post-2011 Crises and their Impact on Groundwater Use and Agriculture

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    Adel Al-Weshali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main source of agricultural and municipal water and contributes 70% of total water use in Yemen. All aquifers are depleting at a very high rate owing to combined effects of a host of socioeconomic, institutional and climate-change factors. The government policy on diesel subsidy was largely believed to be one of the significant factors which stimulated large-scale pumping of water for irrigating water-intensive cash crops such as qat, fruits, and vegetables. A rapid field assessment was conducted between June and December 2011 in six different regions of the country to analyse the impacts of the severe diesel crisis that accompanied the political turmoil of 2011 on groundwater use and agriculture. The study highlighted winners and losers in the process of adapting to diesel shortage and high diesel prices. Farmers’ responses differed according to their social status, financial resources, and farming systems. Poorly endowed households partially or completely abandoned agriculture. Others abandoned farming of irrigated cereals and fodder, but practised deficit irrigation of fruits and vegetables, thus halving the consumption of diesel. Crop yields dropped by 40-60% in all surveyed regions. The intra-governorate transport halt due to the sharp increase in transport cost caused prices at the farm gate to drop. Only those farmers who could absorb increases in diesel prices due to high return:cost ratios, higher drought tolerance, stable prices (qat, and access to alternative sources of water could cope with the diesel crisis.

  2. Reliable Crop Identification with Satellite Imagery in the Context of Common Agriculture Policy Subsidy Control

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    Jonas Schmedtmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural subsidies in the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP represent over 40% of the EU’s yearly budget. To ensure that funds are properly spent, farmers are controlled by National Control and Paying Agencies (NCPA using tools, such as computer-assisted photo interpretation (CAPI, which aims at identifying crops via remotely-sensed imagery. CAPI is time consuming and requires a large team of skilled photo interpreters. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable control system to partially replace CAPI for crop identification, with the overreaching goal of reducing control costs and completion time. Validated control data provided by the Portuguese Control and Paying Agency and an atmospherically-corrected Landsat ETM+ time series were used to perform parcel-based crop classification, leading to an accuracy of only 68% due to high similarity between crops’ spectral signatures. To address this problem, we propose an automatic control system (ACS that couples crop classification to a reliability requirement. This allows the decision-maker to set a reliability level, which restricts automatic crop identification to parcels that are classified with high certainty. While higher reliability levels reduce the risk of misclassifications, lower levels increase the proportion of automatic control decisions (ACP. With a reliability level of 80%, more than half of the parcels in our study area are automatically identified with an overall accuracy of 84%. In particular, this allows automatically controlling over 85% of all parcels classified as maize, rice, wheat or vineyard.

  3. Food security, agricultural subsidies, energy, and the environment: a process of 'glocalization' in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, P.

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)

  4. The Effect ofAgricultural Production Subsidies Reduction in the Economic Variables of Agricultural Sector of Iran: Multifunctional Assessment in CGE Model

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    Saeed Mehrjou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of public goods like amenity value of the landscape, food security, preservation of rural communities and rural lifestyle, by agricultural sector is a subject that has been widely accepted by experts. However, in many policies and political analyses carried out, solely the production of private goods by the agricultural sector is paid attention and the important function of public goods production is ignored. Given the importance of multifunctional debate of agriculture in policies analysis, this study examined the effect of agricultural multifunctionality in the simulation of the agricultural production subsidiesreduction effects using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. Simulation results of the effects of agricultural production subsidies reduction in terms of the multifunctionality showed that current practices to support the agricultural sector is non-optimal according to agricultural production and welfare reduction and the optimal level of supports with and without multifunctional agriculture is different. The simulation results showed that the welfare effects of economic reforms in Iran in the agricultural sector in terms of the multifunctionality will be positive. This is on condition that the welfare effects of agricultural reform in terms of the multifunctionality of agriculture are negative.

  5. The Effects of Agricultural Research and Farm Subsidy Policies on Human Nutrition and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Stephen A Vosti

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural policies including farm programs and R&D are said to have contributed to obesity by making food commodities cheaper and thereby encouraging consumption. This paper explores the links from agricultural policy to food prices and consumption and suggests that contribution of agricultural policy to obesity is not so clear.

  6. Cost of managing with less: cutting water subsidies and supplies in Egypt's agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Using a mathematical-programming agricultural-sector model of Egypt, this paper analyzes mechanisms for allocating scarce water and for charging the farmers the Operation and Management (O&M) costs of irrigation and drainage, currently covered by the government. The effects of cost recovery are negative but minor. A crop charge (based on crop water consumption per land unit) and a volumetric charge both discourage consumption. The former is easier to implement but does not stimulate water-sav...

  7. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  8. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    OpenAIRE

    José Díaz Osorio; Roberto Jara Rojas

    2006-01-01

    The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) growers (Farm Bill 2002). For the study, Technical Standard...

  9. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene

  10. Agricultural subsidies in the United States and their effect on two annual Chilean crops: corn and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Osorio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The development strategies for Chile have been oriented toward a greater commercial openness. Chile and the United States signed a Free Trade Agreement (FTA that has triggered controversies between producers directed to the internal market due to the production and export subsidies that this country carries out. This study analyzed the effect of subsidies granted by the United States to wheat (Tritricum aestivum and corn (Zea mays growers (Farm Bill 2002. For the study, Technical Standard sheet were drawn up, from which were determined the direct production costs and the gross margins. The variables used (market prices, subsidies, freight costs and tariffs and determining the average variable costs allowed us to do a sensitivity analysis, thus establishing the minimum level of production that national farmers must achieve in order to maintain competitiveness while a free trade is in force. The signing of a trade agreement could provoke the eventual withdrawal of many Chilean producers from the business arena while at the same time, favoring consumers with lower prices for the goods derived from these grains.

  11. Controls with remote sensing of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) arable- and forage- area-based subsidies: a yearly more than 700-image and 3-M euro affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, Par-Johan; Wirnhardt, Csaba; Biagini, Bruno; Weber, Michaela; Hellerman, Rani

    2004-11-01

    Since 1993, the EC DG Agriculture has promoted the use of "Controls with Remote Sensing" (CwRS) as appropriate control system within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). CwRS is considered suitable to check if agricultural area-based subsidies (yearly > 25 billion euro EC expenditure) are correctly granted. On the basis of the Council Regulation (EC) 165/94 and of the Commission Regulation (EC) 601/94, the Commission Services are required to centralize the satellite images acquisition. This task has been managed by the MARS Project at the JRC since 1999, where the whole controls activity is coordinated. The activity also includes the setting up of specifications, recommendations, performing Quality Controls (QC) and auditing of the selected contractors, and evaluation of new methods. Satellite image acquisition involves the control site definition within each Member State, and the subsequent chain of image acquisition over the defined sites including feasibility with image providers, acquisition, validation, ordering, delivery and final archiving of the imagery. In summary the 2004 years campaign involved a budget of approximately 3.2 M euro to cover some 150 High Resolution (HR) sites and 71 Very High Resolution (VHR) sites. The objective of this paper is to describe the CwRS image acquisition with emphasis on the Ikonos, Quickbird, and EROS A satellites for the 2004 years CwRS Campaign, to give preliminary results, recommendations and future trends.

  12. Study On the Relationship Between Grain Subsidy Policies and Farmer's Behavior of Non-agricultural Employment%粮食补贴政策与农户非农就业行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴连翠; 柳同音

    2012-01-01

    Grain subsidy policies aimed at improving farmers' enthusiasm for growing grain and increasing grain production and family income. With increasing the inputs of grain subsidy year after year, greatly improving farmers' enthusiasm for growing grain and the allocation of family labor time is likely to be adjusted. This paper firstly constructs theoretical model of farmers' behavior in allocating labor time with grain subsidy embedded in to analyze the impact of grain subsidy policies on farmer's behavior of non-agricultural employment. Then using Tobit model and household survey data in Anhui Province, the paper empirically studies the impacts of grain subsidy policies on family off-farm labor supply. The results show that grain subsidy policies have significant negative effect on family off-farm labor supply; to some extent, it thus helps to improve Earners' enthusiasm for engaging in agriculture and food production. However, in the case of agricultural internal wage lower than the non-agricultural equilibrium wage, the negative effect on family income induced by the change of subsidy policies on farmer' s behavior of employment will exceed the current level of transfer payments. If the grain subsidy policies designed to stabilize or increase farmers' income, thus the current subsidy policies require fundamental adjustment.%粮食补贴政策旨在提高农民种粮积极性,促进粮食增产和农民增收,随着国家粮食补贴资金投入力度的逐年加大,农民种粮积极性不断提高,家庭劳动时间分配很可能因此而产生调整.本文首先通过构建嵌入粮食补贴政策的农户劳动分配决策行为模型,理论分析粮食补贴政策对农户非农就业行为的影响,然后基于粮食主产区安徽省农户的实地调查数据,采用Tobit模型分析方法,实证分析粮食补贴政策对农户非农劳动时间供给的影响.研究结果显示:粮食补贴政策对农户非农劳动时间供给具有显著的负面影响,

  13. Rebate subsidies, matching subsidies and isolation effects

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    Douglas D. Davis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In a series of recent experiments (Davis, Millner and Reilly, 2005, Eckel and Grossman, 2003, 2005a-c, 2006, matching subsidies generate significantly higher charity receipts than do theoretically equivalent rebate subsidies. This paper reports a laboratory experiment conducted to examine whether the higher receipts are attributable to a relative preference for matching subsidies or to an ``isolation effect'' (McCaffery and Baron, 2003, 2006. Some potential policy implications of isolation effects on charitable contributions are also

  14. A microeconomic model for subsidies allocation: The case of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlov, Nikolay M.; Kazakevich, Iryna A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops a microeconomic methodological framework that allows approaching subsidy allocation across the types of assets and impact of subsidies on agricultural outputs and profits. The methodology is based on a non-parametric production frontier estimation. The empirical application is made to 1084 Belarusian corporate farms. The results suggest targeting governmental support at grain and milk production. In this case, 4.14 trillion Belarusian roubles of subsidies increase the overa...

  15. Analysis on After-effects of Direct Subsidies for Grain Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunqiang; SUN; Huixia; GENG; Ya; LI

    2013-01-01

    Long term of grain production subsidy policy can be guaranteed only with sound and sustainable development of economy,stable growth of fiscal revenues,and improvement of subsidy system.In combination with social survey,this paper analyzed after-effects of direct subsidies for grain production in China from pressure of grain production subsidies on central finance and local finance,consequence possibly brought about by classified bearing of direct subsidies for grain production,effectiveness of direct subsidies on stimulating grain production,and effect of direct subsidies on production of other agricultural products.It is concluded that direct subsidies for grain production should be shifted to direct subsides for agricultural production,which will be the reform and development trend of financial support for agriculture.

  16. Hidden Agricultural Export Subsidies in the WTO Framework and Implications for China%WTO体系下的隐蔽性农产品出口补贴及对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓冰; 李晓玲

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguay Round negotiations failed to establish substantive obligations for hidden agricultural export subsidies. Since the establishment of the WTO, the members have been resorting to the dispute settlement mechanism to interpret and enforce existing soft rules, and on the other hand, negotiating new rules in the Doha Round negotiations. This thesis explores the current situations and especially the development of negotiations of the hidden export subsidies, and analyses China' s interests and stance on this topic.%由于乌拉圭回合谈判未对隐蔽性农产品出口补贴规定实质义务,WTO成立之后,成员一方面借助争端解决机制,解释和实施抽象的现有规则,另一方面通过新一轮农业谈判,制定新规则。文章探讨了WTO体系下隐蔽性农产品出口补贴的现状与谈判进展,阐述了中国在此问题上的立场与利益。

  17. Empirical Analysis of China’s Direct Food Subsidy Policy Based on DEA Model: A Case Study of Direct Food Subsidy Policy in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; LIU

    2014-01-01

    The direct food subsidy is an important agricultural subsidy policy under current conditions,more efficient than grain price protection policy and other policies,and it is of great importance to the agricultural development,but this policy will not meet the interests of society in the long run. In this paper,we make an empirical study with the direct food subsidy policy in Shandong Province as an example,focusing on the analysis of the efficiency of policy implementation in different regions. Study suggests that direct food subsidy has made some achievements,but there are some problems in practice,such as low standard for direct food subsidy policy,less subsidy varieties,generally low efficiency of direct food subsidy policy,lack of unified policy implementation,serious waste of money and inefficient supervision during the subsidy policy implementation process. In order to improve the efficiency of direct food subsidy,it is necessary to raise standard for subsidy,and expand the scope of subsidy varieties; unify the policy,and make the policy suit local circumstances; improve the subsidy mechanism,regulate government behavior,and strengthen supervision.

  18. Green Subsidies and the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Charnovitz, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed explanation how the law of the World Trade Organization regulates environmental subsidies with a focus on renewable energy subsidies. The paper begins by discussing the economic justifications for such subsidies and the criticisms of them and then gives examples of categories of subsidies. The paper provides an overview of the relevant World Trade Organizatio...

  19. Empirical Analysis of China's Direct Food Subsidy Policy Based on DEA Model: A Case Study of Direct Food Subsidy Policy in Shandong Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The direct food subsidy is an important agricultural subsidy policy under current conditions, more efficient than grain price protection policy and other policies, and it is of great importance to the agricultural development, but this policy will not meet the interests of society in the long run. In this paper, we make an empirical study with the direct food subsidy policy in Shandong Province as an example, focusing on the analysis of the efficiency of policy implementation in different reg...

  20. EXPORT SUBSIDIES AND PROFIT-SHIFTING IN VERTICAL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Ian M.; Pick, Daniel H.; McCorriston, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between export subsidies and profit-shifting in a vertical production system consisting of agricultural commodity production, and intermediate and final good processing, where the latter two stages may be characterized by imperfect competition. Using a model with general functional forms for demand, comparative statics indicate that an export subsidy to an unprocessed agricultural commodity, under certain circumstances, can have greater profit-shifting effe...

  1. Child Care Subsidy Programs

    OpenAIRE

    David Blau

    2000-01-01

    Child care and early education subsidies are an important part of government efforts to increase economic independence and improve development of children in low-income families in the United States. This chapter describes the main subsidy programs in the U.S., discusses economic issues that arise in designing such programs and evaluating their effects, and surveys evidence on the effects of the programs. An important theme of the chapter is the tradeoff between the policy goals of increasing...

  2. Subsidies and sustainable development. Concepts, methodology and state of the art in literature; Subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. Concepten, methodologie en stand van zaken van de literatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachus, K. [Onderzoeksinstituut voor Arbeid en Samenleving HIVA, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    This paper is the 1st research paper as part of the Centre for Sustainable Development project on the theme 'subsidies and sustainable development'. It gives a conceptual and methodological framework on the relation between subsidies and sustainable development. In the 2nd paper attention is given to an application of the methodology to map subsidies for two Flemish subsidies: (1) the Flemish Renovation Incentive and Surcharge Rights in the Flemish agricultural sector [Dutch] Dit paper is het 1e onderzoekspaper in het kader van het Steunpunt Duurzame Ontwikkeling over het thema 'subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling'. Het geeft een conceptueel en methodologisch kader over het verband tussen subsidies en duurzame ontwikkeling. In het 1e paper werden de concepten en de methoden besproken. De methode werd toegepast op twee Vlaamse subsidies, namelijk de Vlaamse Renovatiepremie en de Toeslagrechten in de Vlaamse landbouw.

  3. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  4. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  5. Negative Influence of Fiscal Subsidies on Environment: Empirical Evidence from Cross-Country Estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Chakraborty, Debashis

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed that a number of developed as well as developing countries provide subsidies to their resource-intensive sectors like agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing etc. However, overproduction and consequent pollution as well as overexploitation of natural resources resulting from the provision of input and output subsidies have been a serious threat to environmental sustainability. An area of concern is that subsidies with potentially harmful environmental impacts are not declin...

  6. Trawling for Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2009-01-01

    In the fishing industry, the fishermen traditionally have incentives to signal too many fish in order to get access to a high short-term catch level and subsidies, whereas marine biologists have incentives to signal too few fish in the sea. Marine biologists have an incentive to maximize their...... groups traditionally perceived as opponents may have mutual interests. Solving the current deadlocks in the EU fishery negotiations highlights the need to reveal the true incentives that motivate stakeholders such as the symbiosis and alignment of interests identified here....

  7. The Government Subsidy Strategy Choice for Firm’s R&D: Input Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage enterprises to conduct technology innovation, the government needs to formulate appropriate subsidies policy. This paper compares two R&D subsidy policies in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain, in which the manufacturer conducts R&D activity for quality improvement. By means of game theory, we investigate the optimal decisions of the players under the two R&D subsidy policies, that is, input subsidy policy and product subsidy policy. Finally, we compare the profits and welfare to explore the better R&D subsidy policy and provide decision support for government to formulate subsidy policy. The results show that under input subsidy policy the optimal production output, quality improvement, profits, government subsidies, and social welfare are all lower than those of product subsidy policy. Therefore, the government should use product subsidy strategy to encourage enterprise R&D activities.

  8. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies. A Methodological Approach with an Application to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now a clear theoretical and methodological framework for economic-environmental analysis of environmentally damaging subsidies is lacking. Environmentally damaging subsidies are all kinds of direct and indirect subsidies aimed at achieving a certain (often non-environmental) goal that produce negative external effects to the natural environment. This article develops a transparent method to determine the environmental impact of indirect government subsidies and derive policy lessons. This method has been applied to several major subsidies in the Netherlands, namely in agriculture, energy, and transport. The results reveal large environmental effects, which need to be taken seriously by policy makers. The method enables policy makers to evaluate the environmental impacts of indirect government subsidies

  9. Environmental impact of indirect subsidies. Development and application of a policy oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for determining the environmental impact of indirect subsidies. The point of departure is a typology of subsidies to cover the large number of different types. The large-scale subsidies will be considered first, on the assumption that these will often have extensive environmental effects. Then, the environmental effects in the Netherlands will be calculated. The restriction to the Netherlands means that no attention is given to the environmental consequences of abolishing subsidies. An earlier study showed that the most extensive indirect subsidies at world and OECD level are mainly in the energy, agriculture and transport sectors. The method is tested by calculating the environmental effects of large-scale subsidies in these three sectors and in the tourism sector.

  10. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D; Marti, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream-terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream-riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream-terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  11. Econometric analysis of the effects of subsidies on farm production in case of endogenous input quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Lien, Gudbrand

    The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous stud...... studies, our approach is entirely based on a theoretical microeconomic model, explicitly allows subsidies to have an impact on input use, and takes linkages between the farm and the farm household into account.......The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous...

  12. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  13. Subsidies for renewable energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambitious Danish and European energy and environment objectives make a point of using renewable energy sources in the electricity supply. Denmark has been leading country in successful development and commercialization of wind turbines and is as yet one of the leading manufacturers of the world. Danish governments have successfully invested a lot in this development. Other countries have spent more money without achieving a similar success. The questions are why things have gone so well in Denmark and if the Danish success can be repeated for other renewable energy technologies. The starting point of this book is that a political decision on subsidizing the developmental process of a specific technology not in itself guarantees that the technology will turn out reliable and efficient enough to compete successfully in a liberalized electricity market. An understanding of this development is necessary in order to affect a technological development. This book goes through the development of different renewable energy technologies and two theories used for discussing the technological development: experience curves and innovation theory. Based on the discussions and a description of causal relations, an analytical model for different phases of renewable energy technologies' developmental progress and technological life cycle is made. The model is used for evaluating the subsidies for chosen renewable technologies in Denmark. With wind energy as example an analysis of what went well or badly, what might be done and which actions might be efficient is made. (BA)

  14. The Research on Utility Decision-making, Financial Subsidy, and Optimal Insurance Model for Chinese Agricultural Insurance%效用决策、财政补贴及我国农业保险的最优保险模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳越秀

    2013-01-01

    Applying expected utility decision-making model,the optimal insurance issue of Chinese Agricultural Insurance is studied.The function of equilibrium deductible rate which realized the fairness between the counterparts of agricultural insurance is established,as well as a modified function of equilibrium deductible rate under the condition of financial premium subsidy from governments.The research indicates that improving the risk identification ability of insured and insurers,setting up a uniquely national agricultural insurance company,and magnifying the financial subsidy of government are helpful to increase the farmers' willingness of participating agricultural insurance,therefore making Chinese agricultural insurance markets developed faster.%应用期望效用决策模型对我国农业保险的最优保险问题进行了研究,建立了实现农业保险博弈双方公平的均衡免赔率函数,以及政府通过财政进行保费补贴条件下的修正均衡免赔率函数.研究表明,提高农户和保险公司的风险识别能力、建立全国统一的政策性农业保险公司以及加大财政补贴的投入力度有助于提高农户的投保意愿,对促进我国农业保险的快速发展具有积极意义.

  15. Government Preference and the Optimal Choice of R&D Subsidy Policy: Innovation Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking government preference into consideration, we consider a three-stage game model to compare the differences of innovation subsidy and product subsidy. The findings reveal that stronger preference to consumers’ welfare leads to higher subsidy rates, which benefit not only consumers but also firms. To choose between the two subsidies, the optimal choice varies with the changing preference of policymakers. According to the results of numerical simulation, product subsidy is better than innovation subsidy in most cases, while the government’s expenditure of the former one is larger than the latter one. Moreover, subsidizing firms symmetrically and asymmetrically has different effects on the consequences.

  16. 农机购置补贴政策下种稻大户购机决策影响因素分析%Analysis of Influential Factors for Big Grain Households' Purchase of Agricultural Machinery:Under the Subsidy Policy for Purchasing Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玄洲; 孙水鹅; 欧一智

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural machinery is an essential material condition for high and stable yield in agricultural production.The importance of promoting development of agricultural mechanization has been mentioned for sever-al times in the Central Committee's Document No.1 in recent years.Starting with theory of demand,this paper is designated to analyze the influential element on big grain households' purchasing machinery from both macro and micro perspectives in order to find out both macro and micro factors influencing their decision-making. So as to further verify the influential factors on big grain households' purchasing behavior,the paper then investigates 397 big grain households'sample data in Jiangxi Province by means of logistic regression models in SPSS19.0.Empir-ical study shows that planting scale,policy cognition,financing capacity,and household type have a significant influence on big grain households' purchasing agricultural machinery. And this provides a helpful instruction on how subsidy policy for purchasing machinery can be better implemented in Jiangxi Province.%农业机械是农业生产获得高产、稳产的必要物质条件,近年来中央一号文件多次提出要提高农业机械化水平. 本文从需求理论出发,从宏观和微观两方面分析江西省种稻大户购置农机的影响,从而提炼出影响种稻大户购机决策的宏观因素和微观因素,为证实在农机购置补贴政策下种稻大户购机决策的影响因素,本文利用江西省实地调查的397个种稻大户样本数据,运用SPSS19.0软件对样本进行logistic模型回归. 实证结果表明年龄、教育程度、农户类型、种植规模、政策认知、农业收入、融资能力等对于大户购置农机决策存在显著影响,进而为农机购置补贴政策更好的在江西省实施提出相应的启示.

  17. Shallow groundwater subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Jayawickreme, D.; Nosetto, M.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the world, shallow groundwater systems subsidize much higher net primary productivity (NPP) than would be expected based solely on local rainfall. Such subsidies are far more prevalent and less recognized in upland systems than in more commonly studied riparian ones. We present a quantitative framework for examining and quantifying groundwater subsidies globally, illustrating subsidies to NPP across rainfall gradients in Argentina and the southern United States, including Texas and California. In the Argentine Pampas, we determined that the presence of relatively shallow ground water increased the transpiration of forest plantations by 300 to 400 mm. Farther west, the presence of well developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. We explored the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ground water for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. The isotopic composition of phreatic ground waters (δ2H; -137±5 ‰) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137±6 ‰), suggesting that mountain river infiltration rather than in-situ rainfall deep drainage (-39±19 ‰) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Vegetation in woodland ecosystems there relied on regionally derived ground water from Andean snowmelt located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. Understanding the ecohydrological coupling of surface and ground waters is vital for estimating net primary productivity and for balancing the demands of managed ecosystems with the conservation of unique natural systems.

  18. Impact of Alaskan gas subsidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) with an assessment of the impact of the Alaska natural gas tax credit proposed and passed in the United States Senate energy bill. In particular, Purvin and Gertz evaluated the impact of the Alaskan gas subsidy on potential Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea production as well as existing and future production from other areas including Western Canada, the Rocky Mountains in the United States, and the Gulf Coast. The mechanisms through which other producing areas are affected were described and the typical volumetric impact is presented using gas models developed by Purvin and Gertz. The GNWT wants to maximize the benefits of Arctic gas development for its constituents but believes that its interests will be negatively impacted by subsidized Alaskan gas which will be applied for the period beginning in 2010. The tax credit sets a floor price of $3.25 (US)/MMBtu. Purvin and Gertz concludes that the Alaskan gas subsidy would produce a misallocation of resources and distort the continental North American natural gas market. It would encourage over investment in Alaskan gas production because the credit works as a false signal to the privileged few that divert resources from higher value activities to lower value activities. The winners of the Alaskan gas subsidy would be Alaskan producers and the Alaskan economy. The losers would be other resource owners, producers, and American taxpayers because they would finance the subsidy through a tax credit mechanism. There would be an overall loss to the economy because of sub-optimal allocation of resources. In addition, producers in existing producing areas such as the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region would face lower market prices as a result of the subsidy, thereby reducing their investments. It was concluded that the Alaskan gas subsidy is counterproductive from the perspective of a secure continental supply of natural gas. 1 tab., 2 figs

  19. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Bhaumik, Sumon; Wall, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidization in the context of a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food to use as an intermediate input in energy production. In the small-country case, when a Pigouvian tax on conventional fuels such as crude is in place, the optimal biofuel subsidy is zero. When the tax on crude is not available as a policy option, however, a second-best biofuel subsidy (or tax) is opti...

  1. 78 FR 40102 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... Agriculture, whether any foreign government is providing a subsidy with respect to any article of cheese... subsidies on articles of cheese that were imported during the periods July 1, 2012, through September...

  2. 78 FR 52504 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... Agriculture, whether any foreign government is providing a subsidy with respect to any article of cheese... subsidies on articles of cheese that were imported during the periods January 1, 2013, through March...

  3. Corporate Lobbying and Subsidies : Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kammerer, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I take a within-industry view on special interest groups and study the impact of corporate lobbying for subsidies. My thesis is a collection of three single-authored research papers, studying both theoretically and empirically different facets of the firm-level links between lobbying and subsidies. Chapter 2 and Chapter 4 are theoretical contributions analyzing lobbying for subsidies in a heterogeneous firms framework. In particular, I study lobbying for a production subsidy i...

  4. Analysis of Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nugumanova, Lyazzat

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades the topic of fossil fuel subsidies has been gaining importance in the policy discussion. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011) estimates that the total global fossil fuel subsidies in 2010 amounted to $409 billion. Kazakhstan is energy-rich country with significantly high subsidies on fossil fuels. Fossil fuel subsidies are a distortion which causes inefficient use of energy and natural resources, high CO2 emissions, distort the energy markets, put pressure on the s...

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...

  6. Getting a grip on tariffs and subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tariff and subsidy support available for windpower producers in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the U.K. is compared. Tariffs and subsidies, along with the availability of finance, are important supportive factors in the development of wind energy in Europe. The available tariffs, subsidies and financing mechanisms available in a country determines how the wind energy programme develops. (author)

  7. The quest for subsidy reforms in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Araar, Abdelkrim; Choueiri,Nada; Verme, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Shortly before the 2011 Libyan revolution, consumers' subsidies were rapidly increased by the regime in an effort to reduce social discontent. In the aftermath of the revolution, these subsidies became important for people's subsistence, but also a very heavy burden for the state budget. Since then, the Libyan government has been confronted with the necessity of reforming subsidies in a po...

  8. Subsidies and Cattle Production in the Amazon: An Economic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Emily A.; Catherine HALBRENDT; Sherbourne, Jennifer; Gempesaw, Conrado

    1992-01-01

    Cattle production has been a major source of agricultural deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rainforest. Brazilian credit subsidies have been blamed for speeding cattle expansion and thus deforestation. A stochastic coefficients regression approach was used to quantify the effects of credit subsidies and world prices on cattle numbers in five Amazon rigions for the 1963-83 period. Results show that cattle production has been positively correlated to both prices and credit. Elasticities show tha...

  9. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  10. Analysis of Theoretical Basis of Direct Subsidies for Grain Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengping; SHI; Xiaorong; LUO; Hongjing; LI

    2014-01-01

    Financial distribution to compensate grain production reflects governmental macro-control on grain production and supply. With the reference of agricultural basic theory,agricultural multi-function theory,economic externality theory,public finance and other theories,this article points out that direct subsidies for grain production is reasonable and necessary with six main theoretical basis,namely fundamentality,multi-function,positive externality of grain production,particularity of grain supply and demand,grain safety being closely linked with national security and basic function of service-oriented government.

  11. Productivity and Technical Change in Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Brazil's agricultural sector underwent major changes in the past two decades. Though Brazil is abundant in labor, land, and animal power, government subsidies encouraged the use of fertilizer and machines. Since productivity growth arises from technical change, Brazil's drive to modernize its agricultural sector should improve agricultural productivity. However, inefficient production practices arising from subsidies can slow multifactor productivity growth. Recent removal of agricultural sub...

  12. Examining Subsidy Polices on Maize Production in Iran (Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Hosseingholizadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the agricultural important factors, inputs are the most significant in agricultural production. This article aimed to examine the impact of government subsidy policies on production of one of the most strategic products, namely maize, in Iran. To achieve this goal, panel data for the nine provinces of Iran's major producers of maize during the period of 1999-2007, is used. In this study, first the country's maize production function has been estimated by using data information for inputs: chemical fertilizer, labor, water, seeds and pesticides. And then, calculating the partial elasticity of production factors, sensitivity of production to changes in the value of inputs is evaluated. Also, using a methodology based on the maximum profit, inputs´ demand function is calculated.Results of analyzing government Subsidy Policy showed that, paying subsidy to chemical fertilizer decreases maize production 0.412 percent, because of low demand elasticity of this input. Also according to subsidy of seed, with regard to low demand elasticity of this input to its price, paying subsidy that decreases seed price, wouldn´t have so high effect on its consumption and consequently, on production growth, so that maize production only increased 0.478 percent due to paying subsidy to seed.

  13. Functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland and other European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marks-Bielska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland. Given the profitable nature of this instrument the particular attention has been paid to the disposal of funds received by agricultural producers in the region of Warmia and Mazury in the form of subsidies. There is no doubt that the direct payments represent an important aid instrument supporting agriculture within the frameworks of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy. The survey revealed that subsidies have significantly contributed to the improvement of financial condition of farms. Funds received in the form of direct payments have been mainly spent on financing current expenditures and to purchase means of production used in the farms (72.88%.

  14. Wage subsidies to combat unemployment and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Justine; Edwards, Lawrence; Pauw, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Wage or employment subsidies have been used in both developed and developing countries to raise employment levels. Various advisers to the South African government have endorsed wage subsidies as a policy measure to deal with this countrys massive unemployment problem. This paper takes stock of the international literature and conducts an economywide macro-micro analysis to obtain insights into wage subsidy design and implementation issues facing developing countries. It also investigates whe...

  15. RELATIVE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF INPUT AND OUTPUT SUBSIDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Parish, Ross M.; McLaren, Keith Robert

    1982-01-01

    A subsidy on a single input is compared with an output subsidy as a means of stimulating output, and the conditions under which the single input subsidy is (a) more treasury cost-effective and (b) overall the more socially efficient measure, are explored. Rationalisations for input subsidies, particularly fertiliser subsidies, are examined in the light of the results.

  16. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  17. Subsidies and the Persistence of Technology Adoption: Field Experimental Evidence from Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Michael R.; Rachid Laajaj; Dean Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a randomized experiment testing impacts of subsidies for modern agricultural inputs in rural Mozambique. One-time provision of a voucher for fertilizer and improved seeds leads to substantial increases in fertilizer use, which persist through two subsequent agricultural seasons. Voucher receipt also leads to large, persistent increases in household agricultural production and market sales, per capita consumption, assets, durable good ownership, and housing improvement...

  18. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  19. Technology adoption subsidies. An experiment with managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the impact of technology adoption subsidies on investment behavior in an individual choice experiment. In a laboratory setting professional managers are confronted with an intertemporal decision problem in which they have to decide whether or not to search for, and possibly adopt, a new technology. Technologies differ in the per-period benefits they yield, and their purchase price increases with the per-period benefits provided. We introduce a subsidy on the more expensive technologies (that also yield larger per-period benefits), and find that the subsidy scheme induces agents to search for and adopt these more expensive technologies even though the subsidy itself is too small to render these technologies profitable. We speculate that the result is driven by the positive connotation (affect) that the concept 'subsidy' invokes. (author)

  20. Subsidy policy and the enlargement of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development is the enlargement of people's choices. Optimal subsidy policy is intended to create the right incentives for each of the value chain participants. This paper contends that the interest subsidy offered by the Indian federal Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for solar thermal systems, through mainstream banking channels is superior in intent and outcome compared to the capital subsidy as currently offered for solar PV systems, routed through government controlled delivery channels. The interest subsidy enhances innovation, improves service delivery and expands the range of product available to consumers enjoying a wide range of endowments, thus leading to more inclusive development. The simple monopoly model developed by Atkinson [Atkinson AB. Capabilities, exclusion and the supply of goods. In: Basu K, Pattanaik P, Suzumura K, editor, Choice, Welfare and Development. Oxford University Press; 1995] is applied to the context of solar home systems to demonstrate price reduction and choice expansion in a liberalized market, facilitated by an interest subsidy scheme. (author)

  1. Lower subsidies for renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany renewable energies are heavily subsidized and the additional cost is assessed to be 20 billions euros per year paid by consumers in the form of an energy tax. However this policy has been positive: about 27% of the electricity consumed in Germany come from renewable energies. The law of 27 June 2014 aims at reducing subsidies progressively and at term to expose wind energy and solar energy to market prices. Germany's strategy of quitting nuclear energy has a dark side: about 45% of its electricity production come from coal which has implied a steady increase of carbon dioxide releases for the last 2 years and blurs its image of environment-friendly country. As the German ministry of energy said, Germany can not quit nuclear energy and coal simultaneously. (A.C.)

  2. Estimates of energy subsidies in China and impact of energy subsidy reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, B.Q.; Jiang, Z.J. [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-03-15

    For a transitional economy such as China, some energy subsidies are reasonable, and sometimes even necessary for achieving social goals. However, with rising energy prices and environmental concerns, we see conflicts emerging between energy subsidies, energy demand/supply fundamentals and climate change considerations. Energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy use, efficiency and the choice of fuel source. This paper applies the price-gap approach to estimate China's energy subsidies. Results indicate that China's energy subsidies amounted to CNY 356.73 billion in 2007, equivalent to 1.43% of GDP. Subsidies for oil products consumption are the largest, followed by subsidies for the electricity and coal sectors. Furthermore, a CGE model is used to analyze the economic impacts of energy subsidy reforms. Our findings show that removing energy subsidies will result in a significant fall in energy demand and emissions, but will have negative impacts on macroeconomic variables. We conclude that offsetting policies could be adopted such that certain shares of these subsidies are reallocated to support other sustainable development measures, which could lead to reducing energy intensity and favoring the environment.

  3. Initial Conditions and Changes in Commercial Fertilizers under the Farm Input Subsidy Programme in Malawi: Implications for Graduation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, Andrew; Chirwa, Ephraim; Matita, Mirriam

    2011-01-01

    The government of Malawi has been implementing agricultural input subsidies since 2005/06 as an intervention aimed at improving food security among resource poor smallholder farmers. Although the issue of graduation is not articulated in the design of the programme, this study investigates the determinants of changes in the demand for commercial fertilizers in the presence of the subsidy programme. The increase in purchase of commercial fertilizers by subsidized households may indicate prospe...

  4. A Low-Subsidy Problem in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Gary

    2011-01-01

    With an exogenous public subsidy and a break-even restriction on university net revenue, tuition discrimination supports a quasi-efficient departure from marginal-cost pricing. In contrast, when the legislature and university interact in their subsidy and tuition decisions, the public subsidy becomes endogenous. With an endogenous public subsidy,…

  5. 46 CFR 282.31 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subsidy for liner vessels, PART 282, Title 46, CFR; and (c) the operation of the vessels covered by said... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 282.31 Section 282.31... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Subsidy Payment and Billing Procedures § 282.31 Subsidy billing...

  6. Redistribution and Education Subsidies are Siamese Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Jacobs, B

    2001-01-01

    We develop models of optimal linear and non-linear income taxation with endogenous human capital formation to explore optimal education subsidies. Optimal subsidies on education ensure efficiency in human capital accumulation and thus play an important role in alleviating the tax distortions on learning induced by redistributive policies. If the government cannot verify all investments in human capital, education policy offsets some but not all tax-induced distortions on learning. Non-pecunia...

  7. The political economy of labor subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Azzimonti-Renzo; Eva de Francisco; Per Krusell

    2006-01-01

    We explore a political economy model of labor subsidies, extending Meltzer and Richard's median voter model to a dynamic setting. We explore only one source of heterogeneity: initial wealth. As a consequence, given an operative wealth effect, poorer agents work harder, and if the agent with median wealth is poorer than average, a politico-economic equilibrium will feature a subsidy to labor. The dynamic model does not have capital, but it has perfect markets for borrowing and lending. Because...

  8. On the Incidence of Employment Subsidies to Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    The present paper analyses employment subsidies to vocational training under union wage bargaining. The analysis includes an investigation of the consequences of financing the subsidy by a levy on employment, which is the typical way of financing these types of subsidies in many countries. The...... paper demonstrates high incidence rates of subsidies to vocational training under standard assumptions about the preference structure of the union. The financing scheme appears to counteract the purpose of the subsidy....

  9. Government Subsidies; Concepts, International Trends, and Reform Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Schwartz; Réjane Hugounenq; Benedict J. Clements

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of defining and measuring government subsidies, examines why and how government subsidies are used as a fiscal policy tool, assesses their economic effects, appraises international empirical evidence on government subsidies, and offers options for their reform. Recent international trends in government subsidy expenditure are analyzed for the 16-year period from 1975 to 1990, using general government subsidy data for 60 countries from the System of National A...

  10. Towards a grand deal on subsidies and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have identified public subsidies as a principal cause of unsustainable development. Worldwide, governments are spending up to $US950 billion a year on subsidies. Many of these public subsidies fail to serve their purpose and in fact, often turn out as policy failures as they further distort trade and cause environmental harm. The energy sector is among the most subsidized sectors in the world, receiving over $US240 billion per annum of public subsidies. This article highlights current energy subsidies and their implications. The article examines: (i) the global size and distribution of energy subsidies in industrialized and developing countries; (ii) the impact of these subsidies on the economy, equity and the environment ana their role as barriers for sustainable development; (iii) the political economy behind public subsidies and the various political and institutional barriers and lock-in mechanisms that cause subsidies to become entrenched in economic and public structures; and (iv) proposals for effective subsidy reform in energy policies, suggesting a global strategy to eliminate energy subsidies. OECD governments are in a position to take the lead, and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change presents an excellent opportunity of striking a political grand deal and linking the reform of energy subsidies to a meaningful participation of developing countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Moreover, if sinks are to be included in the clean development mechanism (CDM), it is crucial to include the removal of forestry subsidies in the grand deal. (author)

  11. Child care subsidies and childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chris M. Herbst; Tekin, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    Child care subsidies play a critical role in facilitating the transition of disadvantaged mothers from welfare to work. However, little is known about the influence of these policies on children's health and well-being. In this paper, we study the impact of subsidy receipt on low-income children's weight outcomes in the fall and spring of kindergarten. The goals of our empirical analysis are twofold. We first utilize standard OLS and fixed effects methods to explore body mass index as well as...

  12. Do Employment Subsidies Work? Evidence from Regionally Targeted Subsidies in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    subsidy programs did lead to significant net increases in registered jobs in eligible provinces (5%-13% for the first program and 11%-15% for the second). However, the cost of the actual job creation was high because of substantial deadweight losses, particularly for the first program (47% and 78......%). Because of better design features, the second subsidy program had lower, though still significant, deadweight losses (27%-46%). Although constrained by data availability, the evidence suggests that the dominant effect of subsidies was to increase social security registration of firms and workers rather...

  13. The Effect of Education Subsidies in an Aging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Mochida

    2005-01-01

    We examine how an introduction of education subsidies affects growth rates, incorporating an uncertain lifetime. We demonstrate that the introduction of subsidies engenders higher growth rates in aging economies, except when the education-tax rate is sufficiently low.

  14. Child Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not d...

  15. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... represents the cost differential between the subsidized vessel and its foreign-flag competition. A daily...

  16. Impacts of subsidy policies on vaccination decisions in contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To motivate more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, various subsidy policies are often supplied by government and the health sectors. However, these external incentives may also alter the vaccination decisions of the broader public, and hence the choice of incentive needs to be carefully considered. Since human behavior and the networking-constrained interactions among individuals significantly impact the evolution of an epidemic, here we consider the voluntary vaccination on human contact networks. To this end, two categories of typical subsidy policies are considered: (1) under the free subsidy policy, the total amount of subsidy is distributed to a certain fraction of individual and who are vaccinated without personal cost, and (2) under the partial-offset subsidy policy, each vaccinated person is offset by a certain amount of subsidy. A vaccination decision model based on evolutionary game theory is established to study the effects of these different subsidy policies on disease control. Simulations suggest that, because the partial-offset subsidy policy encourages more people to take vaccination, its performance is significantly better than that of the free subsidy policy. However, an interesting phenomenon emerges in the partial-offset scenario: with limited amount of total subsidy, a moderate subsidy rate for each vaccinated individual can guarantee the group-optimal vaccination, leading to the maximal social benefits, while such an optimal phenomenon is not evident for the free subsidy scenario.

  17. 46 CFR 252.41 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 252, Title 46, CFR: and (c) the operation of the vessels covered by said Agreement and regulations... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsidy billing procedures. 252.41 Section 252.41... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.41 Subsidy billing procedures. (a) Subsidy voucher—(1) Form....

  18. Should the Rich Be Given Housing Subsidies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lifan

    2010-01-01

    @@ On October 12,the Department of Human Resources and Social Security of Shenzhen,a boomtown in south China's Guangdong Province,released a list of recipients of housing subsidies for top professionals.The list entitled Ma Huateng(Pony Ma),CEO of Tencent Computer System Co.Ltd.,to receive 3,100 yuan($456)each month since July.

  19. Tax subsidies for private health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claudia; Burman, Len; Uccello, Cori; Wheaton, Laura; Kobes, Deborah; Khitatrakun, Surachai; Goodell, Sarah

    2003-05-01

    The exclusion from income and payroll taxes for employer-paid health insurance premiums amounted to more than $240 billion in 2010. As policy-makers search for ways to pay for health care reform and contain health care costs, this exclusion is coming under scrutiny, despite the fact that employee-sponsored insurance (ESI) is an integral part of the health insurance system. This update of a 2003 synthesis looks at the tax subsidy for private health insurance. Key findings include: The current tax subsidy benefits higher-income workers the most. The tax exclusion is worth more to those in higher tax brackets, higher-income workers are three times more likely to work for firms who offer ESI than lower-income workers, and they are more likely to purchase ESI when offered because they can afford it. Families earning $10,000 to $20,000 annually spend more than 25 percent of their income on health insurance but the value of their tax subsidy is only $1,500. By contrast, earners over $200,000 spend less than 5 percent on health insurance but their benefit is worth $4,500. Workers who cannot afford ESI or are ineligible, including the self-employed and many part-time workers, do not receive this subsidy when they purchase private, non-group coverage. PMID:22052181

  20. Energy subsidies in California's electricity market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation and re-regulation of California's electricity market not only failed in terms of anticipated cost reductions, improved customer service and higher competition, it also led to the introduction of various additional energy subsidies. This paper analyzes California's electricity market deregulation process from a subsidy viewpoint. Under deregulation in California, investor-owned utilities were not allowed to pass their energy procurement costs fully on to their customers, and therefore subsequently, and inevitably, ran into severe financial problems. Such retail price regulation is an energy subsidy that is both economically and environmentally unfavorable, because it veils true price signals to electricity consumers and, in this way, discourages energy conservation. Other policies implemented in California that represent perverse energy subsidies are the purchase of power by the state of California, the suspension of retail competition, and the potential misuse of money from the recovery of stranded costs. Many interventions implemented by the state to smooth out the impacts of the energy crisis insulated electricity consumers from market realities, supported the existing structure of California's electricity market, which is predominantly based on fossil fuels, and suppressed market incentives to improve energy conservation

  1. Essays on the economics of housing subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.W. Schilder

    2012-01-01

    In a perfect market a government needs not to intervene. For several reasons the housing market is not a perfect market and, thus, governments generally tend to intervene. The Dutch government, however, intervenes mainly by subsidies to such an extent that the housing market has become strongly dysf

  2. Do Government Private Subsidies Crowd Out Entrepreneurship?

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have found a negative relationship between government spending and entrepreneurship, much debate remains regarding the components of government spending responsible for this association. This paper contributes to the literature by specifically exploring the relationship between government private subsidies and entrepreneurship. By combining macroeconomic government...

  3. Dimensions of Wealth Dispersion Among Farm Operator Households: An Assessment of the Impact of Farm Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    El-Osta, Hisham S.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses microlevel data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey to examine the changes in the distributions of household wealth and to assess the role farm subsidies play, among other factors, in affecting these distributions. The empirical analysis relies on the concept of the adjusted Gini coefficient and on fixed-effect regression procedures. Coefficients from fixed-effect estimation indicate a negative correlation between government payments and wealth dispersion, with th...

  4. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Annexes to Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in this annex report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  5. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  6. Essays on the economics of housing subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Conijn, J.B.S.; Schilder, F.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    In a perfect market a government needs not to intervene. For several reasons the housing market is not a perfect market and, thus, governments generally tend to intervene. The Dutch government, however, intervenes mainly by subsidies to such an extent that the housing market has become strongly dysfunctional. The problematic functioning of the Dutch housing market makes one wonder to what extent the theoretical reasons to intervene in the housing market still relate to the actual practice. Th...

  7. Cross Subsidies in Public Services: Some Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Beato

    2000-01-01

    Pricing policy recommendations infrastructure services are based on two principles. One is that prices should cover the total cost of the service. The other is that cross subsidy schemes should be avoided. This technical paper explores the economic literature for rules on applying these principles to real world infrastructure services. The discussion is based on a partial equilibrium approach that uses market surplus as a proxy for social welfare and efficiency. Three main conclusions are rea...

  8. Child Allowances, Educational Subsidies and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on economic growth attributable to government policies of child allowances and educational subsidies. We show that multiple steady states may arise under these two policies, with club convergence occurring, and the initial condition being of relevance, if the tax rate is fairly high. Under a policy of child allowances, an increase in the tax rate is found to raise the quantity of children, but lower the quality of adults; however, under a policy of educational ...

  9. Optimal technology policy: subsidies versus monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Socorro, M. Pilar

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the optimal technology policy to solve a free-riding problem between the members of a RJV. We assume that when intervening the Government suffers an additional adverse selection problem because it is not able to distinguish the value of the potential innovation. Although subsidies and monitoring may be equivalent policy tools to solve firms' free-riding problem, they imply different social losses if the Government is not able to perfectly distinguish the value of the potential inno...

  10. Daycare Subsidies and Labor Supply in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Siv; Stafford, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The provision of subsidized child care may encourage women to participate in the paid labor force. This paper analyzes the effects of the price and availability of subsidized child care on labor force participation, using data from a Swedish household survey for 1984 in combination with data on public day care fees and spaces per child by community. We argue that the subsidy rate and availability of spaces determined by the political leaders of the community is to a large extent exogenous to ...

  11. Institutional Factors Affecting Agricultural Land Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, D'Artis; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Van Herck, Kristine; Vranken, Liesbet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the main institutional factors affecting the rental and sales markets for agricultural land. Particular attention is paid to the effects of the common agricultural policy on land markets, and more specifically the underlying mechanism through which agricultural subsidies are capitalised into land values and farmland rents. This paper also provides a broad overview of the empirical studies that estimate the impact of agricultural support policies on land rents and land pric...

  12. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  13. ENER-IURE Project. Analysis of the legislation regarding renewable energy sources in the E.U. member states. Phase II. Fiscal measures and subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the ENER-IURE project is to contribute towards a better knowledge of the legal, juridical and administrative barriers that renewable energy sources face today. The legislation of the different member states has been analysed during 1998 - 1999 focusing in four main aspects (a) Financial (Fiscal and subsidies measures) (b) Electricity, (c) Planning and Environment (d) Agriculture and Biomass. The report concerning fiscal measures and subsidies in Finland is divided into three parts: the basis report, the analysis report and the conclusion part. The basis report includes taxation, subsidies granted for energy investments, projects and energy conservation as well as subsidies for forestry operations. The analysis report includes energy taxation, investment aid and energy research. The Act on the Excise Tax Levied on Electricity and on Certain Fuels, issued in Helsinki on 30 December 1996 is included as an appendix in the report

  14. Wage and Employment Effects of Payroll Taxes and Investment Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Frode JOHANSEN; Klette, Tor Jakob

    1997-01-01

    Using a panel of manufacturing plants we study how payroll taxes and investment subsidies affect wages and demand for labor and capital. We exploit the regional subsidy schemes for labor and capital in Norway. Our empirical analysis finds that a large part of changes in payroll taxes is shifted over to wages. This result suggests that changes in payroll taxes have a limited direct effect on employment. Our study of investment subsidies finds evidence of substitution between labor and capital,...

  15. Direct subsidies and housing affordability in Australian private rental markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin A Wood; Matthew Forbes; Kenneth Gibb

    2005-01-01

    Many countries have undergone a broad retreat from the use of indirect (supply) subsidies to meet low-income housing-affordability problems, shifting to direct subsidies often linked to means-tested income-maintenance systems. Although the reasons for this change of direction are well documented, the efficacy of direct housing subsidies in terms of tackling affordability remains in question. The authors examine in detail one such system, Australia’s Rent Assistance (RA) programme, making use ...

  16. The environmental effect of subsidies for clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental subsidies for clean technology result in a larger diffusion of such technology. However, as a result emissions can increase in imperfect markets for products. When several companies compete each other with clean and dirty technologies, production and emission will rise because of price competition.This effect will be even larger in case subsidies are applied. Therefore, subsidies are not advisable for every market. In this article an evolutionary game theory has been used with respect to the diffusion of environment-friendly innovation of products and the role of environmental policy instruments (in particular subsidies). 7 refs

  17. The employment effects of low-wage subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Kristiina; Pirttilä, Jukka; Uusitalo, Roope

    2010-01-01

    Low-wage subsidies are often proposed as a solution to the unemployment problem among the low skilled. Yet the empirical evidence on the effects of low-wage subsidies is surprisingly scarce. This paper examines the employment effects of a Finnish payroll tax subsidy scheme, which is targeted at the employers of older, full-time, low-wage workers. The system’s clear eligibility criteria open up an opportunity for a reliable estimation of the causal impacts of the subsidy, using a difference-in...

  18. Impacts of removing fuel import subsidies in Nigeria on poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum sector contributes substantially to the Nigerian economy; however, the potential benefits are diminished due to the existence of significant subsidies on imports of petroleum products. Subsidies on imported petroleum products are considered to be an important instrument for keeping fuel prices, and hence the cost of living, low. The costs of these subsidies, however, has risen dramatically in recent years due to increased volatility in world petroleum and petroleum product prices and increased illegal exportation of subsidized petroleum products into neighboring countries. Removing the subsidy on fuel is one of the most contentious socio-economic policy issues in Nigeria today. In this paper, an economy-wide framework is used to identify the impact of removing the fuel subsidy on the Nigerian economy and investigates how alternative policies might be used to meet socio-economic objectives related to fuel subsidies. The results show that while a reduction in the subsidy generally results in an increase in Nigerian GDP, it can have a detrimental impact on household income, and in particular on poor households. Accompanying the subsidy reduction with income transfers aimed at poor households or domestic production of petroleum products can alleviate the negative impacts on household income. - Highlights: • Subsidies on imported fuel compromise the contribution of crude oil in Nigeria. • Fuel subsidies benefit households, but harm the economy. • We use an economy-wide model to identify the impact of removing the fuel subsidy. • We simulate scenarios that target the poor and promote fuel's domestic production

  19. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  20. 14 CFR 271.7 - Subsidy payout formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidy payout formula. 271.7 Section 271.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... payout formula. (a) Subsidy will be paid by the Department to the air carrier monthly, based on...

  1. 75 FR 32495 - Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... available to public housing agencies (PHAs) which assistance is determined using a formula approach under...: Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0029. Form Numbers: HUD-52722,...

  2. 77 FR 75641 - Public Housing Operating Subsidy-Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Under the operating... market conditions; and (e) appeal to substitute actual project cost data. To appeal the amount of subsidy... use: Under the operating fund final rule, PHAs that elect to file an appeal of their subsidy...

  3. 24 CFR 990.295 - Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of operating subsidy that a PHA or HUD provides a project managed by an RMC shall not be reduced... the project. (c) Change factors. The operating subsidy for an RMC-managed project shall reflect changes in inflation, utility rates, and consumption, as well as changes in the number of units in...

  4. Subsidy programs on diffusion of solar water heaters: Taiwan's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial incentives are essentially one of the key factors influencing diffusion of solar water heaters in many countries. Two subsidy programs were initiated by the government of Taiwan in 1986 (1986-1991) and 2000 (2000-present), respectively. Those long-term national programs are considered to be the driving force on local market expansion. In 2008, the regional subsidy programs for solar water heaters were announced by Kaohsiung city and Kiemen county, which resulted in the growth in sales. A revised subsidy was also initiated by the government of Taiwan in 2009. The subsidy is 50% more. However, the tremendous enlargement of market size with a high-level ratio of subsidy over total installation cost might result in a negative impact on a sustainable SWH industry and long-term development of the local market, which is associated with system design and post-installation service. This paper aims to address the relative efficiency and pitfalls of those national and regional programs. - Research Highlights: → The direct subsidy has been the driving force on market expansion in Taiwan. → Higher subsidy would certainly increase the total number of systems installed. → A high-level subsidy results in a negative impact on users or a sustainable industry.

  5. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rule is defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; related facilities of nuclear power generation; nuclear power generating facilities, etc.; and place of enterprise. Subsidies are granted by the head of the authorities concerned (the Director General of Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry) to popularize knowledge of nuclear power generation to inhabitants in surrounding areas of the facilities, or to support expenses of the preparation of arrangement programs, etc. Subsidies for public relations are delivered to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities, etc. are or are expected to be established, and subsidies for arrangement programs to those where the surrounding areas are included. Limits of the subsidies to a prefecture range from 6 million yen to 18 million yen for each fiscal year according to specified terms of the facilities concerned. Limits of subsidies for arrangement programs to place of enterprise extend from 500,000 yen to 1 million yen. Prefectures shall file an application for subsidies to the head of the authorities concerned with gists of business according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the head shall examine it and notify to the applicant the decision of delivery and its conditions without delay in writing, when such settlement is made. Terms and conditions of delivery, payment of subsidies and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  6. Measuring the Impact of Distortions in Agricultural Trade in Partial and General Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Tokarick

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative estimates of the impact of removing agricultural support (both tariffs and subsidies) in partial- and general-equilibrium frameworks. The results show that agricultural support in industrial countries is highly distortionary and tariffs have a larger distortionary impact than subsidies. Removal of agricultural support would likely raise the international prices of food, resulting in an increase in the cost of food for many net-food- importing countries, althou...

  7. THE RISK INSURANCE EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    O. Lobova

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of business activity insurance in the agricultural sector is grounded in this article. Different types of agricultural risks are described. The principles, on which the efficiency of agricultural insurance is based, are determined. Such as: voluntary; the farmers interest; risk management; multivariate product line; promote farmers efficient; equal access to subsidies from farmers; balance; transparency and coordination of the subsidies transfer; creating a reliable and multi-le...

  8. Subsidies and their Implications on Fisheries Management in St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlan Lay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, fisheries subsidies contribute to fleet overcapacity, overfishing, and to the decimation of the marine environment.  Despite the fact that small-scale fisheries catch roughly the same amount of edible fish while causing less overall environmental damage, government preference for subsidy allotment continues to be in favor of industrial fisheries.  St. Lucia is a Caribbean island which is recognized as a small vulnerable economy that relies heavily on its small-scale fisheries for economic and social development.  The island nation has become largely dependent on foreign subsidies towards its fishery sector, with the majority of the subsidies designated to capacity enhancing programs, which lead to resource overexploitation.  This report discusses the importance of directing subsidies away from programs that negatively impact the fishery and moving them towards beneficial programs, with a focus on the development and implementation of effective fisheries management systems for St. Lucia.

  9. U.S. Agricultural Policy and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kirwan, Barrett E.; Cawley, John

    2008-01-01

    The doubling of the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. since 1980 has generated tremendous interest in understanding the causes of obesity and its recent rise. We study one important potential cause that has been little investigated: U.S. agriculture policy. We document that, by pursuing policies that benefit agricultural producers, the U.S. promotes excess supply and lower prices which contribute to higher calorie intake and obesity. We estimate that agricultural subsidies account for 0.75 - ...

  10. When is the Efficient Subsidy to Higher Education the Equitable Subsidy ?

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Despite some empirical evidence to the contrary, government subsidy to higher education is usually presumed to be inequitable because college-educated workers earn more than less educated workers. Using a simple model of edu- cational choice with endogenous wages and two worker types, I obtain strong results concerning this conßict between efficiency and equity ? namely that eq- uity and efficiency do not conßict unless there are borrowing constraints. Pre- existing distorting taxes or real e...

  11. ARE THE EUROPEAN UNION CAP’S SUBSIDIES A POLITICAL RENT? AN ATTEMPT AT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czyżewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  12. End of subsidies on wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark is phasing out subsidies on wind power and renewable power production. In its place, a market is introduced in which producers can sell ''green certificates''. Similar markets may be introduced in Norway and Sweden. The market is to be created by making the consumers by green certificates corresponding to a certain fraction of their consumption. Producers of renewable power will be given the right to sell certificates. Thus they earn both from selling green certificates and from selling power. By means of a financial forward marked that makes it possible to price ensure the sale of green certificates an investor may decide whether the two income flows are sufficient to cover the full cost. In this way the green market may launch new investments, which is the very purpose. However, as discussed in this article, introducing green markets may not be as less straightforward as expected

  13. Farmers' Heterogeneous Valuation of Laser Land Leveling in Eastern Uttar Pradesh: An Experimental Auction Approach to Informing Segmentation & Subsidy Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lybbert, Travis J.; Magnan, Nicholas; Spielman, David J.; Bhargava, Anil K.; Gulati, Kajal

    2012-01-01

    Demand heterogeneity often makes it profitable for firms to price and promote goods and services differently in different market segments. When private consumption brings public benefits, this same heterogeneity can be used to develop targeted public subsidies. We explore the design of public-private targeting and segmentation strategies in the case of a resource-conserving agricultural technology in India. To understand farmers’ heterogeneous demand for Laser Land Leveling (LLL), we conducte...

  14. Part D employer retiree drug subsidy: inception, implementation and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 provided a subsidy to employers that offered a retiree health prescription coverage benefit actuarially equivalent to Medicare Part D. This article reviews the development of the subsidy, the support by the federal government and the issues that have arisen. It also presents analysis of data from a set of companies that offered retiree health in 2006 and 2007. The data show widespread acceptance of the subsidy and continuance of prescription coverage; however, companies that did not take the subsidy were more likely to be smaller and in less robust financial health. Analysis of a subset of the companies shows the magnitude of the benefits paid yearly and the accounting liability caused by retiree health relative to the size of the subsidy. The author concludes that the potential success or failure of the federal subsidy in preserving retiree health benefits will not be known for years. Nevertheless, with the elimination of the deductibility of the subsidy in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), employers surely will reexamine their offer of prescription coverage to retirees. PMID:21247053

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Subsidies on the Production Capability of Land in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletichová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A decline in the production capability of land affects the creation of farmers’ revenues, the effective utilization of agricultural land, its qualitative and quantitative degradation, as well as the competitiveness of Czech agriculture. The results of the IAEI Prague research show that the annual economic loss due to a decline in the quality of land in the Czech Republic within the analyzed period of the years 2009-2012 is approximately CZK 385 mil. (MoA, 2012a. The aim of the article is to evaluate the potential connections between the change in the quality of land and selected subsidies that should primarily be affecting the effective utilization of agricultural land and the continual sustainability of its production capability. In the research, the methods of correlation and comparison were used. The relationship between the amount of paid subsidies (SAPS+TNA, AEM, LFA and after changing the production ability of soils (difference GARE was not confirmed. A statistically significant relationship was found only in the subsidies NATURE 2000.

  16. Comparing Downpayment and Interest Rate Mortgage Subsidies: An Analytical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bebczuk, Ricardo Néstor; Demaestri, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Our paper sets up a simple model to assess, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the relative pros and cons of housing downpayment and interest rate subsidies on the access to and the stability of the mortgage market. Our analysis unveils a number of relevant policy lessons for the design of housing subsidy programs, namely: (a) Under fiscal neutrality (same government outlay), both subsidies have the same positive effect on the ability and willingness to repay. But, for such neut...

  17. Fuel subsidies, the oil market and the world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan S. Balke; Plante, Michael D.; Mine K. Yucel

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the e ffects of oil producing countries' fuel subsidies on the oil market and the world economy. We identify 24 oil producing countries with fuel subsidies where retail fuel prices are about 34 percent of the world price. We construct a two-country model where one country represents the oil-exporting subsidizers and the second the oil-importing bloc, and calibrate the model to match recent data. We find that the removal of subsidies would reduce the world price of oil by si...

  18. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new...... match depends on the applicant's unemployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration of a job search, so that equilibrium unemployment increases. Like the subsidy, organizational reforms...

  19. 'Frozen' media subsidies during a time of media change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    documents and secondary sources, I show that media subsidies have largely remained frozen in their late-20th century form. The absence of major reform means that media subsidies are increasingly subject to policy drift, a process by which the operations and effectiveness of policies change not because of......Media systems around the world have changed in significant ways in the early 21st century. In this article, I analyse how various forms of media subsidies have changed in response to these transformations in a sample of six different affluent democracies. On the basis of interviews, official...... perceived shortage of desirable, cost-effective, and governable alternatives to existing policies....

  20. 2013年陕西省农机购置补贴信息管理系统操作应用体会和建议%2013 purchase of agricultural subsidies in Shaanxi Province Information Management System Operation Application Experience and recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费崇利

    2013-01-01

    文章总结县区用户对新版农机购置补贴信息管理系统的应用体验和看法,根据个人使用体会,介绍两种方便实用的操作技巧,针对系统现存的部分问题提出改进建议。%users of the new version of the article summarizes the county farm machinery purchase subsidy information management system application experience and views, According to personal use experience, introduce two convenient and practical operating skills, part of the problem for the system of existing recommendations for improvements.

  1. Analysis on Function Orientation and Development Countermeasures of New Agricultural Business Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang,; Wang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid advance of industrialization and urbanization process, fostering new agricultural business entities become inevitable for agricultural transformation and the construction of agricultural modernization in China. The status of the new agricultural business entities determines the level of modern agricultural development. In recent years, new agricultural business entities have grew rapidly. However, there are still many problems including the difficulties in financing loans, inadequate agricultural insurance system, bad implementation of agricultural subsidies, jagged agricultural talents and so on. In order to foster new agricultural business entities, countermeasures should be carried out to ensure financial support, perfect the agricultural insurance, strengthen the level of agricultural subsidies, strive to develop the degree of specialization agricultural operators and so on.

  2. Regulations for allocations of subsidies for areas surrounding nuclear power generation, etc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the Notification No.3 of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry issued on October 1, 1981. The provisions stipulate the prefectures qualified for receiving subsidy, calculation for dermining the limit of subsidy, application for grant of subsidy (plan for subsidiary project), procedure for making decision on subsidy grant (review, notification, modification), withdrawal of application for subsidy (where applicant is not satisfied with the decision), requirements for subsidy grant (costs of each project, public tender for subsidiary project, approval of changes in subsidiary project, etc.), submission of report on subsidiary projects (to be submitted every three months), submission of report on achievements (after completion of project), fixation of amount of subsidy (review, field survey, etc.), cancellation of decision on subsidy grant (nonconformity to requirements or regulations), restriction on disposition of property (application and approval), payment of subsidy (procedure for payment), accounting of subsidiary projects, protocol of subsidy, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  3. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR BULK CARGO VESSELS ENGAGED IN WORLDWIDE SERVICES Calculation of..., as described separately in § 252.32. The daily ODS rate represents the cost differential between...

  4. Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?

    OpenAIRE

    Komives, Kristin; Foster, Vivien; Halpern, Jonathan; Wodon, Quentin; Abdullah, Roohi

    2008-01-01

    Utility subsidies to consumers of water and electricity services are often justified as a mechanism for making services affordable for the poor. After all, an estimated 1.1 billion people in the developing world lack access to safe water, 2 billion are without electricity, and 2.4 billion without sanitation. But critics object that such subsidies can work against improving quality of service to ...

  5. Publication subsidies: challenges and dilemmas facing South African researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Woodiwiss, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In an attempt to encourage and enhance research productivity in higher educational institutions, various systems have been introduced. Currently in South Africa, a government subsidy is granted to higher educational institutions in reward for research outputs (primarily journal publications and postgraduate student graduations). The purpose of this article is not to attack the current or past publication subsidy systems but rather to enlighten researchers, especially emerging researc...

  6. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new match depends on the applicant's unem­ployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration o...

  7. Regional Integration, Subsidy Competition and the Relocation Choice of MNCs

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Facundo; Corcos Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Regional integration makes relocation a more attractive option for Multinational Corporations (MNC), influencing in turn the provision of investment incentives by member countries. We examine in this context the effects of subsidy competition. To do so, we model the strategic interaction between two governments offering subsidies to a MNC facing different location alternatives, which involve relocation and plant closure. Our welfare analysis shows that the combination of regional integration ...

  8. Premium Subsidy Changes and Demand for Crop Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Won; Diersen, Matthew A.; Janssen, Larry; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop insurance is widely used on major crops raised in the Northern Plains. Prospective reductions in the crop insurance premium subsidy are commonly expected to result in lower use of insurance. Corn and soybean producers in South Dakota responded to the shift in subsidy levels beginning in 2001 by shifting toward revenue products and higher amounts of insurance. Producers chose a product type depending on the size of the revenue price election level, relative yield and premium rate. Produce...

  9. Credit Guarantees and Subsidies when Lender has a Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Provision of credit guarantees or subsidies may remove an adverse selection leading to credit rationing. This paper concentrates on comparison of government budget costs of credit guarantees and subsidies in a monopolistic credit market. Different opportunity costs among entrepreneurs, which reflect different mixes of general and human specific capital, generate different outcomes in the model. As long as the participation costs of low-risk entrepreneurs are sufficiently close to the particip...

  10. Electricity Subsidies in Low-Cost Jurisdictions: The Case of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Olivier Pineau

    2008-01-01

    Energy subsidies foster energy consumption and contribute to environmental degradation. Furthermore, energy subsidies are common in developed countries, where energy consumption is relatively high, and tend to favour higher-income households. This paper reviews the concept of energy subsidy and estimates the importance of electricity subsidies to residential consumers in British Columbia (BC). It also assesses the distribution of this subsidy across income groups. Results show that high-incom...

  11. The Fiscal and Welfare Impacts of Reforming Fuel Subsidies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Anand; David Coady; Adil Mohommad; Vimal V Thakoor; James P Walsh

    2013-01-01

    Rising fuel subsidies have contributed to fiscal pressures in India. A key policy concern regarding subsidy reform is the adverse welfare impact on households, in particular poor households. This paper evaluates the fiscal and welfare implications of fuel subsidy reform in India. Fuel subsidies are found to be badly targeted, with the richest ten percent of households receiving seven times more in benefits than the poorest ten percent. Although subsidy reform would generate substantial fiscal...

  12. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  13. Nigeria’s Petroleum Subsidy: In Whose Interest is it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsidy has been defined as any government intervention, in cash or kind, to private sector producers or consumers for which the government receives no equivalent compensation in return. Fuel subsidy has been a growing liability to Nigeria’s budgets, in a systematic fashion for almost four decades, hence creating vested interest. The exponential growth of cost of fuel subsidy is due to the rising cost of crude oil in the international market, exchange rate volatility and the population growth of Nigeria which resulted in increased petroleum consumption; the combination of these three variables therefore made the cost of the fuel subsidy unsustainable. Understanding the current fuel subsidies magnitude is critical for advancing reform because it underscores the potential socio-economic benefits to be realized. In addition to the burden that fuel subsidy is placing on the national budget, keeping petroleum below the market value has discouraged additional investment in Nigeria’s oil sector, because the visibility of recovering the investment under the artificially low price structure is uncertain.

  14. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for public relations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to practice these provisions. It is applied to subsidies for the expenses of popularizing the knowledge of atomic power generation to inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities, investigation on the security of inhabitants in these areas, communication and coordination concerning the safety of such facilities during and after their installation and other expenses of establishing the facilities for public relations to inhabitants in the surrounding areas of these facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facility, facility related to atomic power generation, and place of business. Subsidies are delivered to prefectures, cities, towns and villages where atomic power generating facilities are or are expected to be set up, prefectures including cities, towns and villages adjacent to those where such facilities are or are expected to be established, and prefectures which include the surrounding areas of those facilities. The limits of subsidies are stipulated in the lists attached. The terms of delivery vary according to the kinds of atomic power generating facilities and related facilities. Prefectures or cities, towns and villages which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file specified applications attached with the explanation of subsidy business outlines to the director of the ministry or agency concerned. Decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of business and other concerned matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  15. The Geographic Accessibility of Child Care Subsidies and Evidence on the Impact of Subsidy Receipt on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the spatial accessibility of public human services agencies on the likelihood of receiving a child care subsidy among disadvantaged mothers with young children. In particular, we collect data on the location of virtually every human services agency in the U.S. and use this information to calculate the approximate distance that families must travel from home in order to reach the nearest office that administers the subsidy application process. Using data from ...

  16. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  17. Diffuse Pollution and the Role of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, David; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture contributes negative and positive externalities to society, that is, beneficial and detrimental changes in human wellbeing to third parties for which they are not generally compensated or charged. Beneficial externalities include the creation of amenity and landscape and negative externalities include pollution of surface and groundwater. In so far as parts of agricultural subsidies compensate for beneficial externalities, they are said to be 'internalised' and should not be the s...

  18. Testing viability of cross subsidy using time-variant price elasticities of industrial demand for electricity: Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian electric tariffs are characterized by very high rates for industrial and commercial classes to permit subsidized electric consumption by residential and agricultural customers. We investigate the viability of this policy using monthly data for 1997-2003 on electric consumption by a few large industrial customers under the aegis of a small distribution company in the state of Uttar Pradesh. For a given price/cost ratio, it can be shown that if the cross-subsidizing class' electricity demand is sufficiently elastic, increasing the class' rates fail to recover incremental cross-subsidy necessary to support additional revenues for subsidized classes. This suboptimality is tested by individually estimating time-variant price-elasticities of demand for these industrial customers using Box-Cox and linear regressions. We find that at least for some of these customers, cross-subsidy was suboptimal prior to as late as October 2001, when rates were changed following reforms

  19. Energy subsidies: lessons learned in assessing their impact and designing policy reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex

  20. Factor Analysis on Subsidy Preference of Private Forest Owners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niandong; CHEN; Chunxia; ZHANG; Senwei; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Forest farmers are the basic micro-subjects in southern collectively owned forest, and their willingness towards forest management directly influences forestry development. Thus, to provide subsidies to forest farmers is an important means to encourage the farmers’ enthusiasm to manage the forest and promote the healthy and sustainable development of private forest. In order to reduce the supply-demand contradictions and improve the implementation effects of the subsidies system, the design of the system should be based on the real needs of forest farmers. On this basis, a questionnaire survey was designed in this paper to study the preferences of forest farmers to different types of subsidies in the southern collectively owned forest and the influencing factors were analysed by the Logistic Model to search for the reasonable design of the system. It was concluded that the forest farmers with different backgrounds show different preference to the subsidies, which, to a certain extent, reflects the development bottlenecks of forestry, and lays a foundation for the design of subsidies system.

  1. Hard coal subsidies: A never-ending story?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, hard coal has been subsidized for almost half a century. Despite the declining significance of hard coal production for the domestic labor market, the subsidies have continued to increase until the middle of the last decade, reaching a peak at Euro 6.7 billion in 1996. While these subsidies have been continually shrinking since then, settling at Euro 2.7 billion in 2005, it is very likely that hard coal support will be extended in Germany well into the next decade and even beyond. This article questions the main arguments raised by the proponents of hard coal subsidization in Germany and other EU countries. Most importantly, in addition to the drain these subsidies impose on public budgets, substantial opportunity costs are implied, leading funds away from alternative, more beneficial public investments. From a social welfare perspective, we, therefore, recommend the rapid abolition of these subsidies not only in Germany, where in real terms the accumulated amount of subsidies has now far exceeded Euro 165 billion, but also all across Europe

  2. A Review of Different Types of Subsidies and How They Work in Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson, Kampungu k.; Han, Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review on types of subsidies and how they work in theory. The paper identified three types of subsidies: subsidies that increase revenue, subsidies that lower the cost of production, and subsidies that are not linked to production or input. With the use of graphic examples to describe the partial effects of subsidies on supply and demand, the following findings were obtained: one, for producers to sell more, they will need to produce more, and in order to produce more...

  3. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between an...... active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  4. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between an...... active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  5. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    ABSTRACT: To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed and profiling techniques are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service (PES) and random search. Jobseekers choose between an...... active and a passive search strategy. Labour market policy has two options available. First, only the medium-term and long-term unemployed MLTU) placed by the PES are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a MLTU. We show that under both regimes equilibrium unemployment is increasing...

  6. On the Subsidy Mechanisms for Urban Public Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Guo-li; ZHU Xiao-min

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that the urban public traffic operations in China suffer losses and hence it isnecessary to study resonable subsidy mechanisms for the urban public traffic. On the basis of analyzing themodes of the urban public traffic management, we classify the financial losses into the policy loss and themanagement loss, according to whether the cost can be compensated or not. In addition, a series of criteriaare introduced in order to efficiently decide the amount of subsidy. Finally, this paper also examines the wayof bidding administration, which is considered to be promising in the future of urban public traffic.

  7. The rationale for reducing the subsidy on LPG in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largely as a result of the government's policy of extending subsidies, the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and kerosene to meet household cooking energy requirements has increased in the past two decades. Both LPG and kerosene have had to be imported to meet this demand. The fact that LPG is being used to a greater extent in high income households (its distribution is still confined largely to major towns and cities), indicates that the government should reestablish its priorities regarding fuel subsidies. (Author)

  8. The Number of Firms and the Politics of Export Subsidy

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Kagitani

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework to understand that the government's implementation of export subsidy is influenced by the political pressure from the home firms which can bear the costs of forming and maintaining a lobby in order to overcome a free-rider problem associated with lobbying. When the number of the foreign firms is large in comparison with that of the home firms, the home firms can organize a lobby group more easily and lobby for higher export subsidy. The impl...

  9. 78 FR 55281 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Collection Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval... million households covered by the Public Housing and Section 8 housing subsidies. The Quality...

  10. PRESENTATION OF SUBSIDIES IN THE FINANCIAL REPORTS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES a€“ NECESSITY AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Ovidiu-Octavian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches theoretical problems regarding the definition and the types of subsidies according to the European Directives and the International Accounting Standards. The paper presents the accounting treatment of subsidies, the accounting polici

  11. 78 FR 65970 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    .... Under U.S. trade law, a subsidy exists where a government authority: (i) Provides a financial... International Trade Administration Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood... Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY:...

  12. Inspiration of Direct Grain Production Subsidy System in Typical Countries and Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunqiang; SUN; Lu; CHEN; Ya; LI

    2014-01-01

    Through comparison of direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions,such as the United States,EU,Japan and South Korea,this paper evaluated the performance of direct grain production subsidy system. On the basis of comparison and analysis,it summed up experience of the direct grain production subsidy system in typical countries and regions. Finally,it came up with countermeasures and recommendations for improving the direct grain production subsidy system in China.

  13. The Demographics of Public Transit Subsidies: A Case Study of Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Iseki, Hiroyuki; Taylor, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Public transit subsidy represents a transfer of income from taxpayers to transit users. Such transfers raise questions regarding their effects, particularly equity. Our research focuses on social equity, and concerns the distribution of transit subsidies among socio-economic groups. Accordingly, this paper examines the ways that transit subsidy equity can be measured, and reviews the previous studies on this topic in detail. We propose a more precise method for measuring the subsidy of indivi...

  14. The Benefits of Housing Subsidies for TANF Recipients: Evidence from New Jersey.

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Wood; Anu Rangarajan

    2004-01-01

    This four-page issue brief notes that government housing subsidies improve access to stable, affordable housing for low-income families. Current and former welfare families that receive these subsidies devote a smaller portion of their income to housing, face less housing instability, and live in housing that is less crowded than families that do not receive subsidies.

  15. An Evaluation of the 2014 Subsidy Reforms in Morocco and a Simulation of Further Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Verme, Paolo; El-Massnaoui, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Under increasing budget pressure, Morocco carried out an extensive set of subsidy reforms in 2014 and is planning for further reforms for 2015–2017, which will eliminate most consumers' subsidies. This paper evaluates (ex post) the 2014 reforms and simulates (ex ante) the impact on household welfare, poverty, and the government budget of the total elimination of subsidies. The paper consid...

  16. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  17. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy...

  18. 42 CFR 423.34 - Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible... Eligibility and Enrollment. § 423.34 Enrollment of low-income subsidy eligible individuals. (a) General rule. CMS must ensure the enrollment into Part D plans of low-income subsidy eligible individuals who...

  19. 42 CFR 423.904 - Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies... Eligibility determinations for low-income subsidies. (a) General rule. The State agency must make eligibility determinations and redeterminations for low-income premium and cost-sharing subsidies in accordance with...

  20. Problems in the WTO Agriculture Agreement and the Current State and Prospects for Agricultural Negotiations: The Perspective of a Participant in the Uruguay Round Negotiations (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMASHITA Kazuhito

    2005-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's dispute settlement panels and the appellate body ruled on two important agricultural cases recently, just as concerns were being raised over the excessive juridification of WTO procedures. The cases in question are the United States' subsidies on upland cotton and the European Union's export subsidies on sugar. The verdicts in the both cases were quite different from the conclusions Uruguay Round negotiators would have reached. When negotiators negotiate an agre...

  1. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  2. Analyzing the Effect of the Water Reduce Subsidies on GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Hosseyni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of decrease in water subsidies (increase in the price of the water on various economic sectors in order to promote the conservation of this resource based on the actual price of water. But over the past decades, various subsidizing methods hold the cost of water down. On the other hand, the indiscriminate use of these resources led the government to impose enormous costs. Determining the economic impact of subsidy reform can be an essential factor in the determination of water price reform scenarios. The methodology that will be used to explore the implications on the economy will be a computable general equilibrium model (CGE, previously designed for an analysis of the direct taxes of the Andalusian economy (Cardenete and Sancho, 2003, but now enhanced and extended to include emissions of pollutants and the introduction of environmental taxes (André, Cardenete and Velázquez, 2005. This model has been further modified to introduce the variations in the water price that this study investigates the effect of water subsidy reform on the economy based on six scenarios using computable general equilibrium model. Results show that by decreasing subsidies, GDP will reduce in all economic sectors. Government can prevent the decrease in production by redistributing incomes.

  3. 75 FR 41874 - Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations AGENCY: Office of the.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Quality Control for Rental... agency's estimate of the burden of the proposed collection of information; (3) Enhance the...

  4. The effectiveness of selected housing subsidies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr; Boelhouwer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2009), s. 249-269. ISSN 1566-4910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Housing policy * Welfare economics * Subsidy effectiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.springerlink.com/content/y8km555k622v8vu0/

  5. Elasticity of fertilizer and its implication for subsidy

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, M. A.; Islam, Md. Shariful

    1981-01-01

    In order to address an on-going debate about the effect of price vs non-price factors on the demand and utilization of fertilizers and its implication for subsidy, this study used a sample farm level data to test the effect of price on demand.

  6. Role of seasonality on predator-prey-subsidy population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dorian; Harrington, Heather A; Van Gorder, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The role of seasonality on predator-prey interactions in the presence of a resource subsidy is examined using a system of non-autonomous ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The problem is motivated by the Arctic, inhabited by the ecological system of arctic foxes (predator), lemmings (prey), and seal carrion (subsidy). We construct two nonlinear, nonautonomous systems of ODEs named the Primary Model, and the n-Patch Model. The Primary Model considers spatial factors implicitly, and the n-Patch Model considers space explicitly as a "Stepping Stone" system. We establish the boundedness of the dynamics, as well as the necessity of sufficiently nutritional food for the survival of the predator. We investigate the importance of including the resource subsidy explicitly in the model, and the importance of accounting for predator mortality during migration. We find a variety of non-equilibrium dynamics for both systems, obtaining both limit cycles and chaotic oscillations. We were then able to discuss relevant implications for biologically interesting predator-prey systems including subsidy under seasonal effects. Notably, we can observe the extinction or persistence of a species when the corresponding autonomous system might predict the opposite. PMID:26916622

  7. [The tortilla subsidy in Mexico: a nutritional or economic program?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah Levy, Teresa; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo; Avila Arcos, Marco Antonio; Fernández Mendoza, Carlota

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of the tortilla subsidy on the family food consumption, on its economy and on the nutritional condition of women and under five children, from three marginal zones, with the purpose of focus nutritional interventions. Fifty families were randomly selected in each one of three similar low income sectors of the Oaxaca city. One received subsidy, other has never received it and the third received it five years ago but not at present. Anthropometry was performed in all women of reproductive age and children under five years old. In the first BMI was the indicator used and in children weight for age with two standard deviations was the cut-off point. The tortilla represents between 13.6% to 20% of the family expenditure. Anyhow the energy, protein and some nutrient consumption was higher. The malnutrition index was better in the subsidy community as 12.0% of under five children were low weight for age against 19.2% in the other two communities. The tortilla family expenditure represents 45% of their income and the subsidy reduces it 9%, surely this help a better nutrient consumption and improves the nutritional condition of the poor and marginated urban sectors of the society. PMID:12942865

  8. Investment Subsidies and Time-Consistent Environmental Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Abrego, Lisandro; Perroni, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    We describe a model of dynamic pollution abatement choices with heterogeneous agents, where, due to the presence of a distributional objective and to the absence of incentive-compatible compensation mechanisms, the choice of a second-best level of emission taxation is time-inconsistent. In this model, we investigate whether investment subsidies can act as a substitute for policy commitment.

  9. Labour subsidies for the cultural sector: extent and impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1997-01-01

    The job training schemes have been and still are important for the supply of labour to cultural institutions in Denmark. Particularly the young and experimental cultural manifestations are depending on labour market subsidies for their development and survival. The article discusses the clashes...... between cultural and industrial policies, each representing objectives not easily co-ordinated....

  10. The run for solar water heater subsidies in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidies for the use of solar boilers in the Netherlands are very popular, both from local funds and national funds. A third tender for large-scale solar boiler projects in existing houses has been issued. A brief overview is given of local activities in some Dutch municipalities to stimulate the use of solar boilers

  11. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  12. A revisit of fossil-fuel subsidies in China: Challenges and opportunities for energy price reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We measure fossil-fuel subsidies and effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010. • Fossil-fuel subsidies scale of China was CNY 881.94 billion in 2010, equivalent to 2.59% of GDP. • Impacts of removing subsidies on macroeconomic variables are examined by the CGE model. • Future policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies. - Abstract: Fossil-fuel subsidies contribute to the extensive growth of energy demand and the related carbon dioxide emissions in China. However, the process of energy price reform is slow, even though China faces increasing problems of energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. This paper focuses on analyzing fossil fuel subsidies in China by estimating subsidies scale and the implications for future reform. We begin by measuring fossil-fuel subsidies and the effects of subsidy removal in a systematic fashion during 2006–2010 using a price-gap approach. Results indicate that the oil price reform in 2009 significantly reduced China’s fossil-fuel subsidies and modified the subsidy structure. Fossil-fuel subsidies scale in China was 881.94 billion CNY in 2010, which was lower than the amount in 2006, equivalent to 2.59% of the GDP. The macro-economic impacts of removing fossil-fuel subsidies are then evaluated by the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Results demonstrate that the economic growth and employment will be negatively affected as well as energy demand, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Finally, policy implications are suggested: first, risks of government pricing of energy are far from negligible; second, an acceptable macroeconomic impact is a criterion for energy price reform in China; third, the future energy policy should focus on designing transparent, targeted and efficient energy subsidies

  13. Impact of government subsidies on household biogas use in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we evaluate empirically the impact of biogas subsidies on household biogas energy use in rural China. Special attention was given to the problem of sample selection bias in assessing the impact of subsidies on biogas energy use because biogas subsidies often change the propensity for installing biogas digesters. Using data from a large-scale household survey, the results indicate that biogas subsidies did promote the construction of biogas digesters. The results suggest that a 10 percentage point increase in subsidy-cost ratio would lead to a 3% increase in digester installations. We also found that biogas subsidies correlated negatively with average time of digester use. A 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio would result in a 4.3% reduction in the average working time of digesters. These results suggest that the net effect of the current subsidy policy on rural household biogas use was near-negligible. Indeed, a 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio resulted in a mere 1.15% increase in biogas use. These findings indicate that biogas subsidies have possibly not been targeted effectively at households that would actually prefer to use biogas energy. - Highlights: • We evaluate empirically the impact of biogas subsidies on household biogas energy use in rural China. • Results indicate that biogas subsidies did promote the construction of biogas digesters. • We also find that biogas subsidies were correlated negatively with average time of digester use. • The results suggest that the net effect of the current subsidy policy on rural household biogas use was near-negligible. • A 10 percentage point increase in the subsidy-cost ratio leads to merely 1.15% increases in biogas use

  14. "Serious Prejudice" Through the Use of Subsidies in the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures in the WTO: Focusing on U.S. Upland Cotton case (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    HAMADA Taro

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to grasp the nature of "serious prejudice" through the use of subsidies in the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures in the WTO and to address its problems by focusing on US - Upland Cotton. The concept of serious prejudice is well elaborated therein so as to make it easier to demonstrate its existence and degree. Due to the fact that serious prejudice was demonstrated by reviewing the nature of the subsidies on US - Upland Cotton, a defending member would inevita...

  15. The Impacts of Subsidy Policies on Vaccination Decisions in Contact Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Often, vaccination programs are carried out based on self-interest rather than being mandatory. Owing to the perceptions about risks associated with vaccines and the `herd immunity' effect, it may provide suboptimal vaccination coverage for the population as a whole. In this case, some subsidy policies may be offered by the government to promote vaccination coverage. But, not all subsidy policies are effective in controlling the transmission of infectious diseases. We address the question of which subsidy policy is best, and how to appropriately distribute the limited subsidies to maximize vaccine coverage. To answer these questions, we establish a model based on evolutionary game theory, where individuals try to maximize their personal payoffs when considering the voluntary vaccination mechanism. Our model shows that voluntary vaccination alone is insufficient to control an epidemic. Hence, two subsidy policies are systematically studied: (1) in the free subsidy policy the total amount of subsidies is distri...

  16. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    Quite frequently an anti-subsidy investigation in the EU is paired with an anti-dumping investigation against the same non-EU producers. The final outcome may be a two-component duty where one duty addresses the ‘unfairness’ of the subsidy and the other the dumping behavior. The procedure may...... be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses......’ competition completely and because a parallel investigation may increase the probability of a successful outcome for the petitioners. In contrast, we find that the different assumptions about the effect of export subsidies and domestic production subsidies on the dumping margin in the EU dual anti...

  17. Subsidies to energy in the world: their extent, their efficiency and their necessary reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at analyzing the extent of subsidies to energy in the world, at assessing theoretical and practical arguments against different forms of subsidy, and at synthesizing reflections on reforms of subsidies to energy, mainly in developing countries. In the first part, the author recalls the theoretical and practical backgrounds of subsidies to energy, indicates the different forms of support to energy production and consumption, and discusses the existing assessments in the world and in some regions while specifying subsidies to fuels in the transport sector. In a second part, he addresses theoretical and practical critics of subsidies (notably in terms of environmental and economical inefficiency), assessments of economical and environmental benefits of their withdrawal, and ways of reorienting subsidies for fossil fuels in developing countries

  18. Promoting bio-fertilizers in Indian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Nilabja Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    The green revolution brought impressive gains in food production but with insufficient concern for sustainability. In India the availability and affordability of fossil fuel based chemical fertilizers at the farm level have been ensured only through imports and subsidies. Dependence on chemical fertilizers for future agricultural growth would mean further loss in soil quality, possibilities of water contamination and unsustainable burden on the fiscal system. The Government of India has been ...

  19. THE RISK INSURANCE EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lobova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of business activity insurance in the agricultural sector is grounded in this article. Different types of agricultural risks are described. The principles, on which the efficiency of agricultural insurance is based, are determined. Such as: voluntary; the farmers interest; risk management; multivariate product line; promote farmers efficient; equal access to subsidies from farmers; balance; transparency and coordination of the subsidies transfer; creating a reliable and multi-level system of insurance coverage; binding institute of independent examination. The different ways to determine the effectiveness of insurance are considered.

  20. Need for an investment subsidy for waste cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building of new waste-fueled CHPs has been economically evaluated. Total investment cost have been calculated for plants of three different sizes, 2x15, 2x25, and 2x50 MW thermal power, respectively. The calculations show that the small plants have poor and the large plants mediocre profitability. Better economy can be achieved for the large plants if a higher steam quality than normal is used (120 bar, 540 degree C instead of 40 bar, 400 degree C). The conclusions are that investment subsidies are necessary for building these plants, in particular the small ones. Subsidy levels are estimated according to two principles: Pay-back no later than eight years after commissioning, or covering of deficits until revenues surpasses capital costs. Use of biofuels to level the fluctuations in waste flow, and thus make more efficient use of the plant, can also help the economy of the plant. (8 figs., 15 tabs.)

  1. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses distributional effects of revenue-neutral tax reforms aimed at improving dietary quality and encouraging healthier grain consumption. Using data on household grain purchases, we analyse both the impact on dietary quality and the tax incidence among income groups of VAT reforms...... and excise duty reforms. The VAT reforms include subsidies of healthy products (products labelled with the Swedish National Food Administration’s healthy symbol) funded by increased VAT on ‘less healthy’ products. The excise duty reforms contain a subsidy of fibre content, funded by excise duties on...... reforms and the excise duty reforms appear to be progressive. The lowest income group pays less food taxes and generally faces a lower overall post-reform price level. The income group that increases its tax payments most is the one with the highest income. This is also the income group that faces the...

  2. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  3. Economising subsidies for green housing features: A stated preference approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yung Yau; Shuk Man Chiu; Wai Kin Lau

    2014-01-01

    In light of the enormous amounts of energy and resources consumed by housing development and operations, many governments have started recognising the urgent need to promote green or eco-friendly housing with the aim of achieving sustainable development. Apart from regulations, governments can offer incentives to developers to provide green features in their developments by offering subsidies in various forms. However, such subsidisation is often uneconomical. In theory, market forces can lea...

  4. Housing Subsidies: Effects on Housing Decisions, Efficiency, and Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Harvey S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper surveys the effects of two of the most important federal policies toward housing: the "implicit subsidy" for owner-occupied housing in the income tax code, and the provision of housing for low income families at rents below cost. Emphasis is placed on the methodological problems that arise in attempts to assess the efficiency and distributive implications of these programs.Section 1 critically discusses the rationalization for a government housing policy. Section 2 investigates the...

  5. Acquisition of skills, education subsidies, and agglomeration of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Toulemonde, Eric

    2003-01-01

    An analytically solvable model of new economic geography is developed. Acquisition of skills is costly for workers but it allows them to earn wages that are larger than those of the unskilled. Moreover, skills acquisition can be subsidized by a regional government. For large transport costs, firms spread more or less evenly between regions, their precise location being determined by the level of education subsidies. For low transport costs, firms agglomerate in one region. We also identify eq...

  6. Helping the Working Poor: Employer- vs. Employee-Based Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy Dickert-Conlin; Douglas Holtz-Eakin

    1999-01-01

    In the United States and Europe there has been renewed interest in subsidizing firms that employ disadvantaged workers as a means of addressing poverty and other social problems. In contrast, the prevailing practice is largely to provide social welfare benefits directly to individuals. Which approach is better? We re-examine the relative merits of employee- versus employer-based labor market subsidies and conclude there are good reasons to continue to rely on the direct, employee-based approa...

  7. State subsidy and moral hazard in corporate financing

    OpenAIRE

    Berlinger, Edina; Lovas, Anita; Juhász, Péter

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of state subsidy on the behavior of the entrepreneur under asymmetric information. Several authors formulated concerns about state intervention as it can aggravate moral hazard in corporate financing. In the seminal paper of Holmström and Tirole (1997) a two-player moral hazard model is presented with an entrepreneur initiating a risky scalable project and a private investor (e.g. bank or venture capitalist) providing outside financing. The novelty of our re...

  8. The effects of debt subsidies on corporate investment behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dailami, Mansoor; Kim, E Han

    1991-01-01

    This paper argues that credit subsidies are ineffective in stimulating business investment in productive assets. Instead, they lead to an increase in corporate holdings of financial assets and real estate. For empirical verification, the investment patterns in a sample of 241 Korean corporations listed on the Korean Stock Exchange between 1984 and 1988 were examined. The authors found a significant positive relation between corporate speculative asset holding and access to subsidized loans. T...

  9. Tax Subsidies for Health Insurance: Evaluating the Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    The continued rise in the number of non-elderly Americans without health insurance has led to considerable interest in tax-based policies to raise the level of insurance coverage. This paper describes a detailed microsimulation model that has been developed to evaluate such tax-based polices, and its findings for the impact of polices on government costs and insurance coverage. I find that while tax subsidies could significantly increase insurance coverage, even very generous tax policies cou...

  10. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered....

  11. China’s electric vehicle subsidy scheme: Rationale and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the market penetration of electric vehicles (EV), China launched the Electric Vehicle Subsidy Scheme (EVSS) in Jan 2009, followed by an update in Sep 2013, which we named phase I and phase II EVSS, respectively. In this paper, we presented the rationale of China’s two-phase EVSS and estimated their impacts on EV market penetration, with a focus on the ownership cost analysis of battery electric passenger vehicles (BEPV). Based on the ownership cost comparison of five defining BEPV models and their counterpart conventional passenger vehicle (CPV) models, we concluded that in the short term, especially before 2015, China’s EVSS is very necessary for BEPVs to be cost competitive compared with CPVs. The transition from phase I to phase II EVSS will generally reduce subsidy intensity, thus resulting in temporary rise of BEPV ownership cost. However, with the decrease of BEPV manufacturing cost, the ownership cost of BEPV is projected to decrease despite of the phase-out mechanism under phase II EVSS. In the mid term of around 2015–2020, BEPV could become less or not reliant on subsidy to maintain cost competitiveness. However, given the performance disadvantages of BEPV, especially the limited electric range, China’s current EVSS is not sufficient for the BEPV market to take off. Technology improvement associated with battery cost reduction has to play an essential role in starting up China’s BEPV market. - Highlights: • China’s phase I and phase II electric vehicle subsidy schemes were reviewed. • Major electric vehicle models in China’s vehicle market were reviewed. • The ownership costs of five defining electric passenger vehicle models were compared. • Policies to promote electric vehicle deployment in China were discussed

  12. Child care assistance: Are subsidies or tax credits better?

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaodong; Breunig, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate price subsidies and tax credits for child care. We focus on partnered women's labor supply, household income and welfare, demand for formal and informal child care and government expenditure. Using Australian data, we estimate a joint, discrete structural model of labor supply and child care demand. We introduce two methodological innovations: a quantity constraint that total formal and informal child care hours is at least as large as the mother's labor supply and child care expl...

  13. The Evolution of Italian Farms and the Role of Subsidies Paid by the European Union for Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, there has been a significant emigration from the countryside towards urban areas with negative downsides on rural communities which have suffered of socio-economic marginalization and negative effects on the environment. The Common Agricultural Policy has been a pivotal tool able to reduce the marginalization in rural territories financing farmers able to promote the multifunctionality and the production of positive externalities. By using a quantitative approach on Farm Accounting Data Network time series on Italian farmers, it has been possible to access the role of subsidies allocated by the European Union on the rural development. The results have pointed out a positive role of financial supports and subsidies allocated by the Common Agricultural Policy to guarantee an adequate level of farm income. In the next period 2014-2020, the national and local authorities should take into account to put into action the Rural Development Programme aimed to implement the socio-economic growth in the Italian countryside specifically towards farms located in less favoured areas.

  14. Is There a Case for Fuel Subsidy Removal in Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azam Abdul Razak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the indirect welfare effect of removing fuel subsidy on the Malaysian households. The analysis is based on the price-shifting model developed by Coady and Newhouse (2006 and carried out using the data from the Household Expenditure Survey 2004-2005 and the input-output table 2004-2005. The analysis yields the following key results: a The removal of fuel subsidy is expected to have a relatively huge indirect welfare effect on the society; b The indirect welfare effect is expected to be uneven across different broad categories of goods (of which the most affected ones are: i Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages, ii Housing, Water and Electricity; and iii Transportation; and c The indirect welfare effect is expected to be uniform across different income-based segments of households. Overall, the findings seem to constitute a case against fuel subsidy removal unless the adverse impact on the three categories of goods is mitigated in some way.

  15. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  16. Simulating progressive social transfers. Gas subsidies and solidarity bonds in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After two decades of neglect, social expending has become a cornerstone in the current fight against poverty in Ecuador. Ecuador is presently considering the elimination of regressive gas subsidies and the shift of these resources into pro-poor targeted Solidarity Bonds. Great distributive gains are expected from this reform. There are, however, a number of considerations that may prevent this policy shift from obtaining substantial poverty and equality gains. Despite their regressivity, implicit gas subsidies still represent a considerable proportion of total household consumption among poor households. Also, solidarity bonds siphon off a substantial share of their total benefits to middle income groups. This paper estimates the redistributive consequences of policy reforms on gas subsidies and solidarity bonds in Ecuador. A simulation methodology estimates both direct and indirect (labour-driven) distributive effects of four alternative scenarios: (1) total elimination of gas subsidies; (2) selective elimination of gas subsidies among non-poor households; (3) total elimination of gas subsidies and shift of resources to solidarity bonds targeted to the poor; (4) selective elimination of gas subsidies and shift of resources to solidarity bonds targeted to the poor. Estimates confirm that the redistributive gains from these reforms are rather small both for poverty and inequality. Incentives to work following the elimination of subsidies compensate, or even outdo, immediate poverty rises. Also, the elimination of gas subsidies without further expansion of subsidy bonds will unambiguously increase poverty in Ecuador between one and one and a half percent points

  17. Improving energy consumption structure: A comprehensive assessment of fossil energy subsidies reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil energy subsidies reform would be an effective way to improve the energy consumption structure; however, the reform needs to be assessed comprehensively beforehand as it would exert uncertain impacts on economy, society and environment. In this paper, we use price-gap approach to estimate the fossil energy subsidies of China, then establish CGE model that contains pollutant emissions accounts and CO2 emissions account to stimulate the fossil energy subsidies reform under different scenarios, and the environmental economic analysis concept is introduced to monetize the pollutant reduction benefits. Furthermore, we analyze the possibility and scope of improving the energy consumption structure from the perspective of technical and economic analysis. Analytical results show that the energy consumption structure could be improved by different extent by removing coal or oil subsidies, while the economic and social indexes will be influenced distinctively. Meanwhile, the effects of cutting coal subsidies are more feasible than that of cutting oil subsidies overall. It is recommended to implement fossil energy subsidies gradually, cut the coal first and then cut oil subsidies successively. - Research highlights: → This paper estimates the scale of fossil energy subsidies of China in 2007 with price-gap approach. → We establish a Social Accounting Matrix and a CGE model extended with pollutant accounts. → We simulate the impacts of removing or cutting subsidies under three different scenarios. → We discuss the possibility and potential of improving energy consumption structure.

  18. Improving energy consumption structure: A comprehensive assessment of fossil energy subsidies reform in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wei [School of Economics, Peking University, Haidian District, 5 Yi HeYuan AV., Beijing 100871 (China); Li Hong, E-mail: Lihong2008@pku.edu.cn [School of Economics, Peking University, Haidian District, 5 Yi HeYuan AV., Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Fossil energy subsidies reform would be an effective way to improve the energy consumption structure; however, the reform needs to be assessed comprehensively beforehand as it would exert uncertain impacts on economy, society and environment. In this paper, we use price-gap approach to estimate the fossil energy subsidies of China, then establish CGE model that contains pollutant emissions accounts and CO{sub 2} emissions account to stimulate the fossil energy subsidies reform under different scenarios, and the environmental economic analysis concept is introduced to monetize the pollutant reduction benefits. Furthermore, we analyze the possibility and scope of improving the energy consumption structure from the perspective of technical and economic analysis. Analytical results show that the energy consumption structure could be improved by different extent by removing coal or oil subsidies, while the economic and social indexes will be influenced distinctively. Meanwhile, the effects of cutting coal subsidies are more feasible than that of cutting oil subsidies overall. It is recommended to implement fossil energy subsidies gradually, cut the coal first and then cut oil subsidies successively. - Research Highlights: > This paper estimates the scale of fossil energy subsidies of China in 2007 with price-gap approach. > We establish a Social Accounting Matrix and a CGE model extended with pollutant accounts. > We simulate the impacts of removing or cutting subsidies under three different scenarios. > We discuss the possibility and potential of improving energy consumption structure.

  19. Methodology for combining optical and microwave remote sensing in agricultural crop monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on agricultural production is a vital component in running present market economies. In Europe considerable differences between c es in their agricultural production have led to a complex system of rules and subsidies which all rely on a certain level of accuracy

  20. Reducing fuel subsidies and the implication on fiscal balance and poverty in Indonesia: A simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an urgent need for phasing out fuel subsidies in Indonesia due to a severe budget deficit and a worsening of income distribution. Fuel subsidies, of which almost 72% are enjoyed by the 30% of the richest income groups, have consumed on average 63.8% of the total subsidies between 1998 and 2013. This paper aims at evaluating the relationship between existing fuel subsidies and fiscal balance and at analysing the poverty impact of phasing out fuel subsidies. Applying a CGE-microsimulation, this study found that removing 25% of fuel subsidies increases the incidence of poverty by 0.259 percentage points. If this money were fully allocated to government spending, the poverty incidence would decrease by 0.27 percentage points. Moreover, the 100% removal of fuel subsidies and the reallocation of 50% of them to government spending, transfers and other subsidies could decrease the incidence of poverty by 0.277 percentage points. However, these reallocation policies might not be effective in compensating for the adverse impacts of the 100% removal of fuel subsidies if economic agents try to seek profit through mark-up pricing over the increase of production costs. - Highlights: ► Massive fuel subsidies reduce fiscal spaces used to alleviate poverty in Indonesia. ► Indonesia can avoid a budget deficit by 78% cutting of fuel subsidies. ► A CGE-microsimulation is applied to analyse the impacts of fuel subsidy reallocation. ► The 50% of reallocation fuel subsidies decreases the poverty by 0.277 percentage points. ► Mark-up pricing done by economic agents reduces the effectiveness of reallocation

  1. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION POLICY AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: A RECURSIVE STOCHASTIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Brian P.

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by agricultural practices presents a dilemma between protecting a vital resource and maintaining a valuable part of the economy. Policies to balance these objectives are presented. In addition to an historical baseline, policies that ban certain pesticides, taxes and subsidies, and control cultural practices are also considered. A model is developed to reflect the current state of agriculture in Eastern Suffolk County. This model consists of a recursive programmin...

  2. Bioeconomic Evaluation of Government Agricultural Programs on Wetlands Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cornelis van Kooten

    1993-01-01

    An optimal control model is used to investigate the effect of government agricultural support programs on wetlands conversion in Canada's pothole region. Under existing grain programs, about 19 percent of land is left in an unimproved state conducive for waterfowl habitat; in the absence of government subsidies, 43 percent of agricultural land is left unimproved. The shadow values of marginal land are estimated to be $50-$60/acre. Given that habitat preservation programs pay farmers no more t...

  3. Preferential imitation of vaccinating behavior can invalidate the targeted subsidy on complex network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ming; Small, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of inducement to vaccinate during the spread of an infectious disease on complex networks. Suppose that public resources are finite and that only a small proportion of individuals can be vaccinated freely (complete subsidy), for the remainder of the population vaccination is a voluntary behavior --- and each vaccinated individual carries a perceived cost. We ask whether the classical targeted subsidy strategy is definitely better than the random strategy: does targeting subsidy at individuals perceived to be with the greatest risk actually help? With these questions, we propose a model to investigate the \\emph{interaction effects} of the subsidy policies and individuals responses when facing subsidy policies on the epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In the model, a small proportion of individuals are freely vaccinated according to either the targeted or random subsidy policy, the remainder choose to vaccinate (or not) based on voluntary principle and update their vaccination decisio...

  4. Assessment of natural resources and the policy of subsidies in grain production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the status quo of natural resources input in grain production and on the policy of grain subsidies, this paper puts forward a new idea - establishing grain subsidies through assessing the value of the natural resources in grain production. The assessment of the natural resources in grain production provides rationale and reference standard for the policy of grain subsidies, which will promote the sustainable use of natural resources accordingly. This paper concludes: (1) it is necessary for the grain subsidies to assess the full value of natural resources,including economic value, ecological value and social value; (2) the government should give farmers direct subsidies or environment subsidies according to the economic and ecological value of natural resources in grain production; (3) the social value of natural resources can be realized by establishing the country social security system, taking the social value as the criterion for the payment for part of farmers insurance.

  5. Second-mover advantage under strategic subsidy policy in a third market model

    OpenAIRE

    Kojun Hamada

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines which of the Stackelberg leader or its follower has the advantage under strategic subsidy policy in a third market model. We show that even if governments choose export subsidies in whichever of a simultaneous-move or sequential-move game, the leader firm always loses its first-mover advantage in a Stackelberg duopoly. Furthermore, we examine the endogenous timing of subsidies by governments and show that the second-mover advantage occurs with regard to profit and welfare ...

  6. On the incidence of renewable energy subsidies into land prices - Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Simmler, Martin; Haan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the subsidy for electricity produced by wind turbines - introduced with the Renewable Energy Act (REA) in Germany 2000 - amounts to almost 14 billion Euros or roughly 100% of the corporate income tax revenue. The central aim of this subsidy is to foster investment into renewable energy sources by providing long run financial security. In this analysis, we study the incidence of this subsidy on land prices. Our empirical design exploits variation over time in the return of wind turbin...

  7. Industrial Subsidies in Sweden: Macro-Economic Effects and an International Comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Bo

    1983-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1978, industrial subsidies in Sweden rose from 4.9 % to 16 % of value added in mining and manufacturing. Most of this increase was due to increased wage subsidies to specific firms facing acute difficulties. The Swedish industrial subsidy program seems to be both larger in relation to industrial output and more selective than similar programs in Great Britain, Italy, Norway, and West Germany. Simulations on a firm-based macro model of the Swedish economy show that a selective...

  8. Wage Subsidies to Combat Unemployment and Poverty: Assessing South Africa’s Options

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Burns; Lawrence Edwards; Karl Pauw

    2010-01-01

    Wage or employment subsidies have been used in both developed and developing countries to raise employment levels. Various advisers to the South African government have endorsed wage subsidies as a policy measure to deal with this country’s massive unemployment problem. This paper takes stock of the international literature and conducts an economywide macro-micro analysis to obtain insights into wage subsidy design and implementation issues facing developing countries. It also investigates wh...

  9. THE EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION FOR FOOD SUBSIDY IN INDONESIA: REVIEW OF COST STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    IRWAN TRINUGROHO; ASRI LAKSMI RIANI

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the efficiency of food subsidy in Indonesia based on cost structure analysis. Using the comparison between cost of good of government and cost of good of National Logistics Board appointed to manage and channel the subsidy. The level of efficiency has decreased in the recent years because of increase in costs of exploitation, management cost and interest expense. It is suggested that government has to determine the cut-off point as a feasibility assessment of cost of subsidy.

  10. THE EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATION FOR FOOD SUBSIDY IN INDONESIA: REVIEW OF COST STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ASRI LAKSMI RIANI; SUTOMO; IRWAN TRINUGROHO

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the efficiency of food subsidy in Indonesia based on cost structure analysis. Using the comparison between cost of good of government and cost of good of National Logistics Board appointed to manage and channel the subsidy. The level of efficiency has decreased in the recent years because of increase in costs of exploitation, management cost and interest expense. It is suggested that government has to determine the cut-off point as a feasibility assessment of cost of subsidy

  11. Financing secondary education in Ghana: managing subsidies to promote equitable access and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Koramoah, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Educational subsidies are becoming important mechanisms in promoting access to education among many countries. In Ghana, subsidy for Secondary Education is available to all students irrespective of their income backgrounds with the government granting only partial subsidies. Despite the strong political commitment to redress historical inequities in educational funding mechanisms, policy actions in relation to Secondary Education Financing in Ghana appear to fall short of achieving the desira...

  12. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Subsidies for Sports Franchises, Stadiums, and Mega-Events?

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Coates; BRAD R. HUMPHREYS

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature assessing the effects of subsidies for professional sports franchises and facilities. The evidence reveals a great deal of consistency among economists doing research in this area. That evidence is that sports subsidies cannot be justified on the grounds of local economic development, income growth or job creation, those arguments most frequently used by subsidy advocates. The paper also relates survey evidence showing that economists in general opp...

  13. Reducing energy subsidies in China, India and Russia : dilemmas for decision makers

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Overland; Marc Lanteigne; Grant Dansie

    2010-01-01

    This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to signif...

  14. Analysis of the System of Direct Subsidy for Grain Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the status quo of the system structure of direct subsidy for grain production in China,and analyses the function and essence of direct subsidy for grain production in China as follows:the function of direct subsidy for grain production in China is to protect and promote the development of food industry,ensure food supply and national food security,protect grain growers’ interests,and maintain the dominant position of national food trade;the essence of direct subsidy for grain production is the compensation for grain producers’ reasonable interests,the compensation for positive externality of grain production,and social costs of adjusting equilibrium between food supply and demand.We discuss the problems existing in the system of direct subsidy for grain production in China and put forward corresponding countermeasures as follows:first,adhere to improving synergetic system of direct subsidy for grain production;second,adjust the direct subsidy method of grain production;third,establish long-term mechanism of subsidy for grain production;fourth,promote the information-based service level of the system of direct subsidy for grain production.

  15. The Impact of Ethanol and Ethanol Subsidies on Corn Prices: Revisiting History

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2011-01-01

    The rapid rise in corn prices that began in the fall of 2006 coincided with exponential growth in U.S. corn ethanol production. At about the same time, new ethanol consumption mandates were added to existing ethanol import tariffs and price subsidies. This troika of subsidies leads critics to view the ethanol industry as being beholden to subsidies, which then leads to the conclusion that ethanol subsidies lead to high corn prices. But droughts, floods, a severe U.S. recession, and two genera...

  16. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  17. A Review of Different Types of Subsidies and How They Work in Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kampungu; K.Gerson; Han; Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review on types of subsidies and how they work in theory.The paper identified three types of subsidies:subsidies that increase revenue,subsidies that lower the cost of production,and subsidies that are not linked to production or input.With the use of graphic examples to describe the partial effects of subsidies on supply and demand,the following findings were obtained:one,for producers to sell more,they will need to produce more,and in order to produce more,a higher input level is required,which depends on the marginal productivity of the inputs;two,the larger the elasticity for supply and demand of input(the more responsive supply and demand are to changes in the price of the input),the larger quantity of input used for a given level of support,and thereby increasing the associated environmental damage from the use of that particular input;three,for a given demand curve,a shallow supply curve(reflecting a large price elasticity of supply)will yield larger volume effects in response to a certain change in price compared to a steep supply curve and vise a verse.Finally,the study found input subsidy as an example of subsidies that lower the cost of production,and direct income support or unconditional lump sum support to an industry as an example of subsidies that are not linked to production or input.

  18. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel; Görg, Holger

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity at the...... intensive margin, although this effect is conditional on firm characteristics. In particular, the positive relationship between subsidies and the intensive margin of exports is strongest among profit-making firms, firms in capital-intensive industries, and those located in non-coastal regions. Compared to...

  19. Decomposition of China's CO2 emissions from agriculture utilizing an improved Kaya identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ou, Qingxiang; Chen, Yulu

    2014-11-01

    In recent decades, China's agriculture has been experiencing flourishing growth accompanied by rising pesticide consumption, fertilizer consumption, energy consumption, etc. and increasing CO2 emissions. Analyzing the driving forces of agricultural CO2 emissions is key requirements for low-carbon agricultural policy formulation and decomposition analysis is widely used for this purpose. This study estimates the agricultural CO2 emissions in China from 1994 to 2011 and applies the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) as the decomposition technique. Change in agricultural CO2 emissions is decomposed from 1994 to 2011 and includes a measure of the effect of agricultural subsidy. Results illustrate that economic development acts to increase CO2 emissions significantly. Agricultural subsidy acts to reduce CO2 emissions effectively and has increased in recent years. Policy is needed to significantly optimize agricultural subsidy structure and change agricultural development pathway, if China's low-carbon agriculture target is to be achieved. This requires not only decreasing pesticide consumption, fertilizer consumption, energy consumption, etc. but also transformation of China's agricultural development path for optimal outcomes. PMID:24994108

  20. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration of...

  1. Apprenticeship training in Denmark : the impacts of subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Rasmussen, Anders Rue

    1997-01-01

    For years, Denmark has maintained and developed its apprenticeship system which is comparable to the German system. Today, about 40% of the youth cohorts get apprenticeship training. The paper describes the basic functioning of the labour market of apprentices. It is initially shown how the wage...... and unemployment rates of skilled workers who have served an apprenticeship differ from those of non-skilled workers. In recent years there have been periods with serious mismatches between the demand for and the supply of apprenticeships. Through the 80's subsidies were introduced to overcome this...

  2. Scrapping Subsidies during the Financial Crisis - Evidence from the Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leheyda, Nina; Verboven, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of the car scrapping subsidies in Europe during the financial crisis. We make use of a rich data set of all car models sold in nine European countries, observed at a monthly level during 2005-2011. We employ a difference-in-differences approach, exploiting the fact that different countries adopted their programs at different points in time. We find that the scrapping schemes played a strong role in stabilizing total car sales in 2009: they prevented a total car sales redu...

  3. Producer Subsidies And Adverse Selection In The Corporate Credit Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Derviz; Narcisa Kadlčáková

    2002-01-01

    A model of loan negotiation between a bank and a firm is applied to a situation when the borrowing producer receives support from the government in the form of a sales or investment subsidy. A pre-condition of obtaining government support is the company's expenditure in the form of a lobby "contribution", financed by the producer revenue. The borrowed funds are invested in a new project. The project outcome is uncertain and can lead to a failure by the borrower to service the full amount of d...

  4. R&D Subsidies and the Surplus Appropriability Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    It may be optimal from a welfare perspective to use R&D subsidies when the source of R&D distortions originates from the surplus appropriability problem and technological spillovers in the form of knowledge spillovers, creative destruction, and duplication externalities are absent. Hence, R&D sub...... unwilling to use the level of spending required to implement the optimum policy. The argument is developed in a semi-endogenous growth model where the only distortion is monopoly pricing of intermediate goods.Keywords: R&D, policy instruments, welfare, market powerJEL: O38, O41...

  5. How to Turn an Industry Green: Taxes versus Subsidies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policies frequently target the ratio of dirty to green output within the same industry. To achieve such targets the green sector may be subsidised or the dirty sector be taxed. This paper shows that in a monopolistic competition setting the two policy instruments have different...... welfare effects. For a strong green policy (a severe reduction of the dirty sector) a tax is the dominant instrument. For moderate policy targets, a subsidy will be superior (inferior) if the initial situation features a large (small) share of dirty output. These findings have implications for policies...

  6. The reform of energy subsidies for the enhancement of marine sustainability: An empirical analysis of energy subsidies worldwide and an in-depth case study of South Korea's energy subsidy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Hyun

    This dissertation seeks to raise awareness about harmful effects of fossil fuel and nuclear energy subsidies that have blocked transition from conventional energy to a decarbonized, renewable energy system. Today, humans face daunting challenges in the form of global warming, which results mainly from the burning of fossil fuels. To avoid catastrophe, the transition to a renewable energy regime should be an urgent priority; however, the reality is that the progress of renewable energy is very slow due to the various political and economic factors when compared to conventional energy resources. A chief factor is that the energy subsidy for fossil fuel and nuclear energy obstructs the "level playing field" for renewable energy. Energy subsidies for conventional energy can be understood in the context of the commodification paradigm, which regards nature as an object of conquest and supports the principle of more is better. Although fossil fuel energy damages the environment, economy, and social equity, all countries subsidize such energy, no matter the country's state of development. This holds true as much in the U.S. and the EU as in China, India and South Korea. The oceans, which cover 71% of the earth, are threatened by the activities of conventional energy, which are underpinned by subsidies. These subsidies have contributed to the destruction of the marine ecosystem through increased GHG emissions like CO2 and NOx which cause a sea temperature increase and coral bleaching. Subsidies also significantly affect fishery overexploitation, oil pollution, and thermal pollution. In-depth empirical analysis of South Korea showed how fossil fuel and nuclear energy activities have threatened marine sustainability through thermal pollution, algae bloom (red tides), overexploitation, and oil-related marine pollution. Reforming subsidies of fossil fuel and nuclear energy should be a global priority because of imminent of global warming. As strategies for energy subsidy

  7. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the first place,the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced.In the second place,the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded.Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices,the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found.By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture,the countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward from the perspective of government.The first one is to increase the subsidies from the government to ecological agriculture.The second one is to clarify the standard of ecological agriculture construction.The third one is to promote the industrialization of ecological agriculture.The fourth one is to strengthen the construction of ecological demonstration region and ecological village.

  8. Analysis of financial support influences on management of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Švecová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with monitoring of a height, a structure and impact of supports in frame of exercitation of EU CAP on income from operations of selected Czech agricultural enterprises. The selection of enterprises has been implemented on base of differentness in the enterprise form, in the acreage of managed farm land and a differentiation of the enterprise subject. From a comparison of volume and structure of the supports it results that an agricultural cooperative uses a wide spectrum of particular types of subsidies, which is caused by a big acreage of almost 7 800 ha with orientation to both the plant and the animal productions. Similar situation is in the valued joint-stock company. Without received subsidies the economy of private farmer would be unprofitable in both the years. In monitoring it was proved that differentiation of enterprise activity in form of raw material process in excess of framework of agricultural basic industry decreases dependence of the income from operations on obtained financial means in form of supports. From the mentioned facts it is obvious that the received financial subsidies significantly positively influenced the operating results of all agricultural enterprises where the basic activity subject is plant and animal production. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems.“

  9. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ15N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ15N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ15N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ15N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  10. Energy taxes and subsidies downstream: transparency and dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons why governments levy taxes are discussed with special reference to the energy sector. The article focuses on the quantitative aspect of policies and gives a guide to the relevant statistical sources. It summarises the basis of taxes and subsidies and discusses the incidence of energy taxation together with the structure of taxes and subsidies in energy downstream. It reviews the main sources of data and issues highlighted by published statistics and the impact of taxes levied on the consumption of energy products and other taxes (e.g. VAT) which directly affect end-user prices. Production-based levies such as royalties, petroleum revenue taxes, windfall taxes and import and export taxes on fuels are not discussed. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) theoretical foundations in a nutshell; (ii) the incidence of taxation; (iii) the structure and main features of energy taxation (iv) base rate and level of taxation (v) sources of data and methods and (vi) observability and comparability

  11. Slovakia grabs energy sunburn. Winners investors with euro-subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similarly to different European countries Slovakia wants to increase by 2020 the share of renewable resources for energy consumption. Generous additional schemes, prices, in comparison with traditional resources several times higher for the production of energy this way and cheapening technologies, are luring more and more businessmen. But business with renewable resources is markedly influencing political decisions. From how many renewable resource plants will be bought, what sums will subsidize technology and who will it effect. Slovak investors in the solar energy business are coming around substantially later than their foreign colleagues. But following September's regulations from the Department for the Regulation of Network Sectors regarding next year's purchasing prices at 430 euros per megawatt hour, the number of interested parties in the construction of plants sharply increased. Last week at the seminars organized by the Slovak Innovations and Energy agency (SIEA), there was a debate on the photovoltaic energy with more than 200 people. Certainly, the main players in the sector were oriented substantially earlier. Nine firms received massive support from the EU structural fund. During summer the energy agency approved subsidies totalling more than 30.1 million euros. Another sixteen firms, that wanted to increase Eurofund support for the building of solar plants, have so far not managed to receive subsidies. (authors)

  12. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  13. 77 FR 32717 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... FR 48546) on September 21, 2001, which was effective as of that date, in order to implement the CDSOA... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Border Protection Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic...

  14. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 16493) on April 1, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. One comment was... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a...

  15. 75 FR 30529 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... the Federal Register (66 FR 48546) on September 21, 2001, which was effective as of that date, in... Homeland Security Customs and Border Protection Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...

  16. 76 FR 31019 - Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the Federal Register (66 FR 48546) on September 21, 2001, which was effective as of that date, in... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register... and Border Protection Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected...

  17. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Register (78 FR 36560) on June 18, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a...

  18. Nuclear power plant construction and financial assistance - as regards subsidies for promotion of power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the institutional framework for the granting of subsidies in particular to promote nuclear power plant construction in Japan. It also analyses the technical criteria applied and lists the type of improvements to various facilities and equipment made with such subsidies. (NEA)

  19. 26 CFR 6a.103A-1 - Interest on mortgage subsidy bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interest on a mortgage subsidy bond is includable in gross income and subject to Federal income taxation... the regulations thereunder. (4) Advance refunding. On or after December 5, 1980, no tax-exempt obligation may be issued for the advance refunding of a mortgage subsidy bond (determined without regard...

  20. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  1. 76 FR 44091 - Proposed Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... state to perform child care. Affected Public: Individuals or households. Estimated Annual Burden a. VA... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human...' eligibility to participate in VA's child care subsidy program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations...

  2. 76 FR 60134 - Agency Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Child Care Subsidy) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Human... burden; it includes the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before... INFORMATION: Titles a. Child Care Subsidy Application Form, VA Form 0730a. b. Child Care Provider...

  3. Diverting indirect subsidies from the nuclear industry to the photovoltaic industry: Energy and financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturing using a model that holds economic values constant for clarity. The preliminary analysis indicates that if only this one relatively ignored indirect subsidy for nuclear power was diverted to photovoltaic manufacturing, it would result in more installed power and more energy produced by mid-century. By 2110 cumulative electricity output of solar would provide an additional 48,600 TWh over nuclear worth $5.3 trillion. The results clearly show that not only does the indirect insurance liability subsidy play a significant factor for nuclear industry, but also how the transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in more energy over the life cycle of the technologies. - Highlights: → The indirect insurance liability subsidy has been quantified over the life cycle of the U.S. nuclear fleet. → It was found to play a significant factor in the economics of the nuclear industry. → A transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in significantly more energy over the life cycle of the technologies.

  4. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  5. Impact of CAP Subsidies on Technical Efficiency of Crop Farms in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of CAP reforms, particularly subsidies on technical efficiency of crop farms. An output distance function is employed and estimated together with an inefficiency effects model to capture the effects of CAP subsidies and farmer characteristics on farm efficiency. The m

  6. Child Care Subsidies and Childhood Obesity. NBER Working Paper No. 15007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    Child care subsidies play a critical role in facilitating the transition of disadvantaged mothers from welfare to work. However, little is known about the influence of these policies on children's health and well-being. In this paper, we study the impact of subsidy receipt on low-income children's weight outcomes in the fall and spring of…

  7. The Impact of Child Care Subsidy Use on Child Care Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Johnson, Anna; Rigby, Elizabeth; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the federal government allotted $7 billion in child care subsidies to low-income families through the state-administered Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), now the government's largest child care program (US DHHS, 2008). Although subsidies reduce costs for families and facilitate parental employment, it is unclear how they impact the quality of care families purchase. This study investigates the impact of government subsidization on parents' selection of child care quality using multivariate regression and propensity score matching approaches to account for differential selection into subsidy receipt and care arrangements. Data were drawn from the Child Care Supplement to the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (CCS-FFCWS), conducted in 2002 and 2003 in 14 of the 20 FFCWS cities when focal children were 3 years old (N = 456). Our results indicate that families who used subsidies chose higher quality care than comparable mothers who did not use subsidies, but only because subsidy recipients were more likely to use center-based care. Subgroup analyses revealed that families using subsidies purchased higher-quality home-based care but lower-quality center-based care than comparable non-recipients. Findings suggest that child care subsidies may serve as more than a work support for low-income families by enhancing the quality of nonmaternal care children experience but that this effect is largely attributable to recipients' using formal child care arrangements (versus kith and kin care) more often than non-recipients. PMID:21874092

  8. Improving energy consumption structure: A comprehensive assessment of fossil energy subsidies reform in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Liu; Hong Li [Peking University, Beijing (China). School of Economics

    2011-07-15

    Fossil energy subsidies reform would be an effective way to improve the energy consumption structure; however, the reform needs to be assessed comprehensively beforehand as it would exert uncertain impacts on economy, society and environment. In this paper, we use price-gap approach to estimate the fossil energy subsidies of China, then establish CGE model that contains pollutant emissions accounts and CO{sub 2} emissions account to stimulate the fossil energy subsidies reform under different scenarios, and the environmental economic analysis concept is introduced to monetize the pollutant reduction benefits. Furthermore, we analyze the possibility and scope of improving the energy consumption structure from the perspective of technical and economic analysis. Analytical results show that the energy consumption structure could be improved by different extent by removing coal or oil subsidies, while the economic and social indexes will be influenced distinctively. Meanwhile, the effects of cutting coal subsidies are more feasible than that of cutting oil subsidies overall. It is recommended to implement fossil energy subsidies gradually, cut the coal first and then cut oil subsidies successively. 24 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. 78 FR 24724 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... report. Under U.S. trade law, a subsidy exists where a government authority: (i) Provides a financial... International Trade Administration Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (Department)...

  10. 75 FR 68328 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ..., to select the countries subject to the next report. Under U.S. trade law, a subsidy exists where a... International Trade Administration Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (Department)...

  11. 76 FR 67148 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... December 31, 2011, to select the countries subject to the next report. Under U.S. trade law, a subsidy... International Trade Administration Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (Department)...

  12. 77 FR 25961 - Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood Lumber Products to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... countries subject to the next report. Under U.S. trade law, a subsidy exists where a government authority... International Trade Administration Subsidy Programs Provided by Countries Exporting Softwood Lumber and Softwood... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (Department)...

  13. Improving Administration of the Agricultural Complex of the Rostov Oblast under Conditions of Joining WTO by Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pozhidaeva Svetlana V.

    2014-01-01

    The article offers, within the framework of administration of the Rostov oblast as a region, to reconsider all existing types of subsidies, directed at development of agriculture, since WTO agreement in the part of agriculture obliges countries to classify internal measures of support of agriculture in accordance with one of four "baskets": "green", "blue", "red" and "of special differentiated mode". The article identifies the state support as the priority direction of support of agricultural...

  14. A model of Dutch agriculture based on Positive Mathematical Programming with regional and environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Helming, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands few sectors are in the news as often as the agricultural sector is, and the news is rarely good. Nearly every day, in newspapers, on television and on the radio we are confronted with BSE, foot and mouth disease, swine and chicken fever, polluted animal feed, manure surpluses, subsidies, European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), farmers' incomes and rural poverty. A lot of people in the Netherlands have written off the Dutch agricultural sector and believe that, as an econ...

  15. Methodology for combining optical and microwave remote sensing in agricultural crop monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, van

    1996-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on agricultural production is a vital component in running present market economies. In Europe considerable differences between c es in their agricultural production have led to a complex system of rules and subsidies which all rely on a certain level of accuracy regarding agricultural statistics (such as acreage and yield). At national level and regional level, such statistics have been collected so far by using conventional methods, which are mostly based...

  16. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  17. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desirability of subsidies for abatement technology. We find a more robust recommendation for upstream subsidies than for downstream subsidies. Downstream subsidies tend to increase global abatement technology prices, reduce pollution abatement abroad and increase emission leakage. On the contrary, upstream subsidies reduce abatement technology prices, and hence also emissions leakage.(Author)

  18. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  19. THE POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC-AGRICULTURAL ZONES INFLUENCED BY SUBSIDIES AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alion SARGO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period continued deepening regional disparities in development between different parts of the country, mechanisms and market relations by claiming their advantages and disadvantages. The impact of the existence of these gaps is the deterioration mechanisms of interaction and increased economic disparities between different areas. The existence of socio-economic disproportions territorial is determined by objective and subjective reasons, natural and cyclical factors. But it is indisputable need for disposal.

  20. Care or Cash? The Effect of Child Care Subsidies on Student Performance. NBER Working Paper No. 18086

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Loken, Katrine V.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide use of childcare subsidies across countries, it is surprising how little we know about the effect of these subsidies on children's longer run outcomes. Using a sharp discontinuity in the price of childcare in Norway, we are able to isolate the effects of childcare subsidies on both parental and student outcomes. We find very small…

  1. BBA Impacts on Hospital Residents, Finances, and Medicare Subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Jerry; Adamache, Walter; Drozd, Edward M.

    2006-01-01

    Concern over rapidly rising Medicare expenditures prompted Congress to pass the 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA) that included provisions reducing graduate medical education (GME) payments and capped the growth in residents for payment purposes. Using Medicare cost reports through 2001, we find that both actual and capped residents continued to grow post-BBA. While teaching hospital total margins declined, GME payment reductions of approximately 17 percent had minimal impact on revenue growth (-0.5 percent annually). Four years after BBA, residents remained a substantial line of business for nearly one-half of teaching hospitals with Medicare effective marginal subsidies exceeding resident stipends by nearly $50,000 on average. Coupled with an estimated replacement cost of over $100,000 per resident, it is not surprising that hospitals accepted nearly 4,000 residents beyond their allowable payment caps in just 4 years post-BBA. PMID:17290672

  2. On the Intensity of International Subsidy Competition for FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš HAVRÁNEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories. Three crucial scenarios (coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition are tested employing iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and dynamic Blundell-Bond estimator on the data from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported – although there is some weak support for cooperation –, and thus that empirical evidence is not in accordance with the tested models. There is no evidence for a significant international competition for FDI. It seems that, however, by means of FDI incentives, governments try to compensate foreign investors for high wages and low productivity of their countries’ labor force.

  3. The impact of food and agricultural policies on groundwater use in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw-Hassan, Aden; Rida, Fadel; Telleria, Roberto; Bruggeman, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    During the last three decades, the expansion of irrigation using both surface water and groundwater resources has had an important positive impact on Syria’s agricultural production. It is an example of success in achieving food policy objectives, but it has also introduced the challenge of groundwater sustainability. This paper examines the trends in groundwater abstraction for irrigation and the effect of government policies, including input subsidies - such as the diesel fuel subsidy and the crop procurement price support. The fuel subsidy is an important driving force in groundwater depletion and over-abstraction. This analysis examines the interaction between policy signals and the use and allocation of water by farmers. The rapid decline in groundwater resources shows the limitations of this agricultural development strategy and questions its sustainability unless policies change and the rate of abstraction is changed so as not exceed the recharge rate.

  4. Quantifying Urban Water Subsidies with Hydrological Tracers of Domestic Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, D. J.; Sikora, M. T.; Wozniak, E.; Fisher, K. R.; Carr, J.; Elliott, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    Connections between urban hydrological systems and human water infrastructure are well established. Interactions between these systems occur at a wide range of scales, from large inter-basin transfers to individual leaking pipes. However, much of the interest in these connections arises from practical considerations, for example, substantially altered in-stream flow or the presence/absence of sewage in surface water systems. Less recognized is that in smaller urban catchments, daily water flux through human water distribution systems is often much larger than low flow surface water flux from the catchment. As infrastructure ages and cross-connections grow, transfers from the substantial human fluxes to the catchment will increasingly subsidize urban water budgets. Tools for quantifying the contribution of this subsidy to urban hydrological systems can clarify both practical questions for urban managers and our understanding of flow generation in catchments. Stream water chemistry from a multi-year sampling campaign in Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, PA) is used to examine potential hydrological tracers of human domestic water. In particular, we examine the use of fluoride added in precise quantities as a dental health supplement as a tracer of human domestic water (e.g., drinking and waste water). While fluoride is not necessarily a conservative tracer, equilibrium reactions governing fluoride solubility generally require substantially higher cationic concentrations than those observed in surface water chemistry. Further, during periods where human subsidies dominate (e.g., water line breaks or hydrant flushes discharging to the stream) fluoride concentrations generally approach the concentration added to domestic water. We use multiple modeling approaches to demonstrate the appropriateness of fluoride as a tracer, infer contributions of human domestic water to the hydrologic budget, and explore fluoride dynamics in the Nine Mile Run basin. A fluoride tracer is

  5. An evaluation of the impact of reducing energy subsidies on living expenses of households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy of subsidizing energy has been pursued in the Islamic Republic of Iran to help the poor and to utilize the relative advantages of the country. But it has been realized that energy subsidy has led to market distortion and welfare loss. Hence, elimination of energy subsidy is considered as a crucial matter. Changes in energy policy are hindered by the uncertainty on the impact of reducing energy subsidy on the living expenses of population. In the present article the distribution of resources through energy subsidy is evaluated; and the direct and indirect effect of eliminating energy subsidies on the living expenses is estimated with the help of an analytical tool that has been developed. It is then concluded that additional financial resources obtained from reduction of energy subsidies could be allocated for compensating the decrease in purchasing power of households. The results of analysis reveal that more egalitarian distribution of resources and helping the poor could be achieved through implementation of a progressive policy of social security that is supported by financial resources available from elimination of energy subsidies. (author)

  6. Electricity subsidies in low-cost jurisdictions : the case of British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviewed the concept of energy subsidies and estimated their significance to residential consumers in British Columbia. It cautioned that energy subsidies provided to electricity consumers create artificially low electricity prices that result in inefficient consumption levels to the detriment of the environment. An estimate of the indirect subsidies was presented along with an evaluation of potential consumption reduction scenarios if market prices were used. The author argued that subsidies, which are customary in developed countries where electricity use is high, tend to help higher-income households. An evaluation of the distribution of this subsidy across income groups showed that high-income households, which use more electricity than lower-income households, receive more than $500 per year in subsidy through regulated low electricity prices, whereas low-income households get approximately $200. This subsidy is estimated at $489 million per year in British Columbia. The author suggested that profits could be increased by $432 million by setting residential electricity prices nearer to the regional export price. This profit could be realized even after allowing for a direct transfer payment program that compensates low-income households for the higher prices. In addition, such a measure would reduce residential electricity consumption in the province by 25 per cent

  7. An evaluation of the impact of reducing energy subsidies on living expenses of households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboohi, Y. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Sharif Energy Research Institute

    2001-02-01

    A policy of subsidizing energy has been pursued in the Islamic Republic of Iran to help the poor and to utilize the relative advantages of the country. But it has been realized that energy subsidy has led to market distortion and welfare loss. Hence, elimination of energy subsidy is considered as a crucial matter. Changes in energy policy are hindered by the uncertainty on the impact of reducing energy subsidy on the living expenses of population. In the present article the distribution of resources through energy subsidy is evaluated; and the direct and indirect effect of eliminating energy subsidies on the living expenses is estimated with the help of an analytical tool that has been developed. It is then concluded that additional financial resources obtained from reduction of energy subsidies could be allocated for compensating the decrease in purchasing power of households. The results of analysis reveal that more egalitarian distribution of resources and helping the poor could be achieved through implementation of a progressive policy of social security that is supported by financial resources available from elimination of energy subsidies. (author)

  8. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation is established under the provisions of the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law, to execute these provisions. The subsidies under the ordinance for enforcing the law concerning the special account for the measures of promoting power source development are delivered according to the provisions of the regulation as well as the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law. Basic terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; business for arranging the survey facilities for hot drainage influences; business for the prior-survey of hot drainage; business for the survey of hot drainage influences; place of business; expected date of beginning the operation. The Minister of International Trade Industry delivers subsidies to a prefecture where nuclear power generating facilities are set up or expected to be set up, or its neighboring prefectures to cover all or a part of expenses necessary for the businesses for arranging the survey facilities for hot drainage influences, the prior-survey of hot drainage and the survey of hot drainage influences. Subsidies are paid during the specified periods ranging from 2 to 7 years. The subsidy delivered to a prefecture in each fiscal year is limited to from 5 to 14 million yen. An application for the subsidies shall be filed by an applicant prefecture to the Minister of International Trade Industry, attached with the specified summary reports of a subsidized business and nuclear power generating facilities. (Okada, K.)

  9. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy A.; Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies—the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries—can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ trongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  10. A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Campbell, Kirsten; Ohta, Tamihisa; Richardson, John S

    2016-09-01

    Spatial resource subsidies can alter bottom-up and top-down forces of community regulation across ecosystem boundaries. Most subsidies are temporally variable, and recent theory has suggested that consumer-resource dynamics can be stabilized if the peak timing of a subsidy is desynchronized with that of prey productivity in the recipient ecosystem. However, magnitude of consumer responses per se could depend on the subsidy timing, which may be a critical component for community dynamics and ecosystem processes. The aim of this study was to test (i) whether a recipient consumer (cutthroat trout) responds differently to a resource subsidy occurring early in its growing season than to a subsidy occurring late in the season and, if this is the case, (ii) whether the timing-dependent consumer response has cascading effects on communities and ecosystem functions in streams. To test those hypotheses, we conducted a large-scale field experiment, in which we directly manipulated the timing of augmentation of the terrestrial invertebrates that enter stream (i.e. peak timing of June-August vs. August-October), keeping constant the total amounts of the invertebrates entered. We found large increases in the individual growth rate and population biomass of the cutthroat trout, in response to the early resource pulse, but not to the late pulse. This timing-dependent consumer response cascaded down to reduce benthic invertebrates and leaf breakdown rate, and increased water nutrient concentrations. Furthermore, the early resource pulse resulted in higher maturity rate of the cutthroat trout in the following spring, demonstrating the importance of the subsidy timing on long-term community dynamics via the consumer's numerical response. Our results emphasize the need to acknowledge timing-dependent consumer responses in understanding the effects of subsidies on communities and ecosystem processes. Elucidating the mechanisms by which consumers effectively exploit pulsed subsidies is

  11. Using Subsidies to Promote the Adoption of Children from Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Eschelbach Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Since 1980 the federal government has implemented a variety of programs to promote the adoption of children from foster care. A key part of these programs has been the use of subsidies to lower the cost of adopting and parenting children from foster care. Although subsidies are a key part of federal policy there has been relatively little empirical research on the effect of subsidies on adoption rates. This paper uses data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis System to estimate the impa...

  12. Climate policies and learning by doing: Impacts and timing of technology subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the role of technology subsidies in climate policies, using a simple dynamic equilibrium model with learning by doing. The optimal subsidy rate of a carbon-free technology is high when the technology is first adopted, but falls significantly over the next decades. However, the efficiency costs of uniform instead of optimal subsidies, may be low if there are adjustment costs for a new technology. Finally, supporting existing energy technologies only, may lead to technology lock-in, and the impacts of lock-in increase with the learning potential of new technologies as well as the possibilities for early entry. (author)

  13. Climate policies and learning by doing: Impacts and timing of technology subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kverndokk, Snorre [Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Knut Einar [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-01-15

    We study the role of technology subsidies in climate policies, using a simple dynamic equilibrium model with learning by doing. The optimal subsidy rate of a carbon-free technology is high when the technology is first adopted, but falls significantly over the next decades. However, the efficiency costs of uniform instead of optimal subsidies, may be low if there are adjustment costs for a new technology. Finally, supporting existing energy technologies only, may lead to technology lock-in, and the impacts of lock-in increase with the learning potential of new technologies as well as the possibilities for early entry. (author)

  14. Energy subsidies in Argentina lead to inequalities and low thermal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is the main energy resource for buildings in Argentina. Since 2002, subsidies have kept the prices of this fuel between 9 and 26 times lower than regular prices in other countries. The lowest prices are the result of climate-related subsidies. In cold areas, heating uses several times more energy than locations in Europe with a similar climate. A potential for consumption reductions of up to 70% suggests a very low building thermal performance. The main barriers to finding a solution are the heavy subsidies and public unawareness. Users, government officials, and construction professionals do not identify the very low thermal efficiency. Energy policies to encourage improvements are proposed. (author)

  15. Best practices of GIS applications in the Hungarian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ráthonyi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information and analysis produced with the use of GIS applications efficiently support the work of the users of the software and decision makers irrespectively of they are a single person or the Hungarian Government. We primarily discuss the major agriculture applications – Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS and National and Regional Planning Information System (TeIR – from the aspect of the sector which may save time, energy and money for its users.LPIS is exclusive national land parcel identification system of the procedures of agricultural subsidies. The data of this identification system can be used in the applying of European Union subsidies which are available in a geographical information system.TeIR can help such organizations, which deal with planning and developing activity and controlling at a sector level in decision making in connection with regional development and land use planning.

  16. Size, structure and distribution of transport subsidies in Europe; Die Subventionierung des Verkehrs in Europa. Umfang, Struktur und Verteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckestein, Burkhard (comp.)

    2008-06-15

    Transport contributes to several environmental problems such as climate change, air emissions and noise and is at the same time favoured by significant subsidies. An EEA report identifies European transport subsidies worth at least EUR 270 to 290 billion a year. Road transport receives EUR 125 billion in annual subsidies, most of it as infrastructure subsidies, assuming that taxes on road transport are not regarded as contributions to finance infrastructure. Aviation, as the mode with the highest specific climate impact, gets significant subsidies in the form of preferential tax treatment, in particular exemptions from fuel tax and VAT, which add up to EUR 27 to 35 billion per year. Rail is subsidised with EUR 73 billion per year and benefits the most from other on-budget subsidies. For water-borne transport, EUR 14 to 30 billion in subsidies have been identified. (orig.)

  17. How the removal of energy subsidy affects general price in China: A study based on input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, most energy prices are controlled by the government and are under-priced, which means energy subsidies existing. Reforming energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy price, energy use and CO2 emission. This paper applies a price-gap approach to estimate China's fossil-fuel related subsidies with the consideration of the external cost. Results indicate that the magnitude of subsidies amounted to CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008, equivalent to 4.04% of GDP of that year. Subsidies for oil products are the largest, followed by subsidies for the coal and electricity. Furthermore, an input–output model is used to analyze the impacts of energy subsidies reform on different industries and general price indexes. The findings show that removal of energy subsidies will have significant impact on energy-intensive industry, and consequently push up the general price level, yet with a small variation. Removing oil products subsidies will have the largest impact, followed by electricity, coal and natural gas. However, no matter which energy price increases, PPI is always the most affected, then GDP deflator, with CPI being the least. Corresponding compensation measures should be accordingly designed to offset the negative impact caused by energy subsidies reform. - Highlights: • China's fossil-fuel subsidies were CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008 including external cost. • Removing energy subsidies will have the largest impact on energy-intensity industry. • Removal of oil products subsidies will have the largest impact. • The effect of removing energy subsidies on general price is: PPI>GDP deflator>CPI

  18. Providing Credit Guarantee Scheme in Agriculture of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Oliynyk

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium-size businesses, despite their significant contribution to agricultural production in Ukraine, do have limited access to financing. Existing public support mechanisms (interest rate subsidies, leasing programs) do not solve the problem of these categories of enterprises access to credit resources. Introduction of credit guarantee scheme is a more effective mechanism to support small and medium-size businesses. As international experience shows, it is a market mechanism - the ...

  19. Grain Transportation Policy and Transformation in Western Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Darcie; Paddock, Brian; Dyer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of grain transportation policy in Canada over the last 100 years, including the inception of the Crow Rate, the replacement of the Crow Rate with the Western Grain Transportation Act(WGTA), and finally, the repeal of the WGTA. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural change to the western agricultural economy that occurred following repeal of the WGTA in 1995. When grain transportation subsidies were removed, industry responded quickly to market signals ...

  20. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  1. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households...

  2. 75 FR 81843 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Eligibility for a Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Prescription Drug Subsidy AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Interim final rule with request for... comments to the Office of Regulations, Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer Building, 6401 Security... Income Security Programs, Social Security Administration, 2-R-24 Operations Building, 6401...

  3. 5 CFR 792.214 - Which children are eligible for this subsidy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees-What Is the Child Care Subsidy Program... the children of Federal employees, excluding contract employees, from birth through age 13...

  4. A note on duplication of R&D and R&D subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Dakhlia; Akram Temimi; Flavio Menezes

    2004-01-01

    We show that the presumed incompatibility of uncoordinated R&D and competition is not fundamental, but hinges on the nature of R&D spillovers. As a consequence, R&D subsidies may be more effective than previously thought.

  5. Input subsidies to improve smallholder maize productivity in Malawi: toward an african green revolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Denning; Patrick Kabambe; Pedro Sanchez; Alia Malik; Rafael Flor; Rebbie Harawa; Phelire Nkhoma; Colleen Zamba; Clement Banda; Chrispin Magombo; Michael Keating; Justine Wangila; Jeffrey Sachs

    2009-01-01

    Recent hikes in food prices have created economic and social turmoil in many African countries. But in Malawi, fertilizer and seed subsidies have enabled small-scale farmers to improve maize productivity and achieve food security.

  6. Trade and the Environment with Pre-existing Subsidies: A Dynamic General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Claustre Bajona; David L. Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Countries that wish to erect trade barriers have a variety of instruments at their disposal. In addition to tariffs and quotas, countries can offer tax relief, low interest financing, reduced regulation, and other subsidies to domestic industries facing foreign competition. In a trade agreement, countries typically agree to reduce not only tariffs, but also subsidies. We consider the effect of a free trade agreement on pollution emissions. We show that while reducing tariffs may indeed increa...

  7. The Political Economy of State Government Subsidy Adoption: The Case of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Skidmore; Chad, Cotti; James, Alm

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the factors that determine the adoption of state economic development incentives in the ethanol industry. We compile data on the implementation dates for subsidies/tax credits for all states for years 1984-2007, a period that covers the complete emergence of the biofuel industry in the United States and that was characterized by the passage of a numerous of state-level subsidies and tax breaks aimed at increasing ethanol production. Using Cox proportional hazard re...

  8. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  9. Shoreline urbanization interrupts allochthonous subsidies to a benthic consumer over a gradient of lake size

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Eric R.; Olden, Julian D.; Usio, Nisikawa

    2011-01-01

    The role of resource subsidies across ecosystem boundaries has emerged as an important concept in contemporary ecology. For lake ecosystems, this has led to interest in quantifying the contribution of terrestrial allochthonous carbon to aquatic secondary production. An inverse relationship between habitat area and the role of allochthonous subsidies has been documented on marine islands and assumed for lakes, yet there have been no tests of this pattern among benthic (lake bottom) consumers. ...

  10. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain, but maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents’ job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child care-related work disruption using two samples and both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models. Child care-related work disruptions are fou...

  11. Banking Risks around the World : The Implicit Safety Net Subsidy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Laeven, Luc

    2000-01-01

    The author calculates gross safety net subsidies for a large sample of banks in 12 countries, to assess the relationship between the risk-taking behavior of banks, and certain ban characteristics. He finds that gross safety net subsidies are higher for banks that have concentrated ownership, that are affiliated with a business group, that are small, or that have high credit growth, and for...

  12. The Supply of Foreign Direct Investment Incentives: Subsidy Competition in an Oligopolistic Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Havranek, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the microeconomic motivation of governments to provide tax incentives for foreign direct investment. Author applies the classical models of oligopoly to subsidy competition, endogenousing investment incentives, but leaving tax rates exogenous. According to the conventional wisdom, subsidy competition leads to overprovision of incen-tives. This paper suggests that, in the oligopolistic framework, supranational coordination can either decrease or increase the supply of subsi...

  13. Upaya Optimalisasi Penghematan Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM Agar Tepat Sasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Sembiring Meliala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsidized fuel consumption continues to increase from year to year also put pressure on the state budget so that it becomes increasingly severe. This is caused by the government's energy policy tends to be adaptive and short-term oriented (myopic, so the government pays little attention to aspects of long-term autonomy of the Indonesian economy. Subsidy in the 2011 budget amounted to 33.42% of the total expenditure budget, 86% subsidy is used for energy subsidies and 64.6% the largest share of subsidies. The biggest users of fuel subsidy, is land transportation, with the classification of private vehicles, so it can be said that the subsidy is not received by the appropriate require. Related to this, the challenges that must be faced is the obligation to make a breakthrough in order to encourage domestic savings in fuel consumption and diversification in the use of non-fuel energy sources. There are three policy options as an effort to optimize the fuel subsidy savings. First, restrictions on the use of the fuel subsidy program, unfortunately the prospects of success of this policy is not good considering unprepared infrastructure and the emerging moral hazard. Second, the increase in fuel prices, the authors recommend the price increase to Rp 2000, - taking into account the effects of inflation, and financial savings, for the welfare of the people. Third, the use of CNG and new products from the fuel, this policy option can be run in the long run because it requires a longer preparation in building infrastructure.

  14. Scheme of Constructing CGE Model of China's Direct Grain Subsidy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Can

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of China's direct grain subsidy policy, adopts computable general equilibrium (CGE) theory, and advances the scheme of constructing the model of China's direct grain subsidy policy. On the basis of some assumptions, such as conforming to the complete competition of market, inexistence of move of capital and labor forces among countries, unchanged exchange rate and incomplete substitution, and the main body of behavior comprising representative households, produ...

  15. Child Care Subsidy Receipt, Employment, and Child Care Choices of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Erdal

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of actual subsidy receipt of single mothers on their joint employment and child care mode decisions in the post-welfare reform environment, which places a high priority on parental choice with the quality and type of care chosen. Results indicate that single mothers are highly responsive to child care subsidies by increasing their employment while moving from parental and relative care to center care in the process.

  16. AN ECONOMIC STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ENERGY SUBSIDY ON INDUSTRIES IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    JALIL BADAMFIROOZ; MAHESHA.M

    2013-01-01

    Energy is known as an effective and strategic input in the consumption and production process. Energy subsidies which determined under the gap of domestic and regional prices have caused tremendous and non-economic increase in prices levels. Energy subsidies are posed one of the vital government policies to support the industries in Iran as well as in the entire world. This study by using EVIEWS software and applying three least square approach (simultaneous equations system) is trying to exa...

  17. Aquatic pollution increases use of terrestrial prey subsidies by stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pomeranz, Justin F.; Todd, Andrew S.; Walters, David M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Wanty, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Stream food webs are connected with their riparian zones through cross-ecosystem movements of energy and nutrients. The use and impact of terrestrial subsidies on aquatic consumers is determined in part by in situ biomass of aquatic prey. Thus, stressors such as aquatic pollutants that greatly reduce aquatic secondary production could increase the need for and reliance of stream consumers on terrestrial resource subsidies.

  18. Food Subsidies and Inflation in Developing Countries: A Bridge Between Structuralism and Monetarism

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, Vincent; Srinivasan, T G; Vines, David

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of food consumption subsidies as anti-inflation policy in developing countries characterized by rigidities of food supply. First a standard structuralist model is utilized to show that though a policy of food consumption subsidies brings down inflation in the very short run, eventually it is self-defeating: a lower relative price of food encourages demand for scarce food and exacerbates inflationary pressures. Next, a monetarist feature, the asset creation eff...

  19. Domestic support and tariff reductions in the presence of non-tariff barriers: A gravity model for primary and processed agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Tamini, Lota; Ghazalian, Pascal; Gervais, Jean-Philippe; Larue, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies’ demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain trade flows of both primary agricultural commodities and processed foods....

  20. Effects of Targeted Subsidies Policy on Health Behavior in Iranian Households: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Doshmangir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of national targeted subsidies policy on health behavior of Iranian households.In this qualitative study, data were collected between January 2012 and December 2013 through face-to-face interviews (23 experts in national and provincial levels of health system and 18 household heads and through a comprehensive and purposive document analysis. The data was analyzed using a thematic analysis method (inductive-deductive and assisted by Atlas-ti software.Rising health care costs, removing some food subsidies and the increase in price of most goods and services due to the implementation of economic policy of targeted subsidies have led to significant changes in the demand for health services, changes in the consumption trends of goods and services affecting health as well as changes in the health habits of households.Targeted subsidies and the cash subsidy policy have some negative effects on population health behavior especially among poor people. Hence, maintaining or increasing the cash subsidy is not an efficient allocation of resources toward health care system. So, it is necessary to identify appropriate strategies and policies and apply interventions in order to moderate negative effects and enhance positive effects resulted from implementing this economic reform on population health behavior.

  1. Tax shift : eliminating subsidies and moving to full cost electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ensure that Ontario's service needs are met at the lowest possible total cost, energy conservation and small-scale distributed generation options must be able to compete with large scale-centralized generation and transmission options on a level playing field. This report discussed how electricity is priced in Ontario. The report described the policies that subsidize coal and nuclear generation and promote excessive consumption of grid-supplied electricity. The report also presented an analysis of the impact of these subsidies and policies on Ontario's electricity consumption, electricity productivity, standard of living and air pollutant emissions. It described a practical strategy whereby these subsidies can be eliminated by recycling or shifting the monies currently spent on subsidies in a way that creates an incentive to reduce electricity consumption. It also described how full cost pricing could lead to a net financial benefit for residential customers as well as an adaptation strategy for businesses that would ensure that they remain competitive. Finally the report identified ten major subsidies that artificially reduce the cost of electricity in Ontario. These included below-market water royalty rates; corporate income tax revenue subsidy for nuclear debt; sales tax exemption; average cost pricing; and bulk metering. It was concluded that phasing out the subsidies for grid-supplied electricity and moving to full cost pricing will provide multiple benefits for Ontario. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  2. Economising subsidies for green housing features: A stated preference approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the enormous amounts of energy and resources consumed by housing development and operations, many governments have started recognising the urgent need to promote green or eco-friendly housing with the aim of achieving sustainable development. Apart from regulations, governments can offer incentives to developers to provide green features in their developments by offering subsidies in various forms. However, such subsidisation is often uneconomical. In theory, market forces can lead to green housing provision without any government intervention if the market players are willing to pay extra for the green features of housing. Against this background, this article presents the findings of a study that compared potential homebuyers’ willingness to pay (WTP for various green housing features based on findings from a structured questionnaire survey in Macau. The housing attributes under investigation included uses of green materials (e.g., sustainable forest products and construction methods (e.g., prefabrication, energy-efficient technologies (e.g., LED lighting and water-saving devices (e.g., grey-water recycling systems. Results indicate that the respondents’ WTP was mainly motivated by economic incentives. Green housing attributes that can offer direct financial benefits corresponded to greater WTP. The policy implications of the research findings then follow.

  3. Government subsidies and demand for petroleum products in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most other petroleum-exporting countries Iran subsidizes domestic consumption of refined products. Real product prices have declined for the past 25 years while the rest of the world has adjusted to higher energy prices. In this paper I describe the market for petroleum products in Iran and estimate demand functions for the four main refined petroleum products. My results indicate that price elasticities of demand are larger than previously thought. Particular attention is paid to the kerosene market where price subsidy is the largest, and where rationing in the 1980s requires taking into account the working of the black market. The results indicate that price increases can stem the rise in consumption. Forecasts show that, allowing for modest economic growth, increases that bring domestic prices to the level of world prices in fifteen years, will stabilize consumption at its current level. But increases that merely keep real prices constant will double consumption in the same period. This is significant in light of the fact that Iran's production capacity has stayed constant in the last five years and exports are under increasing pressure from domestic consumers of refined products. (UK)

  4. The Politics of Abundance: Export Agriculture and Redistributive Conflict in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Neal Philip

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the politics of modern commodity agriculture and the redistributive politics associated with it, focusing on Argentina and Brazil. Despite the magnitude and consequences of agricultural subsidies and taxation, their political origins are poorly understood. It is widely observed that wealthier countries tend to subsidize farmers while poorer countries tax them, and farmers in developed countries are credited as being skilled at lobbying. What is less clear is where that ...

  5. Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Gakii Gatua, Josephine; Ikiara, Moses; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Mwaura, Mbutu; Whittington, Dale

    2016-06-01

    The increasing block tariff (IBT) is among the most widely used tariffs by water utilities, particularly in developing countries. This is due in part to the perception that the IBT can effectively target subsidies to low-income households. Combining data on households' socioeconomic status and metered water use, this paper examines the distributional incidence of subsidies delivered through the IBT in Nairobi, Kenya. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that high-income residential and nonresidential customers receive a disproportionate share of subsidies and that subsidy targeting is poor even among households with a private metered connection. We also find that stated expenditure on water, a commonly used means of estimating water use, is a poor proxy for metered use and that previous studies on subsidy incidence underestimate the magnitude of the subsidy delivered through water tariffs. These findings have implications for both the design and evaluation of water tariffs in developing countries.

  6. Impacts of energy subsidy reform on the Malaysian economy and transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is paying a high level of subsidies on the consumption of energy (about 5% of its GDP). Therefore, reforming the energy subsidies, as planned by the government, will have a significant impact on household welfare and energy-intensive sectors, such as the transport sector. This study employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to highlight the transmission channels through which the removal of energy subsidies affects the domestic economy. The findings show that the shock increases real GDP and real investment, while decreasing Malaysian total exports and imports. The removal of energy subsidies also decreases the aggregate energy demand, and, consequently, decreases the level of carbon emissions in the Malaysian economy. In addition, households experience significant falls in their consumption and welfare. The transport sector is significantly influenced through an increase in production costs due to an increase in the prices of intermediate inputs. The total output and total exports of the whole transport sector decrease while its imports increase. In addition, the use of all kinds of transport by households decreases significantly. The Malaysian energy subsidy reform, leads to an initial decrease in CO2 emissions and demand for electricity, gas, and petroleum products in the entire transport sector. - Highlights: • Malaysia pays a high level of subsidy on consumption of energy. • The transportation sector in this country is the highest energy consumer among others. • A general equilibrium model used to analyse the effects of energy subsidy reform. • The shock increases real GDP and decreases energy and carbon emission in this sector. • It is not beneficial for the transport sector as decreases the output of this sector

  7. Which Subsidy Mode Improves the Financial Performance of Renewable Energy Firms? A Panel Data Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Companies between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of subsidies in improving the performance of renewable energy firms has aroused significant research attention in recent years. As subsidy modes may affect corporate financial performance,we have chosen companies specializing in wind and solar energy in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as samples.The relationships between the subsidy modes and financial performance of these two types of companies are investigated with a panel data model. Results of the total sample indicate that both indirect and non-innovative subsidy have significant effects on the financial performance of renewable energy companies. The regressive coefficient of the former,however, is a negative value, which illustrates that taxation, bonus, and other market-based mechanisms impair corporate profitability. Moreover, the influence of innovative subsidy is weak, which means that the subsidy used for research and development, technical demonstration, and other innovations of renewable energy enterprises have failed to effectively enhance corporate financial performance. In terms of sub-industries, the direct subsidy for wind energy companies has achieved a significant effect. Incomparison, the indirect subsidy and innovative subsidy acquired by solar energy companies have notably reduced corporate profitability. Thissuggests an urgent reform of subsidy policy for this industry is needed. The government should consider differences in the effects subsidies have for wind and solar energy companies when improving subsidy policy. In addition, market-based subsidy mechanisms should be perfected, and the structure of innovative subsidies should be ameliorated.

  8. An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ► Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ► The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ► When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ► The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

  9. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments. PMID:23991671

  10. It's only a matter of time: the altered role of subsidies in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J

    2016-09-01

    Clockwise from left: an experimental stream reach from the study, highlighting the fences used to contain fish as the apex predator; a cutthroat trout from the experiment, the only fish species in the study streams; stomach contents from a fish, highlighting the major role of the terrestrial subsidy (mealworms) in the diet. In Focus: Sato, T., El-Sabaawi, R.W., Campbell, K., Ohta, T. & Richardson, J.S. (2016) A test of the effects of timing of a pulsed resource subsidy on stream ecosystems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1136-1146. Cross-ecosystem subsidies play a critical role in maintaining the structure and functioning of natural communities, especially if they are asynchronous with resource production in the recipient ecosystem. Sato et al. () use a large-scale field experiment to show that changes in the timing of a pulsed terrestrial subsidy can alter stream dynamics from the individual to the ecosystem level. With increasing evidence that global warming will alter the timing, magnitude and frequency of allochthonous inputs, these findings make an important contribution to our understanding of how such changes will reverberate throughout ecosystems that depend on subsidies. PMID:27511321

  11. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rule is defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement business of research equipment for hot drainage influences; pre-research business of hot drainage; research business of hot drainage influences; place of enterprise; and expected time of beginning of the use. The Minister of International Trade and Industry grants subsidies to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities are or are expected to be established, or their neighboring prefectures to support all or a part of expenses of arrangement of research equipment, pre-research and research of hot drainage influences. Limits of subsidies are for a place of enterprise in a prefecture 14 million yen for a fiscal year for arrangement of research equipment, 5 million yen for pre-research and research respectively. Prefectures shall file an application for subsidies to the Minister of International Trade and Industry with gists of business and outlines of nuclear power generating facilities according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the minister shall examine it and notify without delay the decision of delivery and its conditions to the applicant in writing, when such settlement is made. Receivers of subsidies shall present to the minister for each quarter reports of subsidized business. Terms and conditions of delivery and others are prescribed particularly. (Okada, K.)

  12. Diet shift of lentic dragonfly larvae in response to reduced terrestrial prey subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial plant detritus and nutrients play an important role in aquatic food webs, but the importance of terrestrial prey inputs in determining aquatic predator distribution and abundance has been appreciated only recently. I examined the numerical, biomass, and diet responses of a common predator, dragonfly larvae, to experimental reduction of terrestrial arthropod input into ponds. I distributed paired enclosures (n  =  7), one with a screen between the land and water (reduced subsidy) and one without a screen (ambient subsidy), near the shoreline of 2 small fishless ponds and sampled each month during the growing season in the southern Appalachian Mountains, Virginia (USA). Screens between water and land reduced the number of terrestrial arthropods that fell into screened enclosures relative to the number that fell into unscreened enclosures and open reference plots by 36%. The δ13C isotopic signatures of dragonfly larvae shifted towards those of aquatic prey in reduced-subsidy enclosures, a result suggesting that dragonflies consumed fewer terrestrial prey when fewer were available (ambient subsidy: 30%, reduced subsidy: 19% of diet). Overall abundance and biomass of dragonfly larvae did not change in response to reduced terrestrial arthropod inputs, despite the fact that enclosures permitted immigration/emigration. These results suggest that terrestrial arthropods can provide resources to aquatic predators in lentic systems, but that their effects on abundance and distribution might be subtle and confounded by in situ factors.

  13. Child care subsidies, maternal health, and child-parent interactions: evidence from three nationally representative datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal

    2014-08-01

    A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. PMID:23832797

  14. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for urgent safety measures for atomic power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to practice these provisions. It is applied to the delivery of subsidies for the expenses of the measures taken beforehand for the security of inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities in the emergency time of hazard or the danger of the occurrence of hazard by such facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities and others, prefecture concerned, cities, towns and villages concerned, emergency communication network arrangement business, emergency medical facility arrangement business, business of holding hazard prevention course and expected date of beginning operation. Directors of ministries and agencies concerned deliver, if necessary, to prefectures concerned subsidies for all or a part of the expenses needed for the businesses of emergency communication network arrangement, emergency medical facility arrangement and holding hazard prevention course. The terms of delivery and the amounts of subsidies vary according to the kinds of businesses. Prefectures which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file to the director of the ministry or agency concerned the specified application attaching the operation plans of businesses and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities, etc. The decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of businesses and other related matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  15. Fossil fuel subsidy removal and inadequate public power supply: Implications for businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We briefly consider the impact of fossil fuel subsidy removal policies in the context of inadequate power supply, with a focus on the implications for businesses. In doing so, we utilize the case of the early 2012 fuel subsidy removal in Nigeria. The rationale for such subsidy-removal policies is typically informed by analysis showing that they lead to an economically inefficient allocation of resources and market distortions, while often failing to meet intended objectives. However, often the realities of infrastructural and institutional deficiencies are not appropriately factored into the decision-making process. Businesses in many developing countries, already impaired by the high cost of power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive on an unsubsidized basis. We find that justifications for removal often do not adequately reflect the specific environments of developing country economies, resulting in poor recommendations – or ineffective policy. - Highlights: ► We consider the impact of fuel subsidy removal in the context of energy poverty. ► Calls for subsidy removal often do not reflect the developing country realities. ► Businesses impaired by power supply deficiencies, become even less competitive.

  16. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  17. The conflicting economic and environmental logics of North American governance : NAFTA, energy subsidies, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the incentives behind the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was to promote a green economy. It offered the hope that environmentally sustainable trade was possible through provisions against downward harmonization, the respect for state autonomy in environmental regulation, and the creation of the Commission for Environmental Co-operation. However, cleaner energy trade has actually been inhibited by subsidies for fossil fuel development, government's inability to regulate the rate of resource depletion, and by favoring the priorities of transnational corporations. The authors reviewed perverse subsidies and recommended a combination of environmentally sensitive policy changes, such as the elimination of perverse subsidies, the subsidization of environmentally friendly energy sources, and the imposition of carbon taxes and demand-side management initiatives. 67 refs., 1 fig

  18. Nuclear Electric: the misuse of the subsidy and the case for the immediate closure of Magnox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature and purpose of fossil fuel levy which creates a subsidy for the nuclear industry is discussed. It is claimed that without the subsidy the operation of Magnox and AGR stations generates electricity at a loss. This means that most of the fossil fuel levy is being used to make up Nuclear Electric's losses. The rest is mostly being used to build the Sizewell-B power plant. This is in contrast to the popular belief and understanding that the subsidy is for decommissioning old plants, and cleaning up accumulated spent fuels and other wastes. The economics of the Magnox stations are discussed and Nuclear Electric's claim that closing them would not stop the losses is challenged. (U.K.)

  19. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring......(field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty...

  20. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    1995-12-31

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  1. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  2. Impact of subsidies and socioeconomic status on varicella vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eNagaoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine

  3. Location is everything: evaluating the effects of terrestrial and marine resource subsidies on an estuarine bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Joel M S; Segal, Michelle R; Reynolds, John D

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are amongst the world's most productive ecosystems, lying at the intersection between terrestrial and marine environments. They receive substantial inputs from adjacent landscapes but the importance of resource subsidies is not well understood. Here, we test hypotheses for the effects of both terrestrial- and salmon-derived resource subsidies on the diet (inferred from stable isotopes of muscle tissue), size and percent nitrogen of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), a sedentary estuarine consumer. We examine how these relationships shift across natural gradients among 14 estuaries that vary in upstream watershed size and salmon density on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We also test how assimilation and response to subsidies vary at smaller spatial scales within estuaries. The depletion and enrichment of stable isotope ratios in soft-shell clam muscle tissue correlated with increasing upstream watershed size and salmon density, respectively. The effects of terrestrial- and salmon-derived subsidies were also strongest at locations near stream outlets. When we controlled for age of individual clams, there were larger individuals with higher percent nitrogen content in estuaries below larger watersheds, though this effect was limited to the depositional zones below river mouths. Pink salmon exhibited a stronger effect on isotope ratios of clams than chum salmon, which could reflect increased habitat overlap as spawning pink salmon concentrate in lower stream reaches, closer to intertidal clam beds. However, there were smaller clams in estuaries that had higher upstream pink salmon densities, possibly due to differences in habitat requirements. Our study highlights the importance of upstream resource subsidies to this bivalve species, but that individual responses to subsidies can vary at smaller scales within estuaries. PMID:25993002

  4. Location is everything: evaluating the effects of terrestrial and marine resource subsidies on an estuarine bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M S Harding

    Full Text Available Estuaries are amongst the world's most productive ecosystems, lying at the intersection between terrestrial and marine environments. They receive substantial inputs from adjacent landscapes but the importance of resource subsidies is not well understood. Here, we test hypotheses for the effects of both terrestrial- and salmon-derived resource subsidies on the diet (inferred from stable isotopes of muscle tissue, size and percent nitrogen of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria, a sedentary estuarine consumer. We examine how these relationships shift across natural gradients among 14 estuaries that vary in upstream watershed size and salmon density on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We also test how assimilation and response to subsidies vary at smaller spatial scales within estuaries. The depletion and enrichment of stable isotope ratios in soft-shell clam muscle tissue correlated with increasing upstream watershed size and salmon density, respectively. The effects of terrestrial- and salmon-derived subsidies were also strongest at locations near stream outlets. When we controlled for age of individual clams, there were larger individuals with higher percent nitrogen content in estuaries below larger watersheds, though this effect was limited to the depositional zones below river mouths. Pink salmon exhibited a stronger effect on isotope ratios of clams than chum salmon, which could reflect increased habitat overlap as spawning pink salmon concentrate in lower stream reaches, closer to intertidal clam beds. However, there were smaller clams in estuaries that had higher upstream pink salmon densities, possibly due to differences in habitat requirements. Our study highlights the importance of upstream resource subsidies to this bivalve species, but that individual responses to subsidies can vary at smaller scales within estuaries.

  5. How large are tax subsidies to motor-vehicle users in the US?

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion about the extent to which motor-vehicle use in the US is “subsidized,” making petroleum-based motor vehicle use more attractive than other transportation modes. Estimates of these subsidies vary widely, and in many cases can be criticized on methodological grounds. In this paper we estimate corporate-income-tax, sales-tax, property-tax, and personal-income-tax subsidies related to motor-vehicle use. Whereas previous estimates of sales-tax and corporate-i...

  6. How large are tax subsidies to motor-vehicle users in the US?

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion about the extent to which motor-vehicle use in the US is “subsidized,†making petroleum-based motor vehicle use more attractive than other transportation modes. Estimates of these subsidies vary widely, and in many cases can be criticized on methodological grounds. In this paper we estimate corporate-income-tax, sales-tax, property-tax, and personal-income-tax subsidies related to motor-vehicle use. Whereas previous estimates of sales-tax and corporat...

  7. Alternate solutions in mixing energy tax/subsidy and emission control policies

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Shahriar Shah; Vestergaard, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we look at the combination of several market-based climate and energy policies and compare them with first best solution, i.e., a perfectly designed emission tax or emission cap level. It is shown that in the case an emission control policy is imperfect designed or implemented, its per-formance can be improved by an energy (output) tax/subsidy scheme, where the subsidy is given only to renewable generators or for energy efficiency improvements. This combination can bring the ...

  8. European Commission study on energy costs and subsidies in the EU. Report for EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission (EC) has launched a study in order to provide a complete and consistent view on the subsidies and external costs associated with different power generation technologies. Such study is expected to provide input for policy making in years to come. FTI CL Energy has been mandated by EDF to provide a critical review of the methodology developed in the EC study, and to identify potential gaps in coverage and/or contestable assumptions. The study provides a description of best practice to improve the methodology and surveys the literature to provide a range of estimates for critical assumptions on costs and subsidies

  9. Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production : a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Nils; Krook, Joakim; Eklund, Mats

    2014-01-01

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is...

  10. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  11. Determinants of farmers’ willingness to participate in subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones - a choice experiment study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Oersted; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Hasler, Berit; Denver, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    Danish farmers have been far less interested in agri-environmental subsidy schemes (AES) than anticipated. In order to examine how to improve the appeal of such schemes, a choice experiment was conducted concerning 444 Danish farmers’ preferences for subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones...

  12. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  13. Solar energy and Grenelle: to build a national sector and not to waste 62 billions Euros in uncontrolled subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the various financial supports and subsidies associated with renewable energies in France in 2007. He briefly discusses the benefit of solar energy in terms of carbon emission and in terms of housing architecture, and outlines the strong unbalance between these subsidies and R and D funding: this funding is only the tenth of the awarded subsidies. He shows that the various financial supports and subsidies have been misappropriated by importers, fitters and financiers, and also outlines that these supports are socially unfair. Then, the author proposes how to better distribute these supports and subsidies, and outlines the need for a stronger support awarded to R and D for a better development of this industrial sector

  14. Impact of energy subsidies on energy consumption and supply in Zimbabwe. Do the urban poor really benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty percent of Zimbabwe's urban poor households are still to be connected to the grid. The majority of these households are poor. There are several reasons why the Zimbabwe urban poor are still not connected to the grid, the most important one being the household incomes and the cost of different sources of energy. In order to facilitate wider usage of electricity by the poor, the policy makers have introduced a subsidy policy. The objective of this paper is to ascertain the extent to which the poor urban households could afford the cost of electricity with or without subsidies. This gives an indication on whether contrary to the current thinking, subsidies are decisive for the affordability of electricity by the urban households. The paper also examines the distribution of the subsidies, amongst the different urban household income categories and other economic sectors. Furthermore the impact of such subsidies on the utility's finances is assessed

  15. Agriculture energy prospective by 2030: scenarios and action patterns; Prospective Agriculture Energie 2030: scenarios et pistes d'action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents and comments the main results of a work-group focused on the evolution of agriculture in France in relationship with the new energetic context. Four scenarios have been defined, corresponding to different energetic, but also social, political and economic contexts by 2030. The first one corresponds to a severe energy crisis with an emergence of regional governance. The second one corresponds to a high volatility of energy prices, an increased easing of restrictions on trade, and a decrease of public supports and subsidies for agriculture. The third one corresponds to a strong reduction of the use of phyto-sanitary products in agriculture, a continuous urban sprawl, and the prevalence of road transport. The fourth one corresponds to agriculture respectful of the environment and a good management of energy consumption. Direct and indirect energy consumptions are assessed for the four scenarios. Some general and operational objectives are thus identified

  16. John Rawls' Justice as Fairness and the WTO: A Critical Analysis on the Initial Position of the Multilateral Agricultural Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cedro Rafael Rosa; Vieira Bruno Furtado

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an original analysis about the unbalance present in the World Trade Organization from its very origin, taking the Agreement on Agriculture as an explicit example of it. The reflection is done through a case study on the distorting domestic subsidies in agriculture allowed by that Organization to the United States and Brazil, using as a reference of justice the toolbox provided by John Rawls' "Justice as Fairness" theory. The article explores alternative criteria for the ...

  17. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  18. 77 FR 2446 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Eligibility for a Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 418 RIN 0960-AH24 Amendments to Regulations Regarding Eligibility for a Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule... Security Administration, 2-R-24 Operations Building, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD...

  19. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  20. 75 FR 39561 - Administrative Guidelines; Subsidy Layering Reviews for Proposed Section 8 Project-Based Voucher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... developmental and operational costs of the project. The subsidy layering review Guidelines under this Notice are... published qualified allocation plan. Under no circumstances may costs exceed the total maximum allowable... which qualified Housing Credit Agencies (HCAs) as defined under Section 42 of the Internal Revenue...

  1. Interest Subsidies on Student Loans: A Better Class of Drain. CEE DP 114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Nicholas; Johnston, Alison

    2010-01-01

    The British system of student loans has a zero real rate of interest, less than it costs the government to borrow the money. This paper discusses the problems that arise from interest subsidies in the UK system of student loans; systems in other countries, for example Australia and New Zealand, face similar problems. The topic appears to be narrow…

  2. 24 CFR 990.235 - PHAs that will experience a subsidy increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHAs that will experience a subsidy increase. 990.235 Section 990.235 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE...

  3. 24 CFR 990.230 - PHAs that will experience a subsidy reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHAs that will experience a subsidy reduction. 990.230 Section 990.230 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE...

  4. Ex-ante evaluation of profitability and government's subsidy policy on vehicle-to-grid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstact: Although the electric vehicle reduces pollutant emissions and results in reduced energy costs, lack of battery charging infrastructure and relatively high vehicle prices create challenges to the automobile industry and affect government support policies. To create a battery charging infrastructure, such as a vehicle-to-grid system, stakeholders need a quantitative analysis that decreases profitability uncertainty. The high cost of an electric vehicle can be offset by government subsidies that promote early marketing efforts, but an ex-ante evaluation of consumer demand is needed to analyze the effectiveness of any policy. This study provides information about optimal pricing based on consumer demand as well as the social welfare change effected by possible government subsidy polices for electric vehicles. Results show that the maximum profit for a vehicle-to-grid service provider will be 1.27 trillion Korean won/year with an annual subscription fee of 0.65 million Korean won. The government subsidy of 1 trillion Korean won, given annually, will increase social welfare by 1.94 trillion won and also boost the profit of vehicle-to-grid service provider to 1.98 trillion won. - Highlights: ▶ We evaluate consumer preference on electric vehicle and V2G service. ▶ Based on the consumer preference, we calculate profitability of V2G service. ▶ Also, the effect of government subsidy on electric vehicle market is analyzed. ▶ The empirical results will be useful to the V2G service providers and policy makers

  5. Increasing the momentum of fossil-fuel subsidy reform: a roadmap for international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K.; Wooders, P.; Kulovesi, K.

    2010-06-15

    Subsidizing fossil fuels is not compatible with the actions that have to be implemented to address climate change and promote sustainable development. A collaboration on an international level can support efforts engaged at the national level, through a research and technical assistance, a sharing of knowledge and best practice, the institution of rules and financial support. In 2010, the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) published a report, providing an analysis of the potential of the various international organizations around the world to host the international discussions and planning of actions regarding energy subsidy reform. Several existing organizations were considered. While the role of these organizations is important to support initiatives designed to reform fossil fuel subsidies, the study demonstrated that none of them present all the secretariat functions required to support a movement at the international level. A particular attention is given to the potential of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to house the international cooperation, considering their legal basis and their ability to reform fossil-fuel subsidies. After a description of the G-20 initiative regarding the reduction of fossil fuel subsidies, the IISD presents a Roadmap for international cooperation providing a route leading to a negotiated agreement, and describes the procedure to follow at a short-, medium- and long term. This roadmap identifies the roles of the different organizations through this process. 41 refs.

  6. Market structure and technology diffusion incentives under emission taxes and emission reduction subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares emission taxes with emission reduction subsidies regarding the incentives they create to enhance technology diffusion under imperfect competition. Finns can adopt a "dirty" technology or a "clean" abatement technology. If the clean and dirty products are perfect substitutes, and

  7. Can Wage Subsidies Boost Employment in the Wake of an Economic Crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The rise in unemployment during an economic crisis poses a significant concern to policy makers. This paper measures the effect of a program in Mexico that granted firms in certain industries wage subsidies if they decided to keep their workers instead of letting them go during the recent economic crisis. The analysis uses monthly administrative data on employment at the industry level, al...

  8. Educational Choice and Marketization in Hong Kong: The Case of Direct Subsidy Scheme Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yisu; Wong, Yi-Lee; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Direct subsidy scheme (DSS) schools are a product of Hong Kong's market-oriented educational reform, mirroring global reform that champions parental choice and school marketization. Such schools have greater autonomy in matters of curricula, staffing, and student admission. Although advocates of the DSS credit it with increasing educational…

  9. Optimal Government Subsidies to Universities in the Face of Tuition and Enrollment Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Stephen T.; Rockerbie, Duane W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a simple static model of an imperfectly competitive university operating under government-imposed constraints on the ability to raise tuition fees and increase enrollments. The model has particular applicability to Canadian universities. Assuming an average cost pricing rule, rules for adequate government subsidies (operating…

  10. Redistributive Taxation vs. Education Subsidies: Fostering Equality and Social Mobility in an Intergenerational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Redistributive taxation and education subsidies are common policies intended to foster education attendance of poor children. However, this paper shows that in an intergenerational framework, these policies can raise social mobility only for some investment situations but not in general. I also study the impact of both policies on the aggregate…

  11. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers reduce their non-employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Stage

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the potential of wage subsidy programs for reducing non-employment of the disabled by exploiting a reform of the Danish Flexjob scheme targeted towards employing the long-term (partially) disabled. Firms received a salary reimbursement for all employees granted a Flexjob. We examine w...

  12. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversity verification in Danish greening subsidy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferré, Ty Paul Andrew; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-07-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers' declarations to warrant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers' subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014-2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach (proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation of the crop diversification rules at farm level; and (4) identification of farmers who are violating the requirements for greening subsidies. The prediction probabilities are computed by a neural network ensemble supplied with training samples selected automatically using farmers declared parcels (field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty or confidence intervals with the class labels at the farmer level. The proposed approach was tested with WV2 imagery acquired in 2011 for a study area in Vennebjerg

  13. Reference-dependent electric vehicle production strategy considering subsidies and consumer trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we extend previous reference-dependence newsvendor research by incorporating both consumer trade-offs and government subsidies to evaluate the relevant influences on the optimal electric vehicle (EV) production decisions. We present the properties of the model, derive the closed-form solutions for the model given the relevant constraints, and use numerical experiments to illustrate the results. We find that subsidies, loss aversion, the performance of both EVs and internal combustion engine-powered vehicles (ICEVs), and the coefficient of variation of demand are significant factors influencing the optimal production quantity and the expected utilities of EV production. The high selling price and other high costs of ICEVs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high costs of EV enhance loss aversion. Our study enriches the literature on subsidies for EVs by establishing a behavioral model to incorporate the decision bias in terms of loss aversion at the firm level. These findings provide guiding principles for both policymakers and EV managers for making better strategies to promote EVs in the early immature market. - Highlights: • The performance of both electric vehicles (EVs) and internal combustion engine-power vehicles (ICEVs) influences the EV production decisions. • A loss averse EV manager produces less and obtains less the expected utility than a risk neutral one. • Subsidies help decrease the EV breakeven quantity, increase the optimal quantity, offset the influence of loss aversion. • Subsidies should be adjusted according to the performance of both EVs and the ICEVs, demand heterogeneity, and local conditions. • The high ICEVs costs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high EV costs enhance loss aversion

  14. Reciprocal feedbacks between spatial subsidies and reserve networks in coral reef meta-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker, Barbara; Gouhier, Tark C; Guichard, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processes such as predation and herbivory have been shown to control the dynamics of communities across a range of ecosystems by generating trophic cascades. However, theory is only beginning to describe how these local trophic processes interact with spatial subsidies in the form of material (nutrient, detritus) transport and organismal dispersal to (1) shape the structure of interconnected (meta-) ecosystems and (2) determine their optimal management via reserve networks. Here, we develop a meta-ecosystem model to understand how the reciprocal feedbacks between spatial subsidies and reserve networks modulate the importance of top-down control in a simple herbivorous fish-macroalgae-coral system. We show that in large and isolated reserve networks where connectivity between protected and unprotected areas is limited, spatial subsidies remain largely confined to reserves. This retention of spatial subsidies promotes the top-down control of corals and macroalgae by herbivores inside reserves but reduces it outside reserves. Conversely, in small and aggregated reserves where connectivity between protected and unprotected areas is high, the spillover of spatial subsidies causes a reduction in top-down control of corals and macroalgae by herbivores inside reserves and an increase in the strength of top-down control outside reserves. In addition, we demonstrate that there is a trade-off between local and regional conservation objectives when designing reserve networks: small and aggregated reserves based on the extent of dispersal maximize the abundance of corals and herbivores regionally, whereas large and isolated reserves always maximize the abundance of corals within reserves, regardless of the extent of dispersal. The existence of such "conservation traps," which arise from the fulfillment of population-level objectives within local reserves at the cost of community-level objectives at regional scales, suggests the importance of adopting a more holistic

  15. Kerosene subsidies for household lighting in India: what are the impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Pachauri, Shonali; Purohit, Pallav; Nagai, Yu; Bates, Michael N.; Cameron, Colin; Smith, Kirk R.

    2016-04-01

    Kerosene subsidy reform is a key policy concern in India and other developing countries. As kerosene is widely used for lighting in India, any price change will likely have considerable public welfare impacts on the large fraction of the poor who do not have access to reliable electricity supply for lighting. In this study, we assess historic kerosene use for residential lighting across population groups separated by urban/rural, expenditure, and electricity service levels using data from India. Consumption trends are used to inform a service demand model and evaluate how changes in fuel price, electricity connection, and supply reliability influence environmental, health and economic outcomes. We find that users relying on kerosene for supplemental lighting—in combination (‘stacked’) with electricity—accounted for 64% of residential kerosene consumed for lighting in 2005. Tested scenarios that addressed service needs of supplemental users had the greatest welfare benefits, especially in the future. Scenarios reducing PM2.5 emissions from kerosene lighting can avert between 50 and 300 thousand disability adjusted life years relative to a baseline scenario in 2030. Lighting kerosene is highly price sensitive, resulting in a drop in demand of 97% in a scenario in which current subsidies are phased out by 2030. Deadweight loss of the subsidy in 2005 is estimated at 200–950 million, with three quarters attributable to supplemental kerosene lighting. Support for cleaner lighting technologies not reliant on fossil fuel subsidies would appear to be ‘no regrets’ or ‘co-benefits’ options for India, and could be implemented in parallel with subsidy removal.

  16. Assessing the Impacts of the Chinese TRQ System and U.S. Subsidies on the World Cotton Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Welch, Mark; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Ethridge, Don E.

    2005-01-01

    This article compares how eliminating the U.S. cotton subsidy program and the Chinese cotton tariff-rate quota (TRQ) would affect the world cotton market. The results show China's TRQ has a greater negative impact on the world cotton market than do U.S. subsidies. Compared to a base-level estimate, the elimination of China's TRQ increases the world cotton price and increases the quantity of world cotton traded, whereas the elimination of U.S. cotton subsidies increases the cotton price (but l...

  17. The energy policy and sustainability of the subsidy mechanism for retail petroleum products consumed in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksh, Timmy

    2010-09-15

    In 1974 the Petroleum Production Levy and Subsidy Act gave effect to legislation which detailed a mechanism to implement a subsidy on all fuel consumed within, and in the territorial waters of, Trinidad and Tobago. This paper will analyse the underlying principles of this energy policy, follow how the mechanism has evolved over the years and propose new iterations to the existing model in order to reduce the Governments liability. The sustainability of the subsidy will be examined and as well as an in-depth analysis on the possible impact on inflation if this mechanism is removed.

  18. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  19. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  20. Modeling Policy and Agricultural Decisions in Afghanistan

    CERN Document Server

    Widener, Michael J; Gros, Andreas; Metcalf, Sara; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is responsible for the majority of the world's supply of poppy crops, which are often used to produce illegal narcotics like heroin. This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates policy scenarios to characterize how the production of poppy can be dampened and replaced with licit crops over time. The model is initialized with spatial data, including transportation network and satellite-derived land use data. Parameters representing national subsidies, insurgent influence, and trafficking blockades are varied to represent different conditions that might encourage or discourage poppy agriculture. Our model shows that boundary-level interventions, such as targeted trafficking blockades at border locations, are critical in reducing the attractiveness of growing this illicit crop. The principle of least effort implies that interventions decrease to a minimal non-regressive point, leading to the prediction that increases in insurgency or other changes are likely to lead to worsening conditions,...

  1. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  2. The Proalcool program and the Brazilian agricultural sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquette, M. (Univ. de Montreal, Univ. de Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    Faced from 1974 onwards by a growing deficit on its balance of trade, a rapidly industrializing Brazil set in motion an ambitious energy policy. The Proalcohol program, along with other measures undertaken by the Military, was expected to replace gasoline with ethyl alcohol from locally produces sugar cane. Designed on a strictly national base from which foreign investors were excluded, Proalcohol relied heavily on an oligopoly comprised of agro-industrial entrepreneurs from the state of Sao Paulo and an agrarian oligarchy in the North-Eastern states of the country. At the same time, the automobile industry developed a new technology of alcohol-powered cars for the local market. The author reviews the main features of the program, the financial resources mobilized at the state level, the array of subsidies in both agriculture and industry, and a series of Brazilian studies of the program's costs. Finally, an inital description of the conquences in the agricultural sector is set out: the development of a seasonal, underpaid and increasingly migrant labour force, a further concentration of land ownership and the displacement of food cultures in the interior. Given the traditional strutures of Brazilian agriculture and industry, such phennomena are not new, but they have seemed to gain strength with the rapid, badly coordinated expansion of the program, particularly as subsidies decrease with the overwhelming debt in the 1980s. 46 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  4. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe

  5. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  6. Nitrate pollution due to agriculture, project report No.3: should the polluter pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Parsisson, David; Hanley, N; Clive L. Spash

    1994-01-01

    The Polluter Pays Principle is a well-established guiding force behind the regulation of polluters in the OECD. Agriculture, however, has frequently been exempt from this principle. This paper considers the reasons for this exemption, with particular reference to the control of nitrate pollution. After outlining the problems in applying many standard pollution control policies to nitrates, we move on to analyse the Nitrate Sensitive Areas scheme in the UK, which is a voluntary subsidy sche...

  7. The use of agricultural biomass for energy purposes: EU and national policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Giuca

    2008-01-01

    The implementation in 2020 of binding national targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and use of renewable energy has increased the interest in biomass as a viable alternative to fossil fuels. Thus agriculture acquires a primary role for the reduction of CO2 but raises many issues: CBA, food vs fuel, subsidies, tax measures and investments. After outlining the framework for the exploitation of biomass energy, the analysis carried out on the prospects of development of agroenergy chains...

  8. AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE NEW AGRICULTURAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS: A NONLINEAR IMPERFECTLY COMPETITIVE SPATIAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Koushi; Suzuki, Xohuhiro; Kaiser, Harry M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the research reported here is to develop a more flexible and comprehensive policy simulation model for imperfectly competitive international agricultural trade with various trade and domestic support policies. The model is a nonlinear imperfectly competitive spatial equilibrium model formulated as a MCP. The model is flexible in that it can simulate the economic effects of the following trade policies: specific duties, ad valorem tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, export subsidies,...

  9. Anaerobic Treatment of Agricultural Residues and Wastewater - Application of High-Rate Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Parawira, Wilson

    2004-01-01

    The production of methane via anaerobic digestion of agricultural residues and industrial wastewater would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would reduce the use of fossil-fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impact, including global warming and pollution. Limitation of carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies on biomass energy is making anaerobic digestion a more attractive and competitive tec...

  10. Agricultural land tax and farm-level resource use and output supply response

    OpenAIRE

    Olubode-Awosola, Femi

    2009-01-01

    This study develops and uses a programming model for farm-level resource use and output supply response to estimate the effects of agricultural land tax in South Africa: A case study of Free State, a region of extremely large commercial farms that gained their size and economic heft during the apartheid years of aggressive subsidies, favorable tax treatment, lucrative state grants and gifts, and all manner of financial assistance. The results indicate that changes in land use and output suppl...

  11. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE EXPLOATATION IN SOUTH OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Anisoara CHIHAIA; Georgiana Melania COSTAICHE; Octavian CHIHAIA

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity, as variation of life form on Earth is the base of agriculture, in each of its fields, from the food to the services provided by ecosystems, the main streams and links of production. Standards or requirements that farmers must meet to be eligible for subsidies contribute to maintain biodiversity. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the costs needed to implement environmental standards and their implications for farm rentability. This study was made in farms with different si...

  12. Summary of the subsidy regulations and the exploitation result of wood on arable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the EWAB program concerns studies on the feasibility of a large-scale implementation of energy crops in the Netherlands. Next to developments of the processing and conversion techniques attention is paid to the cultivation of crops. The aim of the study on the title subject is to gain insight in the application of relevant subsidy regulations for energy wood, and to determine the costs and benefits for the farmer of energy crops. The overview of subsidies concern support from the European Community, support for projects, and fiscal consequences of wood cultivation. Exploitation results are calculated for two concepts: (1) a four year harvest and a cultivation period of 24 years. Also, the Dutch calculations are compared to results of energy wood exploitation in Sweden; and (2) a comparison of cultivation of wheat, barley, sugar beet, potatoes and energy wood for six different production areas in the Netherlands. 3 figs., 5 appendices

  13. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  14. The potentials of a reverse auction in allocating subsidies for cost-effective roof-top photovoltaic system deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic (PV) has developed to one of the most promising technologies for renewable electricity generation. The Austrian government currently provides subsidies for roof-top PV systems through a constant, administratively determined feed-in tariff or an investment co-funding. In both subsidy schemes, applications are approved on a first-come, first-served basis. There are concerns about (i) the selection of suitable roofs for PV systems, and (ii) allocating subsidies among applicants to deploy roof-top PV systems cost-effectively. Thus we analyze the potentials of a simple discriminative first-price reverse auction application scheme. Applicants define individually the required level of subsidy and those with the lowest request for subsidies are selected. In an ex-post analysis, we evaluate the potentials of such a scheme in increasing power output and saving public spending for the federal state of Vorarlberg in Austria. Results indicate a potential increase of cumulated produced electricity between 15% and 18% in comparison to the current policy. In addition, a reverse auction-based system would lead to savings of public spending per kWh between 20% and 41%. - Highlights: • Return-on-investment of PV varies by roof suitability, system size and subsidy level. • A reverse auction for subsidies is a cost-effective mechanism for PV system deployment. • Simulating a reverse auction for a case study region using a detailed solar cadaster and historical subsidy data. • Results indicate electricity generation increases by up to 18% and reductions of public funding by up to 41%

  15. Patent statistics: a good indicator for innovation in China? Assessment of impacts of patent subsidy programs on patent quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Jangwei; Motohashi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether patent subsidy programs aimed at promoting regional innovations have aroused a large number of low-quality applications in China and created biased patent statistics as an indicator for innovations. We found that patent filing fee subsidies encouraged filing of low-quality patent, resulting in a decreased grant rate. Though reward conditioned on grants increased patent grant rate, it also brought patents with narrow claim breadth. Our empirical results confirme...

  16. PRICE TRANSMISSION AND HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR FROZEN FISH UNDER FUEL SUBSIDY REFORM IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Achoja Felix Odemero

    2013-01-01

    Fuel subsidy removal is assumed to translate to general increase in the cost of operating business such as fish marketing.The response of price of fish and corresponding demand elasticity are welfare issues worthy of investigation in Nigeria. The present study evaluates price transmission in fish marketing system by analysing the response of fish market indices to fuel subsidy reform in Nigeria. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from purposively selected 78 frozen fish mark...

  17. Using the Sub-Game Perfect Nash Equilibrium to Deduce the Effect of Government Subsidy on Consumption Rates and Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Magdi Amer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments are interested in inducing positive habits and behaviors in its citizens and discouraging ones that are harmful to the individual or to the society. Taxation and legislation are usually used to discourage negative behaviors. Subsidy seems the politically correct way to encourage positive behaviors. In this paper, the Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium is used to deduce the effect of the government subsidy on the user consumption, prices and producer and distributor profits.

  18. Food Subsidy, Income Transfer and the Poor: A Comparative Analysis of the Public Distribution System in India's States

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha; Raghav Gaiha; Pandey, Manoj K.; Nidhi Kaicker

    2011-01-01

    The Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) — the largest food subsidy programme in India — has been a dismal failure in targeting the poor. The present paper examines its performance in three Indian states — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, based on primary data collected for this study. As real income transfers through food price subsidies are a tiny fraction of expenditure per person under this scheme, a contribution of the present study is to model determinants of real income...

  19. Estimating the additionality of R&D subsidies using proposal evaluation data to control for research intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsen, Morten; Hægeland, Torbjørn; Møen, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Empirical examination of whether R&D subsidies crowd out private investments has been hampered by selection problems. A particular worry is that project quality and research intentions may be correlated with the likelihood of receiving subsidies. Using proposal evaluation data to control for research intentions, we do not find strong evidence suggesting that this type of selection creates a severe bias. Proposal evaluation grades strongly predict R&D investments and reduce selecti...

  20. Maize trade liberalization vs. fertilizer subsidies in Tanzania : a CGE model analysis with endogenous soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Grepperud, Sverre; Wiig, Henrik; Aune, Finn Roar

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis on economy-environmental interlinkages for Tanzania by using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model based on a social accounting matrix. The purpose of the analysis is to include general equilibrium effects when evaluating two suggested policy measures meant to stimulate growth and crop production. The model is multisectoral with a particular focus on crop producing sectors and soil mining processes. Maize trade liberalization and a fertilizer subsidy are...

  1. Maize Trade Liberalization vs. Fertilizer Subsidies in Tanzania: A CGE Model Analysis with Endogenous Soil Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis on economy-environmental interlinkages for Tanzania by using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model based on a social accounting matrix. The purpose of the analysis is to include general equilibrium effects when evaluating two suggested policy measures meant to stimulate growth and crop production. The model is multisectoral with a particular focus on crop producing sectors and soil mining processes. Maize trade liberalization and a fertilizer subsidy are...

  2. Impact analysis of cotton subsidies on poverty: A CGE macro-accounting approach applied to Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothée Boccanfuso; Luc Savard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first country specific CGE model for Mali with a micro-simulation component to analyze the poverty and inequality changes of removing cotton subsidies in developed countries. We used the macro-accounting approach proposed by Chen and Ravallion (2004). This issue has attracted significant attention as is has contributed to stall the broader trade agenda. Research on the issue has been mainly done with partial equilibrium analysis with a few exceptions. We use th...

  3. Determining a subsidy rate for Taiwan's recycling glass industry: an application of bi-level programming

    OpenAIRE

    H-S Shih; C-B Cheng; U-P Wen; Y-C Huang; M-Y Peng

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to optimize the operations of the Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB), founded by the Environmental Protection Administration of the R.O.C. Government (on Taiwan), through the decision of a subsidy rate for the domestic glass recycling industry. The hierarchical and interactive nature between the two parties is modelled by bi-level programming, where the RFMB plays the upper-level decision unit while the recycling industry is the lower-level counterpart. In order to sol...

  4. Canada – renewable energy: implications for WTO law on green and not-so-green subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Charnovitz, Steve; Fischer, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the first dispute on renewable energy to come to World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement, the domestic content requirement of Ontario’s feed-in tariff was challenged as a discriminatory investment-related measure and as a prohibited import substitution subsidy. The panel and Appellate Body agreed that Canada was violating the GATT and the TRIMS Agreement. But the SCM Article 3 claim by Japan and the European Union remains unadjudicated, because neither tribunal made a finding tha...

  5. Subsidy Policy Design for Increasing Solar Photovoltaic Installed Capacity in China -A System Dynamics Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Hai Yan

    2009-01-01

    China's photovoltaic (PV) based electricity generating capacity is obviously lagging behind the world level, although its manufacturing capacity of PV cells and modules has remained ahead worldwide since 2006. The Chinese government is the major investor contributing to PV-based installed generating capacity in China. A trial subsidy policy has been implemented by the Chinese government since 2007 to encourage the participation of enterprise investment. In terms of Chinese government's goals...

  6. Non-native fish in mountain lakes: effects on a declining amphibian and ecosystem subsidy

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Sharon P; Pope, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Wilderness water resources often provide wildlife habitat and associated recreational opportunities, such as angling or birdwatching. Introduced trout in mountain lakes could affect terrestrial wildlife by changing ecosystem subsidy, which is the flow of nutrients and organisms from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. Trout prey upon larval amphibians and aquatic insects, and the adult stages of aquatic insects and amphibians are prey for bats, birds, snakes, and other terrestrial insectivores. ...

  7. CANADIAN DAIRY EXPORT SUBSIDIES AND THE WTO APPELLATE DECISION: DAIRY MARKET EXPANSION IN LIMBO

    OpenAIRE

    Mussell, Al; Martin, Larry J.

    2000-01-01

    The dairy industry in Canada was turned on its ear by the release of the WTO decision last fall that Canada's Special Milk Classes constitute an export subsidy. Dairy processors fear the loss of established export markets. At the same time, the decision threatens the role of supply management authorities as the sole marketers of farmers' milk. Will farmers market milk for export directly to processors? What consequences could renewed marketing board involvement in exports have in the internat...

  8. Getting the unemployed back to work: the role of targeted wage subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian; Blundell, Richard; VAN REENEN, John

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines alternative approaches to wage subsidy programmes. It does this in the context of a recent active labour market reform for the young unemployed in Britain. This “New Deal” reform and the characteristics of the target group are examined in detail. We discuss theoretical considerations, survey the existing empirical evidence and propose two strategies for evaluation. The first suggests an ex-post ‘trend adjusted difference in difference’ estimator. The second, relates to ...

  9. The potential role of taxes and subsidies on food in the prevention of obesity in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    González Zapata, Laura Inés; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Millstone, Erik; Clemente Gómez, Vicente; Holdsworth, Michelle; Ortiz Moncada, Rocío; Lobstein, Tim; Sarri, Katerina; De Marchi, Bruna; Horvath, Katalin Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the opinions of stakeholders on the potential of taxes or subsidies, as measures for tackling obesity in Europe. Design: Structured interviews using Multi-criteria Mapping, a computer based decision support tool. Subjects/Setting: 189 interviewees, drawn from 21 different stakeholder categories in institutionally matched groups across nine members of the EU. Measurements: A four step approach was taken, i.e. selecting options, defining criteria, scoring options quantitat...

  10. Are Classroom Internet Use and Academic Performance Higher after Government Broadband Subsidies to Primary Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Marie; Layte, Richard; LYONS, SEAN; McCoy, Selina; Silles, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines data from a government programme providing broadband access to primary schools in Ireland with survey microdata on schools', teachers' and pupils use of the internet to examine the links between public subsidies, classroom use of the internet and educational performance. Provision of broadband service under a government scheme was associated with more than a doubling of teachers' use of the internet in class after about a two year lag. Better computing facilities in school...

  11. The distributional impact of subsidies to higher education: empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Barbaro, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    "The present paper deals with the net-transfer-calculation and the data (section II) presents empirical evidence for the distribution of children from various income brackets in the German higher educations system (section III) and builds a net transfer calculation on this analysis in order to ascertain the net incidence which is presented in section IV. Section V provides further extensions including the distributional impact of partial cut of the subsidies. Aditionally, it shall be investig...

  12. The Economywide Impacts and Risks of Malawi’s Farm Input Subsidy Program

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing; Pauw, Karl; Thurlow, James

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of Malawi’s Farm Input Subsidy Program using an economywide approach. We find potentially substantial net benefits with indirect benefits accounting for about two-fifths of total benefits. Due to these indirect benefits, the cutoff at which lower fertilizer yield response rates lead to net program losses is much lower than the value suggested by existing partial equilibrium evaluations. Benefits decline with domestic financing and real fertilizer prices increases. Abstr...

  13. The Impact on Ukraine of Joining the WTO: Subsidies vs. Antidumping in Ferrous Metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Eremenko; Katerina Lisenkova

    2004-01-01

    The goal of our research is to study Ukraine's accession to the WTO referring to one particular sector discussed most hotly in this context: metallurgy. Ukrainian metallurgy has two remarkable features: from one side, steel producers receive substantial subsidies; from the other side, Ukrainian metallurgical exports have been permanently brought under antidumping investigations. The purpose of this research is to study effects of both cases and find impact on metallurgy and total welfare. The...

  14. Who participates in R&D subsidy programs? The case of spanish manufacturing firms.

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Blanes, J.; Busom i Piquer, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the effectiveness of R&D subsidies to firms has produced mixed results so far. One possible explanation is that firms and project selection rules may be quite heterogeneous both across agencies and across industries, leading to different outcomes in terms of the induced additional private effort. Here we focus on the participation stage. Using a sample of Spanish firms, we test for differences across agencies and industries. Our results suggest that firms in the same ind...

  15. Price Subsidies, Diagnostic Tests, and Targeting of Malaria Treatment: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dupas, Pascaline; Cohen, Jessica; Schaner, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Both under- and over-treatment of communicable diseases are public bads. But efforts to decrease one run the risk of increasing the other. Using rich experimental data on household treatment- seeking behavior in Kenya, we study the implications of this trade-off for subsidizing life-saving antimalarials sold over-the-counter at retail drug outlets. We show that a very high subsidy (such as the one under consideration by the international community) dramatically increases access, but nearly on...

  16. Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Masahide

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy. Methods Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results. Results The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD. Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found. Conclusions It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual’s response to public relations would be required.

  17. Another Look at the Capitalization of Interest Subsidies: Evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Tommy; Englund, Peter; Patric H. Hendershott; Turner, Bengt

    1998-01-01

    We analyze by far the most extensive data base yet employed in estimating capitalization" of below-market interest rates into asset prices: nearly 300,000 sales of owner-occupied homes in" Sweden from 1981 to 1993 with 40,000 including government subsidized interest rates. Our" estimates indicates very clearly that interest subsidies are capitalized into house prices. The" below-market financing parameter is consistently significantly negative in all model" specifications, irrespective of ass...

  18. Evaluating the general equilibrium effects of a wage subsidy scheme for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kalie Pauw; Lawrence Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment among semi- and unskilled workers has reached severe proportions (over 50 %) and threatens the political and economic stability of the South African economy. In this paper a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the South African economy to assess the economy-wide impact of a wage subsidy targeted at semi- and unskilled workers. We find that employment of semi- and unskilled workers can be raised quite significantly, although the financial costs can be substantial. The ta...

  19. Efficiency and distributional impacts of tradable white certificates compared to taxes, subsidies and regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Quirion, Philippe; Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan

    2008-01-01

    Tradable White Certificates (TWC) schemes, also labelled Energy-Efficiency Certificates schemes, were recently implemented in Great Britain, Italy and France. Energy suppliers have to fund a given quantity of energy efficiency measures, or to buy so-called "white certificates" from other suppliers who exceed their target. We develop a partial equilibrium model to compare TWC schemes to other policy instruments for energy efficiency, i.e., energy taxes, subsidies on energy-saving goods and reg...

  20. An Analysis of Farmers' Insurance Choices and Federal Crop Insurance Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Hongli; Du, Xiaodong; David A. Hennessy

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. crop insurance has two distinct features that set itself apart from insurance in other areas: (i) it is explicitly subsidized with an average premium subsidy rate of about 60 percent in recent years; and (ii) the law requires the premium rate be set at actuarially fair level with the federal government paying the administrative and operational costs related to the sale and service of insurance policies. Bearing in mind these features, we examine to what extent farmers’ crop insurance...

  1. Kajian Terhadap Faktor – Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Subsidi Bahan Bakar Minyak (BBM) Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Ari Mulyani; I Wayan Sudirman; Ni Nyoman Yuliarmi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out and to analyze the factors that affecting the fuel subsidy (BBM) which written in the state budget. The data has been used in this study as follows secondary data obtained from the records and reports from various agencies such as statistic bureau (BPS), Ministry of Finance, Indonesia bank, the US. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of oil and Gas, previous journals and the results of studies. ...

  2. Energy subsidies, structure of electricity prices and technological change of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the impact of the structure of energy prices on technological change in renewable energy sources. It operates on two fields of research that are often not related to each other. Firstly, the increasing interest in environmental economics for the determinants of green technological change, and secondly the impact of government policies aimed at subsidizing energy prices. Recent research claims a positive relationship between energy prices and the number of patents in the fields of energy efficiency. This paper extends this research by investigating the impact of the price structure of electricity on patent counts in 1) renewable energy sources, 2) wind energy and 3) solar power. In nearly all OECD countries in the period 1990–2006 industrial energy users pay a lower price per energy unit than households due, among others, to government subsidy policies. The empirical results show that reducing government subsidies and hence increasing the electricity price of (large) industrial electricity users relative to the price paid by (small) residential users provides a clear incentive to increase inventions as measured by number of patents in the technical fields of solar and wind energy. These results are an important input in the debate on reducing government support to large energy users. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of the structure of energy prices on energy innovation. • We match the interest in induced clean innovation with concern for subsidy reform. • The analysis includes 20 OECD economies in the period 1990–2006. • Reducing the energy subsidy to large users leads to more clean energy inventions. • The effect is stronger for decentralized energy technologies such as solar power

  3. Subsidies and financial performances of the microfinance institutions: Does management matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudon, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses a unique database from a leading microfinance rating agency to assess the impact of management on the functioning of microfinance institutions (MFIs). It focuses on MFIs’ financial performance, and on the level of subsidies received. The results show that the management skills are associated to the financial performances. The technical, organisational and communication competences of the top managers seem to play a key role among the four management dimensions analysed by the ...

  4. The Impact of Public Subsidies on Venture Capital Investments in Start-Up Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Schertler, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between a venture capitalist and an entrepreneur is modeled to investigate the impact of public subsidies on venture capital investments in start-up enterprises. In this model, the venture capitalist only finances start-up enterprises if he has sufficient expertise to make high-risk investments in new technology profitable in terms of their expected value. It is shown that a venture capitalist who already has sufficient expertise reduces his management support in the start-up...

  5. Lifecycle emission impacts of subsidies for energy efficiency: Evidence from Cash‐for‐Clunkers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    One popular policy option to address environmental and economic concerns arising from current patterns of energy use is to subsidize increase in energy efficiency or renewable energy. In this paper we evaluate the lifecycle environmental bene�ts of the Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS) (or commonly `Cash-for-clunkers') which provided a subsidy for voluntary early retirement and replacement of low fuel economy automobiles with new, higher fuel economy vehicles. We �nd that the estimates of be...

  6. Green Paradox and Directed Technical Change: The Effects of Subsidies to Clean R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Daubanes, Julien; Grimaud, André; Rougé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The "green paradox" literature points out that environmental policies which are anticipated to become gradually more stringent over time may induce a more rapid extraction of fossil fuels, thus having a detrimental effect to the environment. The manifestation of such phenomena has been extensively studied in the case of taxes directly applied to the extraction of a polluting non-renewable resource and of subsidies applied to its non-polluting substitutes. This paper examines the effects of su...

  7. On the Optimal Provision of Social Insurance: Progressive Taxation versus Education Subsidies in General Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Dirk; Ludwig, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we compute the optimal tax and education policy transition in an economy where progressive taxes provide social insurance against idiosyncratic wage risk, but distort the education decision of households. Optimally chosen tertiary education subsidies mitigate these distortions. We highlight the importance of two different channels through which academic talent is transmitted across generations (persistence of innate ability vs. the impact of parental education) for the optimal de...

  8. Multi-Layered Capital Subsidy Policy for the PV Industry in China Considering Regional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country with huge energy consumption, China has been paying more and more attention to green growth in recent years. Several subsidy policies have been conducted to boost the photovoltaic (PV industry so far. However, as a matter of fact, there are 31 provinces and municipalities (PM in mainland China, and the economic condition, environmental resources and energy structure of each PM are all significantly different, which leads to a discrepancy of PV efficiency among regions. This paper proposes that the subsidies for the PV industry should be considered mainly from three aspects: the PM’s economic condition, energy efficiency and environmental responsibility. We built 19 evaluation indicators involving economic, environmental and energy factors, allocated weight to each indicator using the entropy weight method and sorted the 31 evaluation objects by TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method. Additionally, through an empirical study, we obtained the subsidy proportion for each PM. The result could make much of a contribution to the green growth of different regions and to the whole country.

  9. Scheme of Constructing CGE Model of China’s Direct Grain Subsidy Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of China’s direct grain subsidy policy, adopts computable general equilibrium (CGE) theory, and advances the scheme of constructing the model of China’s direct grain subsidy policy. On the basis of some assumptions, such as conforming to the complete competition of market, inexistence of move of capital and labor forces among countries, unchanged exchange rate and incomplete substitution, and the main body of behavior comprising representative households, producers, local government and central government, the model established in this paper includes production module and demand module. Moreover, the model takes into account equilibrium structure, the definition of profiting and macro condition for closure, the related coefficients this CGE model needs include Armingtion substitution elasticity of intermediate composite product, investment composite product and consumption composite product between import and domestic production; substitution elasticity among production factors; conversion elasticity of total sales between domestic absorption and export; elasticity of residents’ expenditure; elasticity of price; elasticity of export demand; the relative share of all sectors in capital stock. This paper also points out the advantages and limitations of CGE model in analyzing direct grain subsidy policy.

  10. Catatan Penelitian: Persepsi nelayan terhadap kebijakan subsidi perikanan dan konservasi di Kabupaten Aceh Besar, Provinsi Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A. Muchlisin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to collect information of fishermen perceptions in Aceh Besar district. The study was conducted from June to August 2012, while the field survey conducted on 21 to 28 June 2012 at some fishing villages in Aceh Besar district namely: (a Baitussalam and Mesjid, (b Peukan Bada, (c Leupung, Lhoknga and Lhoong, (d Pulo Aceh, (e Seulimum. The Results showed that most of respondents were in the productive age (31-45 years. The majority of the respondents have recieved subsidies from a variety of sources both government and non-governmental organizations. The common type of subsidy were in the form of goods (in kinds namely: boats, fishing gear and boat engines, and small portion in cash. In addition, the majority of fishermen stated that the type of assistance provided was in accordance with their needs as fishermen and most fishermen are still expected that fisheries subsidies should be continued. In regard to environmental and conservation issues that most fishermen agreed with the conservation area in the district of Aceh Besar. However, most of the respondents stated that they have not been involved in conservation activities. The fishermen need training in fishing technology, post harvest and conservation.

  11. Evaluation of the Market introduction Energy Innovations (MEI) subsidy scheme; Evaluatie van de MEI-regeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W.; Smekens, K.; Lako, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Warmenhoven, H. [De Gemeynt, Klarenbeek (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    This report contains the outcomes of an evaluation study of the Market introduction Energy Innovations (MEI) subsidy scheme. This scheme is targeted to the horticultural sector and aims to stimulate and accelerate the early market introduction of innovative energy systems in greenhouses. The subsidy scheme was initiated in 2007 and has provided subsidies twice a year since then. Based on project and data analysis, stakeholder interviews and a workshop, the evaluation concludes that the MEI scheme has made a positive contribution to the innovation process in the sector, but that the scheme could have been implemented more efficiently [Dutch] De regeling Marktintroductie energie-innovaties (MEI) is in 2007 ingesteld door het toenmalige Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit. Het doel van de MEI-regeling is het stimuleren en versnellen van de vroege marktintroductie van innovatieve energiesystemen in de glastuinbouw. ECN en De Gemeynt hebben een evaluatie uitgevoerd van de MEI-regeling. De centrale conclusie is dat de regeling een positieve bijdrage heeft geleverd aan het innovatieproces in de glastuinbouwsector.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of subsidy schemes for industrial timber development and carbon sequestration in Japanese forest plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tohru Nakajima; Hidesato Kanomata; Mitsuo Matsumoto; Satoshi Tatsuhara; Norihiko Shiraishi

    2011-01-01

    This study uses simulations to investigate the effects of implementing two different Japanese forestry subsidy systems on timber production and carbon stock, and examines the consequences for harvesting strategies. An existing Local Yield Table Construction System (LYCS), a wood conversion algorithm, and a harvesting cost model were used in the simulations to test the applicability of different subsidies to the thinning of stands. Using forest inventory data collected by local government staff, simulation output was used to calculate forestry profits,carbon stocks, subsidies, the amount of labor required, and the cost effectiveness of investing in subsidies. By comparing the output of simulations based on two scenarios, we found that both the clear-cutting area and the amount of harvested timber were larger under Scenario 2, in which the rules governing subsidy allocations are more relaxed, than under Scenario 1, in which the rules are more restrictive. Because the harvested timber under Scenario 1 was mainly produced by clear-cutting, the forestry profits and the subsidy predicted in the early period of the simulation, were larger under Scenario 1 than under Scenario 2. In contrast, the carbon stock was larger under Scenario 2 than under Scenario 1. The simulation model is likely to be useful for improving Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles implemented in Japanese forest management systems.

  13. The regulation for delivery of subsidies for measures of promoting power source location for nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities and the law concerning subsidies and others. Limits of the subsidies are stipulated respectively for establishment of a unit and simultaneous construction of more than 2 units of power generating facilities in the area of self-governing bodies concerned. Limits of the subsidies for an arrangement business out of the area of self-governing bodies where the facilities are set up shall be equal to those of the subsidies for such bodies. The Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry may make the amounts otherwise determined the limits of the subsidies, when considered necessary successfully to build the facilities. The term of delivery is from a fiscal year in which a later one of either the day of beginning of the construction concerned or the day of acknowledgment of the arrangement program of the business is included, through a fiscal year when the work finishes. An application for subsidies shall be filed to the head of the authorities concerned with gists of the business according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the head of the authorities shall examine it and notify to the applicant without delay in writing the decision of delivery and its conditions, when such settlement is made. (Okada, K.)

  14. Evolution of Brazilian Agricultural Policy: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Guanziroli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show characteristics of the agricultural policy stricto sensu that favored the agribusiness and agricultural development in Brazil in the past 30 years. To understand this process, the article has a brief description of the instruments of agricultural policy adopted by the Government during this period, so as to adapt to the demands of the WTO and the constraints of the economic situation. In the first phase, from 1964 to 1985, was achieved significantly increase agricultural production by guaranteeing domestic supply, which was a important bottleneck of Brazilian economy in the period pre-1964. Agricultural modernization was achieved with a high social cost, but it should be noted that this issue was not a central concern of the military governments. In the second phase (1985-2001, when Brazil starts the redemocratization, agricultural policy also changes and is consistent with macroeconomic objectives. By that time it was necessary to reduce the fiscal deficit and pay foreign debt. This goal was achieved with the large surpluses generated by the agribusiness despite the drastic reduction of agricultural subsidies. The third period (2002-present seeks to reconcile the promotion of agribusiness with the reduction of poverty, which was an outstanding democratization agenda and which had been postponed according to the need of solving the fiscal and inflation problems from the 80's. Once solved the problem of inflation, the State regain its planning capacity and begins to attack social problems

  15. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  16. POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS TO THE LIBERALISATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE IN THE WTO MILLENIUM ROUND (SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THE TRANSITORY ECONOMIES)

    OpenAIRE

    Halmai, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Through the comprehensive regulation international agricultural trade, the GATT Uruguay Round was already a significant move towards the elimination of market distorting factors/barriers. But the Agreement of Agriculture was only the first step on this long path and at the same time certain internal contradictions were generated: Due to the “dirty tariffication” the heavy protectionist countries could still impose high import duties; The mechanism for limiting domestic subsidies has not prove...

  17. Multifactorial Vector of Regional Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Sergeyevna Shepitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the agriculture development potential of the Volgograd region enabling to move to the stable type of reproduction as well as its factors: the natural conditions, location, technological types of production, agrarian structure, horizontal and vertical integration, state support. Methodological approach of the differentiation of green box subsidies is approved, the mechanism of its realization is proposed. The evidence base is substantiated by the long-term research of the soil intensification and soil quality factors influencing the soil productivity in the region. Within the boundaries of the existing natural areas, the following zones of territorial and economic development are allocated: the zones of competitive and efficient grain production; the zone of commercial sunflower production; the zones of territory and priority development. The criterion signs of their development are formulated. Alongside with the natural factor, the following factors were accepted as a criterion: the level of production adaptability and development of rural areas, displacement of population, customary lifestyle, arrangement of production infrastructure, resources, the structure of the agrarian economy. The evolutionary entrance of small agribusiness into the innovative economy have been reasoned as well as the creating on this basis of a special sector of agrarian economy — organic agriculture, which is reasonable to develop in the field of dairy cattlebreeding and vegetable-growing. A strategic analysis of the technological types of production existing in the regional agriculture in the context of organizational units and activities is presented. These are: industrial with innovative elements, extensive and intensive with innovative elements, extensive and intensive, extensive. They provide modernization as a factor of evolutionary formation of the innovative economy in the agrarian sector. Considering the global tendencies, the priorities

  18. DETERMINANTS OF CHANGES IN WORK PROFITABILITY IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew GOLAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the changes in work profitability in Polish agriculture. The analysis is based on the Economic Accounts for Agriculture, i.e. the applicable in the EU harmonised financial statement, which enables the analysis of the economic situation in agriculture according to uniform rules. The basis for the research have been the proposed systems of work profitability indicators and factor analysis (the logarithm method. The research has proven that in the post-accession period work profitability in agriculture increased in real terms on annual average by about 4,47%, and in 2013 in comparison to 2004, work profitability was higher in real terms by almost 60%. In the light of the factor analysis the main determinant of changes in work profitability in the domestic agriculture was the increase in work productivity and production subsidies.

  19. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  20. Trend report Energy Research Subsidy programme (2005-2008). A report on the most important trends and effects since the start of the Energy Research Subsidy (EOS) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005 the Energy Research Subsidy programme (EOS) was launched in the Netherlands. In four years' time about 500 projects were realized thanks to contributions from EOS. This report provides an overview of the main trends and effects of EOS in the period 2005-2008. One of the main conclusions is that a number of technologies have developed from invention level to market-ready level thanks to the EOS programme. The main trends since the start of EOS are: Increasing confidence of investors in EOS spearheads; increasing activity in EOS spearheads; Spearheads shifting to investment and exploitation schemes; EOS contributes to a solid patent position of Dutch parties; EOS contributes to European research.

  1. Experience of targeting subsidies on insecticide-treated nets: what do we know and what are the knowledge gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Eve; Hill, Jenny; Webster, Jayne; Mortimer, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Widespread coverage of vulnerable populations with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) constitutes an important component of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy to control malaria. The Abuja Targets call for 60% coverage of children under 5 years of age and pregnant women by 2005; but current coverage in Africa is unacceptably low. The RBM 'Strategic Framework for Coordinated National Action in Scaling-up Insecticide-Treated Netting Programmes in Africa' promotes coordinated national action and advocates sustained public provision of targeted subsidies to maximise public health benefits, alongside support and stimulation of the private sector. Several countries have already planned or initiated targeted subsidy schemes either on a pilot scale or on a national scale, and have valuable experience which can inform future interventions. The WHO RBM 'Workshop on mapping models for delivering ITNs through targeted subsidies' held in Zambia in 2003 provided an opportunity to share and document these country experiences. This paper brings together experiences presented at the workshop with other information on experiences of targeting subsidies on ITNs, net treatment kits and retreatment services (ITN products) in order to describe alternative approaches, highlight their similarities and differences, outline lessons learnt, and identify gaps in knowledge. We find that while there is a growing body of knowledge on different approaches to targeting ITN subsidies, there are significant gaps in knowledge in crucial areas. Key questions regarding how best to target, how much it will cost and what outcomes (levels of coverage) to expect remain unanswered. High quality, well-funded monitoring and evaluation of alternative approaches to targeting ITN subsidies is vital to develop a knowledge base so that countries can design and implement effective strategies to target ITN subsidies. PMID:15655010

  2. Which Subsidy Mode Improves the Financial Performance of Renewable Energy Firms? A Panel Data Analysis of Wind and Solar Energy Companies between 2009 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Huiming Zhang; Yu Zheng; Dequn Zhou; Peifeng Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of subsidies in improving the performance of renewable energy firms has aroused significant research attention in recent years. As subsidy modes may affect corporate financial performance,we have chosen companies specializing in wind and solar energy in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as samples.The relationships between the subsidy modes and financial performance of these two types of companies are investigated with a panel data model. Results of the total sample in...

  3. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  4. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies and required subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and utilization of renewable energy (RE), a strategic choice for energy structural adjustment, is an important measure of carbon emissions reduction in China. High cost is a main restriction element for large-scale development of RE, and accurate cost estimation of renewable power generation is urgently necessary. This is the first systemic study on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of RE in China. Results indicate that feed-in-tariff (FIT) of RE should be improved and dynamically adjusted based on the LCOE to provide a better support of the development of RE. The current FIT in China can only cover the LCOE of wind (onshore) and solar photovoltaic energy (PV) at a discount rate of 5%. Subsidies to renewables-based electricity generation, except biomass energy, still need to be increased at higher discount rates. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Government policy should focus on solving the financing problem of RE projects because fixed capital investment exerts considerable influence over the LCOE; and (2) the problem of high cost could be solved by providing subsidies in the short term and more importantly, by reforming electricity price in the mid-and long-term to make the RE competitive. - Highlights: • Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies is systemically studied. • Renewable power generation costs are estimated based on data of 17 power plants. • Required subsidies for renewable power generation are calculated. • Electricity price reform is the long-term strategy for solving problem of high cost

  5. Heterogeneity in rebound effects: Estimated results and impact of China’s fossil-fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rebound effects for China’s sectors are estimated. • The input–output model is a suitable model to analysis energy rebound effects across sectors. • The impacts of fossil-fuel subsidies on rebound effects are evaluated. • Technological progress has varies impactions on energy conservation, thereby rebound effects. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement has become a primary measure to achieve energy conservation targets in China. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. From sectors perspective, technological advancement is not a necessary condition for energy conservation for a given sector because of varied rates of technological advancement and dependence among sectors. Adopting the input–output model, this article presents a detailed analysis of energy rebound effects in China’s economy at the aggregate and sectoral level over 2006–2010. The results show that the aggregate sectors’ rebound effect is about 11.31%, which is larger than without considering the interaction among sectors (11.25%); and strongly suggests that technological advancement has varied impacts on energy conservation and rebound effects. Thus various strategies of technological advancement and incorporated mitigation measures are necessary for energy conservation across sectors. Furthermore, the current study confirms that China’s total value of fossil-fuel subsidies reached 160.23 billion US$ (constant 2005 price) in 2006–2010; and after removal of subsidies, the energy use is expected to save 411.35 million toe and the rebound effects for aggregate sectors become 10.64%. Finally, some relevant policy issues are discussed in depth

  6. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  7. US biofuels subsidies and CO2 emissions: An empirical test for a weak and a strong green paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using energy data over the period 1981–2011 we find that US biofuels subsidies and production have provided a perverse incentive for US fossil fuel producers to increase their rate of extraction that has generated a weak green paradox. Further, in the short-run if the reduction in the CO2 emissions from a one-to-one substitution between biofuels and fossil fuels is less than 26 percent, or less than 57 percent if long run effect is taken into account, then US biofuels production is likely to have resulted in a strong green paradox. These results indicate that subsidies for first generation biofuels, which yield a low level of per unit CO2 emission reduction compared to fossil fuels, might have contributed to additional net CO2 emissions over the study period. - Highlights: • US biofuels subsidies increased fossil fuel extraction from 1981 to 2011. • US biofuels subsidies likely increased carbon emissions from 1981 to 2011. • Governments must consider effects of biofuel subsidies on fossil fuel extraction

  8. There is a high cost to using subsidies to promote renewable energy to mitigate climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the threat posed by climate change becoming more and more apparent, many are pushing for greater use of more sustainable energy sources, such as wind power. While these ‘green’ energy sources can attract generous subsidies from government, can this investment be justified in comparison to their reductions of greenhouse gas emissions? Joseph Cullen takes an in-depth look at the cost of wind power, compared with the value of emissions avoided. He finds that given the current social cost of...

  9. A decarbonization strategy for the electricity sector: New-source subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expedient phase-out of carbon emissions in the electricity sector could be facilitated by imposing carbon fees and applying the revenue exclusively to subsidize new, low-carbon generation sources. Since there would initially be no 'new sources', fees would be substantially zero at the outset of the program. Nevertheless, the program would immediately create high price incentives for low-carbon capacity expansion. Fees would increase as new, low-carbon sources gain market share, but price competition from a growing, subsidized clean-energy industry would help maintain moderate retail electricity prices. Subsidies would automatically phase out as emitting sources become obsolete.

  10. Subsidy or tax policy for new technology adoption in duopoly with quadratic and linear cost functions

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Hattori; Yasuhito Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis about subsidy (or tax) policy for adoption of new technology in a duopoly with a homogeneous good. Technology itself is free. However, firms must expend fixed set-up costs for adoption of new technology, for example, education costs of their staffs. We assume linear demand function, and consider two types of cost functions of firms. Quadratic cost functions and linear cost functions. There are various cases of optimal policies depending on the level of the set-up cost a...

  11. Does the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) cause banks to provide a subsidy to some mortgage borrowers?

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn B. Canner; Elizabeth Laderman; Andreas Lehnert; Wayne Passmore

    2002-01-01

    The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) encourages lenders to make mortgage loans to certain classes of borrowers. However, the law does not apply to all lenders, and lenders do not necessarily receive credit for all loans made to borrowers of a particular class. We use this variation to test whether or not CRA-affected lenders cut interest rates to CRA-eligible borrowers; in other words, we test for the presence of a regulation-driven subsidy. Our theory suggests that loans made by commercial b...

  12. The world PV market 2000: shifting from subsidy to 'fully economic'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an overview of the world grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) market concentrating on the US, Japan and Germany. The PV markets in the three countries are examined, and PV module shipments, the economics of residential PVs in the markets, and forecasts of the grid-connected market are discussed. Details are given of the German 100,000 roofs PV roof subsidy programme to stimulate the residential and commercial grid-connected market. A summary of the grid-connected PV markets in the three countries, and economic information on German grid-connected PV roofs are tabulated

  13. Assessing the impact of a wage subsidy for single parents on social assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Lacroix; Dany Brouillette

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of a wage subsidy program aimed at long-term social assistance recipients in Quebec. The program closely mimics the Self-Sufficiency Project and was implemented for a trial period of one year in 2002.We focus on the labour market transitions of the targeted population starting one year before the implementation of the program and until the end of 2005. Our results show that the duration of spells off social assistance increased, while the duration of social assis...

  14. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  15. Subsidy base in the SDE 2012. Concept recommendation for the market consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, ECN and KEMA have studied the cost of renewable electricity production. This cost assessment for various categories is part of an advice on the subsidy base for the feed-in support scheme SDE+. The report contains a draft advice on the cost of projects in the Netherlands targeted for realisation in 2012. The options cover installations for green gas, biogas, renewable electricity and renewable heat. The draft advice has been written to facilitate the market consultation on the 2012 base rates. The open market consultation is to be held in August 2011.

  16. Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lliana Herrera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies are effective in increasing the inputs to the innovation process of SMEs and the outputs of large firms. One must consider these differences when evaluating and designing future innovation policies.This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies are effective in increasing the inputs to the innovation process of SMEs and the outputs of large firms. One must consider these differences when evaluating and designing future innovation policies.This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies

  17. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  18. Estimating the Impact of Means-tested Subsidies under Treatment Externalities with Application to Anti-Malarial Bednets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Debopam; Dupas, Pascaline; Kanaya, Shin

    Regular use of effective health-products such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) by a household benefits its neighbors by (a) reducing chances of infection and (b) raising awareness about product-effectiveness, thereby increasing product-use. Due to their potential social benefits and high...... its neighbors. Using experimental data from Kenya where subsidies were randomized, coupled with GPS-based location information, we show how to estimate aggregate ITN use resulting from means-tested subsidies in the presence of such spatial spillovers. Accounting for spillovers introduces infinite......-dimensional estimated regressors corresponding to continuously distributed location coordinates and makes the inference problem novel. We show that even if individual ITN use unambiguously increases with increasing incidence of subsidy in the neighborhood, ignoring spillovers may over- or under-predict overall ITN use...

  19. Terrestrial carbon is a resource, but not a subsidy, for lake zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2014-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial organic carbon (t-OC) into lakes are often considered a resource subsidy for aquatic consumer production. Although there is evidence that terrestrial carbon can be incorporated into the tissues of aquatic consumers, its ability to enhance consumer production has been debated. Our research aims to evaluate the net effect of t-OC input on zooplankton. We used a survey of zooplankton production and resource use in ten lakes along a naturally occurring gradient of t-OC concentration to address these questions. Total and group-specific zooplankton production was negatively related to t-OC. Residual variation in zooplankton production that was not explained by t-OC was negatively related to terrestrial resource use (allochthony) by zooplankton. These results challenge the designation of terrestrial carbon as a resource subsidy; rather, the negative effect of reduced light penetration on the amount of suitable habitat and the low resource quality of t-OC appear to diminish zooplankton production. Our findings suggest that ongoing continental-scale increases in t-OC concentrations of lakes will likely have negative impacts on the productivity of aquatic food webs.

  20. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  1. Industrial energy demand and the effect of taxes, agreements and subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an econometric analysis of industrial companies demand for energy. The effect of energy taxes, energy agreements and subsidies to investments in energy efficiency, which have been applied as policy instruments in Denmark since 1993, is also quantified. The econometric analysis is based on an extensive database, which contains information on industrial companies consumption of energy and their value added in a number of years covering the period 1983 to 1997 (information from the years 1983, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1996 and 1997 is included). The database has been constructed by combining information from different registers in Statistics Denmark. The database contains information on the majority of all existing industrial companies with more than 20 employees (from 1995 to 1997 primary data on energy consumption were only collected for half the industrial companies with 20-50 employees). The database has a panel (longitudinal) nature, where each industrial company can be followed over time. This makes it possible to compare energy consumption in companies before and after they have been given a subsidy to invest in energy efficiency or entered an energy agreement with the Danish Energy Agency. The econometric analysis utilises the panel nature of the data by relying on so-called fixed effect estimators. (EHS)

  2. An unusual trophic subsidy and species dominance in a tropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jill; Dobson, Michael; Magana, Adiel M; Arnold, Amanda; Mathooko, Jude M

    2008-08-01

    In classical theory, species are assumed to achieve dominance through competitive exclusion, but if food resources are limiting, cross-habitat trophic subsidies could also underpin dominance. The impact of dominant species on community dynamics may depend on the energy base of population size. We report on an unusual, spatially subsidized population of a tropical, stream-dwelling crab that dominates the benthic fauna of a Kenyan stream. Diet and stable isotope analyses indicated that this crab is a true omnivore, with terrestrial subsidies dominating both plant and animal resources. Unusually, the animal prey included almost no aquatic invertebrates. Instead, a single species of ant constituted approximately 35% of the annual diet (stomach contents analysis) and up to 90% of assimilated nitrogen (estimates from stable isotope analysis). Ants may be pivotal to enabling crab dominance, and this crab may be largely disconnected from the local trophic network for its dietary needs. The paucity of other invertebrates in the stream community suggests that this super-dominant crab is a strong interactor that suppresses aquatic invertebrate populations. Common stabilizing attributes of spatially subsidized food webs (e.g., asynchronous prey availability, wide feeding niche, consumer migration) were absent from this system, and although apparently stable, it may be vulnerable to disturbance in the donor habitat. PMID:18724742

  3. Agricultural Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climatic Changes in Malaysia: Review on Paddy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Talib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has mixed impacts on agriculture and the impacts are different in terms of areas, periods and crops. The changing factors of climate have been exerting strong negative impacts on Malaysian agriculture, which is apprehended to result in shortages of water and other resources for long term, worsening soil condition, disease and pest outbreaks on crops and livestock, sea-level rise, and so on. Due to climate change, agricultural productivity and profitability is declining. Despite continuous increases of government subsidy, area of paddy plantation is decreasing and the adaption practices are ineffective. As climate change is universal and its existence is indefinite, the farmers need to adapt to and find ways to mitigate the damages of climatic variation in order to sustain agricultural productivity and attain food security for them.

  4. Uneconomical tops of renewable electricity options. Advice with regard to the determination of the MEP subsidies for 2004 and 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs ECN and KEMA have researched the financial gaps of renewable electricity production technologies. These form the basis for determining the level of the MEP-subsidies for different renewable electricity sources and technologies by the Ministry. This report contains an advice on the financial gaps that are to be used for determining the subsidy levels. The calculation of the financial gaps is based on an earlier report on the inputs for the calculations and on the subsequent stakeholder consultation with respect to these inputs

  5. Picking the winner? Empirical evidence on the targeting of R&D subsidies to start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Kösters, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the allocation of R&D subsidies given to start-ups. Considering the coexistence of various R&D project schemes, we take an aggregate view and analyze the determinants of the receipt of (any) R&D subsidies within the first three business years of the start-ups. We argue that policymakers and funding authorities follow a strategy of "picking the winner". Analyzing a unique data set of start-ups in the East German state of Thuringia, we conduct logistic regressions and fi...

  6. 5 CFR 792.207 - When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage of this law? 792.207 Section 792.207... When does the child care subsidy program law become effective and how may agencies take advantage...

  7. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy. PMID:26962003

  8. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  9. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  10. Transforming Vietnamese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, ...

  11. Does Government Subsidy Guide Private Universities towards Favorable Directions?: A Preliminary Analysis on Financial Data of Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing college-aged population and the transforming policy environment in Japan, private universities are confronted with management crises, such as bankruptcy, mergers, etc. As the second largest source of funding, government subsidies for private universities is considered to have contributed to enhancing educational conditions and…

  12. SHORT-RUN SUBSIDIES AND LONG-RUN ADOPTION OF NEW HEALTH PRODUCTS: EVIDENCE FROM A FIELD EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Pascaline

    2014-01-01

    Short-run subsidies for health products are common in poor countries. How do they affect long-run adoption? A common fear among development practitioners is that one-off subsidies may negatively affect long-run adoption through reference-dependence: People might anchor around the subsidized price and be unwilling to pay more for the product later. But for experience goods, one-off subsidies could also boost long-run adoption through learning. This paper uses data from a two-stage randomized pricing experiment in Kenya to estimate the relative importance of these effects for a new, improved antimalarial bed net. Reduced form estimates show that a one-time subsidy has a positive impact on willingness to pay a year later inherit. To separately identify the learning and anchoring effects, we estimate a parsimonious experience-good model. Estimation results show a large, positive learning effect but no anchoring. We black then discuss the types of products and the contexts inherit for which these results may apply. PMID:25308977

  13. Macrophytes and periphyton carbon subsidies to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in a shallow eutrophic lake in tropical China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Kluijver, A.; Ning, J.; Liu, Z.;

    2015-01-01

    The subsidy of carbon derived from macrophytes and associated periphyton to bacterioplankton and zooplankton in subtropical shallow eutrophic Huizhou West Lake in China was analyzed using carbon stable isotope signatures. A restored part of the lake dominated by macrophytes was compared with an...

  14. 20 CFR 418.3120 - What happens if your circumstances change after we determine you are eligible for a subsidy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section). (10) You become eligible for one of the programs listed in 42 CFR.... (c) If you become eligible for one of the programs listed in 42 CFR 423.773(c), CMS will notify you... after we determine you are eligible for a subsidy? 418.3120 Section 418.3120 Employees' Benefits...

  15. 46 CFR 251.1 - Applications for construction-differential subsidy under Title V, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capability and productivity possible. In making its determinations under this policy, the Maritime Subsidy... cost of construction. (5) Estimated revenues and cost of operation; and with respect to wage cost, the... such a fashion as will measure the productivity of the vessel (i.e., its carrying capacity, speed,...

  16. 77 FR 10478 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  17. 76 FR 60805 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... respect to any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  18. 77 FR 51758 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  19. 75 FR 52310 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  20. 76 FR 2346 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  1. 75 FR 17699 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 701(c)(1) of the Act, and to... the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were imported during...

  2. 76 FR 38359 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  3. 75 FR 35769 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  4. 76 FR 72677 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  5. 76 FR 14649 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the Act... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  6. 77 FR 32567 - Quarterly Update to Annual Listing of Foreign Government Subsidies on Articles of Cheese Subject...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Articles of Cheese Subject to an In-Quota Rate of Duty AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... respect to any article of cheese subject to an in-quota rate of duty, as defined in section 702(h) of the... hereby provide the Department's quarterly update of subsidies on articles of cheese that were...

  7. The inadequacy between the photovoltaic subsidy mode and its technological maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author criticizes the current French program which aims at developing the photovoltaic (PV) sector through the development of highly subsidized markets. He states that the high purchase tariff is not the right instrument with respect to the PV technology development stage, and that it would be better to strengthen the R and D effort, notably in the thin-layer sector. Secondly, he criticizes the French approach for its too long tariff commitment, the absence of decreasing purchase tariff over 20 years, the useless addition of other aids (tax credits, VAT lowering, etc.), the absence of tariff decrease for new installations, the absence of distinction between variously mature technologies. Finally, he states that this programme will not reach the objective of building up a French photovoltaic sector because of the global competition context. According to him, an ambitious programme of subsidies for the R and D and some targeted technologies, and in favour of French manufacturers would be a better solution

  8. A nematomorph parasite explains variation in terrestrial subsidies to trout streams in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Kamauchi, Hiromitsu; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites alter the behavior of their orthopteran hosts, driving them to water and creating a source of food for stream salmonids. We investigated whether nematomorphs could explain variation in terrestrial subsidies across several streams. In nine study streams, orthopterans comprise much of the stomach contents of trout (46 +/- 31% on average). Total mass of ingested prey per trout biomass positively correlated with the mass of orthopterans ingested, suggesting that the orthopterans enhanced absolute mass of prey consumption by the trout population. The orthopterans ingested per trout biomass positively correlated with the abundance of nematomorphs in the stream, but not with the abundance of camel crickets (the dominant hosts) around the streams. Streams in conifer plantations had fewer nematomorphs than streams in natural deciduous forests. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can explain variation in the allochthonous energy flow through and across ecosystems.

  9. The PSO support scheme for natural gas - subsidy to industry or environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the PSO scheme for natural gas are examined critically. Two central arguments used for justifying the PSO subsidy scheme of natural gas and its distribution are reviewed; these include the 'smallholder argument' and the 'environmental argument'. The 'smallholder argument' claims that since Norway has the natural gas resources, it should also make use of the natural gas in the country, and not simply send the raw material to other countries. The 'environmental argument' states that natural gas compared to other fossil fuels such as coal and fuel oil, is a far cleaner alternative, thus an environmental-friendly alternative entitled to financial support. The arguments are critically examined by the author (ml)

  10. Landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Anna; Pedersen, Eja; Weisner, Stefan E B

    2012-12-30

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers' good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands. PMID:23064246

  11. Combining tariffs, investment subsidies and soft loans in a renewable electricity deployment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy combinations and interactions have received a considerable attention in the climate and energy policy realm. However, virtually no attention has been paid to the analysis of the combination of different deployment instruments for the same renewable energy technology. This neglect is all the more striking given the existence in current policy practice of combinations of deployment instruments either across technologies or for the same technology, both in the EU and elsewhere. What renewable electricity support policies to use and, therefore, how to combine them in order to promote the deployment of renewable energy technologies cost-effectively is a main concern of governments. The aim of this paper is to provide insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. A financial model is developed for this purpose, whereby feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. The results show that the policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. Therefore, combining deployment instruments is not a cost-containment strategy. However, combinations may lead to different inter-temporal distributions of the same amount of policy costs and, thus, differently affect the social acceptability and political feasibility of renewable energy support. - Highlights: • Insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. • A financial model is developed. • Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. • The policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. • Therefore, combining deployment measures is not a cost-containment strategy

  12. Nuclear energy research funding 1956-2002: Startup financing or subsidy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different figures, some of them extremely large, some even interpreted as subsidies, have been publicized about public funding of the development of nuclear power for electricity generation. An attempt is made in this article to quantify the research funds directly attributable to the present use of nuclear power, put the research funds spent into a relationship to the electricity generated from nuclear power, and put a number on the economic benefit of the money spent. In the past, R and D work on the utilization of nuclear power was financed by various federal ministries. As in other technology-related areas, funds were made available for specific projects, on the one hand, and through financing the national research centers, on the other hand. Relatively small amounts were spent on the development of the light water reactor (LWR) line, most of them in the 1950s and 1960s. Considerably greater expenditures were incurred by the federal government for reactor safety. R and D of the fast breeder (LMFBR) was conducted chiefly between 1960 and 1993. Research into the high temperature (HTR) reactor line focused mainly on the plant built by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) association, and the thorium high temperature reactor (THTR-300) at a later date. Nuclear fuel cycle activities were started early in the 1950s. The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear plants plays but a minor role in public funding. Nuclear fusion, on the other hand, is a major research area. The nuclear power plants now generating electricity from nuclear power have never received any subsidies, and their economic benefit is beyond any doubt. The public funds spent on R and D were intended to be startup funds. They convincingly served their purpose in those cases where the technologies supported in this way have been able to take off. (orig.)

  13. Effects of Detrital Subsidies on Soft-Sediment Ecosystem Function Are Transient and Source-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone-Gallagher, Rebecca V.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Lundquist, Carolyn J.; Pilditch, Conrad A.

    2016-01-01

    Detrital subsidies from marine macrophytes are prevalent in temperate estuaries, and their role in structuring benthic macrofaunal communities is well documented, but the resulting impact on ecosystem function is not understood. We conducted a field experiment to test the effects of detrital decay on soft-sediment primary production, community metabolism and nutrient regeneration (measures of ecosystem function). Twenty four (2 m2) plots were established on an intertidal sandflat, to which we added 0 or 220 g DW m-2 of detritus from either mangroves (Avicennia marina), seagrass (Zostera muelleri), or kelp (Ecklonia radiata) (n = 6 plots per treatment). Then, after 4, 17 and 46 d we measured ecosystem function, macrofaunal community structure and sediment properties. We hypothesized that (1) detrital decay would stimulate benthic primary production either by supplying nutrients to the benthic macrophytes, or by altering the macrofaunal community; and (2) ecosystem responses would depend on the stage and rate of macrophyte decay (a function of source). Avicennia detritus decayed the slowest with a half-life (t50) of 46 d, while Zostera and Ecklonia had t50 values of 28 and 2.6 d, respectively. However, ecosystem responses were not related to these differences. Instead, we found transient effects (up to 17 d) of Avicennia and Ecklonia detritus on benthic primary production, where initially (4 d) these detrital sources suppressed primary production, but after 17 d, primary production was stimulated in Avicennia plots relative to controls. Other ecosystem function response variables and the macrofaunal community composition were not altered by the addition of detritus, but did vary with time. By sampling ecosystem function temporally, we were able to capture the in situ transient effects of detrital subsidies on important benthic ecosystem functions. PMID:27138563

  14. THE COMMON EU AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORUMBACEAN CLAUDIU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s negotiations to become a European Union member were officially inaugurated on February 15, 2000. Agriculture is the largest negotiation chapter. The enlargement had and will certainly have positive effects upon the Romanian agriculture: stimulation of trade exchanges as a consequence of the dropping up of the customs duties, the increase of the agricultural products and,consequently, of the farmers’ income, the access to a much bigger market, of 450 million inhabitants.In order for the Romanian agricultural and food sector to become a competitive one, priority measures and steps are necessary both in the vegetal sector and in the animal-breeding and meat and diary products processing sectors. Once the enlargement achieved, Romanian agriculture is taking the advantage of different types of assistance within the framework of the CommonAgricultural Policy, but in order to absorb these funds it is important to know the governing principles. The basic principle of the community policy is to stimulate the farmers to adjust to the market signals, to produce what it is required to be produced on the market. Thus, the farmer will be determined to adjust the target with every quantity required, depending upon cost and qualitycompetitiveness. This concept is called “decoupling”, meaning the decoupling of the production subsidies and their connection to the surface.Romania’s tradition in animal-breeding for milk production may be an advantage for the implementation of chances to become an active participant to the intra-community trade. But tradition is not enough for Romania to be able to take advantage of the export opportunities. For this, we will have to improve the raw material milk quality and also of the products resulting from the processing, in order to allow the adjustment to the EU standards. Achieving the quality and cleaning parameters shall be performed by steps, until the end of the year 2009, mainly by adjusting the race

  15. New areas in agricultural and food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Harmsen, Hanne; Larsen, Hanne Hartvig;

    1997-01-01

    There is wide agreement in the public debate that the food industry in Western industrialised countries is entering a difficult period. Several tendencies taken together work to increase the competitive pressure on food companies (Grunert et al., 1996): - In affluent economies, it is one of the l....... - Concentration in the retail sector has resulted in powerful agents. Not only do the agents exercise an important gatekeeper function but they can also put competitive pressure on food manufacturers.......There is wide agreement in the public debate that the food industry in Western industrialised countries is entering a difficult period. Several tendencies taken together work to increase the competitive pressure on food companies (Grunert et al., 1996): - In affluent economies, it is one of the...... laws of economics that growth in markets for food products, if any, is not in terms of quantity, but in terms of value. - Most industrialised economies are characterised by an oversupply of agricultural products. - A global tendency towards deregulation, decrease of government subsidies to producers of...

  16. Take-Up Rates and Trade Offs After the Age of Entitlement: Some Thoughts and Empirical Evidence for Child Care Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we develop a model of an eligible family's decision to take or not to take child care subsidies. This decision depends on the net benefits the family expects to derive from the subsidies over their expected duration. We contend that such a demand-side model for the take-up of child care subsidies and use of the term 'take-up' rate are only appropriate for programs that guarantee services to all eligible applicants. After welfare reform, most states do not offer such guarantees. ...

  17. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    agriculture and timber products. We analyze regional changes in land use, output, competitiveness, and food consumption under climate change mitigation policy regimes which differ by participation/exclusion of agricultural sectors and non-Annex I countries, as well as policy instruments. While responsible for only a third of global GHG emissions, under the global carbon tax the land using sectors could contribute half of all economically efficient mitigation in the near term, at modest carbon prices. The imposition of a carbon tax in agriculture, however, has adverse effects on food consumption, especially in developing countries. These effects are much smaller if an agricultural producer subsidy is introduced to compensate for carbon tax the producers pay. The global forest carbon sequestration subsidy effectively controls emission leakage when the carbon tax is imposed only in Annex I regions, since the sequestration subsidy bids land away from agriculture in non-Annex I regions. Though the sequestration subsidy yields GHG abatement benefit, the policy may adversely affect food security and agricultural development in developing countries.

  18. Collective Action and Common Agricultural Policy Lobbying: Evidence of Euro-Group Influence, 1986-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers by the in.uence of farmer interest-groups with an EU-wide membership (so called Euro-groups). The analysis is based on panel-data for .fteen commodities over the period 1986-2003. Because the CAP is set as an overall EU policy, e¤ective lobbying presents a collective action problem to the farmers in the EU as a whole. Indicators of lobbying, which are based on this perception, are found to explain part of the...

  19. Targeting Of Subsidized Fertilizer Under Kenya’s National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Program (NAAIAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sheahan, Megan; Olwande, John; Kirimi, Lilian; Jayne, Thom S.

    2014-01-01

    A new wave of “market smart” modern input subsidy schemes has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade with the promise of increasing input use and grain yields while building or complementing private sector efforts. We study the extent to which geographic and household level targeting under Kenya’s National Accelerated Agricultural Input Access Program (NAAIAP) has remained true to its “market smart” objectives using household level panel data from before and during the initial yea...

  20. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a