WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural residues

  1. Agricultural Residues Based Composites 1. Preparation of Fibrous Agricultural Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to use agricultural residues as bagasse, cotton stalks, rice straw, linen and linen fibers, which are produced in Egypt in huge amounts annually to produce composites with cement or gypsum. Also the effect of physical and chemical treatments of the fibers and the addition of some additives to the composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the produced composites also the effect of its firing at temperatures up to 800 degree C was tested after dipping in water for different time intervals (1-90 days). In this paper we considered only the preparation of different types of fibers, its grinding and separation to different fiber lengths (ca. 0.4 to 1.5 mm). The percent of each fiber length and its chemical and physical analysis is found

  2. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    agricultural processing residues, manure and municipal liquid waste can theoretically replace approximately 20% of current utilisation of heat energy in households. However, a need is revealed for resilient small-scale anaerobic digestion solutions, designed for utilising agricultural residues under manure...... recommended to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be...

  3. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  4. Torrefaction process for agriculture and forest residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada). Dept. of Engineering; Pimchuai, A. [Burapha Univ., Chonburi (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 2 energy crops, notably agriculture and forest residues, were torrefied with subsequent analysis of the solid residues. The purpose of the study was to remove some disadvantages of agriculture residues as a fuel and to enhance their solid fuel qualities. The 5 agriculture residues studied were rice husk, sawdust, peanut husk, bagasse and water hyacinth. Temperature and residence time for the process was varied at 250, 270, 300 degrees C and 1, 1.5, 2 hours respectively. The torrefied products were then characterized in terms of yield, proximate analysis, heating value and hydrophobic properties. The optimum condition based on mass and energy balance for the torrefaction process was determined. The torrefied products were found to be more brown in colour and had lower moisture content and volatile matter. The fixed carbon content and energy density of the ash increased. The bagasse that was torrefied at 300 degrees C and 1.5 hours had the highest HHV content, comparable to that of lignite. Depending on the severity of the torrefaction conditions, the torrefied fuel can contain up to 98 per cent of the original energy content on a mass basis. It was concluded that the operating temperature is the most important parameter for producing a better torrefied product.

  5. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...... of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  6. Energy exploitation of agricultural residues in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, D.; Tsoutsos, T.D.

    2002-07-01

    The island of Crete is a typical Mediterranean area with a high biomass potential, the major part of which is still unexploited or irrationally exploited, but at the same time has a problematic energy supply during the high touristic season. In this paper the energy content of the biomass potential is estimated, as a parameter to alleviate the energy system of the island. The exploitation of biomass is studied with reference to the following aspects: the major residue production (olive kernel, husks - citrus fruits, grapes), branches (olive tree, citrus tree, grape tree); the qualitative analysis (proximate, ultimate, calorific value, ash analysis) of samples of basic agricultural residues of the Cretan production (vineshoots, olive tree wood and citrus, olive kernel). (author)

  7. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  8. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  9. Focus on agricultural residues: Microstructure of almond hull (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural residues have historically been used as animal feed or burned for disposal. These residues, therefore, have little economic value and may end up becoming disposal problems because tighter air quality control measures may limit burning of the residues. Therefore, value-added products mad...

  10. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guangtao

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) s...

  11. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  12. Crop residues reuse to improve agricultural soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo, Jennifer Moreno; Cano, Angel Faz

    2008-01-01

    Since the 70´s in The Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, the irrigated agricultural area has increased, especially in the agrarian district “Comarca del Campo de Cartagena”, (South East of Spain). As a consequence, the amount of crop residues generated has gone up too. At the present, harvest residues constitute a very serious environmental problem because, in most cases, these residues are dehydrated on the land and burned later on with subsequent negative consequences...

  13. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, C.; Tanzi, V.; Lanzetta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dip di Ingegneria Chimica, Napoli (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The Italian production of agricultural residues has been evaluated with a view to energy recovery through gasification. Two main categories of residues have been identified: the first, (A) is associated with the growing and collection of products with a nutritional value, whereas the second (B) includes the residues associated with the subsequent processing in order to obtain final products for commercialization. Category A, which comprises three further sub-categories: straw (A1); woody residues (A2); and stems and leaves (residues from vegetables, tobacco, sugar beet, (A3)), results in about 16.5 mt yr. The average amount of straw (A1) is 11 mt/yr, of which about 60% is waste to be eliminated. Woody residues (A2) (mainly pruning off-cuts from vineyards and olive groves) are about 3.5 mt/yr (85% unused). Category A3 amounts to about 2 mt/yr (90% unused). Straw is available mainly in the northern part of the country, whereas the other two sub-categories are widely distributed in central and southern regions. The yields of category B are estimated at 4 mt/yr, of which more than 3 mt/yr are waste products from grape and olive processing. Other residues, such as rice, sunflower and soya-bean husks (about 0.65 mt/yr), almond and nut shells and fruit stones (about 0.2 mt/yr), although not widely available on a national scale, can be significant on a local basis. The total amount of unused agricultural residues is about 14.5 mt/yr, which, if completely exploited through gasification, can contribute as much as 7-10% to the current national electricity needs. The regions of Veneto, Puglia, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna appear to be good candidates for electricity production, given the significant surface concentration of unused residues (105-55 t km{sup 2}). (author)

  14. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  15. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RuncangSun; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to, commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world's total straw pulp. However, huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  16. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Runcang Sun; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood,agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to,commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world′s total straw pulp. However,huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  17. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co...

  18. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  19. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  20. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  1. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  2. Pesticide residue monitoring in Korean agricultural products, 2003-05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, T H; Kim, B S; Jo, S J; Kang, H G; Choi, B Y; Kim, M Y

    2009-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 11,716 samples were collected and analysed to determine the level of pesticides residues. Multi-residue methods (MRMs) capable of simultaneously determining 250 pesticides were used. Of the 11,716 samples, 89.1% had no detectable residues and 1.7% had violative residues. The detection rates by commodity group were 11.4, 8.6, 0.3, and 0.02% for vegetables, fruit, grain, mushrooms, and the others, respectively. Agricultural products with pesticide residues were pepper, Perilla frutescens, leafy lettuce and spinach in decreasing order. Of the 250 pesticides that were monitored, 70 pesticides were actually found. Procymidone, endosulfan, chlorfenapyr, metalaxyl, and diethofencarb were frequently detected. Of the samples, parsley, Petasites hybridus, Aster scaber and leek had high violative rates of 23.1, 12.6, 8.2, and 7.9%, respectively. From violative samples, procymidone, endosulfan, metalaxyl, diazinon and chlorpyrifos were frequently detected. The violation rates were 1.71, 1.68, and 1.76% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and the detection rates were 8.5, 12.0, and 13.3% in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. PMID:24784964

  3. Composition and utilization of cellulose for chemicals from agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciamanna, A.F.; Freitas, R.P.; Wilke, C.R.

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken for several reasons. Firstly, because of the scarcity of data on the composition of certain agricultural residues generated predominantly in California, it could only be inferred from the published composition of agricultural grains and wood what the carbohydrate composition of the residue straw, stems, and roots might be. Published methods of analysis on wood and grains were adapted or modified to suit these materials, resulting in an analytical system applicable to these residues. Secondly, a series of chemical pretreatments were studied to see if sugar production by enzymatic hydrolysis might be improved. Also these studies are used as a basis of generating the data for chemical engineering parameters of the Berkeley process. Since lignin is ultimately used as a feed back energy source in the Berkeley process, it is not necessary for it to be in the form of a relatively low weight polymer. Therefore, a study on the use of recoverable chemical solvents for dilignification by solution, rather than by a depolymerization reaction is indicated.

  4. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  5. A mutli-factor analysis of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated m...

  6. Oxidation in Acidic Medium of Lignins from Agricultural Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, Gisele Aparecida Amaral; Gonçalves, Adilson Roberto

    Agricultural residues as sugarcane straw and bagasse are burned in boilers for generation of energy in sugar and alcohol industries. However, excess of those by-products could be used to obtain products with higher value. Pulping process generates cellulosic pulps and lignin. The lignin could be oxidized and applied in effluent treatments for heavy metal removal. Oxidized lignin presents very strong chelating properties. Lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse were obtained by ethanol-water pulping. Oxidation of lignins was carried out using acetic acid and Co/Mn/Br catalytical system at 50, 80, and 115 °C for 5 h. Kinetics of the reaction was accomplished by measuring the UV-visible region. Activation energy was calculated for lignins from sugarcane straw and bagasse (34.2 and 23.4 kJ mol-1, respectively). The first value indicates higher cross-linked formation. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy data of samples collected during oxidation are very similar. Principal component analysis applied to spectra shows only slight structure modifications in lignins after oxidation reaction.

  7. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  8. Polyphenols from different agricultural residues: extraction, identification and their antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalaxmi, S.; Jayalakshmi, S. K.; K. Sreeramulu

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), corn husk (CH), peanut husk (PNH), coffee cherry husk (CCH), rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) are low-value byproducts of agriculture. They have been shown to contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant properties. In this study, the effects of two types of solvent extraction methods: solid–liquid extraction (SLE) and hot water extraction on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues we...

  9. Compositional analysis and projected biofuel potentials from common West African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2014-01-01

    residues from most developing countries remain sparse. In this study the theoretical bioenergy potentials (bioethanol and biogas) of a spectrum of West African agricultural residues were estimated based on their compositions. We analysed 13 of the most common residues: yam peelings, cassava peelings...

  10. Agricultural valorization of organic residues: Operational tool for determining the nitrogen mineral fertilizer equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmann, Doris; Négri, Ophélie; Helias, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Organic residues from agriculture and waste and wastewater treatment can be used as organic fertilizers or soil amendments due to their nutrient and organic matter contents. In order to replace mineral fertilizers by organic residues at equivalent nutrient and fertilizer values, the mineral fertilizer equivalent (MFE) of the organic residue must be known. A simple Excel-tool was developed that allowed determination of the nitrogen MFE of organic residues based on their nitrogen content and co...

  11. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  12. MONITORING OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN THE YEARS 2003 AND 2004 IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural Institute of Slovenia was performing national monitoring for pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the Decree on Monitoring of Pesticides in Foodstuffs and in Agricultural Products (Offi cial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 13/99. Constant measurements are necessary due to intensive agricultural production and use of chemical substances for plant protection. Due to the nutrition characteristic for the Slovenians pesticide residues are monitored each year in the samples of potato, lettuce and apples; the choice of other agricultural products and active substances analysed are adapted to the guidelines indicated in the EU recommendations. In the years 2003 and 2004 we analysed the presence of pesticide residues in 361 samples of agricultural products: caulifl ower, head cabbage, grapes, apples, strawberries, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, wheat and lettuce from eight different growing areas of Slovenia. All agricultural products were analysed in 2003 for the presence of 51 active substances and in 2004 for the presence of 57 active substances. The maximum residue level (MRL was exceeded by 6.6 % samples inspected. Potato contributed a major share to this, since in 5.0 % of samples exceeded values of dithiocarbamate residues were determined, however, they were the only active substance found in potato. In 39.1 % of analysed samples residues lower than MRL were determined, in 54.3 % of samples residues were not found or they were below the level of detection method. The greatest number of pesticide residues which did not exceed MRLs was found in fruit, f. ex.: eight in apples and six in strawberries. Residues of dithiocarbamates were the most frequently found active substance in agricultural products.

  13. An approach to the estimation of the value of agricultural residues used as biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple demand side approach for estimating the monetary value of agricultural residues used as biofuels is proposed. Some of the important issues involved in the use of biomass feedstocks in coal-fired boilers are briefly discussed along with their implications for the maximum acceptable price estimates for the agricultural residues. Results of some typical calculations are analysed along with the estimates obtained on the basis of a supply side approach (based on production cost) developed earlier. The prevailing market prices of some agricultural residues used as feedstocks for briquetting are also indicated. The results obtained can be used as preliminary indicators for identifying niche areas for immediate/short-term utilization of agriculture residues in boilers for process heating and power generation. (author)

  14. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  15. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Methods Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, ...

  16. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  17. Residues of atrazine in agricultural areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. NESKOVIC

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a five-year investigation of the pollution of soil, as well as of surface and groundwater by atrazine are reported. The soil samples were collected from different localities, from the tillage level, at two depths (0–15 and 15–30 cm during the period September-November from 1995 to 1999. The surface and groundwater samples were taken from the same localities during the same period. The residues were detected by the ELISA test. The results showed that almost all the analysed soil samples contained residues of atrazine. These quantities varied from 0.02 to 0.10 mg/kg (0–15 cm, and up to 0.05 mg/kg (15–30 cm, depending on the locality, soil type and the year of investigation. Concerning the residues in the surface and groundwater, it was found that most of the analysed samples contained atrazine residues. In the case of the surface water, the quantity of the residues ranged from 1.0 to 4.13 mg/L, whill the ground water contained up to 0.3 mg/L depending on the locality and the year of investigation.

  18. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher

  19. Evaluation of two agricultural residues as ligno-cellulosic filler in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Agricultural residues refer to the waste stream coming from agricultural production and processing operations. These materials are often rich in ligno-cellulosic fibers, but offer no significant value at present. The processing plants usually pay for disposal of these waste streams, howev...

  20. Environmental and economic evaluations of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Sobek, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    Agricultural and forestry residues have been converted to energy for centuries. The technologies employed range from straightforward approaches such as combustion to produce heat to more involved approaches such as pyrolysis of the residues to produce medium-Btu synthetic gas, charcoal, and oil. Thus there is no one technology that can be characterized as the best or most promising for conversion of agricultural and forestry residues into energy. Therefore, to accurately assess the potential of agricultural and forestry residues as energy resources, an array of current conversion options should be addressed. Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems ae examined. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  1. Economic value of crop residues in African smallholder agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Berazneva, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to our understanding of the use and management of crop residues in East African highlands and farmers' decision-making associated with this important on-farm resource. Using the data from a socio-economic and household production survey of a sample of 310 households in 15 villages in western Kenya conducted in 2011-2012, the analysis shows that the decision to allocate maize residues to organic fertilizer and the amount of such allocation among Kenyan farmers is in uenc...

  2. AVAILABILITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RESIDUES FROM MAJOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS FOR ENERGY CONVERSION THROUGH THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Yaning Zhang; A. E. Ghaly; Bingxi Li

    2012-01-01

    Plant residues from the major agricultural crops (wheat, rice, corn, soybean, sugarcane, coffee and cotton) are abundantly available renewable resources that can be used to supply energy through thermochemical conversion processes. The available amounts of plant residues from these crops and their physical properties (moisture content, particle size, bulk density and porosity) were determined. The annual residues from the wheat, rice, corn, soybean, sugarcane, coffee and cotton were 763.42, 6...

  3. Bio-oil from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, N.B.

    2012-08-15

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). It has been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were investigated for straw and pine wood oil at different temperature and residence times. Temperature plays a major role in the pyrolysis process and it determines to a high degree the fate of the final product yields and also product composition. Higher temperature favors the formation of pyrolysis gas while lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown no significant effect on the pyrolysis product distribution. The fraction of bio-oil, char and gases produced from pyrolysis of straw were in the range of 40-60 wt. %, 18-50 wt. % and 5-22 wt. %, respectively, regardless of the straw moisture levels. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was around 525 deg. C to 550 deg. C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in

  4. Polyphenols from different agricultural residues: extraction, identification and their antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), corn husk (CH), peanut husk (PNH), coffee cherry husk (CCH), rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) are low-value byproducts of agriculture. They have been shown to contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant properties. In this study, the effects of two types of solvent extraction methods: solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and hot water extraction on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues were investigated to optimize the extraction conditions based on total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). Methanol (50 %) was found to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics with higher DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity, followed by ethanol and water. The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts (50 %) were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography; in addition gallic acid became the major phenolic acid present in all the agricultural residues whereas ferulic acid, epicatechin, catechin, quercitin and kampferol present in lesser amounts. The present investigation suggested that agricultural residues are potent antioxidants. The overall results of this research demonstrated the potential of agricultural residues to be an abundant source of natural antioxidants suitable for further development into dietary supplements and various food additives. PMID:25892773

  5. Characterization of natural fiber from agricultural-industrial residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural fibers show great potential for application in polymer composites. However, instead of the production of inputs for this purpose, an alternative that can also minimize solid waste generation is the use of agro-industrial waste for this purpose, such as waste-fiber textiles, rice husks residues and pineapple crowns. In this work the characterization of these three residues and evaluate their properties in order to direct the application of polymer composites. Was analyzed the moisture, density, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis of the fibers. The results show that the use of these wastes is feasible both from an environmental standpoint and because its properties suitable for this application. (author)

  6. Comparison of pulping and bleaching behaviors of some agricultural residues

    OpenAIRE

    ATEŞ, Saim; DENİZ, İlhan; KIRCI, Hüseyin; ATİK, Celil; OKAN, Onur Tolga

    2015-01-01

    The present study determines the characteristics of bleaching and beating of annual plants and agricultural waste, which constitute important raw material potential for the pulp and paper industry in Turkey. It also examines the effects of this process on several paper properties. Firstly, chemical contents are determined for each raw material and then evaluated for use in the pulp and paper industry. All raw materials studied are found to be suitable for use in the pulp and paper industry, a...

  7. Crop residue stabilization and application to agricultural and degraded soils: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jorge; Monreal, Carlos; Barea, José Miguel; Arriagada, César; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Agricultural activities produce vast amounts of organic residues including straw, unmarketable or culled fruit and vegetables, post-harvest or post-processing wastes, clippings and residuals from forestry or pruning operations, and animal manure. Improper disposal of these materials may produce undesirable environmental (e.g. odors or insect refuges) and health impacts. On the other hand, agricultural residues are of interest to various industries and sectors of the economy due to their energy content (i.e., for combustion), their potential use as feedstock to produce biofuels and/or fine chemicals, or as a soil amendments for polluted or degraded soils when composted. Our objective is review new biotechnologies that could be used to manage these residues for land application and remediation of contaminated and eroded soils. Bibliographic information is complemented through a comprehensive review of the physico-chemical fundamental mechanisms involved in the transformation and stabilization of organic matter by biotic and abiotic soil components. PMID:25936555

  8. Effects of crop residue returning on nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jun; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-06-01

    Crop residue returning is a common practice in agricultural system that consequently influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Much attention has been focused on the effects of crop residue on N2O release. However, no systematic result has yet been drawn because environmental factors among different studies vary. A meta-analysis was described to integrate 112 scientific assessments of crop residue returning on N2O emissions in this study. Results showed that crop residue returning, when averaged across all studies, had no statistically significant effect on N2O release compared with control treatments. However, the range of effects of crop residue returning on N2O emission was significantly affected by synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application, type of crop residue, specific manner in which crop residue has returned, and type of land-use. N2O release was significantly inhibited by 11.7% and 27.1% (P fertilizer and when type of land-use was paddy, respectively. While N2O emissions were significantly enhanced by 42.1% and 23.5% (P release at regional scale, and underlining that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines should take the opposite effects of crop residue returning on upland and paddy into account when estimating the N2O emission factor of crop residue for different land-use types. Given that most of data are dominated by certain types of crop residue and specific application methods, more field data are required to reduce uncertainty.

  9. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  10. Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic co-composting of agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaie, O D; Hussin, A H; Shalaby, E E; Mohamed, M G; Lbrahem, M T

    2000-01-01

    Fertile soil is the most important resource for food production. The agricultural area in Egypt is limited to 6 million faddans. This limited area has derived many farmers to use several types of chemical fertilizers, to enhance the fertility of the land and hence the productivity. Excessive application of chemical fertilizer lead to the build up of these residuals because they are superfluous. This will cause waste of money and also soil pollution. Ultimately, this would adversely affect the ecological system in the soil and surrounding environment, especially water bodies. Composting of organic solid wastes will address some of the problems of solid waste disposal and gives a beneficial product which may replace the expensive chemical fertilizers. Other organic compostable solid wastes could be utilized to produce this compost. Agricultural residues are cheap raw materials for such compost and are available in vast quantities as well. This compost can be used as a soil conditioner to improve soil characteristics and its productivity. Crop residues mixed with manure, may be co-composted to give a soil conditioner. Agricultural residues, about 106 million tons/year, may produce about 55 million tons/year of compost. Three co-composting were carried out at the experimental station of the Faculty of Agriculture in Abis. Two aerobic co-composting of winter and summer crop residues and one anaerobic co-composting inter rop esidue were produced. The development of the co-composting processes controlled by the temperature, moisture content, and chemical composition was studied. The aerobic co-composting of winter crop residues was found to be the best experiment as it complied with the standards of the Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 100/1967. This co-compost is expected to be free from pathogenic microorganisms as the dominant temperature was almost about 50 degrees C from the 42nd day till the 101st day of the experiment. PMID:17219853

  11. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  12. Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Dynatech report No. 1935

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-07-31

    The objective of this study was to provide cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. A review of agricultural statistics indicated that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm-, cooperative-, and industrial scales. The small farm scale processed the residue from an average size US farm (400 acres), and the other sizes were two and three orders of magnitude greater. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low cost chemicals can be utilized. Additional development is necessary in this area. Use of low cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

  13. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.;

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data...... and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion.......76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon’s current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional...

  14. Residual Levels and New Inputs of Chlorinated POPs in Agricultural Soils from Taihu Lake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong-Jian; JIANG Xin; WANG Fang; BIAN Yong-Rong; WANG Dai-Zhang; DEND Jian-Cai; YAN Dong-Yun

    2005-01-01

    Selected persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT)and its principal metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan, dieldrin, and endrin were quantified to determine current levels of organochlorine pesticides, to assess the ecotoxicological potential, and to distinguish previous and current inputs in agricultural soils from the Taihu Lake region.Gas chromatography equipped with a 63Ni electron-capture detector (GC-ECD) system was employed. Thirteen OCPs were detectable in all soil samples, with DDTs being the main residues, and HCHs had the second highest level of OCP residues. Although OCP residual levels were lower than those in 1990s, the residual levels for most of the DDTs and some of HCHs were still higher than the national environmental standards for agricultural soils. The ratios of DDT/DDE and γ-/α-HCH in twelve soils indicated that new inputs could be present in the soils. Thus, efforts should be made to completely ban the production of OCPs and their use in agriculture so as to reduce the threat of OCPs to food quality and human health.

  15. Technical assessment of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from agriculture residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohui; Feng, Fei; Xiao, Jun; Shen, Laihong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents thermodynamic evaluations of the agriculture residual-to-SNG process by thermochemical conversion, which mainly consists of the interconnected fluidized beds, hot gas cleaning, fluidized bed methanation reactor and Selexol absorption unit. The process was modeled using Aspen Plus software. The process performances, i.e., CH4 content in SNG, higher heating value and yield of SNG, exergy efficiencies with and without heat recovery, unit power consumption, were evaluated firstly. The results indicate that when the other parameters remain unchanged, the steam-to-biomass ratio at carbon boundary point is the optimal value for the process. Improving the preheating temperatures of air and gasifying agent is beneficial for the SNG yield and exergy efficiencies. Due to the effects of CO2 removal efficiency, there are two optimization objectives for the SNG production process: (I) to maximize CH4 content in SNG, or (II) to maximize SNG yield. Further, the comparison among different feedstocks indicates that the decreasing order of SNG yield is: corn stalk > wheat straw > rice straw. The evaluation on the potential of agriculture-based SNG shows that the potential annual production of agriculture residual-based SNG could be between 555×108 ˜ 611×108 m3 with utilization of 100% of the available unexplored resources. The agriculture residual-based SNG could play a significant role on solving the big shortfall of China's natural gas supply in future.

  16. Study on the Agricultural Residues Burning and PM2.5 Change in China by Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural residues are materials left over from the production of crops. The total amount of agricultural residues in China is about 660 million tons every year, while a large proportion of that is burnt directly on the croplands. Agricultural residues burning is a significant source of air pollution in developing countries including China. In this study, the MODIS MOD14A1 products were used to derive the daily fire spots of China. Then, the agricultural residues burning spots were obtained by extracting with the area of croplands which is from MODIS MCD12Q1 products. After vectorization of agricultural residues burning pixels and with the help of fishnet, the burning density distribution maps were eventually completed. According to the statistics, there were 71,237 pixels of agricultural residues burning in 2014. The pixels mainly focused on April, June and October, the number of which were 11,628, 10,912 and 20,965 respectively. The results show that the distribution of agricultural residues burning is closely connected with ploughing and harvesting activities and it is more severe in north China. The air quality data of 150 cities in China were also used to obtain the daily and monthly distribution maps of PM2.5 by Kriging interpolation method. The maps indicate that the PM2.5 is always higher in north China than that in south China. Comparing the results of agricultural residues burning points with the results of PM2.5, we found the agricultural residues burning can cause the PM2.5 increase, especially in June, the agricultural residues burning region was spatially and temporally consistent with the PM2.5 increase region in this month.

  17. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  18. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation. PMID:22312795

  19. Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-10-01

    This study provides cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. Agricultural statistics indicate that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of sheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm, cooperative, and industrial scales. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low-cost chemicals can be utilized. Use of low-cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low-cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

  20. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, J B; van Weerd, J H; Huisman, E A; Verreth, J A J

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher amounts produced and, the potential use of these residues in fish feeds. In Costa Rica, during the 1993-1994 production season, major agricultural sectors (crop and livestock) generated a total amount of 3.15-3.25 million MT of residues (classified in by-products: used residues and wastes: not used residues). Some residues are treated to turn them into valuable items or to diminish their polluting effects (e.g., the so-called by-products). About 1.56-1.63 million MT of by-products were used for different purposes (e.g. fertilization, animal feeding, fuel, substrates in greenhouses). However, the remainder (1.59-1.62 million MT) was discharged into environment causing pollution. About 1.07-1.2 million MT wastes came from major crop systems (banana, coffee, sugarcane and oil palm) whereas the remainder came from animal production systems (porcine and poultry production, slaughtering). These data are further compared to residues estimates for the 2001-2002 production season coming from the biggest crops activities. Unfortunately, most of the studied wastes contain high levels of moisture and low levels of protein, and also contain variable amounts of antinutritional factors (e.g., polyphenols, tannins, caffeine), high fibre levels and some toxic substances and pesticides. All these reasons may limit the use of these agricultural wastes for animal feeding, especially in fish feeds. The potential use of the major vegetable and animal residues in fish feeds is discussed based on their nutritional composition, on their amount available over the year and on their pollution risks. Other constraints to use these wastes in fish feeds are the extra costs of drying and, in most cases

  1. Co-combustion of agricultural residues with coal in a fluidized bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, W A W A K; Alias, A B; Savory, R M; Cliffe, K R

    2009-02-01

    Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology that utilizes agricultural residual waste. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from agricultural residues (rice husk and palm kernel) were co-fired with coal in a 0.15m diameter and 2.3m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those for pure coal combustion. Co-combustion of a mixture of biomass with coal in a fluidized bed combustor designed for coal combustion increased combustion efficiency up to 20% depending upon excess air levels. Observed carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200 and 900 ppm with the addition of coal. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimal modifications to existing coal-fired boilers. PMID:18614348

  2. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested

  3. Biochemical production of bioenergy from agricultural crops and residue in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Alavijeh, Masih; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-06-01

    The present study assessed the potential for biochemical conversion of energy stored in agricultural waste and residue in Iran. The current status of agricultural residue as a source of bioenergy globally and in Iran was investigated. The total number of publications in this field from 2000 to 2014 was about 4294. Iran ranked 21st with approximately 54 published studies. A total of 87 projects have been devised globally to produce second-generation biofuel through biochemical pathways. There are currently no second-generation biorefineries in Iran and agricultural residue has no significant application. The present study determined the amount and types of sustainable agricultural residue and oil-rich crops and their provincial distribution. Wheat, barley, rice, corn, potatoes, alfalfa, sugarcane, sugar beets, apples, grapes, dates, cotton, soybeans, rapeseed, sesame seeds, olives, sunflowers, safflowers, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts have the greatest potential as agronomic and horticultural crops to produce bioenergy in Iran. A total of 11.33million tonnes (Mt) of agricultural biomass could be collected for production of bioethanol (3.84gigaliters (Gl)), biobutanol (1.07Gl), biogas (3.15billion cubic meters (BCM)), and biohydrogen (0.90BCM). Additionally, about 0.35Gl of biodiesel could be obtained using only 35% of total Iranian oilseed. The potential production capacity of conventional biofuel blends in Iran, environmental and socio-economic impacts including well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the social cost of carbon dioxide reduction are discussed. The cost of emissions could decrease up to 55.83% by utilizing E85 instead of gasoline. The possible application of gaseous biofuel in Iran to produce valuable chemicals and provide required energy for crop cultivation is also studied. The energy recovered from biogas produced by wheat residue could provide energy input for 115.62 and 393.12 thousand hectares of irrigated and rain-fed wheat

  4. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional biomass (woodfuel and charcoal). Policy recommendations that promote the wider uptake of modern bioenergy applications from residues are provided. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11×106 bone dry tonnes per annum. • 0.12–0.32 billion litres of bio ethanol annually to displace 18–48% national gasoline use. • 0.08–0.22 billion litres of biomass to BTL diesel per year to offset 17–45% of diesel use. • 0.76–2.02 TW h of electricity, representing 15–38% of Cameroon's consumption. • Residues could offset only 3% of national consumption of traditional biomass

  6. Substitution of fossil fuels by using low temperature pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Externally heated rotary kiln pyrolysis reactor is used as a new process technology for the conversion of biomass into useful primary energy products. A 3 MW pyrolysis pilot plant is being operated for a period of two years using agricultural residues. Several analytical methods are applied to provide an insight into the complex process of pyrolysis. Fundamentals for an advanced pyrolysis model approach will be obtained by the results of the pilot plant. (author)

  7. Using Agricultural Residue Biochar to Improve Soil Quality of Desert Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhe Zhang; Omololu John Idowu; Catherine E. Brewer

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to test the effects of biochars made from different feedstocks on soil quality indicators of arid soils. Biochars were produced from four locally-available agricultural residues: pecan shells, pecan orchard prunings, cotton gin trash, and yard waste, using a lab-scale pyrolyzer operated at 450 °C under a nitrogen environment and slow pyrolysis conditions. Two local arid soils used for crop production, a sandy loam and a clay loam, were amended with these bioch...

  8. Anaerobic Treatment of Agricultural Residues and Wastewater - Application of High-Rate Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Parawira, Wilson

    2004-01-01

    The production of methane via anaerobic digestion of agricultural residues and industrial wastewater would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would reduce the use of fossil-fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impact, including global warming and pollution. Limitation of carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies on biomass energy is making anaerobic digestion a more attractive and competitive tec...

  9. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Marchezi Mora; Adriane Marinho de Assis; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto; Kathia Fernandes Lopes Pivetta; Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2015-01-01

    For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coc...

  10. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF SLOVENE ORIGIN FOUND IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2008, 166 apple, bean, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, pear, potato and spinach samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 158 different active compounds using three analytical methods. In two samples (1.2% exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is better than the results of the monitoring of pesticide residues in the products of plant origin in the 27 European Union, Member States (EU MS and 2 European Free Trade Association (EFTA States: Norway and Iceland in 2008 (2.2%. The most frequently found active substance in agricultural products was dithiocarbamates. Products which contained 4 or more active substances per sample were apples and pears.

  11. Residual biogas yield of digestate from agricultural biogas plants; Restgaspotenzial in Gaerresten aus landwirtschaftlichen Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Andreas; Effenberger, Mathias; Kissel, Rainer; Gronauer, Andreas [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Freising (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Biogastechnologie und Reststoffmanagement

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the residual biogas yield during storage, biogas tests at a temperature of 22 C were performed with samples of liquid digested residue from 15 agricultural biogas plants (BGP). Values of residual biogas yield between 0.3 and 1.3 % with respect to the biogas yield from the raw input materials were measured. For the two one-stage BGP, the value was about 1.2 %. For the two-stage plants, a residual biogas yield (RBY) of 0.9 % was determined as opposed to 0.4 % for the three-stage plants. With a single exception, the RBY was clearly below 1.0 % if the overall hydraulic retention time in the BGP was equal to or larger than 100 days. For the majority of samples, the residual biogas yield showed a positive correlation with the level of volatile fatty acids in the digestate. Since the real conditions in storage tanks cannot be simulated with a simple batch-test, the results are not representative for the actual biogas production and potential methane emissions from the digestate during open storage. (orig.)

  12. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Capener, H. R.; Dell& #x27; orto, S.

    1978-02-01

    The results of studies designed to evaluate the potential of rapidly improving the technology of anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues and methods of implementing it in existing agricultural operations are reported. The main objectives of this study were to: identify simple and low cost anaerobic fermentor design criteria that would be appropriate in small agricultural operations, develop high rate fermentor concepts that would enable multiple product recovery from the reactor, expand the information base particularly in the area of temperature influence on the process, and to review sociological and economic issues relating to implementation of fermentation technology. This study has identified several major anaerobic fermentation concepts which illustrate that the technology may be rapidly improved. A simple reactor design utilizing an unmixed plug flow concept was shown to be comparable to the more complex completely mixed reactor when using dairy cow residue. A high rate thermophilic reactor designed to encourage flotation of particulate solids illustrated that liquid, solid, and gaseous products can be generated within the anaerobic fermentor thus eliminating an additional dewatering unit process. A third reactor concept involved extension of the anaerobic attached microbial film expanded bed to the treatment of cow manure slurries. A high rate of methane generation was recorded. Comprehensive thermophilic fermentation studies (60/sup 0/C) indicated that the increased temperature resulted in little improvement in total quantity or the rate of yield of gas over that obtained with mesophilic fermentation with reactor retention periods greater than 10 days. Finally, other areas where preliminary date were obtained are noted.

  13. A new concept for enhancing energy recovery from agricultural residues by coupling anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    Monlau, Florian; Sambusiti, Cécilia; Antoniou, N; Barakat, Abdellatif; Zabaniotou, A.

    2015-01-01

    In a full-scale anaerobic digestion plant, agricultural residues are generally converted into biogas and digestate, the latter usually produced in large amount. Generally, biogas is converted into heat, often lost, and electricity, which is completely valorized or it is sold to the public grid. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility to combine anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis processes in order to increase the energy recovery from agricultural residues and ...

  14. A laboratory study of agricultural crop residue combustion in China: Emission factors and emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hefeng; Ye, Xingnan; Cheng, Tiantao; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Renyi

    The burning of agricultural crop residue represents a major source of trace gases (CO, CO 2, NO, NO 2, and NO x) and particulate matter on a regional and global scale. This study investigates the gaseous and particulate emissions from the burning of rice, wheat and corn straws, which are three major agricultural crop residues in China, using a self-built burning stove and an aerosol chamber. Emission factors of CO 2, CO, NO, NO 2 and NO x were measured to be 791.3, 64.2, 1.02, 0.79 and 1.81 g kg -1 for rice straw, 1557.9, 141.2, 0.79, 0.32 and 1.12 g kg -1 for wheat straw, and 1261.5, 114.7, 0.85, 0.43 and 1.28 g kg -1 for corn straw, respectively. The corresponding emission factors of particle number are 1.8 × 10 13, 1.0 × 10 13, and 1.7 × 10 13 particles kg -1, respectively. The total emissions of CO, CO 2, and NO x from rice, wheat and corn straw burnings in China for the year 2004 were estimated to be 22.59, 252.92, and 0.28 Tg, respectively. The percentages of CO, CO 2, and NO x to the total emissions were 13.9%, 15.3%, and 31.4% for rice straw, 32.9%, 32.5%, and 20.9% for wheat straw, and 53.2%, 52.2%, and 47.6% for corn straw, respectively. In addition, the emission allocations of agricultural crop residue burning were also plotted in different regions of China using a simple geographic information system (GIS).

  15. Sustainable Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residues Dedicated to Antibiotic Removal by Adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonatan Torres-Perez; Claire Gerente; Yves Andres

    2012-01-01

    The. objectives.of this study are to convert at laboratory s.cale agric.ultural residues into activated carbons (AC) with specific properties, to characterize them and to test them in adsorption reactor for tetracycline removal, a common antibiotic. Two new ACs were produced by direct activation with steam from beet pulp (BP-H2O) and peanut hu_lls (PH-H2O) in environmental friendly conditions BP-H2O and PH-H2Opresentcarbon content rangedcarbons with different intrinsic properties.

  16. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Reim, A.; Kim, S.Y.; Meima-Franke, M.; Termorshuizen, Aad J; De Boer, W.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even

  17. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Reim, A.; Kim, S.; Meima-Franke, M.; Termorshuizen, A.; Boer, de W.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bodelier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and eve

  18. Strength Properties of Bio-composite Lumbers from Lignocelluloses of Oil Palm Fronds Agricultural Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sukhairi Mat Rasat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and strength properties of bio-composite lumbers from agricultural residues of oil palm fronds were studied. Resins of phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde were used as the binders. The oil palm fronds were obtained from an oil palm plantation in Kota Belud, Sabah. The fronds were segregated into three (3 groups of matured, intermediate and young of oil palm fronds. The leaflets and the epidermis were removed from the fronds before they were sliced longitudinally into thin layers. The layers were then compressed into uniform thickness of 2 - 3 mm. The layers were air-dried and later mixed with resins using 12-15% of phenol and urea formaldehyde and recompressed with other layers forming the bio-composite lumbers. The bio-composite lumbers were then tested for their physical and strength properties. Testing was conducted in accordance to the International Organization for standardization (ISO standard. The result on the physical and strength properties shows that the oil palm fronds bio-composite lumbers to be at par with solid rubberwood. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between bio-composite lumbers made from each groups and portion, but no differences were observed in the type of resin used. The bio-composite lumbers from oil palm fronds agricultural residues has potential to be used as an alternative to wood to overcome the shortage in materials in the wood industry.

  19. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  20. Performance of Agricultural Residue Media in Laboratory Denitrifying Bioreactors at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, Gary W; Moorman, Thomas B; Christianson, Laura E; Venterea, Rodney T; Coulter, Jeffrey A; Tschirner, Ulrike W

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors can be effective for removing nitrate from agricultural tile drainage; however, questions about cold springtime performance persist. The objective of this study was to improve the nitrate removal rate (NRR) of denitrifying bioreactors at warm and cold temperatures using agriculturally derived media rather than wood chips (WC). Corn ( L.) cobs (CC), corn stover (CS), barley ( L.) straw (BS), WC, and CC followed by a compartment of WC (CC+WC) were tested in laboratory columns for 5 mo at a 12-h hydraulic residence time in separate experiments at 15.5 and 1.5°C. Nitrate-N removal rates ranged from 35 to 1.4 at 15.5°C and from 7.4 to 1.6 g N m d at 1.5°C, respectively; NRRs were ranked CC > CC+WC > BS = CS > WC and CC ≥ CC+WC = CS ≥ BS > WC for 15.5 and 1.5°C, respectively. Although NRRs for CC were increased relative to WC, CC released greater amounts of carbon. Greater abundance of nitrous oxide (NO) reductase gene () was supported by crop residues than WC at 15.5°C, and CS and BS supported greater abundance than WC at 1.5°C. Production of NO relative to nitrate removal (NO) was consistently greater at 1.5°C (7.5% of nitrate removed) than at 15.5°C (1.9%). The NO was lowest in CC (1.1%) and CC-WC (0.9%) and greatest in WC (9.7%). Using a compartment of agricultural residue media in series before wood chips has the potential to improve denitrifying bioreactor nitrate removal rates, but field-scale verification is needed. PMID:27136142

  1. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad, E-mail: krisvkp@yahoo.com [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Ellicott, Evan [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Badarinath, K.V.S. [National Remote Sensing Center, Atmospheric Science Section, Hyderabad (India); Vermote, Eric [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1{sigma}) and 0.32 (-1{sigma}). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: > MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. > The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. > MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. > AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  2. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1σ) and 0.32 (-1σ). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: → MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. → The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. → MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. → AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  3. AVAILABILITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RESIDUES FROM MAJOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS FOR ENERGY CONVERSION THROUGH THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant residues from the major agricultural crops (wheat, rice, corn, soybean, sugarcane, coffee and cotton are abundantly available renewable resources that can be used to supply energy through thermochemical conversion processes. The available amounts of plant residues from these crops and their physical properties (moisture content, particle size, bulk density and porosity were determined. The annual residues from the wheat, rice, corn, soybean, sugarcane, coffee and cotton were 763.42, 698.10, 1729.92, 416.62, 16.85, 4.01 and 107.13 million tons, respectively. The total amount of plant residues was estimated at 3736.05 million tons with total energy content of 66.92 EJ. These residues can replace 2283.52 million tons of coal, 1551.78 million tons of oil and 1847.63 million m3 of natural gas. The moisture contents were 7.79, 6.58, 6.40, 7.30, 8.15, 7.86 and 7.45% for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk, respectively. The corn stalk and sugarcane stalk had a convex particle size distribution, the soybean stalk and cotton stalk had a concave particle size distribution, the wheat straw and rice straw had an increasing trend particle size distribution and the coffee husk had a decreasing trend particle size distribution. The average particle sizes for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk were 0.42, 0.40, 0.49, 0.43, 0.55, 0.67 and 0.38 mm, respectively. The average bulk density was 160.75, 166.29, 127.32, 242.34, 110.86, 349.06 and 230.55 kg m-3 for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk, respectively. The average porosity was 51.25, 83.20, 58.51, 68.03, 77.58, 64.85 and 74.55% for the wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, soybean stalk, sugarcane stalk, coffee husk and cotton stalk, respectively. The results obtained from this study indicate that different

  4. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  5. Agricultural residue valorization using a hydrothermal process for second generation bioethanol and oligosaccharides production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Fátima; Domínguez, Elena; Vila, Carlos; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Garrote, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the hydrothermal valorization of an abundant agricultural residue has been studied in order to look for high added value applications by means of hydrothermal pretreatment followed by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, to obtain oligomers and sugars from autohydrolysis liquors and bioethanol from the solid phase. Non-isothermal autohydrolysis was applied to barley straw, leading to a solid phase with about a 90% of glucan and lignin and a liquid phase with up to 168 g kg(-1) raw material valuable hemicellulose-derived compounds. The solid phase showed a high enzymatic susceptibility (up to 95%). It was employed in the optimization study of the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, carried out at high solids loading, led up to 52 g ethanol/L (6.5% v/v). PMID:26000836

  6. Flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues using a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the volatilization characteristics of biomass particles at flash heating rates, a plasma heated laminar entrained flow reactor (PHLEFR) was designed and built in our lab. Two agricultural residues, wheat straw and corn stalk, were chosen as feedstock for pyrolysis which were conducted on the PHLEFR with the aim of determining the extent of thermal decomposition at high heating rate (more than 104oCs-1). Based on the experimental data, a first order kinetic model was introduced and the relevant kinetic parameters (apparent active energy and apparent frequency factor) were determined for the two straws: E=31.51kJmol-1, A=1028s-1(wheat straw) and E=33.74kJmol-1, A=1013s-1(corn stalk). The predicted conversion of the fitted model to the experimental data provided general agreements when one considered the experimental errors

  7. FEASIBILITY OF REMOVING FURFURALS FROM SUGAR SOLUTIONS USING ACTIVATED BIOCHARS MADE FROM AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic feedstocks are often prepared for ethanol fermentation by treatment with a dilute mineral acid catalyst that hydrolyzes the hemicellulose and possibly cellulose into soluble carbohydrates. The acid-catalyzed reaction scheme is sequential, whereby the released monosaccharides are further degraded to furans and other chemicals that are inhibitory to the subsequent fermentation step. This work tests the use of agricultural residues (e.g., plant waste as starting materials for making activated biochars to adsorb these degradation products. Results show that both furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF are adsorbed by phosphoric acid-activated and steam-activated biochars prepared from residues collected from cotton and linen production. Best results were obtained with steam-activated biochars. The activated biochars adsorbed about 14% (by weight of the furfurals at an equilibrium concentration of 0.5 g/L, and by adding 2.5% of char to a sugar solution, with either furfural or HMF (at 1 g/L, 99% of the furans were removed.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M. (Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1994-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of different doses of [gamma] irradiation on the changes in the crude fibre contents of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs. Ground samples of the 6 residues were irradiated by [gamma] irradiation at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 100 kilogray (kGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for total nitrogen (N), crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). Irradiation is one of the physical methods used to decrease crude fibre contents and increase the mono-saccharide products in wheat straw, particularly, glucose and xylose. Irradiation appears to cause a random depolymerisation and decomposition of cellulose. The aim of the present work is to study the effects of different doses of [gamma] irradiation on the changes of crude fibre contents in the most locally-available agricultural residues (cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw and maize cobs) as an attempt to improve their nutritive values, consequently utilizing them in ruminant diets. (author).

  9. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. PMID:24874794

  10. Atrazine soil core residue analysis from an agricultural field 21 years after its ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, David; Hofmann, Diana; Vanderborght, Jan; Lelickens, Anna; Köppchen, Stephan; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-07-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) groundwater monitoring in the Zwischenscholle aquifer in western Germany revealed concentrations exceeding the threshold value of 0.1 μg L and increasing concentration trends even 20 yr after its ban. Accordingly, the hypothesis was raised that a continued release of bound atrazine residues from the soil into the Zwischenscholle aquifer in combination with the low atrazine degradation in groundwater contributes to elevated atrazine in groundwater. Three soil cores reaching down to the groundwater table were taken from an agricultural field where atrazine had been applied before its ban in 1991. Atrazine residues were extracted from eight soil layers down to 300 cm using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extracted atrazine concentrations ranged between 0.2 and 0.01 μg kg for topsoil and subsoil, respectively. The extracted mass from the soil profiles represented 0.07% of the applied mass, with 0.01% remaining in the top layer. A complete and instantaneous remobilization of atrazine residues and vertical mixing with the groundwater body below would lead to atrazine groundwater concentrations of 0.068 μg L. Considering the area where atrazine was applied in the region and assuming instantaneous lateral mixing in the Zwischenscholle aquifer would result in a mean groundwater concentration of 0.002 μg L. A conservative estimation suggests an atrazine half-life value of about 2 yr for the soil zone, which significantly exceeds highest atrazine half-lives found in the literature (433 d for subsurface soils). The long-term environmental behavior of atrazine and its metabolites thus needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25603092

  11. Residues of endosulfan in surface and subsurface agricultural soil and its bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of many hydrophobic pesticides has been reported by various workers in various soil environments and its bioremediation is a major concern due to less bioavailability. In the present study, the pesticide residues in the surface and subsurface soil in an area of intense agricultural activity in Pakkam Village of Thiruvallur District, Tamilnadu, India, and its bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium was investigated. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm and 30-40 cm) were sampled, and pesticides in different layers of the soil were analyzed. Alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan concentrations ranged from 1.42 to 3.4 mg/g and 1.28-3.1 mg/g in the surface soil, 0.6-1.4 mg/g and 0.3-0.6 mg/g in the subsurface soil (15-30 cm), and 0.9-1.5 mg/g and 0.34-1.3 mg/g in the subsurface soil (30-40 cm) respectively. Residues of other persistent pesticides were also detected in minor concentrations. These soil layers were subjected to bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium under a simulated soil profile condition in a soil reactor. The complete removal of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed over 25 days. Residues of endosulfate were also detected during bioremediation, which was subsequently degraded on the 30th day. This study revealed the existence of endosulfan in the surface and subsurface soils and also proved that the removal of such a ubiquitous pesticide in the surface and subsurface environment can be achieved in the field by bioaugumenting a biosurfactant-producing bacterial consortium that degrades pesticides. PMID:26413801

  12. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  13. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (g.ml-1), centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  14. A sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos residue determination in Chinese agricultural smaples

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monoclonal antibody-based competitive antibody-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimized for determining chlorpyrifos residue in agricultural products. The IC50 and IC10 of this ELISA were 3.3 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL respectively. The average recoveries recovery rate...

  15. Agricultural residues and energy crops as potentially economical and novel substrates for microbial production of butanol (a biofuel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes production of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) from a variety of agricultural residues and energy crops employing biochemical or fermentation processes. A number of organisms are available for this bioconversion including Clostridium beijerinckii P260, C. beijerinckii BA101, C. a...

  16. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  17. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. PMID:27067672

  18. Comparative study on factors affecting anaerobic digestion of agricultural vegetal residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cioabla Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, different studies are conducted related to the topic of biomass potential to generate through anaerobic fermentation process alternative fuels supposed to support the existing fossil fuel resources, which are more and more needed, in quantity, but also in quality of so called green energy. The present study focuses on depicting an optional way of capitalizing agricultural biomass residues using anaerobic fermentation in order to obtain biogas with satisfactory characteristics.. The research is based on wheat bran and a mix of damaged ground grains substrates for biogas production. Results The information and conclusions delivered offer results covering the general characteristics of biomass used , the process parameters with direct impact over the biogas production (temperature regime, pH values and the daily biogas production for each batch relative to the used material. Conclusions All conclusions are based on processing of monitoring process results , with accent on temperature and pH influence on the daily biogas production for the two batches. The main conclusion underlines the fact that the mixture batch produces a larger quantity of biogas, using approximately the same process conditions and input, in comparison to alone analyzed probes, indicating thus a higher potential for the biogas production than the wheat bran substrate. Adrian Eugen Cioabla, Ioana Ionel, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel and Francisc Popescu contributed equally to this work

  19. Biosorption of arsenic from aqueous solution using agricultural residue 'rice polish'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Rice polish' (an agricultural residue) was utilized successfully for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. Various parameters viz. pH, biosorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were used and the system followed all three isotherms, showing sorption to be monolayer on the heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent. The maximum sorption capacity calculated using Langmuir model was 138.88 μg/g for As(III) at 20 oC and pH 7.0 and 147.05 μg/g at 20 oC and pH 4.0 for As(V). The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model indicated chemisorption nature of sorption. Study of thermodynamic parameters revealed the exothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of sorption process in case of both As(III) and As(V). The pseudo-second-order rate equation described better the kinetics of arsenic sorption with good correlation coefficients than pseudo-first-order equation. Mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion, richenberg and elovich models were applied to the data and it was found that initially the sorption of arsenic was governed by film diffusion followed by intraparticle diffusion. Rice polish was found to be efficient in removing arsenic from aqueous solution as compared to other biosorbents already used for the removal of arsenic.

  20. Using Agricultural Residue Biochar to Improve Soil Quality of Desert Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to test the effects of biochars made from different feedstocks on soil quality indicators of arid soils. Biochars were produced from four locally-available agricultural residues: pecan shells, pecan orchard prunings, cotton gin trash, and yard waste, using a lab-scale pyrolyzer operated at 450 °C under a nitrogen environment and slow pyrolysis conditions. Two local arid soils used for crop production, a sandy loam and a clay loam, were amended with these biochars at a rate of 45 Mg·ha−1 and incubated for three weeks in a growth chamber. The soils were analyzed for multiple soil quality indicators including soil organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and available nutrients. Results showed that amendment with cotton gin trash biochar has the greatest impact on both soils, significantly increasing SOM and plant nutrient (P, K, Ca, Mn contents, as well as increasing the electrical conductivity, which creates concerns about soil salinity. Other biochar treatments significantly elevated soil salinity in clay loam soil, except for pecan shell biochar amended soil, which was not statistically different in EC from the control treatment. Generally, the effects of the biochar amendments were minimal for many soil measurements and varied with soil texture. Effects of biochars on soil salinity and pH/nutrient availability will be important considerations for research on biochar application to arid soils.

  1. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  2. Agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Marchezi Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For orchid cultivation in containers is essential to select the right substrate, since this will influence the quality of the final product, it serve as a support for the root system of the plants. This study aimed to evaluate different agricultural residues and expanded clay in Oncidium baueri Lindl. orchid cultivation. The plants were subjected to treatments: pinus husk + carbonized rice husk, pinus husk + coffee husk, pinus husk + fibered coconut, pecan nut husk, expanded clay, fibered coconut, coffee husk, carbonized rice husk, pinus husk. After eleven months of the experiment, the following variables were evaluated: plant height; largest pseudo-bulb diameter; number of buds; shoot fresh dry matter; the longest root length; number of roots; root fresh matter; root dry matter; and electric conductivity; pH and water retention capacity of the substrates. Except the expanded clay, the other substrates showed satisfactory results in one or more traits. Standing out among these substrates pinus husk + coffee husk and pine bark + fibered coconut, which favored the most vegetative and root characteristic of the orchid. The mixture of pinus husk + coffee husk and pinus husk + fibered coconut, provided the best results in vegetative and root growth of the orchid Oncidium baueri and the expanded clay did not show favorable results in the cultivation of this species.

  3. Amount, availability, and potential use of rice straw (agricultural residue) biomass as an energy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of agricultural residue in Japan as an energy resource, based on the amounts produced and availability. The main agricultural residues in Japan are rice straw and rice husk. Based on a scenario wherein these residues are collected as is the rice product, we evaluate the size, cost, and CO2 emission for power generation. Rice residue has a production potential of 12 Mt-dry year-1, and 1.7 kt of rice straw is collected for each storage location. As this is too small an amount even for the smallest scale of power plant available, 2-month operation per year is assumed. Assuming a steam boiler and turbine with an efficiency of 7%, power generation from rice straw biomass can supply 3.8 billion(kW)h of electricity per year, or 0.47% of the total electricity demand in Japan. The electricity generated from this source costs as much as 25 JPY (kW h)-1 (0.21 US$ (kW h)-1, 1 US$=120 JPY), more than double the current price of electricity. With heat recovery at 80% efficiency, the simultaneous heat supplied via cogeneration reaches 10% of that supplied by heavy oil in Japan. Further cost incentives will be required if the rice residue utilization is to be introduced. It will also be important to develop effective technologies to achieve high efficiency even in small-scale processes. If Japanese technologies enable the effective use of agricultural residue abroad as a result of Japanese effort from the years after 2010, the resulting reduction of greenhouse gas emission can be counted under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol

  4. Extraction and characterization of cellulose microfibrils from agricultural residue –Cocos nucifera L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to extract cellulose microfibrils from the agricultural residue of coconut palm leaf sheath using chlorination and alkaline extraction process. Chemical characterization of the cellulose microfibrils confirmed that the α-cellulose mass fraction increased from 0.373 kg kg−1 to 0.896 kg kg−1 after application of several treatments including dewaxing, chlorite delignification and alkaline extraction of hemicelluloses. Similarly, the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for leaf sheath and extracted cellulose microfibrils was found to be 42.3 and 47.7 respectively. The morphology of the cellulose microfibrils was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cellulose microfibrils had diameters in the range of 10–15 μm. Fourier transform infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the leaf sheath fibers. The thermal stability of the fibers was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis, which demonstrated that this thermal stability was enhanced noticeably for cellulose microfibrils. This work provides a new approach for more effective utilization of coconut palm leaf sheaths to examine their potential use as pulp and paper and reinforcement fibers in biocomposite applications. -- Highlights: ► Utilization of Coconut palm leaf sheath as an alternate material for cellulose extraction. ► Using an abundant natural waste for paper pulp, biofilms and composite applications. ► Cellulose microfibrils have higher cellulose content than the leaf sheath. ► FTIR and NMR were used to study fiber structural changes during several treatments. ► Thermal stability of microfibrils is higher than their respective leaf sheath.

  5. Glucose(xylose isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiya Chanitnun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its Km values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its Vmax values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85ºC and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60ºC after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Glucose(xylose) isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanitnun, Kankiya; Pinphanichakarn, Pairoh

    2012-07-01

    Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose) isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose) isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its K m values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its V max values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85°C and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60°C after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose) isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24031932

  7. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell' orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  8. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg-1 DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg-1 DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg-1 DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg-1) and Σ PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg-1 DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (-1 DM) and thiabendazol (-1 DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  9. Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  10. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  11. Emissions of N2O and CH4 from agricultural soils amended with two types of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas residues contain valuable plant nutrients, important to the crops and also to soil microorganisms. However, application of these materials to the soils may contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming and climate change. In the present study, incubation experiment was carried out, where the emission rates of N2O and CH4 were measured after amending two soils with two types of biogas residues: (1) a regular residue from a large scale biogas plant (BR) and (2) a residue from an ultra-filtration membrane unit connected to a pilot-scale biogas plant (BRMF). The emissions of N2O and CH4 were measured at two occasions: at 24 h and at 7 days after residue amendment, respectively. Amendment with filtered biogas residues (BRMF) led to an increase in N2O emissions with about 6–23 times in organic and clay soil, respectively, in comparison to unfiltered biogas residues (BR). Methane emission was detected in small amounts when filtered biogas residue was added to the soil. Amendment of unfiltered biogas to the organic soil resulted in net consumption. In conclusion, fertilization with BRMF can be combined with risk of an increase N2O emission, especially when applied to organic soils. However, in order to transfer these results to real life agriculture, large scale field studies need to be carried out. -- Highlights: ► Membrane filtration of biogas process water is a promising method. ► Fertilization of biogas residue may increase the N2O emission from soil. ► Organic soils produced higher emissions than clay soils.

  12. Experimental determination of bed agglomeration tendencies of some common agricultural residues in fluidized bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, E.; Rao, A.N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Centre for New and Renewable Sources of Energy; Ohman, M.; Nordin, A. [Umea University (Sweden). Energy Technology Centre; Gabra, M. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Liliedahl, T. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1998-12-31

    Ever increasing energy demand and the polluting nature of existing fossil fuel energy sources demonstrate the need for other non-polluting and renewable sources of energy. The agricultural residues available in abundance in many countries can be used for power generation. The fluidized bed technology seems to be suitable for converting a wide range of agricultural residues into energy, due to its inherent advantages of fuel flexibility, low operating temperature and isothermal operating condition. The major ash-related problem encountered in fluidized beds is agglomeration which, in the worst case, may result in total defluidization and unscheduled downtime. The initial agglomeration temperature for some common tropical agricultural residues were experimentally determined by using a newly developed method based on the controlled fluidized bed agglomeration test. The agricultural residues chosen for the study were rice husk, bagasse, cane trash and olive flesh. The results showed that the initial agglomeration temperatures were less than the initial deformation temperature predicted by the ASTM standard ash fusion tests for all fuels considered. The initial agglomeration temperatures of rice husk and bagasse were more than 1000{sup o}C. The agglomeration of cane trash and olive flesh was encountered at relatively low temperatures and their initial agglomeration temperatures in gasification were lower than those in combustion with both bed materials. The use of lime as bed material instead of quartz improved the agglomeration temperature of cane trash and olive flesh in combustion and decreased the same in gasification. The results indicate that rice husk and bagasse can be used in the fluidized bed for energy generation since their agglomeration temperatures are sufficiently high. (author)

  13. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field. PMID:27184447

  14. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg · ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  15. Conservation Agriculture in Lesotho: Residue Use Patterns Among CA adopters vs. Non-Adopters

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, M.D.; Bisangwa, E.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marake, Makoala V.; Walker, F.R.; Eash, Neal S.; Moore, Keith M.; Park, W M

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts by the Government of Lesotho, non-government organizations (NGOs), and international attention have focused on developing conservation agriculture (CA) practices adapted to the cultural, economic, and agro-ecological conditions in Lesotho. Understanding the influence of the introduction of CA technologies on soil erosion, yields, labor allocation and gender roles is of critical importance for successfully deploying sustainable agriculture technologies.

  16. A Survey of Determination for Organophosphorus Pesticide Residue in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a fast, high efficient determination method of Organophosphorus Pesticides (OPPs residue because OPPs widely used in crops pest control fields in China are causing fearful risks for environment as well as animals and human health, traditional and advanced determination methods were discussed in the study. Based on the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric OPPs residue detection experiments in leafy vegetables showed that the absorbance of color reaction between OPPs residues and suitable colorimetric reagents can be distinguished in ppm level of OPPs residues. The detection limit of chlorpyrifos after color reaction with 0.5% Pbcl2 in acetic acid solution is 0.5 ppm. The conclusion was drawn that the detection technologies were diversified, however, a simple, efficient, rapid and nondestructive detection method is lacking and the spectrum analysis technology combined colorimetric can be a new fast and efficient determination method in the future.

  17. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  18. PRODUCTION OF LIPASES IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION BY Aspergillus niger F7-02 WITH AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka Quadri Adio; Sarafdeen Olateju Kareem; Michael Bamitale Osho; Adebukola Mobolaji Omemu

    2015-01-01

    In this study mould strains screened and molecularly identified as Aspergillus niger F7-02 was used to produced extracellular lipase in Solid State Fermentation (SSF) process. Different agricultural residues were combined in different ratios as carbon, nitrogen and elemental sources in the solid culture medium. The optimization of the culture medium was carried out for such parameters as incubation time (24 h - 96 h), inoculum concentration (0.5 – 3.0%, w/v), initial moisture content (40 – 70...

  19. Conservation agriculture and tillage effects on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.; Manuel R. Reyes; Padre, R.; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a study to analyze the influence of conservation agriculture and tillage on soil organic matter and residual moisture content in selected upland crop production systems in the Philippines LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  20. New alternatives on the control of plagues in the handling of the residuals in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recount of the historical evolution of the agriculture is made in the country and the use of agricultural inputs with tendency to the mono cultivations that drove to a biological imbalance and the escalation of the plagues in the main cultivations, that which forced to the integrated handling of plagues. The strategies are described using in the control integrated as they are: the use of the adverse environmental factors to the plagues, the use of the natural enemies, the cultural practices, the use of traps, the employment of resistant varieties and measures of legal type

  1. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  2. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  3. An Acidic Thermostable Recombinant Aspergillus nidulans Endoglucanase Is Active towards Distinct Agriculture Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Jose Poças-Fonseca; Ildinete Silva-Pereira; Cynthia Maria Kyaw; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho; Fabrícia Paula de Faria; Gilvan Caetano Duarte; Marciano Regis Rubini; Thiago Machado Mello-de-Sousa; Eveline Queiroz de Pinho Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans is poorly exploited as a source of enzymes for lignocellulosic residues degradation for biotechnological purposes. This work describes the A. nidulans Endoglucanase A heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris, the purification and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Active recombinant endoglucanase A (rEG A) was efficiently secreted as a 35 kDa protein which was purified through a two-step chromatography procedure. The highest enzyme activity was dete...

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased Cf content by 30%, 28%, 29%, and 17% for cottonwood, lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake, respectively. NDF values also decreased by 5%, 23%, 13% and 3% for, cottonwood, lentils straw, olive-oil cake and apple-tree pruning products respectively. Gamma irradiation (150 KGy) had no effects on ADF and ADL for lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake whereas, ADF decreased by 8.5% and ADL by 8.3 for cottonwood. Hemicellulose content increased by 12% for cottonwood while decreased by 54% for lentils straw and by 33% for apple-tree pruning products with no effects for olive-oil cake. Cellulose content decreased by 8.6% for cottonwood whereas no effects for the remaining residues were seen. Gamma irradiation treatment improved the nutritive value of the agriculture residues examined. The reduction in crude fibre content varies with the residue. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Lab-Scale Investigations During Combustion of Agricultural Residues and Selected Polish Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Kordylewski Włodzimierz K.; Mościcki Krzysztof J.; Witkowski Karol J.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary lab-scale investigations were conducted on slagging abatement in biomass-firing by fuel mixing. Three agriculture biomass fuels and olive cake were used in the experiments. Polish lignites and bituminous coals were examined as anti-sintering additives. The effects of chlorine release, potassium retention and ash sintering were examined by heating samples of biomass fuels and additives in the muffle oven and, next, firing them in the laboratory down-fired furnace at the temperature...

  6. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

  7. Agricultural residues based composites part II: Hydration characteristics of cement- cellulosic fibers composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is the utilization of the local agricultural wastes, such as ice straw bagasse, cotton stalks and linen fibers, which cause a big environmental problem. Different cement-fiber composites were prepared using 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% fibers by weight of cement. The lengths of the fibers used were 0.5, 0.8, and 1.25 mm. Hydration of the different, composites was carried out at room temperature for various lime intervals namely, 1.3,7 .28 and 90 days. Combined water contents, compressive strength and phase composition of the different prepared composites were examined

  8. Pesticide residues in bovine milk from a predominantly agricultural state of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H R; Kaushik, A; Kaushik, C P

    2007-06-01

    One hundred forty seven samples of bovine milk were collected from 14 districts of Haryana, India during December 1998-February 1999 and analysed for the presence of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues. summation operator HCH, summation operator DDT, summation operator endosulfan and aldrin were detected in 100%, 97%, 43% and 12% samples and with mean values of 0.0292, 0.0367, 0.0022 and 0.0036 microg/ml, respectively. Eight percent samples exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.10 mg/kg as recommended by WHO for summation operator HCH, 4% samples of 0.05 mg/kg for alpha-HCH, 5% samples of 0.01 mg/kg for gamma-HCH, 26% samples of 0.02 mg/kg for beta-HCH as recommended by PFAA and 24% samples of 0.05 mg/kg as recommended by FAO for summation operator DDT. Concentrations of beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were more as compared to other isomers and metabolites of HCH and DDT. PMID:17180431

  9. Rapid screening of flonicamid residues in environmental and agricultural samples by a sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Gangbing; Sun, Jianfan; Zou, Bin; Li, Ming; Wang, Jiagao

    2016-05-01

    A fast and sensitive polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the analysis of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. Two haptens of flonicamid differing in spacer arm length were synthesized and conjugated to proteins to be used as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To obtain most sensitive combination of antibody/coating antigen, two antibodies were separately screened by homologous and heterologous assays. After optimization, the flonicamid ELISA showed that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) was 3.86mgL(-1), and the limit of detection (IC20 value) was 0.032mgL(-1). There was no cross-reactivity to similar tested compounds. The recoveries obtained after the addition of standard flonicamid to the samples, including water, soil, carrot, apple and tomato, ranged from 79.3% to 116.4%. Moreover, the results of the ELISA for the spiked samples were largely consistent with the gas chromatography (R(2)=0.9891). The data showed that the proposed ELISA is an alternative tool for rapid, sensitive and accurate monitoring of flonicamid in environmental and agricultural samples. PMID:26897400

  10. Evaluation of Mediterranean Agricultural Residues as a Potential Feedstock for the Production of Biogas via Anaerobic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsos, Christos; Matsakas, Leonidas; Triantafyllidis, Kostas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal, dilute acid, and steam explosion pretreatment methods, were evaluated for their efficiency to improve the methane production yield of three Mediterranean agricultural lignocellulosic residues such as olive tree pruning, grapevine pruning, and almond shells. Hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatments provided low to moderate increase in the digestibility of the biomass samples, whereas steam explosion enabled the highest methane yields to be achieved for almond shells at 232.2 ± 13.0 mL CH4/gVS and olive pruning at 315.4 ± 0.0 mL CH4/gVS. Introduction of an enzymatic prehydrolysis step moderately improved methane yields for hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated samples but not for the steam exploded ones. PMID:26609521

  11. Rethinking Bioenergy from an Agricultural Perspective: Ethical Issues Raised by Perennial Energy Crop and Crop Residue Production in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shortall, Orla

    The aim of this project is to explore the social and ethical dimensions of the agricultural production of perennial energy crop and crop residues for energy. Biomass – any living or recently living matter – is being promoted in industrialised countries as part of the transition from fossil fuels to....... Interviews with key stakeholders and analysis of key documents in the UK and Denmark were carried out to address the question of how perennial energy crops and crop residues are seen as overcoming previous controversies raised by food crop biofuels, in terms of their place in agricultural systems. The thesis...... argues that stakeholder’s visions of perennial energy crops and crop residues can be understood in terms of four models of agriculture: two industrial and two alternative. These are called “industrialism lite” that involves producing perennial energy crops on marginal land; life sciences integrated...

  12. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  13. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Agricultural Soils of Zhangzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dan; CHEN Wei; YANG Jun-Hua; XU Mei-Hui; QI Shi-Hua; ZHANG Jia-Quan; TAN Ling-Zhi; ZHANG Jun-Peng; ZHANG Yuan; XU Feng; XING Xin-Li; HU Ying

    2012-01-01

    A soil survey was conducted in Zhangzhou City,an important agricultural region in south of the Fujian Province,China.93 surface soil samples were collected in the paddy fields,vegetable lands,orchards and tea plantations from Zhangzhou City.An additional soil profile was sampled in a paddy field as previous research had indicated high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the paddy fields.Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) ranged from 0.64-78.07 ng g-1 dry weight and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) ranged from 0.72-30.16 ng g-1 dry weight in the surface soil of the whole study region.Ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH < 4 and o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT > 1 in all soil samples suggested that lindane and dicofol were widely applied in this region in the past.Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in soils from the four land use types followed the orders:paddy fields > vegetable lands > tea plantations > orchards and tea plantations > orchards > paddy fields > vegetable lands,respectively.Analyses of the data showed no correlation (r < 0.1) between elevation and OCPs contents in paddy fields,orchards and vegetable lands,indicated no significantly different features in distribution of HCHs and DDTs in the soils from low lying plains and mountains and the unsystematic usage of OCPs,and highlighted the fragmented nature of agricultural production in Zhangzhou,as well as the reemission of OCPs from the soils,where high OCPs concentrations were found,in Longhai of Zhangzhou.In addition,no obvious relationship between the OCPs and total organic carbon (TOC) (r < 0.3) was observed in the soil profile.The mean contribution of dicofol in total DDTs was 66% in the whole Zhangzhou region.The approximate burdens of HCHs and DDTs in the surface layer of 0-20 cm were 0.44 and 1.55 t,respectively.The storage of both HCHs and DDTs in soil surface layer (0-20 cm) accounts for 40% burden of the soil layer of 0-50 cm (1.10 t HCHs and 3.87 t DDTs),in which the highest

  14. Slow and pressurized co-pyrolysis of coal and agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Evaluation of co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass in pressurized packed bed reactor. ► Relative influence of coal–biomass mix ratio, temperature and pressure also investigated. ► Results show significant synergy or chemical interactions in the vapor phase. ► Synergistic interactions did not influence distribution of lumped solid liquid and gas products. - Abstract: The distribution of products from the slow heating rate pyrolysis of coal, corn residues (cobs and stover), sugarcane bagasse and their blends were investigated by slow pressurized pyrolysis in a packed bed reactor. A factorial experimental design was implemented to establish the relative significance of coal–biomass mix ratio, temperature and pressure on product distribution. Results showed that the yield and composition of tar and other volatile products were mostly influenced by mix ratio, while temperature and pressure had a low to negligible significance under the range of conditions investigated. Analysis of the composition of condensates and gas products obtained showed that there was significant synergy or chemical interactions in the vapor phase during co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass. However, the interactions did not significantly affect the relative distribution of the lumped solid, liquid and gas products obtained from the blends, beyond what would be expected assuming additive behavior from the contributing fuels.

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on cell-wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1994-12-01

    The effects of 150 kilogray (kGy) of {gamma} irradiation on cell-wall constituents of cottonwood (CW), lentils straw (LS), apple pruning products (AP) and olive cake (OC) were investigated. Samples were irradiated by {gamma} irradiation at a dose level of 150 kGy under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that {gamma} irradiation decreased CF contents by about 29% for CW, LS and AP and by 17% for OC. NDF values were also decreased by about 4% for CW and OC, and by about 12% for LS and AP. {gamma} irradiation treatment also decreased ADF values only for CW by 8%. ADL contents decreased by 8% for CW and 5% for OC with no effects for LS and AP. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 30, 34, 38 and 20% for CW, LS, AP and OC, respectively. Also, the percentage of hemicellulose (HCL):CF increased for 57% for CW and 16% for OC and decreased by 7% for LS and AP. The percentage of HCL:ADL increased by 22% for CW but decreased by 33% for LS and AP with no changes for OC. There were no changes in CL:ADL ratio for all residues. (Author).

  16. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m3. Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  17. Lab-Scale Investigations During Combustion of Agricultural Residues and Selected Polish Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordylewski Włodzimierz K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary lab-scale investigations were conducted on slagging abatement in biomass-firing by fuel mixing. Three agriculture biomass fuels and olive cake were used in the experiments. Polish lignites and bituminous coals were examined as anti-sintering additives. The effects of chlorine release, potassium retention and ash sintering were examined by heating samples of biomass fuels and additives in the muffle oven and, next, firing them in the laboratory down-fired furnace at the temperature in the range of 800-1150ºC. The obtained slag samples were analysed on: chlorine and potassium content, sintering tendency and crystalline components. Among the examined coals lignite from Turów mine and bituminous coal from Bolesław Śmiały mine appeared to be the most effective in potassium retention in aluminosilicate and chlorine release from slag. Possibly the major factor of these coals which reduced ash sintering was relatively high content of kaolinite

  18. Energy from Agricultural and Animal Farming Residues: Potential at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal wastes from high-density farming have severe impacts on the nitrogen cycle. According to current regulations, the disposal of manure on cropland is constrained by nitrogen content in the agricultural soils. On the contrary, anaerobic digestion (AD of these wastes can produce energy and a digestate, which is easier to handle than manure and can be applied for agronomic uses. When herbaceous crops are co-digested with manure to increase the efficiency of biogas production, the nitrogen content in the digestate further increases, unless these larger plants are equipped with nitrogen stripping technologies. We propose a model to compare larger (cooperative and smaller (single parcel AD conversion plants. The whole process is modeled: from the collection of manures, to the cultivation of energy crops, to the disposal of the digestate. The model maximizes the energy produced on the basis of available biomass, road network, local heat demand and local availability of land for digestate disposal. Results are the optimal size and location of the plants, their technology and collection basins. The environmental performances of such plants are also evaluated. The study has been applied to the province of Forlì-Cesena, an Italian district where animal farming is particularly relevant.

  19. Selenium bioaccessibility and speciation in biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms grown on selenium-rich agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Poonam; Aureli, Federica; D'Amato, Marilena; Prakash, Ranjana; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Nagaraja, Tejo Prakash; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Cultivation of saprophytic fungi on selenium-rich substrates can be an effective means to produce selenium-fortified food. Pleurotus florida, an edible species of oyster mushrooms, was grown on wheat straw from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to mobilize and accumulate selenium from the growth substrate was studied. Selenium concentration in biofortified mushrooms was 800 times higher compared with control samples grown on wheat straw from non selenium-rich areas (141 vs 0.17 μg Se g(-1) dry weight). Seventy-five percent of the selenium was extracted after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and investigation of the selenium molecular fractions by size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS revealed that proteins and any other high molecular weight selenium-containing molecule were hydrolyzed to peptides and low molecular weight selenocompounds. Analysis of the gastrointestinal hydrolysates by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the bioaccessible selenium was mainly present as selenomethionine, a good bioavailable source of selenium, which accounted for 73% of the sum of the detected species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms using selenium-rich agricultural by-products as growth substrates. The proposed approach can be used to evaluate whether selenium-contaminated plant waste materials harvested from high-selenium areas may be used to produce selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms based on the concentration, bioaccessibility and speciation of selenium in the mushrooms. PMID:23578637

  20. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  1. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications. PMID:25748124

  2. Agricultural residues based composites II-gypsum plaster-fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is planned to get rid of some agricultural wastes, which form major environmental problems, to be used for the production of some valuable economic composites with gypsum plaster for wide important applications. Bagasse, cotton stalks, rice straw or linen fibers were blended with gypsum plaster to form the composites. Effect of each of the fiber type, length, content, and modification on the physicomechanical properties of the resulted composites were followed after different hydration conditions. Moreover, some selected composites were further investigated for their microstructure and thermal insulation properties. Results indicated that addition of fibers decreased the bulk density and mechanical properties of the composites. Density of composites with long fibers is lower than those contain short varieties although the compressive strength (CS)gave the reverse trend. Density and mechanical properties decreased as the added fibers ratio was increased. Strength of all composites increased on ageing. Cotton stalks composites gave 23 % increase in CS on using 2 % of 1.25 mm fiber than neat plaster. 2 % fiber addition of 0.8 mm gave almost the same results as the neat. The results of composites with more than 2 % fiber addition were lower than the neat gypsum. The CS of gypsum with 2 % linen fibers (1.25 mm) was higher than that of neat gypsum plaster, whereas, at 4 % fiber addition the CS was nearly the same as neat gypsum pastes. The composites with higher linen fiber contents than 4 % showed lower CS than neat gypsum paste. The modulus of rupture (MOR) of rice straw or Bagasse composites with 1.25 mm were slightly higher than that of 0.8 mm fiber length, but lower than the neat gypsum. Heat treatment at 105 degree C for 24 hours of cotton stalks decreased their properties. Acetylation of rice straw for different acetylation contents decreased their density, unaffected the CS and improved the MOR of the composites. Addition of CMC to cotton stalks has no benefit

  3. Vertical distribution of agriculture crop residue burning aerosol observed by space-borne lidar CALIOP - A case study over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Shibata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). It is also one of the main causes for dense atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) formation over South Asian region. Present study deals with spatial and vertical variability of aerosol optical and microphysical properties during the crop residue burning season (October and November) over the IGB. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire location data and MODIS AOD data confirms the crop residue burning activities over irrigated cropland of the IGB during October and November, 2009. Large values (> 0.7) of MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) backscatter (>0.006 km-1 sr-1 below 1.0 km altitude) are suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning. The increase in tropospheric columnar NO2 and surface CO concentration during October and November also emphasized the significant contribution of crop residue burning activities in enhanced anthropogenic pollution over the IGB. Vertical distribution of backscatter coefficients showed trapping of biomass (crop residues) burning aerosol within boundary layer. Spatial variation of aerosol backscatter and AOD showed large value above north-west part of IGB, major area of crop residue burning activities. The results of this study will be very useful in quantification of optical properties of atmospheric brown clouds and its effect on climate.

  4. The impact of biochars prepared from agricultural residues on phosphorus release and availability in two fertile soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolikaki, Ioanna I; Mangolis, Argirios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2016-10-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is influenced by pyrolysis conditions and type of biomass. Essential macronutrient P retained in biochar could be released and made available to plants, enhancing plant growth. This study was conducted in order to evaluate whether biochar, produced from agricultural residues, could release P in water, as well as study its potential effect on plant growth and P uptake. Biochar samples were prepared from rice husks, grape pomace and olive tree prunings by pyrolysis at 300 °C and 500 °C. These samples were used for P batch successive leaching experiments in order to determine P release in water. Subsequently, rice husk and grape pomace biochars, produced by pyrolysis at 300 °C, were applied to two temperate soils with highly different pH. A three-month cultivation period of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was studied in threefold replication, while three harvests were accomplished. Treatments comprised control soils (without amendment) and soils amended only with biochar. Results of P leaching tests showed a continuous release of P from all biochars as compared to raw biomass samples, for which the highest P concentrations were detected during the first extraction. Grape pomace and rice husk biochars pyrolyzed at 500 °C showed higher levels of water-extractable P, as compared to their corresponding raw biomass. Biochars, at 500 °C, leached more P in all four extractions, compared to biochars at 300 °C, apart from olive tree prunings biochars, where both pyrolysis temperatures presented a similar trend. Concerning plant yield of ryegrass, rice husk and grape pomace biochars showed positive statistically significant effects on plant yield only in slightly acidic soil in second and third harvests. In terms of P uptake of ryegrass, grape pomace biochars depicted positive significant differences (P < 0.05) in third harvest, in slightly acidic soil, while in first and second harvests positive

  5. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  6. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance

  7. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  8. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  9. Fate and residues of pesticides and other agriculturally significant chemicals in livestock and poultry as determined by radiotracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in the author's laboratories during this 5-year program have involved the use of radioisotope techniques (radiocarbon, tritium) to evaluate the fate of several agriculturally-significant chemicals in food animals. Included were studies of the fate of radiolabeled preparations of the organophosphorus insecticide, RH-0994, in a lactating cow; of the organophosphorus insecticide, coumaphos, after dermal application to goats as a pour on formulation; of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, resmethrin, in lactating cattle and laying hens; of the growth promoting drug, β-estradiol, after intramuscular injection into steer calves; of the environmental contaminants 4-chlorophenyl methyl sulfide and -sulfone in cattle and sheep; of the potent photosensitizer, xanthotoxin, in a goat, in bovine rumen fluid, and in laying hens; and of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, in bovine rumen fluid. In these studies, particular emphasis was placed upon elucidation of the chemical nature of metabolic products generated, and upon quantification as appropriate of residues retained by edible tissues or secreted into milk or eggs. (author)

  10. PRODUCTION OF LIPASES IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION BY Aspergillus niger F7-02 WITH AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Quadri Adio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study mould strains screened and molecularly identified as Aspergillus niger F7-02 was used to produced extracellular lipase in Solid State Fermentation (SSF process. Different agricultural residues were combined in different ratios as carbon, nitrogen and elemental sources in the solid culture medium. The optimization of the culture medium was carried out for such parameters as incubation time (24 h - 96 h, inoculum concentration (0.5 – 3.0%, w/v, initial moisture content (40 – 70%, w/v, and initial pH (6 – 8 for maximum yield. The maximum lipase activity of 76.7 U/ml was obtained with a medium containing rice bran (RB, palm kernel cake (PKC, groundnut cake (GNC and starch (S at the ratio of 5:5:3:1 (%w/w with optimum conditions of 60% moisture, 1% inoculum and a pH of 7.0 with an incubation temperature of 30 oC and incubation time of 72 h.

  11. Bioenergy: Agricultural Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing cost of fossil fuels especially natural gas and petroleum as well as a desire to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are driving the expansion of bioenergy. Plant biomass (woody, grain and nongrain) is a potential energy source. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, plant biomass was a maj...

  12. Nitrous oxide and N-leaching losses from agricultural soil: Influence of crop residue particle size, quality and placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Robertson, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    Incorporation of crop residues provides a source of readily available C and N, and previous works indicate that farming strategies where crop residues are used for soil fertility purposes may lead to increased emissions of N2O. Information on the importance of different residue management on the ...

  13. Nitrous oxide and N-leaching losses from agricultural soil: Influence of crop residue particle size, quality and placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Robertson, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    Incorporation of crop residues provides a source of readily available C and N, and previous works indicate that farming strategies where crop residues are used for soil fertility purposes may lead to increased emissions of N2O. Information on the importance of different residue management on the...... potential for N2O emissions, however, is missing. The objectives of this work were to determine the short-term effects of crop residue particle size and spatial distribution on soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O. Implications for leaching losses of inorganic N were also assessed. The work included an experiment...... physical protection of the crop residue material against microbial attack. Leaching of N tended to be reduced about 40 % with barley and 20 % with pea, but the numbers were not significantly different from residue-free soil, which leached 4.7-4.9 g N m(-2). When wheat and alfalfa residues were mixed into...

  14. Characterization and comparison of a agricultural and forestry residues for energy purpose; Caracterizacao e comparacao de residuos agricolas e florestais para a producao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jofran Luiz de; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Pereira, Emanuele Graciosa; Machado, Cassio Silva; Bezerra, Maria da Conceicao Trindade [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: jofranluiz@yahoo.com.br, jadir@ufv.br

    2010-07-01

    The large volume of waste generated by the industry of wood processing and agriculture is a problem existing in almost all regions of Brazil. Several environmental problems occur as contamination of soil and groundwater due to the accumulation and improper disposal of residues from forestry and agriculture industries. Brazil has agricultural and economic conditions to develop and take advantage of technologies to use wood and other biomass for energy purposes, for being privileged in terms of territorial extension, sunlight and water, essential factors for biomass production on a large scale. The wood chips and coffee husks are low cost residues, renewable and sometimes under utilized, they are environmentally friendly and potentially capable of generating heat, steam and electric power, thus they can contribute as an alternative fuel for generation of energy. In this context, this study aims to characterize and compare residues from the production of coffee and furniture industry. The biomasses were characterized and analyzed for density, heating value, proximate analysis (volatiles, ash and fixed carbon) and elemental composition. Results indicates large energy potential for coffee husks, with HHV equals to 18,6 MJ/Kg slightly higher than the HHV of the eucalyptus chip (17,3 MJ/Kg). (author)

  15. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  16. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiyang; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Xueying; Ma, Dongyun; Zhu, Yunji; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat), individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV) under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space) in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0), 200 kg N ha-1 (N200), 250 kg N ha-1 (N250), maize residue plus N200 (MN200), maize residue plus N250 (MN250), wheat residue plus N200 (WN200) and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250). Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O emissions

  17. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Gao

    Full Text Available The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat, individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0, 200 kg N ha-1 (N200, 250 kg N ha-1 (N250, maize residue plus N200 (MN200, maize residue plus N250 (MN250, wheat residue plus N200 (WN200 and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250. Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O

  18. Influence of agricultural residues interpretation and allocation procedures on the environmental performance of bioelectricity production – A case study on woodchips from apple orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An LCA of bioelectricity production from apple woody residues (AWRs) is performed. • Two AWRs interpretation are investigated: by-products and co-products. • Different allocation procedures are used for upstream and downstream emissions. • AWRs guarantee significant environmental benefits, when interpreted as by-products. - Abstract: Agricultural woody residues are available in massive quantities and provide a considerable potential for energy production. However, to encourage environmentally sustainable bioenergy strategies, it is necessary to assess the environmental performance of each specific bioenergy chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized to be one of the best methodologies to evaluate the environmental burdens of bioenergy chains. The application of LCA to bioenergy from agricultural residues requires practitioners to make choices on how to interpret agricultural residues (i.e. by-products or co-products) and on how to allocate emissions among the different products generated along the bioenergy chain. These are among the most debated issues in the LCA community, given their potentially large influence on final LCA outcomes. A uniform consensus on these issues is still lacking, and no single method is equally suitable for all solutions. The aim of this paper is to assess how different ways of agricultural residue interpretation and different allocation methods (both of upstream and downstream emissions), affect the environmental performance of bioenergy production fed by agricultural residues. In order to address the issue, we perform a full attributional LCA of the electricity production in a combustion combined heat and power plant (CHP) fed with woody residues from apple orchards (AWRs), as a case study. Bioelectricity production from CHP fed with agricultural residues is a good example of a multifunctional process, since multiple products (e.g. grain, fruit, straw, wood, etc.) and energy (e.g. heat and power) are co

  19. Perspectives of the generation of carbon credits on the basis of the attainment of a fertilizer - exploitation of residues of biomass of brazilian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, whose approach is unknown in literature, the main lines of direction for the implementation of a Mechanism of Clean Development are presented, as well as the possibilities of generation of Certified Reduction of Emission and its valuation. By means of adjusted systems, indicated in literature, the approach amounts of carbonic gas had been raised that could be gotten, choosing itself for this work, the process of gasification of residues of biomass in some Brazilian agricultural cultures. In relation to the carbonic gas produced in the process it is suggested that to quantify the carbon credits, the capture is made through its setting in the production of a fertilizer that had its approach value searched in the market. To prove this possibility experiments in laboratory scale had become, holding back the CO2 in the fertilizer ammonium bicarbonate. Thermogravimetric analyses, spectra infra-red ray, X-rays diffraction and CHN had been made and had confirmed that the product was the fertilizer ammonium bicarbonate. For the numerical values, it had been consulted in referring bibliographies, the Brazilian agricultural cultures with indices of production of known residues, establishing then a numerical database for the formation of the corresponding values. The results of this wok allow to affirm that a great potentiality for the exploitation of the resultant gases of the gasification of the residues of biomass, mainly of the carbonic gas in the production of a fertilizer exists and, with the possibility of implementation of a Mechanism of Clean Development in the country. (author)

  20. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. Howev...

  1. Effect of operational parameters on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure and agricultural residues: a case study for the Kahramanmaras region in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkaya, Emrah; Erguder, Tuba Hande; Demirer, Goeksel N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on anaerobic co-digestion/biomethanation of cattle manure and agricultural residues (clover, grass and wheat straw). For this purpose, 12 semi-continuous reactors, fed with/without agricultural residues, were operated under varied temperature (10+, 20+ and 35{+-}1 C) and HRT (20 and 30 days) conditions. During the experimental study, all reactors were fed once on a daily basis and operated with an organic loading rate of 3 g volatile solids (VS)/L x d. Daily biogas production, pH, biogas composition, volatile fatty acids, chemical oxygen demand and solids' (dry matter and VS) concentrations were analyzed. Results indicate that the effect of agricultural residue addition did not influence the rate and extent of biomethanation of cattle manure. An effect of temperature was clearly observed on reactor performance for both operational HRTs of 20 and 30 days. At 35{+-}1 C, reactors produced 299-324 mL biogas/g VS added, whereas this value remained between 87-138 mL biogas/g VS for the reactors run at 20+ C. The results were comparable to the studies performed on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in terms of both methane production yield (39-182 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS added) and dry matter reduction efficiencies (33-51%). (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Return of phosphorus in agricultural residues and urban sewage sludge to soil using biochar from low-temperature gasification as fertilizer product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Grønlund, Mette;

    from different biomass fuels, such as agricultural residues and waste streams, and at the same time producing a biochar product potentially valuable for soil amendment. In pot experiments, different residual products originating from low-temperature gasification were tested for their P...... fertilization purposes. Operationally defined P pools in soil obtained by sequential chemical extraction of the biochar-amended soils could be related to the observations made in the pot experiments. The results emphasize the potential of combining different feedstocks for thermal conversion processes when......-fertilizing potential with spring barley as a test crop. Biochar resulting from gasification of pure wheat straw showed the best P fertilizer value, however, because of the low P content, extremely high amounts had to be applied when crop P demand should be met, which came along with an over-fertilization of potassium...

  3. New alternatives in the control of plagues and projections of the ICA in the handling of the residuals in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategies are described indicated by the ICA for the control of plagues and of toxic residuals of agro-chemicals in the agricultural products, with emphasis in the implementation of mechanisms like the integrated control of plagues. It stands out the paper of the bio-insecticides as alternative to the agro-chemicals use and enter these stable products they are mentioned with the help of Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana, Nomuraea rileyi, Metarhizium anisoplidae and Verticilium lecanni. Some implications of the presence of toxic residuals are mentioned in Colombian export fruits and the measures that have been adopted to avoid them, as well as some mechanisms adopted in the international environment with the same end. The effective legislation is indicated as for prohibition and restriction of plaguicides use

  4. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass. Quarterly coordination meeting, December 11-12, 1978, Denver, Colorado. Second Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D L; Ashare, E; Wentworth, R L

    1979-01-05

    The tenth quarterly coordination meeting of the methane production group of the Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch, US Department of Energy was held at Denver, Colorado, December 11-12, 1978. Progress reports were presented by the contractors and a site visit was made to the Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado. A meeting agenda, a list of attendees, and progress are presented. Report titles are: pipeline fuel gas from an environmental feedlot; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester at the Monroe State Dairy Farm near Monroe, Washington; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues - potential for improvement and implementation; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; and biological conversion of biomass to methane. (DC)

  5. Bioaccessibility of environmentally Aged 14C-Atrazine Residues in an Agriculturally Used Soil and its Particle-Size Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonowski, N.D.; Modler, J.; A. Schäffer; Burauel, P.

    2008-01-01

    After 22 years of aging under natural conditions in an outdoor lysimeter the bioaccessibility of C-14-labeled atrazine soil residues to bacteria was tested. Entire soil samples as well as sand-sized, silt-sized, and clay-sized aggregates (> 20, 20-2, and < 2 mu m aggregate size, respectively) were investigated under slurried conditions. The mineralization of residual radioactivity in the outdoor lysimeter soil reached up to 4.5% of the total C-14-activity after 16 days, inoculated with Pseudo...

  6. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs matabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were <1, and most of the cancer risk values were <10(-6), suggesting that DDTs and HCHs in the farmland will not pose non-carcinogenic risks and will pose only very low cancer risks to the Tibetan residents. PMID:26874624

  7. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  8. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated. PMID:26088763

  9. Characterization of natural fiber from agricultural-industrial residues; Caracterizacao de fibras naturais provenientes de residuos agroindustriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Karen S.; Spinace, Marcia A.S., E-mail: marcia.spinace@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC, Campus de Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Natural fibers show great potential for application in polymer composites. However, instead of the production of inputs for this purpose, an alternative that can also minimize solid waste generation is the use of agro-industrial waste for this purpose, such as waste-fiber textiles, rice husks residues and pineapple crowns. In this work the characterization of these three residues and evaluate their properties in order to direct the application of polymer composites. Was analyzed the moisture, density, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis of the fibers. The results show that the use of these wastes is feasible both from an environmental standpoint and because its properties suitable for this application. (author)

  10. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  11. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G.

    2008-05-15

    This study examines the possibility of electricity production through gasification of agricultural residues in Sudan. The study begins in Chapter 1, by providing general contextual analysis of the energy situation (production and consumption patterns) in Sudan with specific focus on electricity. It proceeded to study the potential of Petroleum, Biomass and other renewable sources for electricity production. Dramatic increase in electricity production was found to be essential especially through decentralised power plants as the current electricity production services cover {proportional_to} 13 % of the population of Sudan. Biomass potential in Sudan justifies the use of agricultural residues as energy source; its potential was estimated by {proportional_to} 350000 TJ/a. Further, the urban centres of arid regions in western Sudan were identified as the target group for this study. In chapter 2, specific investigations for selected study area through field work using statistical tools such as questionnaires, interviews and field observation show that income is highly correlated to electricity consumption. The flat rate system did not result in higher consumption thus the assumption that this consumption will not drastically change in the next 10 years could be accepted. As orientation value for BGPP, 8000 tons of GN.S are available annually, the average electricity consumption is {proportional_to} 4 kWh/day/family while acceptable price could be 40 SDD/kWh (0.15 Euro). In chapter 3, literature review was carried to spot out the comparative merits of the gasification technology and the most optimum gasifying and electricity production system. As a result downdraft gasifier and ICE were suggested as suitable systems. In chapter 4, fuel properties and fuel properties of agricultural residues were studied, different samples were tested and the results were presented. The main conclusions derived were: fuel properties of agricultural residues are modifiable properties, so

  12. Suitable conditions for xylanases activities from Bacillus sp. GA2(1 and Bacillus sp. GA1(6 and their properties for agricultural residues hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Chantorn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp. GA2(1 and Bacillus sp. GA1(6 were isolated from soybean field in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Crude enzymes from both isolates showed the activities of cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase at 37°C for 24 h. The highest xylanase activities of Bacillus sp. GA2(1 and Bacillus sp. GA1(6 were 1.58±0.25 and 0.82±0.16 U/ml, respectively. The relative xylanase activities from both strains were more than 60% at pH 5.0 to 8.0. The optimum temperature of xylanases was 50°C in both strains. The residual xylanase activities from both strains were more than 70% at 60°C for 60 min. Five agricultural wastes (AWs, namely coffee residue, soybean meal, potato peel, sugarcane bagasse, and corn cobs, were used as substrates for hydrolysis properties. The highest reducing sugar content of 101±1.32 µg/ml was obtained from soybean meal hydrolysate produced by Bacillus sp. GA2(1 xylanase.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process. PMID:24191456

  14. An analysis of producing ethanol and electric power from woody residues and agricultural crops in East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Rubaba Mammad

    The increasing U.S. dependence on imported oil; the contribution of fossil fuels to the greenhouse gas emissions and the climate change issue; the current level of energy prices and other environmental concerns have increased world interest in renewable energy sources. Biomass is a large, diverse, readily exploitable resource. This dissertation examines the biomass potential in Eastern Texas by examining a 44 county region. This examination considers the potential establishment of a 100-megawatt (MW) power plant and a 20 million gallon per year (MMGY) ethanol plant using lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass sources considered are switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse, and logging residues. In the case of electricity generation, co-firing scenarios are also investigated. The research analyzes the key indicators involved with economic costs and benefits, environmental and social impacts. The bioenergy production possibilities considered here were biofeedstock supported electric power and cellulosic ethanol production. The results were integrated into a comprehensive set of information that addresses the effects of biomass energy development in the region. The analysis indicates that none of the counties in East Texas have sufficient biomass to individually sustain either a 100% biomass fired power plant or the cellulosic ethanol plant. Such plants would only be feasible at the regional level. Co-firing biomass with coal, however, does provide a most attractive alternative for the study region. The results indicate further that basing the decision solely on economics of feedstock availability and costs would suggest that bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is not a viable energy alternative. Accounting for some environmental and social benefits accruing to the region from bioenergy production together with the feedstock economics, however, suggests that government subsidies, up to the amount of accruing benefits, could make the bioenergies an attractive business opportunity

  15. The Development of a Curriculum for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues for Environmental Literacy of Secondary School Students at Samaki Wittaya Municipality School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klakayan, Jagree; Singseewo, Adisak

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to (1) design a curriculum on Production of Charcoal Briquettes from Agricultural Residues, (2) implement the designed curriculum, and (3) study and compare the learning achievements of Matthayomsuksa 3 students at Samakee Wittaya Municipality School in terms of knowledge, learning skills, and participation in the production of…

  16. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget

  17. Effects of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on sorption, mineralization, and bound-residue formation of 4-nonylphenol in an agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of earthworms on fate of nonylphenol (NP) are obscure. Using 14C-4-NP111 as a representative, we studied the fate of 4-NP in an agricultural soil with or without the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and in fresh cast of the earthworm. Sorption of 4-NP on the cast (Kd 1564) was significantly higher than on the parent soil (Kd 1474). Mineralization of 4-NP was significantly lower in the cast (13.2%) and the soil with earthworms (10.4%) than in the earthworm-free soil (16.0%). One nitro metabolite of 4-NP111 (2-nitro-4-NP111) was identified in the soil and cast, and the presence of the earthworm significantly decreased its amounts. The presence of earthworm also significantly decreased formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. Our results demonstrate that earthworms could significantly change the fate of 4-NP, underlining that earthworm effects should be considered when evaluating behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil. - Highlights: • The earthworm Metaphire guillelmi inhibited mineralization of 4-NP in the soil. • A less-polar metabolite of 4-NP (2-nitro-4-NP111) was detected in the soil and cast. • The presence of earthworm reduced the amount of 2-nitro-4-NP111 in the soil. • M. guillelmi significantly reduced formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. - Earthworms significantly changed the fate of 4-NP, highlighting that effects of earthworm should be considered when evaluating the behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil

  18. Quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities with the use of ion-pairing reagents in LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyue; Riter, Leah S; Wujcik, Chad E; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities (RACs). Instead of analysis in the traditionally used negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, these anionic compounds were detected in positive ESI with the use of ion-pairing reagents. In this approach, only a small amount (60µM) of a commercially available dicationic ion-pairing reagent was introduced into the post-column sample stream. This method has been validated in six different types of RACs including corn grain, corn stover, cotton seed, soybean, soy forage and orange with satisfactory quantitative accuracy and precision. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) values for these analytes were 1.0 to 3.0µg/kg. The standard curves were linear over the range of the tested concentrations (3.0 to 500µg/kg), with correlation coefficient (r) values≥0.999. Evaluation of ionization effects in RAC matrix extracts using diluent blanks for comparison showed no significant matrix effects were present. PMID:26717820

  19. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    benzene and ensure compliance with the NAAQS. Calculations of excessive lifetime cancer risk due to benzene amount to 25 and 10 per million inhabitants for children and adults, respectively, exceeding the USEPA threshold of 1 per million inhabitants. Annual exposure to isocyanic acid was close to 1 ppb, the concentration considered to be sufficient to enhance risks for cardiovascular diseases and cataracts. This study makes a case for urgent mitigation of post-harvest paddy residue fires as the unknown synergistic effect of multi-pollutant exposure due to emissions from this anthropogenic source may be posing grave health risks to the population of the N.W. IGP. This work has been published very recently and the citation to the complete work is: B.P. Chandra, Vinayak Sinha, Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide, Environment International, Volume 88, March 2016, Pages 187-197, ISSN 0160-4120, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.025.

  20. Possibilities for sustainable biorefineries based on agricultural residues – A case study of potential straw-based ethanol production in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Biorefineries can produce ethanol, biogas, heat and power efficiently with profit. ► Location of plant is decided by raw material supply in the region. ► Increased production of high value compounds affects profitability. ► Energy efficiency is increased by availability of heat sinks. ► Several locations may be suitable for construction of a biorefinery plant. -- Abstract: This study presents a survey of the most important techno-economic factors for the implementation of biorefineries based on agricultural residues, in the form of straw, and biochemical conversion into ethanol and biogas, together with production of electricity and heat. The paper suggests locations where the necessary conditions can be met in Sweden. The requirements identified are regional availability of feedstock, the possibility to integrate with external heat sinks, appropriate process design and the scale of the plant. The scale of the plant should be adapted to the potential, regional, raw-material supply, but still be large enough to give economies of scale. The integration with heat sinks proved to be most important to achieve high energy-efficiency, but it was of somewhat less importance for the profitability. Development of pentose fermentation, leading to higher ethanol yields, was important to gain high profitability. Promising locations were identified in the county of Östergötland where integration with an existing 1st generation ethanol plant and district heating systems (DHSs) is possible, and in the county of Skåne where both a significant, potential straw supply and integration potential with DHSs are available.

  1. Cellulase production from agricultural residues by recombinant fusant strain of a fungal endophyte of the marine sponge Latrunculia corticata for production of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; El-Gendy, Mervat M A

    2012-02-01

    Several fungal endophytes of the Egyptian marine sponge Latrunculia corticata were isolated, including strains Trichoderma sp. Merv6, Penicillium sp. Merv2 and Aspergillus sp. Merv70. These fungi exhibited high cellulase activity using different lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentations (SSF). By applying mutagenesis and intergeneric protoplast fusion, we have obtained a recombinant strain (Tahrir-25) that overproduced cellulases (exo-β-1,4-glucanase, endo-β-1,4-glucanase and β-1,4-glucosidase) that facilitated complete cellulolysis of agricultural residues. The process parameters for cellulase production by strain Tahrir-25 were optimized in SSF. The highest cellulase recovery from fermentation slurries was achieved with 0.2% Tween 80 as leaching agent. Enzyme production was optimized under the following conditions: initial moisture content of 60% (v/w), inoculum size of 10(6) spores ml(-1), average substrate particle size of 1.0 mm, mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corncob (2:1) as the carbon source supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and corn steep solids, fermentation time of 7 days, medium pH of 5.5 at 30°C. These optimized conditions yielded 450, 191, and 225 units/gram dry substrate (U gds(-1)) of carboxylmethyl cellulase, filter-paperase (FPase), and β-glucosidase, respectively. Subsequent fermentation by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRC2, using lignocellulose hydrolysates obtained from the optimized cellulase process produced the highest amount of ethanol (58 g l(-1)). This study has revealed the potential of exploiting marine fungi for cost-effective production of cellulases for second generation bioethanol processes. PMID:21898149

  2. The joint food and agriculture organization of the united nations/world health organization expert committee on food additives and its role in the evaluation of the safety of veterinary drug residues in foods

    OpenAIRE

    MacNeil, James D.

    2005-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the evaluation of food additives at the international level through the establishment of an expert committee or committees. These committees evaluated the safety of food additives present as residues resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary pharmaceuticals. The results of these meetings include international harmonization on acceptable daily intake of these compounds...

  3. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Duca; Giovanni Riva; Ester Foppa Pedretti; Giuseppe Toscano; Chiara Mengarelli; Giorgio Rossini

    2014-01-01

    The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husk...

  4. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  5. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  6. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass. Quarterly coordination meeting, March 15-16, 1979, Tampa, Florida. Third quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D L; Ashare, E; Wentworth, R L

    1979-04-24

    The eleventh quarterly coordination meeting of the methane production group of the Fuels From Biomass Systems Branch, US Department of Energy was held at Tampa, Florida, March 15-16, 1979. Progress reports were presented by the contractors and a site visit was made to Kaplan Industries, Bartow, Florida to see the Hamilton Standard demonstration facility for digestion of environmental feedlot residue to methane. A meeting agenda, a list of attendees, and progress reports are presented.

  7. Microorganism screening for ethanol production using gasification gas from agricultural residue%生物质气化气发酵生产乙醇优良菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风芹; 张炎达; 谢慧; 彭一丁; 宋安东

    2015-01-01

    利用农业废弃物合成气发酵生产燃料乙醇不仅可以缓解中国的能源危机,也是减轻环境污染、促进农业可持续发展和改善农村环境的重要举措。该文对实验室富集获得的4个菌系及国内外报道较多的4个菌株发酵生物质合成气生产燃料乙醇的潜力进行了研究。结果表明:菌株LP-fm4、Clostridium sp. P11和A-fm4发酵生物质合成气生产乙醇的净产量分别为179.23、152.92和115.08 mg/L;菌体比生长速率分别为1.46、1.66和1.18 d-1;乙醇比生成速率分别3.50、2.05和0.78 d-1,单位菌体生成乙醇的量分别为2252.90、1450.20和1132.37 mg/g,显著高于其他菌株(群)。多重比较分析与综合性状聚类分析结果表明前两者为利用合成气高效发酵乙醇的理想菌体,菌 A-fm4为具有潜力菌体。以期为未来农业废弃物合成气乙醇发酵提供了优良的菌种资源。%Ethanol is one of the most important alternative biofuels, which provides a net energy gain, has environmental benefits and is economically competitive. Ethanol production from syngas anaerobic fermentation appears to be a potential and promising technology compared to the existing chemical conversion techniques. Currently, syngas fermentation is being developed as one option towards the production of bio-ethanol from biomass. Agricultural residue biomass such as corn stalks and wheat stalks, has been an important part of the biomass resource in the world. Much attention has been attracted on the conversation and utilization of these biomasses with high value. The gasification of the agricultural residue biomass is a mature and industrialized technology up to now. Gasification of agricultural lignocellulosic residue followed by syngas fermentation to produce bio-ethanol is being explored owing to the low cost and availability of agricultural residue feedstock. The process can not only change trash to treasure but also be of benefit to reduce

  8. 生物质气化气发酵生产乙醇优良菌株的筛选%Microorganism screening for ethanol production using gasification gas from agricultural residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风芹; 张炎达; 谢慧; 彭一丁; 宋安东

    2015-01-01

    利用农业废弃物合成气发酵生产燃料乙醇不仅可以缓解中国的能源危机,也是减轻环境污染、促进农业可持续发展和改善农村环境的重要举措。该文对实验室富集获得的4个菌系及国内外报道较多的4个菌株发酵生物质合成气生产燃料乙醇的潜力进行了研究。结果表明:菌株LP-fm4、Clostridium sp. P11和A-fm4发酵生物质合成气生产乙醇的净产量分别为179.23、152.92和115.08 mg/L;菌体比生长速率分别为1.46、1.66和1.18 d-1;乙醇比生成速率分别3.50、2.05和0.78 d-1,单位菌体生成乙醇的量分别为2252.90、1450.20和1132.37 mg/g,显著高于其他菌株(群)。多重比较分析与综合性状聚类分析结果表明前两者为利用合成气高效发酵乙醇的理想菌体,菌 A-fm4为具有潜力菌体。以期为未来农业废弃物合成气乙醇发酵提供了优良的菌种资源。%Ethanol is one of the most important alternative biofuels, which provides a net energy gain, has environmental benefits and is economically competitive. Ethanol production from syngas anaerobic fermentation appears to be a potential and promising technology compared to the existing chemical conversion techniques. Currently, syngas fermentation is being developed as one option towards the production of bio-ethanol from biomass. Agricultural residue biomass such as corn stalks and wheat stalks, has been an important part of the biomass resource in the world. Much attention has been attracted on the conversation and utilization of these biomasses with high value. The gasification of the agricultural residue biomass is a mature and industrialized technology up to now. Gasification of agricultural lignocellulosic residue followed by syngas fermentation to produce bio-ethanol is being explored owing to the low cost and availability of agricultural residue feedstock. The process can not only change trash to treasure but also be of benefit to reduce

  9. Agriculture. Sector 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Lebanon, emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities occur through the following processes: -enteric fermentation and manure management of the domestic livestock emits methane and nitrous oxide. -agricultural burning of crop residues is of minor importance since field burning of crop residue is not a common practice in Lebanon -agricultural soils are a source of nitrous oxide directly from the soils and from animal production, and indirectly from the nitrogen added to the soils. The following results were obtained for the inventory year 1994: 7.60955 Gg of methane, 3.01478 Gg of nitrous oxide, 0.00146 Gg of nitrogen oxides and 0.04306 Gg of carbon monoxide

  10. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of these materials has been studied at first by thermogravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Afterwards, different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been tested in a bench top torrefaction reactor. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the treatment. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range reduces making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60%, 80% and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64%, 85% and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by the results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks due to their different original characteristics. Untreated oil press cake and husks, in fact, already show a good high heating value and, for this reason, their torrefaction should be mild to avoid an excessive ash concentration. On the contrary, for sunflower stalks the treatment is more useful and could be more severe.

  11. Study of some applications of residual sludges in agriculture using 15N, 32P, 65Zn, 109Cd and 203Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of residual sludges increases dry matter production. This effect is due to the low C/N of these matters. The possible risks depend on the alteration of ions mobility as PO4---, Zn++, Hg++ and Cd++, which are often very strongly absorbed by soil particules. For these investigations, use of radioactive tracers is necessary. We have shown, with 65Zn++, that zinc of sludges is not available for ray-grass and, with 32PO4, that phosphorus mobility declines with lime-treated sludges. The use of isotopic dilution kinetics allows to shown that Hg++ and Cd++ are not absorbed in too acidic soils

  12. Persistence of organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environments. Coordinated programme on isotope-tracer-aided research and monitoring on agricultural residue - biological interactions in aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric enzymic assay method was developed for quick measuring of organophosphorous insecticides in water samples. All steps of the assay procedure were carried out in scintillation vials. 50 μl enzyme solution (acetylcholinesterase of electric eel) and 50 μl buffer pH 7 were pipetted into the vial followed by 100 μl of water sample or aqueous solution of the insecticide and the mixture was incubated for 60 minutes. 50 μl 3H-acetylcholine were added to the vial and the enzymic reaction stopped after 10 minutes by adding 200 μl buffer solution pH 2.5. 10 ml scintillation cocktail were then added and after shaking and 30 minutes standing the radioactivity was determined in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Acetylcholine remained in the water phase while 3H-acetic acid released in enzymic hydrolysis may be extracted by an organic solvent. By this method, not only the parent compound but also some of its degradation products, which possess some anticholinesteratic activity can be measured. The method is suitable for combination with thin-layer chromatography for identification purposes. Using this method, we studied the degradation of the organophosphorous insecticides malathion, parathion, DDVP and imidan. The degradation in distilled water and natural water was compared. For example, the half-time of malathion in distilled water at room temperature was 6 days while in natural water (Danube river) it was 4 hours. The degradation processes were also studied in model systems containing sediment and water. Degradation was faster in models containing solid particles than in filtered water. The radiometric enzymic method was tested as analytical procedure for residue monitoring. Since 1978 a residue monitoring programme was in progress in the Danube river near Budapest. Occasionally high residue levels were detected in spring and early summer. The radiometric enzymic method has proved to be a useful analytical method for anticholinesterase pesticides in water

  13. 农产品农药残留速测技术的应用探讨%Application of Instant Inspection Techniques of Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇

    2012-01-01

    The application of instant inspection techniques in detecting pesticides residues in vegetables can effectively prevent poisonous vegetables into the market, creating positive social benefits. This article examines the necessity and feasibility in applying instant inspection techniques as well as its advantages and drawbacks in a bid to provide reference for its promotion and application.%应用农药残留速测技术检测蔬菜的农药残留,可有效的防止“毒菜”进入市场,具有良好的社会效益。分析应用农药残留速测技术的必要性和可行性,通过适用性试验,探讨此法的优点及存在的问题,为其推广应用提供参考。

  14. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, B P; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-03-01

    In the north west Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r≥0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62±0.18ppb), benzene (2.51±0.28ppb), toluene (3.72±0.41ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88±0.30ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55±0.19ppb) and CO (552±113ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97±0.17ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of benzene and ensure

  15. Persistence and degradation of pesticide residues in different agricultural soils, related to biological activity. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue - soil biota interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studies and small-scale field experiments were conducted involving pesticides extensively used in agricultural practice in Brazil (the insecticides aldrin, carbaryl and parathion, and the fungicides carbendazim and metalaxyl) with emphasis on biological activity and soil organic matter content. The ability of fungi isolated from soils of southern, centre and northern regions of Brazil to degrade 14C-aldrin and its metabolites was assayed in culture growth medium. Results showed that the microorganism Penicilium sp. was able to metabolize the parent compound or one of its metabolites added to the medium. Field studies performed with soils packed into PVC tubes showed that added 14C-aldrin leached fastest in the soil poor in organic matter. 14C-carbaryl was used to evaluate the effects of addition of carbon sources on its persistence and degradation in soils rich and poor in organic matter. It was found that cellulose can influence the behaviour of carbaryl in soil low in organic matter by interfering with microorganismal population. Studies on the degradation of 14C-parathion by soil kept moist with and without repeated applications demonstrated that microbial population was modified by the repeated treatment. The adsorption, movement and persistence of the fungicide 14C-carbendazim was examined in Brazilian soils differing in organic matter content. Soils with highest levels of organic matter showed higher sorption coefficients and lower mobility. Carbendazim was very persistent in all soils. The metabolite 2-benzimidazolecarbamate was the main degradation product detected. Experiments with 14C-metalaxyl showed that sorption coefficients in the Humic Gley soil were 0.8 and in the Dark Red Latosol soil 0.3. Data are in agreement with the high mobility of 14C-metalaxyl in soil thin-layers. Also, a metabolite was detected in percentages varying from 3 to 10% specially in the Humic Gley soil samples

  16. Biological production of hydrogen from agricultural raw materials and residues with a subsequent methanisation step; Biologische Wasserstoffproduktion aus landwirtschaftlichen Roh- und Reststoffen mit nachfolgender Methanstufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2007-07-01

    In order to examine the thermophile fermentative production from biohydrogen, discontinuous attempts were accomplished at a temperature of 60 C. As an inoculum, heat-treated sewage sludge was used. Glucose was used as a substrate. The fermenting residues of the hydrogen attempts were used as a substrate in a methane reactor in order to examine a two-stage system. The hydrogen attempts in the anaerobic test system were operated with a hydraulic retention time by 3.3 days and were performed during a period of 300 days. The optimal space load amounts to 5 g (l*d). The production rate at hydrogen amounts to 1.2 Nl/(l{sub R}*d). The yields amount to between 200 and 250 Nml/g oTS. In the case of an overloading of the system with substrate, the hydrogen production decreases drastically due to poor yields. Biological hydrogen production by fermentation possesses the potential to become a component for a lasting emission-free power supply. The thermophile approach ensures a simultaneous hygienization. As a fermenting remainder treatment a downstream methanation stage is possible.

  17. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the fate of antibiotic residues and resistance genes in the environment after land application of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two swine confinement facilities, designated sites A and C were the focus of study. The antibiotic regimens at both sites included chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hog manure at these sites was treated in open, unlined lagoons before being applied as fertilizer to onsite (site A) and offsite (Site C) farm fields. Sites differed in their sub-surface geology, and each site was outfitted with a network of groundwater sampling wells for the monitoring of chemical contaminants, antibiotic residues, bacterial indicators of faecal contamination, and antibiotic resistance genes. Sterile containers were used to collect water from waste lagoons and wells once in 2000, and twice in 2001 and 2002. Additionally, the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was investigated from soil samples collected from 2005 to 2007 from seven different fields that were amended with manure. DNA was extracted from water and soil samples. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes was accomplished by PCR using primers that have been described elsewhere. These primer sets targeted three major groups of antibiotic resistance genes: 1) four classes of genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of ribosomal protection proteins; 2) three classes of genes (tet(C), tet(H), tet(Z)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of efflux pump proteins; 3) eight RNA methylase genes (tlr(B), tlr(D), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(G), erm(Q)) conferring resistance to macrolide antibiotics, including tylosin and erythromycin, as well as to the lincosamide antibiotics and Streptogramin-B. The RNA methylases tlr(B) and tlr(D) have been found in tylosin-producing strains of soil bacteria, while the other six erm genes come from a diversity of pathogenic, human commensal, and environmental bacteria. These genes were selected as targets based on preliminary surveys of lagoon and groundwater and upon the antibiotic usage of the study sites. Presence

  18. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA); Klimaschutz, Naturressourcenschutz und Bodenverbesserung durch kombinierte energetische und stoffliche Verwertung lignozelluloser landwirtschaftlicher Abfaelle und Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Tscherpel, Burckhard; El Behery, Ahmed; Menanz, Rania; Bahl, Hubert; Scheel, Michael; Nipkow, Mareen

    2015-07-01

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget

  19. Aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos en un sistema hidro-orgánico de agricultura urbana Use of solid residues in a hydro-organic culture systems of urban agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por objeto diseñar un sistema hidroorgánico de producción de hortalizas en áreas pequeñas, con el fin de contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la población urbana y al aprovechamiento de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad de Popayán. Se diseñó un sistema a partir de material reciclado y se evaluó utilizando tres tratamientos como fuente nutricional (Lixiviado orgánico, Lixiviado orgánico suplementado, solución nutritiva común y como indicador biológico cilantro (Coriandrum sativum l.. La respuesta de las plantas fue evaluada por crecimiento y desarrollo. El sistema para producción urbana de hortalizas permitió obtener producciones hasta de 627 g m-2, superando la producción en agricultura tradicional (227 g. La mejor fuente nutricional fue la solución nutritiva comercial.The research objective was to design hydroorganic crop systems to produce vegetables in small areas, to contribute to the security food of urban population and the use of the solid residues. An alternative system was design for urban agricultural of vegetable with recycled material. To describe the source nutritional response of Coriandrum sativum were evaluating three treatments (organic leached, leached organic supplemented, common nutritional solution. The response of plant was characterized by growth and plants development. In the alternative systems for urban crop of vegetables the production/plant was of 627 g m-2, surpassing the results in traditional agriculture (227g. The best nutritional source was common nutritional solution.

  20. Sustainable nanomaterials using waste agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. Learning from nature, one can produce a wide variety of nanoparticles using completely safe and benign materials such as ...

  1. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initi...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  2. Cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju em diferentes resíduos agrícolas Cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju in different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustáquio Souza Dias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes resíduos agrícolas disponíveis na região sul de Minas Gerais foram testados para o cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. Foram avaliados os seguintes substratos: palha de feijão pura (PFP, palha de milho pura (PMP, casca de café pura (CCP, palha de feijão enriquecida com 2% de calcário, 2% de gesso e 10% de farelo de trigo (PFE, palha de milho enriquecida (PME e casca de café enriquecida (CCE. Todos os substratos receberam 2% de inoculante e foram incubados a 24°C. Após a colonização, os sacos foram mantidos abertos em ambiente a 24°C e umidade a 80%. PFP, PFE e PME apresentaram os melhores resultados na produção de cogumelos, com uma eficiência biológica de 85,7; 81,4 e 83,4%, respectivamente. A palha de feijão foi considerada o melhor resíduo para a produção do cogumelo P. sajor-caju, porque apresentou a melhor eficiência biológica sem necessidade de enriquecimento.Several agricultural residues available in the South of Minas Gerais were tested for cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. The following substrates were investigated: Bean (BS, Corn (CS straws and Coffee husk (CH without nutrient supplementation and straws of bean (BSS, corn (CSS and coffee husk (CHS supplemented with 2% of CaCO3, 2% of gypsum and 10% of wheat flour. All the substrates were inoculated with 2% of spawn and incubated at 24ºC. After the fungi had colonized the substrate, the plastic bags were open and maintained at room temperature with 80% of humidity. BS, BSS and CSS showed higher mushroom production than the others, showing a biological efficiency of 85.7, 81.4 and 83.6% respectively. The beans straw (BS without nutrient supplementation was considered the best residue for the growth and cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. This substrate showed higher levels of biological efficiency than the others substrates analysed.

  3. Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Agricultural Soil of Chongming Island in Shanghai%上海崇明岛农田土壤中有机氯农药残留特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金刚; 毕春娟; 陈振楼; 周婕成

    2011-01-01

    Thirty surface soil samples were collected to investigate the residue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in July 2008. Those samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and determined by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector ( GC-μECD). Results showed that the concentrations of OCPs ( dry weight) ranged between 3.11-117.47 ng·g-1, with mean value of 26.25 ng·g-1. Two major contaminants of OCPs were DDTs and HCHs, the concentration of which varied from 0. 14 ng·g-1 to 77.89 ng·g-1 and from 1. 14 ng.g-l to 22.43 ng·g-1 , respectively. At the same times, hexachlorobenzene (0. 23-11.63 ng·g-1), aldrin (0. 03-0. 75 ng·g-1 ), heptaehlor epoxide (0. 05-1.44 ng·g-1), dieldrin (0.05-5.33 ng·g-1 ) , endrin ( ND-14.66 ng·g-1 ) and mirex (0. 03-10. 58 ng·g-1 ) could also be detected. Most of DDTs had been degraded to DDD and DDE, with tae major compounds of DDE (about 64.7% ), and the recent existed DDT was the residue of early input. All of the four isomers of I-CHs were detected, and the contents of α-HCH ( about 48.1% ) and β-HCH ( about 33.4% ) were the maximum. The highest OCPs residues appeared in the soil of farm cultivation compared to greenhouse cultivation and ordinary open-air cultivation.%为研究崇明岛农田土壤中有机氯农药(OCPs)的残留特征,于2008年7月采集崇明岛农田表层土壤30个.利用加速溶剂萃取仪(ASE)萃取,使用气相色谱-电子捕获检测器(GC-μECD)分析.结果表明,在采集的土壤样品(干重)中,OCPs的含量范围为3.11~117.47 ng.g-1(平均值26.25 ng.g-1);主要组分DDTs和HCHs的含量范围分别为0.14~77.89 ng.g-1(平均值15.80 ng.g-1)和1.14~22.43 ng.g-1(平均值4.52 ng.g-1),另外六氯苯(

  4. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  5. Sensor needs for agricultural and carbon management

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a wide variety of sensors and platforms available for agricultural and carbon management. Two areas of concern are monitoring plant nutrients and crop residue over agricultural watersheds. Excess plant nutrients and agricultural chemicals may runoff into the water supply, degrading water ...

  6. Biodiesel etílico filtrado de óleo residual de soja: desempenho de um trator agrícola na operação de gradagem = Filtered ethyl ester biodiesel from residual soybean oil: performance of an agricultural tractor in the disk harrow operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Naves Dos Reis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este teste foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho de um trator agrícola utilizando mistura de biodiesel com diesel de petróleo como combustível. O experimento foi realizado na FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, e utilizou-se um trator 4x2 TDA de 73,6 kW (100 cv @ 2.300 rpm de potência no motor e grade aradora. O biodiesel utilizadofoi do tipo etílico, filtrado, produzido à base de óleo residual. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial (4x5, com quatro repetições, em que foram combinadas cinco proporções de mistura biodiesel e diesel de petróleo (0 e 100%, 25 e 75%, 50 e 50%, 75 e 25% e 100 e 0% com quatro marchas de deslocamento. As variáveis analisadas foram potência na barra de tração, rotação do motor e velocidade de deslocamento. Os resultados evidenciaram que a proporção de mistura (biodiesel e diesel depetróleo não comprometeu o desempenho do trator até o limite de 50%.This test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an agricultural tractor using a mixture of biodiesel and petroleum diesel. The experiment was conducted at FCAV-Unesp, Jaboticabal, using a 4x2 AFWD tractor with 73.6 kW (100 hp @ 2,300 rpm of power in the motor, pulling a disk harrow. The biodiesel used was of the ethyl type, filtered, and produced from residual soybean oil. The experimental design was completed randomized in factorial scheme (4x5, with 20 treatments and 4 repetitions, in which 5 ratios of biodiesel and petroleum diesel mixtures were combined (0 and 100%, 25 and 75%, 50 and 50%, 75 and 25% and 100 and 0%, with 4 displacement runs. The analyzed variables were traction bar power, enginerotation and displacement speed. The results evidenced that the mixture ratio (biodiesel and petroleum diesel did not compromise tractor performance until the limit of 50%.

  7. Wood residues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest products industry is the third largest economic sector in Alberta, producing pulp and paper, dimensional lumber, paneling, and value added products, providing some 40,000 jobs . 'Value added' is a key component of expanding economic activity within the forest products sector. Wood residues can play a key role in obtaining more value from forest resources by providing new products, serving as feedstock to energy and chemical production, and playing a role in agriculture and land reclamation. One of the principal roles of the Forest Products Development Branch of the Alberta Economics Department is to encourage the development of the industry by creating new uses for these materials and developing awareness of the scope of the resource. Distances to markets, economic competition from conventional energy sources and coordination of research efforts are substantial barriers to further development that the Forest Products Development Branch has to face daily. Some notable successes in recent years are described. These include the Wood Residue Inventory and the Wood Residue Database that provide data on availability and principal location of wood residues, also a listing of contacts at the mills who produce the materials

  8. Desempenho dinâmico de um trator agrícola utilizando biodiesel destilado de óleo residual Dynamic performance of an agricultural tractor utilizing distilled biodiesel from spent oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Soranso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o desempenho dinâmico de um trator agrícola funcionando com biodiesel destilado (50% etílico + 50% metílico em função das proporções de biodiesel e diesel de petróleo (0 e 100%, 5 e 95%, 15 e 85%, 25 e 75%, 50 e 50%, 75 e 25% e 100 e 0% respectivamente. O experimento foi realizado na área do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP, localizado na latitude 21º 14' 28" S e longitude 48º 17'12" W. Utilizou-se um trator 4 x 2 TDA com potência de 73,6 kW (100 cv no motor e um trator de lastro. O biodiesel utilizado foi produzido à base de óleo residual de fritura de alimentos, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com 7 tratamentos e 5 repetições, totalizando 35 observações, e os resultados evidenciaram que a mistura biodiesel e diesel de petróleo influenciou significativamente as variáveis consumo horário volumétrico, consumo horário mássico, consumo de combustível por área trabalhada e consumo específico. Quando o trator operou com 100% de biodiesel (B100 o consumo específico aumentou em média 18% em relação ao diesel (B0.The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic performance of an agricultural tractor utilizing distilled biodiesel (50% ethylic + 50% methylic as a function of the proportion of biodiesel and diesel of petroleum (0 and 100%, 5 and 95%, 15 and 85%, 25 and 75%, 50 and 50%, 75 and 25% and 100 and 0%, respectively. This research was done in the area of the Department of Rural Engineering of the Paulista State University (UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, SP, located in the latitude 21º 14' 28" S and longitude 48º 17'12" W. A tractor 4 x 2 FWA was used, with a 73.6 kW (100 HP motor and a ballast tractor. The biodiesel used was produced from spent oil from food frying. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with 7 treatments and 5 repetitions, totaling 35 observations

  9. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  10. 如何看待“农村剩余劳动力向非农产业和城镇转移是工业化和现代化的必然趋势%How to Look on the Viewpoint that It is the Inevitable Trend of Industrialization and Urbanization for the Residual Rural Labor Forces to Shift to Non-agricultural Industries or Cities and Towns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁辉

    2003-01-01

    Under the huge framework of China's entry into WTO, by using GTAP model, the author experimentally analyses that the shift of rural residual labor forces to non-agricultural industries or cities and towns is vital to improve the income of rural residents and narrow the gap both between rural areas and ur ban areas and between regions.

  11. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  12. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  13. Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the

  14. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.;

    2011-01-01

    composition, and DOC complexation and sorption mechanisms were found to have a great influence on their release. Like wood combustion residues, the analysed ashes could be relevant for recycling in agriculture or forestry because of the potential as liming agent and source of macroelements. However, the high...... geochemical modelling were carried out both on fresh and aged samples. The results showed that the material is comparable to residues from wood combustion and the leaching behaviour was dominated by Ca-containing minerals and solid solutions. Heavy metals were detected in very low concentrations in the bulk...

  15. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N and...... denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  16. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  17. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  18. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  19. Utilização de água residuária de origem doméstica na agricultura: estudo do estado nutricional do cafeeiro Use of wastewater of domestic origin in agriculture: a study of nutritional status of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão de S. Medeiros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho o objetivo principal foi investigar o estado nutricional do cafeeiro em resposta à aplicação de água residuária filtrada de origem doméstica, como fonte de nutrientes e comparar os resultados com os obtidos com o manejo convencional. O experimento foi implantado na Unidade Piloto de Tratamento de Água Residuária e Agricultura Irrigada, localizada na Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV. O delineamento experimental constituiu-se de 18 unidades experimentais, cada uma composta de oito plantas. O experimento foi montado no delineamento em blocos casualizados (linhas de plantio com três repetições, cujo resultados permitiram concluir que a adoção do manejo com água residuária foi mais efetivo na melhoria do estado nutricional do cafeeiro que o manejo convencional.The objective of this work was to investigate nutritional status of coffee in response to application of filtered domestic wastewater and to compare the results with conventional agricultural management. The experiment was carried out at the Sewer Treatment Pilot Plant (EPTE, DEA/UFV. The experimental design consisted of 18 plots, each with eight plants. The treatments were distributed in randomized blocks design (planting lines with three repetitions. According to the results, it may be concluded that the adoption of the management with wasterwater was more effective to improve nutritional status of coffee in comparison to conventional management.

  20. Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dam

    2009-01-01

    The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the Netherlands. Annually 4.500 – 5.000 million euro’s worth of goods are imported from Malaysia. The Netherlands are Malaysia’s most important trading partner within the EU. The volume of agricultura...

  1. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  2. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  3. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  4. Studies on water use efficiency of crops and ion movement. Part of a coordinated programme on agricultural nitrogen residues with particular reference to their conservation as fertilizers and behaviour as potential pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparent recovery of N by wheat Pak-70 from urea applied at the rate of 120 kg N/ha under normal irrigation practices (3-4 irrigations during the growing season) was up to 35%. The proportion of nitrogen derived by wheat from the applied fertilizer was low (5-16%), showing that most of the N taken up by wheat came from sources other than fertilizer, mainly from the soil itself. This is evidenced by the high A values and by the higher inorganic N-content after wheat harvest. The total nitrogen content of surface layers generally increased at the end of each growing season but the total N-content decreased as a function of time. Up to 2.5% of total N in the surface layers originated from the applied fertilizer. Some movement or local mineralization appears to have occurred at lower depths but the N may be left largely as residue in soil. Surface management of N-residues which are susceptible to losses is therefore important. Marked changes were observed in the water content of top layers of the soil profiles, following each wheat irrigation. The water content was more or less uniform below a depth of 75 cm

  5. BIOMASS FROM CROP RESIDUES: COST AND SUPPLY ESTIMATES

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul W.; Dikeman, Mark; Fritz, John; Wailes, Eric J; Gauthier, Wayne M.; Shapouri, Hosein

    2003-01-01

    The supply of harvested crop residues as a feed stock for energy products is estimated in this report. The estimates account for economic and environmental factors governing residue supply. The supply results span major agricultural crops in four distinct cropping regions of the United States, taking into account local variation in cost-determining factors such as residue yield, geographic density of residues, and competition for livestock feed use.

  6. Research Progress on Furfural Residues Recycling: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Chun'ai; Liu, Bo; Girisuta, B.; Heeres, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of tons of furfural residues from the furfural industry are produced every year in China. Proper recycling of these residues is highly desirable as it may reduce associated environmental problems and increase the economic viability of the furfural industry. Research progress on furfural residues recycling is reviewed. The residues have high potential for agricultural applications such as organic fertilizers, soil conditioners, artificial soil and culture media, as well as for the pro...

  7. Applications of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From research laboratories to farmers' fields, isotopes and radiations play an increasingly valuable, and often unique, role in agricultural research and development. They are used in a wide range of applications, from crop production to food preservation and have helped solve problems in areas of plant breeding and genetics, soil fertility, irrigation and crop production, insect and pest control, agro-chemicals and residues and food preservation. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Introduction: Evaluating long-term impacts of harvesting crop residues on soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing crop residues as biofuel feedstocks will involve trade-offs between bioenergy production and agroecosystem services. Consequently, agricultural production managers and policymakers need to critically evaluate current functions of crop residues in light of increasing demands for agricultura...

  9. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  10. Utilização de água residuária de origem doméstica na agricultura: estudo das alterações químicas do solo Application of domestic wastewater in agriculture: study of the chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão de S. Medeiros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, teve-se como objetivo principal investigar as alterações químicas do solo, em resposta à aplicação de água residuária filtrada de origem doméstica e comparar os resultados com aqueles obtidos com o manejo convencional. O experimento foi implantado na Unidade Piloto de Tratamento de Água Residuária e Agricultura Irrigada, localizada na Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV. O delineamento experimental constituiu-se de 18 unidades experimentais, cada uma composta de oito plantas. O experimento foi montado segundo o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tipos de manejo adotados (convencional - MC e com água residuária de origem doméstica - MR, com aplicação de cinco diferentes lâminas e, nas subparcelas as faixas de profundidade do solo (0 - 0,20; 0,20 - 0,40 e 0,40 - 0,60 m no delineamento em blocos casualizados (linhas de plantio com três repetições. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a adoção do MR foi mais efetiva na melhoria das características do solo que o MC.The objective of this work was to investigate chemical changes in the soil, in response to application of filtered domestic wastewater and to compare the results with the conventional agricultural management. The experiment was carried out at the Pilot Sewer Treatment Plant and Irrigated Agriculture located at Federal University of Viçosa. The experimental design consisted of 18 plots, with eight plants each. The treatments were distributed in split-plots, the main plots being the management types (CM-conventional and WM-domestic wastewater with five different water depths and the subplots soil depths (0 - 0.20; 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m in randomized blocks consisting of three repetitions. According to the results it may be concluded that the application of WM was more effective to improve soil fertility than CM.

  11. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  12. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  13. Nuclear techniques and sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights the contribution to sustainable agricultural development of various nuclear techniques, and describes the methods developed and promoted by the IAEA's Laboratories at Seibersdorf and Vienna. After a general introduction to the applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture there follow sections devoted to soil fertility, irrigation and crop production; agrochemicals and residues; insect pest control; and plant breeding. A second article, to appear in the next edition of the IAEA Bulletin, will focus on environmental aspects of sustainable development

  14. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  15. Management of pesticide residues in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zeng-long; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; LIU Xin-gang; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed management of pesticide residues in China including laws and regulations, the supervision system, the standard system, and the quality and safety of agricultural products. The process of establishment and international-ization of standards for pesticide residues were also discussed. Results indicate that the progress of the management of pesticide residues has been steadily made in China. However, the folowing aspects which refer to updates to regulations, supervising efifciency, standard system, risk assessment, international cooperation and communication, should be further improved. China should draw lessons from international experience, and then establish its own management system, which focuses on pesticides controls by strictly folowing relevant laws and technical standards to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  16. Biogas - Energy from the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss agriculture produces biomass in the form of manure, crop residue or specifically grown biomass energy crops. There are a variety of procedures available to make use of this biomass. The right choice depends on the type of biomass and the energy end-product. For example thermal energy use, power generation or biogenetic fuels require physical, thermo-chemical or biological conversion. The following reports presents an overview of existing technologies, gives details of selected case studies on agricultural biogas production and discusses the importance of agricultural biomass energy use for the attainment of Swiss climate protection targets. (author)

  17. Análise da contaminação parasitária em compostos orgânicos produzidos com biossólidos de esgoto doméstico e resíduos agropecuários Analysis of parasitological contamination in organic composts with sewage sludge and agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robson Duarte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a contaminação por ovos de helmintos, cistos e oocistos de protozoários em compostos orgânicos utilizando lodo de esgoto doméstico e resíduos agropecuários. Foram realizadas análises parasitológicas em amostras de 25 diferentes compostos orgânicos, antes e após tratamento térmico a 60°C durante 12 horas. Os resultados demonstraram elevada contaminação parasitária em todos os compostos analisados antes do tratamento e a não redução dessa contaminação após o tratamento térmico. A identificação das larvas obtidas em coproculturas antes e após o tratamento térmico dos compostos indicou que os gêneros mais freqüentemente observados foram Cooperia e Trichostrongylus, que são nematóides gastrintestinais de ruminantes. Estes resultados demonstram que ovos de helmintos podem permanecer viáveis mesmo após o processo de compostagem e o tratamento térmico. Os compostos produzidos com lodo de esgoto doméstico e resíduo agropecuários, utilizando esses processos de tratamentos, podem constituir riscos de contaminação para humanos e animais.This research aimed at evaluating the cysts, oocysts and eggs contamination before and after thermal treatment of 60°C for 12 hours, in 25 different organic composts produced with biosolids from domestic waste-water treatment and animal and agricultural residues. The results showed high parasitological contamination for all organic composts before the treatment and these contaminations were not reduced after thermic treatment. The larva identification in coprocultures before and after thermic treatment showed Cooperia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most prevalent nematodes. These results demonstrated that helmintus’ eggs can remain viable even after the composing and thermic treatment. The obtained composition with sewage sludge and agricultural residues through these treatment processes can establish contamination risks for humans and animals.

  18. 40 CFR 180.337 - Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxytetracycline; tolerance for... § 180.337 Oxytetracycline; tolerance for residues. Tolerances are established for residues of the pesticide oxytetracycline in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per...

  19. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  20. Agricultural-industrial technological paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Paulo Sergio Graziano; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Franco, Henrique C. Junqueira; Braunbeck, Oscar

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the identification of relevant parameters, sugarcane planting, soil preparation and compaction, mechanical harvesting, straw recovery, use of residues, soil carbon sequestration, greenhouse gases emission,l other effects, production of coal as an alternative for C storage, use of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) in agriculture and transport of sugarcane, estimation of diesel consumption in the sugarcane industry, scenarios considered for the use of biofuels, modelling the impacts of the adoption of biofuels - fuel consumption and emissions, energy and impact of biofuels use in bioethanol production, impact of adoption of biofuels on emissions in bioethanol production, and increase in the scale (milling capacity) of the sugar and bioethanol mills.

  1. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  2. New shredding machine for recycling pruning residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recchia, L.; Daou, M.; Rimediotti, M.; Cini, E.; Vieri, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria e Forestale, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 15, 50144 Firenze (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    This paper, which illustrates some results of the project SO.L.E.AGRI. (''Wood-energy chain sustainability in agricultural sector'') funded by Provincia di Siena and of the PRIN 2005-2006 ''Study of the biomass-energy chains in Italy'' funded by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research, highlights that the use of agricultural residuals as renewable energy source is economically and environmentally convenient. This work firstly looks at the energy use of agricultural residuals harvested, and then it considers their packaging and supply management. The main objective of the production of the solid bio-fuels originated from pruning residuals is the reduction of harvesting and transport costs; therefore, experimental tests have been carried out in different farms using an innovative shredding machine that simultaneously permits harvesting, shredding and packaging of pruning residuals. These trials have been undertaken in olive groves and vineyards, on stony and hilly terrain. The machine has obtained good results under different operative conditions: intensive mechanisation of harvesting implies lower costs and simultaneous packaging assures a better organisation of the whole energy chain. (author)

  3. Soil nitrogen fluxes in Swedish and Nigerian agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Röing, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study selected processes of N fluxes in Swedish and Nigerian agricultural systems and relate them to the use of mineral and organic amendments and other agricultural management practices. Long-term effects of crop rotation, crop residue treatment and mineral fertiliser application levels on topsoil carbon (C), plant N uptake, net N mineralisation and soil organic matter fractions in temperate soils were investigated using soils from Swedish long-term agricultural...

  4. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  5. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  6. Transforming Vietnamese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, ...

  7. Improved anaerobic digestion of energy crops and agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Emiliano

    Formålet med dette ph.d.-studie var at finde metoder til at forbedre effektiviteten af biogasprocessen ved at følge 2 strategier: a) at forøge bionedbrydeligheden af svært nedbrydelige biofibre (lignocellulosisk materiale) ved anvendelse af biologisk, kemisk, mekanisk eller dampbehandling; b) at ...

  8. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    peelings, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB). This was done to establish detailed compositional mass balances, enabling estimations of accurate bioenergy...

  9. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Denne PhD rapport beskriver produktionen af bio-olie via flash pyrolyse af biomasse udført på en Pyrolyse Centrifugal Reaktor (PCR). Via Pyrolysen på PCR enheden dannes bio-olie, koks og ikke kondenserbare gasser. Hovedformålet med projektet har været at undersøge indflydelsen af ændrede proces forhold på udbyttet af bio-olie, gas og koks; og at undersøge lagringsegenskaberne for producerede bio-olier. Indflydelsen af anvendt biomasse type (hvede halm, ris skaller og fyrretræ), biomasse vandi...

  10. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    -oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash...... content (0.5 wt. %), the wheat straw an intermediate ash level (6.0 wt. %) and the rice husk a high ash level (13.6 wt. %). The highest alkali content, potassium (1.53 wt. %) are present in straw and the lowest potassium content level is observed in pine wood (0.04 wt. %). The feedstocks were pyrolyzed at...... influenced by the reaction temperature and by feedstock ash composition. It have been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced...

  11. Nitrous oxide emission from the burning of agricultural residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intramolecular distribution of stable isotopes in nitrous oxide from biomass burning plumes was measured for analysis of nitrous oxide behavior. Biomass burning experiments carried out for collecting the burning plumes used a grate-type test furnace. Dried rice straw was used as the biomass material for burning. Nitrous oxide was formed mainly in the flaming stage. The isotopomer ratios of the end-member of the burning were estimated, assuming simple mixing with background air. The nitrous oxide in the burning plume was depleted in 15N relative to the nitrogen compounds bound in the rice straw, but was rather similar relative to atmospheric nitrogen, and was slightly enriched in 18O relative to atmospheric oxygen. The central nitrogen atom was slightly heavier than the end-positioned atom. The kinetic isotope effects in nitrous oxide during the thermal decomposition and hydrogen reduction were evaluated at 1273 K. Assuming that a part of the nitrous oxide formed in the flame region was thermally destroyed or reduced, the behavior of nitrous oxide during biomass burning was analyzed on the basis of the isotopomer signatures and the kinetic isotope effects during the destruction reaction. The (delta)15N of the central nitrogen in nitrous oxide before destruction in the flame region was almost equivalent to that of the end-positioned nitrogen. The extent of the destruction reaction was quantitatively evaluated and small. This suggests that the nitrous oxide formed in the flames diffused quickly and is quenched by the surrounding air. (Author)

  12. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2013-01-01

    Asking a bioenergy researcher about the composition of wheat straw, he would know it by heart. But if enquiring about typicalAfrican biomasses – it would be another case. Until now, biomasses common to African countries have not received the samescientific attention as biomasses from Europe, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergypotentials in the African region.As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in G...

  13. Fixed (slow moving) bed updraft gasification of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigouroux, Rolando Zanzi [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology], E-mail: rolando@ket.kth.se; Escalona, Ronoldy Faxas [University of Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: faxas@fim.uo.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    Birch, in form of pellets has been gasified in updraft fixed-bed gasifier using air as oxidation agent. The main objectives were to study the effect of the treatment conditions on the distribution of the products and the composition of product gas. The influence of the air flow rates on the composition of the producer gas has been studied. The amount of the biomass used in the experiments was varied between 1 and 4 kg and the flow rate of the air was varied from 1.1 to 2.6 m3/h. Increased airflow rates favored higher temperatures. Excessively high airflow rates resulted in fast consumption of the biomass and it also favored combustion over gasification and thus formation of lower amounts of combustible products. High airflow rates caused also higher yields of tars, due to the shorter residence time of the tar-rich gas in the gasifier and thus unfavorable conditions for tar cracking. (author)

  14. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Analysis of Some Pesticide Residues in Cauliflower by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Sheheli Islam; Nazneen Afrin; Hossain, Mohammad S.; Nilufar Nahar; Mohammad Mosihuzzaman; Mohammad I.R. Mamun

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Increased use of chemicals on vegetables started gaining momentum and continued its up-trend in Bangladesh. Wide spread use of pesticides in agriculture concern of residue accumulation, which may remain in food and agricultural environment causing concern of human health and risking ecological balance. Attempt made to ensure that their applications were correct and safe and result in no residues in food beyond codex developed maximum residue limits. Approach: This study rep...

  16. Vesícula residual Residual gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  17. Deslignificação dos resíduos agrícolas da cultura da mamona para produção de celulose e papel Delignification of agricultural residues of castor bean crop for pulp and paper making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os resíduos agrícolas da cultura da mamona (cultivar IAC-80, visando a sua conversão em celulose para papel, mediante os processos alcalinos soda e sulfato. A quantidade estimada desse material nas áreas dos experimentos foi 17, 20 e 26t/ha, respectivamente, para as regiões de Campinas, Tatuí e Tietê. A densidade básica dos caules e ramos da mamona em comparação com as madeiras é baixa (0,228g/cm³. O estudo micrométrico mostrou que as fibras do líber são extremamente longas (5,51mm, contrastando com as fibras curtas do lenho (0,87mm. Os valores obtidos para as diversas características tecnológicas estudadas evidenciam a possibilidade técnica de utilizar esse resíduo agrícola para produção de celulose e papel, ressaltando que seu principal inconveniente é o elevado teor de medula (21,17%. A fração medular, por não ser fibrosa, influi negativamente no rendimento em celulose e no consumo de reagentes químicos.Agricultural residues of castor bean (cultivar IAC-80 crop were studied for pulp and paper making. The quantity of this fibrous material was estimated to be about 17, 20 and 26t/ha, respectively, for Campinas, Tatuí and Tietê regions, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The basic density of castor bean stalks and branchs are low (0.228g/cm³. The micrometrical studies indicated that bast and woody fibers were, respectively, long (5.51mm and short (0.87mm. According to the technological characteristics studied this raw material can be utilized for pulp and paper manufacture. The main negative problem of this residue is the high content of the medular (pith fraction. The presence of pith during the delignification reduces the pulp yield and increases the chemicals consumption.

  18. Investigation of interference from agricultural sample with ELISA for the residue determination of triazophos and circumventing matrix effects%农产品中基质对酶联免疫分析法检测三唑磷残留的干扰及消除研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁赤周; 邹明强; 桂文君; 朱国念; 郭良宏

    2012-01-01

    基质干扰是免疫法检测食品中农药残留时经常碰到的问题.以胡萝卜、菠菜、香蕉、梨、稻米和花生等为试材,研究了不同农产品基质对酶联免疫分析法(EHSA)检测三唑磷的影响.结果表明:不同农产品基质对ELISA检测的干扰机制不同,香蕉主要是抑制了辣根过氧化物酶的活性,菠菜、梨和稻米则主要是干扰了抗原和抗体的结合反应,胡萝卜和花生不仅抑制酶的活性,同时还干扰了抗原和抗体的结合反应.将这些农产品的磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)(含2.5%甲醇)提取液用含有质量分数为0.3%的脱脂奶粉、0.1%的乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)和含2.5%甲醇的PBS稀释10倍,在12 000 r/min下离心10 min,即可消除其对ELISA检测的干扰.研究结果表明,ELISA法是可用于农产品中三唑磷残留检测的一种简单、快速、有效的方法.%Matrix interference is a common challenge for pesticide analysis in food by immunoassay.Carrot,spinach,banana,pear,rice grain and peanut were selected to investigate the matrix interference with ELISA for triazophos.The results indicated that matrix interference from banana primarily inhibited enzyme activity,and spinach,pear,rice grain mainly hindered antigen and antibody interaction.For carrot and peanut samples,matrixes interfered with not only enzyme activity,but also antigen and antibody interaction.When agricultural sample extracts were diluted ten-fold with 0.3 % skimmed milk,0.1mmol/L EDTA,2.5% methanol PBS followed by a centrifugation at 12 000 r/min for 10 min,the matrix effect can be eliminated.The results confirmed that ELISA is suitable for the residue determination of triazophos in agricultural samples as a simple,effective method.

  19. Effects of soil composition and mineralogy on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of crop residues in agricultural fields influences soil erosion and soil carbon sequestration. Remote sensing methods can efficiently assess crop residue cover and tillaje intensity over many fields in a region. Although the reflectance spectra of soils and crop residues are often s...

  20. Routing of biomass for sustainable agricultural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetically derived biomass and residues, including waste products from food processing industries are renewable. They accumulate every year in large quantities, causing deterioration to the environment and loss of potentially valuable resources. The conserved energy is potentially convertible; thermodynamically the energy can be tapped into forms which are more amenable for value added agricultural applications or for other higher value products such as chemicals or their feedstocks. The forms and types in which this biomass has to be modified for the intended use depend on the costs or the respective alternatives. Under current situations, where chemical feedstocks are available in abundance at very competitive prices, biomass is obviously more suitably placed in the agro-industrial sector. Recycling of the biomass or residues into the soil as biofertilizers or for some other uses for agricultural applications requires less intense energy inputs for their improvements. Highly efficient biological processes with microorganisms as the primary movers in the production of the desired end products indeed require less capital costs than in most other industrial entities. In this paper, the various processes, which are potentially valuable and economically feasible in the conversion of biomass and residues for several products important in the agricultural sector, are described. Emphasis is given to the approach and the possible permutations of these processes to arrive at the desired good quality products for sustainable agricultural development. (Author)

  1. Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Drewniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change on agriculture is uncertain. In addition, agriculture could influence above- and below-ground carbon storage. Development of models that represent agriculture is necessary to address these impacts. We have developed an approach to integrate agriculture representations for three crop types – maize, soybean, and spring wheat – into the coupled carbon-nitrogen version of the Community Land Model (CLM, to help address these questions. Here we present the new model, CLM-Crop, validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites in the United States, planted with maize and soybean. Seasonal carbon fluxes compared well with field measurements. CLM-Crop yields were comparable with observations in some regions, although the generality of the crop model and its lack of technology and irrigation made direct comparison difficult. CLM-Crop was compared against the standard CLM3.5, which simulates crops as grass. The comparison showed improvement in gross primary productivity in regions where crops are the dominant vegetation cover. Crop yields and productivity were negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation. In case studies with the new crop model looking at impacts of residue management and planting date on crop yield, we found that increased residue returned to the litter pool increased crop yield, while reduced residue returns resulted in yield decreases. Using climate controls to signal planting date caused different responses in different crops. Maize and soybean had opposite reactions: when low temperature threshold resulted in early planting, maize responded with a loss of yield, but soybean yields increased. Our improvements in CLM demonstrate a new capability in the model – simulating agriculture in a realistic way, complete with fertilizer and residue management practices. Results are encouraging, with improved representation of human influences on the land

  2. Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Jacob, R.

    2013-04-01

    The potential impact of climate change on agriculture is uncertain. In addition, agriculture could influence above- and below-ground carbon storage. Development of models that represent agriculture is necessary to address these impacts. We have developed an approach to integrate agriculture representations for three crop types - maize, soybean, and spring wheat - into the coupled carbon-nitrogen version of the Community Land Model (CLM), to help address these questions. Here we present the new model, CLM-Crop, validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites in the United States, planted with maize and soybean. Seasonal carbon fluxes compared well with field measurements for soybean, but not as well for maize. CLM-Crop yields were comparable with observations in countries such as the United States, Argentina, and China, although the generality of the crop model and its lack of technology and irrigation made direct comparison difficult. CLM-Crop was compared against the standard CLM3.5, which simulates crops as grass. The comparison showed improvement in gross primary productivity in regions where crops are the dominant vegetation cover. Crop yields and productivity were negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation, in agreement with other modeling studies. In case studies with the new crop model looking at impacts of residue management and planting date on crop yield, we found that increased residue returned to the litter pool increased crop yield, while reduced residue returns resulted in yield decreases. Using climate controls to signal planting date caused different responses in different crops. Maize and soybean had opposite reactions: when low temperature threshold resulted in early planting, maize responded with a loss of yield, but soybean yields increased. Our improvements in CLM demonstrate a new capability in the model - simulating agriculture in a realistic way, complete with fertilizer and residue management

  3. Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Drewniak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change on agriculture is uncertain. In addition, agriculture could influence above- and below-ground carbon storage. Development of models that represent agriculture is necessary to address these impacts. We have developed an approach to integrate agriculture representations for three crop types – maize, soybean, and spring wheat – into the coupled carbon–nitrogen version of the Community Land Model (CLM, to help address these questions. Here we present the new model, CLM-Crop, validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites in the United States, planted with maize and soybean. Seasonal carbon fluxes compared well with field measurements for soybean, but not as well for maize. CLM-Crop yields were comparable with observations in countries such as the United States, Argentina, and China, although the generality of the crop model and its lack of technology and irrigation made direct comparison difficult. CLM-Crop was compared against the standard CLM3.5, which simulates crops as grass. The comparison showed improvement in gross primary productivity in regions where crops are the dominant vegetation cover. Crop yields and productivity were negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation, in agreement with other modeling studies. In case studies with the new crop model looking at impacts of residue management and planting date on crop yield, we found that increased residue returned to the litter pool increased crop yield, while reduced residue returns resulted in yield decreases. Using climate controls to signal planting date caused different responses in different crops. Maize and soybean had opposite reactions: when low temperature threshold resulted in early planting, maize responded with a loss of yield, but soybean yields increased. Our improvements in CLM demonstrate a new capability in the model – simulating agriculture in a realistic way, complete with

  4. Phosvel residues in cotton-seed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insecticide leptophos (Phosvel) was synthesized from [1-14C]-benzene to yield the labelled material at a specific activity of 1.49mCig-1. Cotton plants were sprayed with the [14C]-leptophos under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Total residues equivalent to ca. 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2ppm were found in the seed, oil and cake respectively. (author)

  5. Integração agricultura-pecuária em plantio direto: produção de forragem e resíduo de palha após pastejo Integration agriculture-pasture in no-tillage system: forage yield and mulch residue after animal grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz M. M. de Mello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar, no sistema integração agricultura-pecuária, a possibilidade de utilizar uma cultura para pastejo cujos resíduos permitam produção de palha suficiente para a manutenção do plantio direto, bem como avaliar a produção da forrageira e do resíduo em diferentes distâncias em relação ao centro do pivô, em três épocas, e o desempenho econômico do sistema. Avaliaram-se o impacto do pastejo rotacionado de sorgo forrageiro em plantio direto, sob irrigação em um pivô central de 75 ha, sobre a produção de matéria seca do sorgo forrageiro, a quantidade de resíduos, o custo de produção e o ganho de peso animal. O ensaio foi conduzido num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro tratamentos principais: locais de amostragem em diferentes distâncias em relação ao centro do pivô; três tratamentos secundários (ciclos de pastejos e sete repetições (sete piquetes de 9,37 ha para pastejo, dispostos na forma de "pizza". Os resultados permitiram concluir que: a produção do sorgo forrageiro foi suficiente para permitir um ganho 621 kg ha-1 de peso vivo e a quantidade de resíduos de sorgo após o pastejo foi suficiente para suprir o aporte anual de matéria seca de palha necessária para a manutenção do plantio direto; a área, após os pastejos, continuou passível de ser explorada no sistema de plantio direto, e o sistema pesquisado mostrou-se técnica e economicamente viável.The objective of this research was to verify, in an integrated agriculture-pasture system, the viability of using a pasture crop which residue allow enough mulch for a no-tillage system management. Forage yield and residue at different distances from a central pivot, in three periods, and an economical analysis of the system were also evaluated. The impact of rotating grazing, in a 75 ha no-tillage sorghum forage system

  6. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  7. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention in...... agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... given by means of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both...

  8. Agricultural science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Technological advances developed through R&D have supplied the world with not only more food, but better food. This report looks at issues raised by this changing environment for agricultural productivity, agricultural R&D, and natural resource management.

  9. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  10. Machine vision in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for t...

  11. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  12. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  13. Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry ...

  14. Conservation agriculture effects on soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Abdollahi, Lotfollah

    Conservation tillage in combination with crop rotation, residue management and cover crops are key components of conservation agriculture. A positive long-term effect of applying all components of conservation agriculture on soil structural quality is expected. However, there is a lack of...... quantitative knowledge to support this statement. This study examines the long-term effects of crop rotations, residue management and tillage on soil pore characteristics of two sandy loam soils in Denmark. Results are reported from a split plot field experiment rotation as main plot factor and tillage as...... -1000 cm. Air permeability and gas diffusivity were measured at matric potentials ranging from -30 to -300 cm for 4-8 and 12-16 cm depth (100 cm3 cores). At 18-27 cm depth (250 cm3 cores) air permeability was determined at matric potentials ranging from -10 cm to -100 cm. Tillage systems clearly...

  15. A Consideration of Agriculture and Agricultural Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the importance of agricultulture in line with development of society. It uses examples of high productivity achieved in grain and cotton crops in lnner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas to show that the fundamental objective of agricultural science is to maximize crops through the most effective use of soil, fertilizer and water in gaining the greatest benefit from power of the sun. Agricultural science should take up relevant theories and methodologies from other sciences, such as biological science, earth science and economics. The use of information technology will have great benefits for agricultural science. It hopes the scientific communities of China can make a significant contribution to solving the problems facing our rural areas, farmers and agriculture itself.

  16. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  17. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  18. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  19. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. PMID:26108794

  20. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  1. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  2. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  3. Thiometon residues in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Islamic Republic of Iran, vegetables are treated repeatedly with pesticides to control pests and diseases. Crops harvested shortly after pesticide application are probably contaminated by pesticides that are toxic to humans. Pesticide residues in vegetables are especially important, since these crops are ingested directly by humans. In recent years, farmers have been using more persistent pesticides to protect their crops because of increasing pesticide prices. Field trials were carried out to determine the residues of thiometon, a systemic insecticide used on cucumber. In 1993 and 1994, Ekatin (a 25% thiometon emulsifiable concentrate) was applied with a knapsack sprayer to cucumber (var. Daminus) at late flowering at dilutions of 1:1000 and 2:1000. Plots were 25 m2 in three replicates and were sampled 3, 6, 10, 15, 19 and 24 days after application. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleanup was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Thiometon and two metabolites (thiometon sulphide and thiometon sulphone) were analyzed by gas chromatography. In 1994, the amount of thiometon sulphide determined 24 days treatment was 2 ppm in the peeled cucumber, which exceeded the maximum residue limit of 0.5 ppm. The total thiometon residues were higher in the peeled cucumber than those in the cucumber peel. Thus, peeling is ineffective for reducing the systemic residues of thiometon. Likewise, in this experiment lower dilution caused higher rather than lower thiometon residues in cucumber. The rapid disappearance of thiometon residues 2 weeks after treatment suggests that storing cucumbers at room temperature may be a better strategy for reducing excessive thiometon residues. Alternatively, a contact insecticide could be used. Thus, the bulk of the surface residues could be removed by washing or peeling. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  4. Optimized Combination of Residue Hydrodesulfurization and Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Junwu

    2003-01-01

    @@1 Introduction Combination of residue hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and resi-due fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) is a unique technologyfor processing high-sulfur residue. This paper discusses theoptimized combination of these two processes.

  5. Machine vision in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for this technology. It is also indicated that machine vision in agriculture does not only hold potential financial advantages, but that it can also contribute to improved quality of life for agricultural workers, and even for farm animals.

  6. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  7. Urban Agriculture : Sustainability Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka

    2013-01-01

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively...

  8. Agriculture and riparian areas

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has historically been based in the subirrigated riparian ecosystems. Often the engineering and agricultural practices have altered the systems and many of the associated ecological processes. In the Western United States, the most common agricultural practices affecting riparian systems has been livestock grazing. Effects have been both positive and negative. Lack of management has deteriorated many of these systems. Current research has shown what types of management have been su...

  9. Biosurfactants in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Dhara P.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and ...

  10. Vulnerability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  11. Risk management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Ramaswami; Shamika Ravi; S.D. Chopra

    2003-01-01

    This monograph was written to be part of the series of studies commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture under the rubric of "State of Indian Farmer - A Millennium Study". On the basis of existing literature, this study documents the status of our knowledge on risks of agriculture and their management. Chapter 2 discusses the evidence on the nature, type and magnitude of agricultural risks. Chapter 3 discusses farmer strategies to combat risk. In addition to the mechanisms at the level of t...

  12. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  13. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  14. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  15. Urban Agricultural Event

    OpenAIRE

    Camm, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Many authors and researchers agree that our youth will benefit from learning about agriculture. “Agricultural literacy is an essential factor for continuing success of the nation. It is important to reach the population when it is most vulnerable and susceptible to learning; this consists of the children of today’s world” (Schmidbauer, Pastor, & Elliot, 2004; p. 2). Ryan and Lockaby suggest that if the population possesses an understanding of agriculture, they are more likely to benefit socie...

  16. Agricultural pesticide use and food safety:California’s model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghua Zhang; Michael R Zeiss; Shu Geng

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been an essential part of agriculture to protect crops and livestock from pest infestations and yield reduc-tion for many decades. Despite their usefulness, pesticides could pose potential risks to food safety and the environment as wel as human health. This paper reviews the positive beneifts of agricultural pesticide use as wel as some potential negative impacts on the environment and food safety. In addition, using the case of California, we discuss the need for both residue monitoring and effective pest management to promote food safety. Twenty years’ pesticide residue data from California’s pesticide residue monitoring program were analyzed. Results showed that more than 95% of food samples were in compliance with US pesticide residue standards (tolerances). However, certain commodities from certain sources had high percentages of residues above tolerance levels. Even when residues above tolerance levels were detected, most were at levels wel below 1 mg kg–1, and most posed negligible acute health risk. However, a few detected residues had the potential to cause health effects. Therefore, establishing an effective food residue monitoring program is important to ensure food quality throughout the marketplace.

  17. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  18. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  19. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  20. BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny; Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia; Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho; Beáta Emöke Madari

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use) has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth), and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mil...

  1. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author)

  2. Agricultural Industrialization: It's Inevitable

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Thomas N.

    1991-01-01

    The industrialization of agriculture is with us. It's driven by consumer and processor needs, supported by new and useful technology, and augmented by the severe agricultural recession of the 1980s, which changed attitudes towards risk. The consequences for farm policy and rural development are significant, and should be favorable.

  3. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR)

  4. Managing risk in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture. Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries." --> Publisher's description.

  5. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  6. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  7. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  8. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among drivers, pressures, state and impacts, and facilitates the targeted identification of response strategies aimed at improving the sustainability of wetlands.

  9. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...

  10. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  11. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  12. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  13. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  14. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Samborski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM. Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS, remote sensing yield monitors. Because of the multidisciplinary character of precision agriculture, books published on this subject differ in their content. The first books on this topic appeared in the mid 90’ of the last century. The intention of this paper is to present reviews of three books the titles of which each contains the term “precision agriculture”. The books are as follows:1 Handbook of Precision Agriculture – Principles and Applications (2006 edited by Ancha Srinivasan. 2 Precision Agriculture’05 (2005 edited by John V. Stafford 3 Precision Agriculture (2006 by Terry A. Brasse.

  15. Agricultural Potential for Biogas Production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kulišić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is renewable energy source with strong local character as its production depends on availability and type of feedstock at a certain location. Utilisation of slurry, manure and beddings from cattle, pig, horse, poultry and other animal breeding together with energy rich substrates such as crops and other organic materials as biogas substrates creates an interesting option both from technical and economic perspective. Other materials suitable for anaerobic digestion are comprised of various residues from agriculture (crops and vegetables, residues from food processing industry and energy crops (maize silage, grass and similar.Primary reason for biogas production is economic gain from energy production and/or organic waste management that adds value to agriculture and food processing residues that would otherwise be treated as waste.The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of biogas production potential of Croatia at the level of statistical administrative units NUTS1 and NUTS2, excluding energy crops growing and agro-food imports but including the seasonality of substrate availability.

  16. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

  17. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  18. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades agricultural engineering has also focused on environmental aspects. Nowadays knowledge and expertise generated in several agricultural and environmental engineering fields must be integrated with experti...

  19. Residual-stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author)

  20. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  1. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider the...

  2. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  3. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  4. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  5. Alternate Satellite Models for Estimation of Sugar Beet Residue Nitrogen Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite assessment of aboveground plant residue mass and quality is essential for agro-ecosystem management of organic nitrogen (N) because growers credit a portion of residue N towards crop requirements the following spring. Precision agriculture managers are calling for advanced satellite models...

  6. Nitrogen mineralization and denitrification as influenced by crop residue particle size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    Managing the crop residue particle size has the potential to affect N conservation in agricultural systems. We investigated the influence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and pea (Pisum sativum) crop residue particle size on N mineralization and denitrification in two laboratory experiments. Experiment...

  7. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  8. Alternative energy from agriculture: biological conversion and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massantini, F.; Caporali, F.; Masoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    A review on producing methanol and ethanol from agricultural products (sugar beet, sweet sorghum sugar cane, etc.) and biogas from aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes) and algae (Azolla, Chlorella) is given. Anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure and sewage, straw, distillery residues, and other organic wastes is also covered. (Refs. 42).

  9. Research progress in agricultural tillage: Ray Allmaras' legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of crop residues and soil organic carbon is of primary importance in maintaining soil fertility and productivity and for minimizing agriculture’s impact on the environment. Conservation agriculture aims to conserve, improve and make more efficient use of natural resources through int...

  10. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health and safety program. Contact your state or territorial health department or use this directory of local ... producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and rural communities nationwide. NIOSH Agricultural Safety and Health Centers conduct ...

  11. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  12. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  13. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  14. Radioactive contamination and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some guidelines are presented for the Belgian agriculture to realise three vital objectives in case of a nuclear accident : protection of food quality and public health, radiation protection for farmers and keeping the production apparatus intact. (H.E.)

  15. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  16. The Agriculture Grants Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogmann, David W.; Key, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Reviews historical background surrounding the origins of the Competitive Research Grants Office, established in 1978 to support basic research related to agriculture. Describes current controversy within the legislature which threatens its existence. (CS)

  17. Percentile residual life orders

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pereira, Alba M.; Lillo, Rosa E.; Romo, Juan; Shaked, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study a family of stochastic orders of random variables defined via the comparison of their percentile residual life functions. Some interpretations of these stochastic orders are given, and various properties of them are derived. The relationships to other stochastic orders are also studied. Finally, some applications in reliability theory and finance are described.

  18. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  19. Overview of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, P.; Merfield, C.

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of food, textiles and other resources from plants and animals has been a major concern for human societies, from the earliest days as hunter-gathers, through pastoral and swidden phases, to agrarian societies, with an associated trend away from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles. Yet as agricultural production intensified and expanded, the negative effects on the underlying resource base have also increased. The history of environmental damage caused by agriculture is well docume...

  20. Agricultural Clusters in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminami, Lily; Kiminami, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of clustering in the development of agriculture and rural communities in China. We shall examine in detail the food industry, which is the link in the food chain that propels the industrialization of agriculture, and identify instances of industrial agglomeration and business collaboration. Next, we shall analyze the externalities (i.e. spillovers) of clusters, demand conditions in cluster formation, and the effectiveness of business collab...

  1. HOMOEOPATHY IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Singhania, Pawan Kumar; SINGHANIA, ARCHANA

    2014-01-01

    Homoeopathy medicines have been found to be effective in human organisms. Research and application of Homoeopathy drugs in agriculture is slowly finding place. The mode of action of Homoeopathy remedies and simillinum of drug pictures for use in agriculture; basic principles of Homoeopathy and drug administration are discussed. Significant results have been observed using Homoeopathy medicines to fight stress conditions during wet conditions; during hot and dry conditions; in improving germin...

  2. Agriculture Sector Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Stasytytė; Viktorija Dužinskytė

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture sector is characterized by a particular specificity that is not considered in other fields and because of that agriculture sector is defined as highly risky sector. Response to risk is still very im-portant and responsible activity in this field. According to this, the process and applied strategies of risk management make and ensure that the sector activity and operations are more stable and effective. The aim of the article reflects the need to distinguish the most appropriate a...

  3. TRANSITION AND AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rozelle, Scott D.; Swinnen, Johan F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The overall objectives of our proposed paper is to: (a) systematically document the post-reform trends in agricultural performance in Asia, Europe, and the Former Soviet Union; (b) identify the main reform strategies and institutional innovations that have contributed to the successes and failures of the sector; (c) analyze the mechanisms by which reform policies and initial conditions have affected the transition process in agriculture; and (d) draw lessons and policy implications from the e...

  4. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  5. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  6. Ghana Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Vikas; D'Alessandro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Improved agricultural risk management is one of the core enabling actions of the Group of Eight’s (G-8’s) New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT) of the Agriculture and Environment Services Department of the World Bank conducted an agricultural sector risk assessment to better understand the dynamics of agricultural risks and identify appropriate responses, incorporate agricultural risk perspective into decision-making, and bui...

  7. FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Beghin, John C.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Frank H. Fuller; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Kaus, Phillip J.; Fang, Cheng; Hart, Chad E.; Kovarik, Karen; Womack, Abner W.; Young, Robert E., II; Suhler, Gregg; Patrick C. Westhoff; Trujillo, Joe; Brown, D. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) prepares a preliminary agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade every fall. This is followed by an outside review, re-evaluation of projections, and completion of the final baseline in January. The FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook presents these final projections for world agricultural markets. A companion volume, the FAPRI 2000 U.S. Agricultural Outlook, presents the U.S. component of the ba...

  8. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman; M. SELVARAJ; M. Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally...

  9. Utilização de água residuária de origem doméstica na agricultura: estudo do estado nutricional do cafeeiro Use of wastewater of domestic origin in agriculture: a study of nutritional status of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Salomão de S. Medeiros; Antônio A. Soares; Ferreira, Paulo A.; Júlio C. L. Neves; Souza, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho o objetivo principal foi investigar o estado nutricional do cafeeiro em resposta à aplicação de água residuária filtrada de origem doméstica, como fonte de nutrientes e comparar os resultados com os obtidos com o manejo convencional. O experimento foi implantado na Unidade Piloto de Tratamento de Água Residuária e Agricultura Irrigada, localizada na Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV. O delineamento experimental constituiu-se de 18 unidades experimentais, cada uma composta de...

  10. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  11. More energy and production from agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchaim, U.

    1982-07-01

    This is a report on the Nefah project in Israel which is supported by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and carried out by the Research and Development Institute of Kibbutz Industries. Its aim is to transform agricultural wastes into methane gas by anaerobic digestion process, and to utilize the residues of the process as a livestock and fish food supplement. A demonstration plant based on a herd of over 500 cows and serving a kibbutz of 700 persons is already functioning satisfactorily. A computer model is able to decide upon the optimal installation for any given farm. An economic analysis is also performed.

  12. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  13. Estimation of agricultural crop bioenergy resource availability in Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a methodology for estimating the amount of agricultural crop residue that can be removed for energy purposes without adversely affecting soil productivity. The agricultural crops considered in this study were corn (irrigated and dryland), grain sorghum (irrigated and dryland) and wheat (irrigated and continuously cropped). Computer programs (ACRRE and ACRWE) were developed to simulate the effect of residue removal on field soil loss due to these erosive processes. Evaluation of residue availability was based on limiting soil loss (tons/acre/year) resulting from either rainfall or wind erosion. The analysis was performed on each soil type not found to be highly erodible in each county in Kansas. The quantity of crop residue that can be removed without exceeding the tolerable limit for soil loss is strongly influenced by geographic location, soil type (physical characteristics), and cultural practices. Equivalent erosion protection provided by each of the crops is directly related to the quantity of residue that can be removed. Available biomass from the three crops considered varies from 0 to roughly 72 percent of the above-ground crop residue produced

  14. Produção de Bipolaris euphorbiae em meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos obtidos de grãos e resíduos agroindustriais Production of Bipolaris euphorbiae in solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and agricultural industry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Bipolaris euphorbiae como bioagente de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla é dependente da produção de conídios em grande quantidade. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se definir meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos, obtidos de grãos ou resíduos da agroindústria, eficazes para a produção de conídios de B. euphorbiae. No preparo dos meios sólidos utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, trigo e sorgo, quirelas de arroz, milho e trigo, sorgo moído, farelos de arroz, trigo e soja, cascas de mandioca e soja, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja, bagaço de cana e bagaço de cana + amido solúvel. No preparo dos meios líquidos, utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, sorgo e trigo, quirela de milho, farelos de trigo, soja e arroz, casca de mandioca e soja, vinhaça de cana e água de prensa da mandioca. Avaliaram-se a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios e a virulência do fungo e, nos meios líquidos, também a biomassa. A produção de conídios é influenciada pelo tipo de meio de cultura, sendo acentuadamente maior nos meios sólidos, destacando-se, como substratos, o sorgo em grão (474 x 10(6 conídios g-1 e a casca de soja (472 x 10(6 conídios g-1. Dentre os meios líquidos obteve-se mais produção usando-se farelo de trigo (1,33 x 10(6 conídios mL-1. A virulência e a viabilidade de B. euphorbiae não são afetadas pelo preparo de meios sólidos ou líquidos e pela composição nutricional dos meios de cultura. Na maioria dos meios sólidos ou líquidos obteve-se viabilidade de conídios maior que 98%; apenas os conídios produzidos nos meios sólidos de quirela de arroz, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja e farelo de soja estavam com viabilidade significativamente menor.The introduction of Bipolaris euphorbiae as a bioagent for Euphorbia heterophylla control depends on fungal conidia production in large amount. This work evaluate to solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and residues from agriculture industries

  15. Designing with residual materials

    OpenAIRE

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies remain in the more artistic domain, with relatively labor-intensive products, and small batch sizes. Moving beyond such small-scale activities would likely require a standardized innovation process....

  16. The cultivated agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  17. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  18. Agricultural Water Demand in Guadalquivir River (2005 Value vs. 2015 Scenario)

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa-Jurado, Maria A.; Berbel, Julio; Piston, Juan Maximo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of a scenario for the 2015 agricultural policy and markets for the irrigated agriculture in Europe. Scenarios for irrigated agriculture 2015 are described in detail including Reformed CAP and how biofuel impacts demand. A model for irrigation water demand is applied at the basin level for the Guadalquivir River (Southern Spain). The methodology is based upon residual value of water and it combines budget and farm analysis at municipality level, with the Guad...

  19. Conservation agriculture cropping systems in temperate and tropical conditions, performances and impacts . A review

    OpenAIRE

    Triomphe, Bernard; Affholder, François; Da Silva, Fernando Antonio Macena; Corbeels, Marc; Xavier, José Humberto Valadares; Lahmar, Rabah; Recous, Sylvie; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Blanchart, Eric; Mendes, Ieda de Carvalho; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in a context of climate change, economical uncertainties and social pressure to mitigate agriculture externalities, farmers have to adopt new cropping systems to achieve a sustainable and cost-effective grain production. Conservation agriculture consists of a range of cropping systems based on a combination of three main principles: (1) soil tillage reduction, (2) soil protection by organic residues and (3) diversification in crop rotation. Conservation agriculture has been promoted...

  20. THE ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE – A MODEL OF DURABLE AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    TABITA CORNELIA ADAMOV; T. IANCU; ANDREA NAGY; COSMINA-SIMONA TOADER

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the community agriculture politics orientation toward a natural agriculture, where the concept of ecological agriculture has a very well defined place, it is necessary to intensify the efforts to promote the ecological agriculture practices and to inform the farmers about the importance and the role of the ecological technologies and, last but not least, the economical advantages and also the advantages to improve the environment. The ecological agriculture (similar term for...

  1. Agricultural land evaluation in the process of agricultural land consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Fištravec, Polonca

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land is limited and therefore needs to be protected, preserved and adequately managed. One of the most important instruments of rural planning as well as agricultural land planning represent agricultural operations, first of all the process of land consolidation. Diploma thesis deals with the process of agricultural land consolidation as a whole, emphasizing the agricultural land evaluation during the process. This is cruicial for just and efficient dealings of the...

  2. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  3. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  4. Estimation of soil coverage of chopped pruning residues in olive orchards by image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jiménez-Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Residue chopping from orchard pruning is becoming a common practice in conservation agriculture after the establishment of eco-conditionality policies in the European Union. This type of residue is used to protect the soil from erosion and improve the water balance and fertility of soils by improving the organic matter content. However, no studies have evaluated the influence of pruning residues and size on soil coverage. This study examines the effect of different treatments on pruning residue soil coverage in an olive orchard (cv. Picual. Treatments consisted of two quantities of pruning residues, specifically, high (2.04 kg m-2 and low (1.02 kg m-2, and two chopping speeds, low (2.4 km h-1 and high (3.2 km h-1. The different treatments were evaluated by image analysis and pixel counting to determine the soil cover percentage, size, number and distribution of the pruning residues after chopping. After chopping, the soil cover percentage was 39% higher in the high quantity pruning residue treatments but was not significantly influenced by the chopping speed. The size and number of lignified residues was quantified via pixel counting. In the high quantity pruning residue treatments, the number of large lignified residues (> 6 cm2 was higher, and the number of pruning residues smaller than 2 cm2 was lower, when compared with low quantity pruning residue treatments. The high chopping speed treatments produced more smaller-sized pruning residues.

  5. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, INTERDEPENDENCE AND UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jock R.

    1982-01-01

    Interdependence has always been central to economics but assumes pressing importance for agricultural economists as they deal with industrialising agricultures. Continued unresolvable uncertainties, when properly recognised, also add to the challenge of relevant work in agricultural economics. The related roles of interdependence and uncertainty are illustrated through examples from the progress of agricultural technology and enhancement of food security.

  6. Problems of positive list system revealed by survey of pesticide residue in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mariko; Sato, Itaru; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-05-01

    The positive list system became effective from May 29, 2006 to improve the regulation of residual agricultural chemicals (pesticides, feed additives and veterinary drugs) in foods. In accordance with the system, we investigated pesticide residues in 50 agricultural products purchased in Morioka city from March to November 2006. Analyses were performed according to the "Multiresidue Method for Agricultural Chemicals by GC/MS", the Notice of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Five pesticides and two non-agricultural chemicals were detected from 16 samples. Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) was detected from 8 samples: immature pea, snap bean, kiwi, plain-boiled bamboo shoot, mango, white asparagus, lemon and domestic shiitake mushroom. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) have not been established for these products, and they exceeded the uniform level of 0.01 ppm. DDT was detected from Philippines banana (0.30 ppm) and Korean paprika (0.45 ppm). The residual level in Philippines banana was lower than the MRL, but Korean paprika exceeded its MRL. Chlorpyrifos, Thiabendazole and Imazaril were detected from citrus imported from the U.S.A., but their residue levels were lower than the respective MRLs. Aniline and 2-pyrrolidone were detected from several imported products. These two may not be regulated by the positive list system because they are not agricultural chemicals, although their derivatives are used as pesticides or veterinary drugs. Three problems have been revealed from this survey: 1) application of the uniform level to minor agricultural products, 2) residues of non-agricultural chemicals whose toxicity is uncertain, 3) metabolites of agricultural chemicals, which are also regulated by the positive list system, have not been clearly defined. PMID:17538241

  7. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  8. The potential for energy production from crop residues in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingura, R.M.; Matengaifa, R. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi (Zimbabwe)

    2008-12-15

    There is increasing interest in Zimbabwe in the use of renewable energy sources as a means of meeting the country's energy requirements. Biomass provides 47% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. Energy can be derived from various forms of biomass using various available conversion technologies. Crop residues constitute a large part of the biomass available from the country's agriculture-based economy. The potential for energy production of crop residues is examined using data such as estimates of the quantities of the residues and their energy content. The major crops considered are maize, sugarcane, cotton, soyabeans, groundnuts, wheat, sorghum, fruits and forestry plantations. Quantities of residues are estimated from crop yields by using conversion coefficients for the various crops. Long-term crop yields data from 1970 to 1999 were used. Total annual residue yields for crops, fruits and forestry plantations are 7.805 Mt, 378 kt and 3.05 Mt, respectively. The crops, fruits and forestry residues have energy potential of 81.5, 4.9 and 44.3 PJ per year, respectively. This represents about 44% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. The need to balance use of crop residues for both energy purposes and other purposes such as animal feeding and soil fertility improvement is also highlighted. (author)

  9. Changing Structure of Turkish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Charles K.

    1983-01-01

    Professor Resat Aktan, whose memory is honoured by this paper, occupied a unique place in the history of Turkish agriculture--teacher, scholar, Minister of Agriculture, and long-time Turkish delegate to the IAAE. Among his many accomplishments, he led two landmark agricultural surveys which serve to chronicle the development of modern Turkish agriculture. While Ataturk had set Turkey on the road to modernization of agriculture, the end of World War II still found Turkish wheat farming little ...

  10. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  11. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  12. Study on properties of residue-residue contacts in protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向红; 柯见洪; 郑亦庄; 陈爱; 徐银香

    2004-01-01

    Residue-residue contacts are very important in forming protein structure. In this work, we calculated the average probability of residue-residue contacts in 470 globular proteins and analyzed the distribution of contacts in the different interval of residues using Contacts of Structural Units (CSU) and Structural Classification (SCOP) software. It was found that the relationship between the average probability PL and the residue distance L for four structural classes of proteins could be expressed as lgPL=a+b×L, where a and b are coefficients. We also discussed the connection between two aspects of proteins which have equal array residue number and found that the distribution probability was stable (or un-stable) if the proteins had the same (or different) comnact (for examnle svnthase) in the same structural class.

  13. Study on properties of residue-residue contacts in protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向红; 柯见洪; 郑亦庄; 陈爱; 徐银香

    2004-01-01

    Residue-residue contacts are very important in forming protein structure. In this work, we calculated theaverage probability of residue-residue contacts in 470 globular proteins and analyzed the distribution of contacts in thedifferent interval of residues using Contacts of Structural Units (CSU) and Structural Classification (SCOP) software. Itwas found that the relationship between the average probability -PL and the residue distance L for four structural classes ofproteins could be expressed as lgPL=a+b×L, where a and b are coefficients. We also discussed the connection between twoaspects of proteins which have equal array residue number and found that the distribution probability was stable (or un-stable) if the proteins had the same (or different) compact (for example synthase) in the same structural class.

  14. Power generation with technology innovation of residual biomass utilization; Geracao de energia com inovacao tecnologica de aproveitamento de biomassa residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Johnson Pontes de; Selvam, P.V. Pannir [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, the introduction of alternative energy of biogas in agricultural communities for the sustainable development was studied through exploitation of residual biomass and also getting as by-product the biological fertilizer. A fast composting of the domestic residue with the organic was made possible where part of this residue after processing was taken together with effluent to the biodigester. The bibliographical research on the processes of generation of biogas, about composting and the equipment for processing had been carried through. The projects engineering with the use of computational tools had been developed with the software Super Pro 4,9 Design and ORC GPEC 2004 by our research group. Five case studies had been elaborated, where different scenes related with our innovation, that uses of the residue for the composting together with domestic effluent for digestion. Several economic parameters were obtained and our work proved the viability about the use of biogas for drying of the fruits banana. A economic feasibility study was carried where it was proven that the project with the innovation of the use of residues from the fruits possess more advantages than the conventional system of drying using electric energy. Considering the viability of this process and the use solar energy, it is intended to apply this technology in rural agricultural communities providing them an energy source of low cost in substitution of the conventional energy. (author)

  15. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  16. Knowing Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvany, P.

    2001-01-01

    The term "agricultural biodiversity" is relatively recent, perhaps post-CBD. Although, the specific nature of the biodiversity used by people was recognised for a long time, the overwhelming emphasis in the CBD was on general biodiversity, mainly 'wild' flora and fauna that inhabit this fragile biosphere in which people also live.

  17. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  18. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  19. Agriculture and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture came into existence about 15,000 years ago and passed through different stages of food gathering, hunting, hoe culture and sedentary agriculture followed by modem agriculture. It began simultaneously in five world centers concentrating on different crops, most suited to those areas. It was also effected by changes in climate influenced by temperature, drought and magnitude of precipitation, which determined the distribution of populations and occupation of the people. With the increase in population the need for food also progressively increased, necessitating introduction of modern agriculture to enhance production. The indiscriminate and faulty use of advanced technology has added its share in the, destruction of environment. The two approaches that contributed to this were horizontal wand vertical expansion. The former results in deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, land salting and water logging as well as the frequent occurrence of droughts and famines, the latter destroyed soil structure and fertility through decreased microbial populations, fish culture, wildlife and bird sanctuaries, in addition to hazards in human beings and fauna. The real culprit of this global devastation is the high population growth rate, which needs to be contained at safer levels, coupled with sensible use of inputs to produce needed quantities of food and fiber. (author)

  20. Agriculture Oral Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  1. Community Supported Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Emily

    2009-01-01

    A report on the definition, history, production, membership and local benefits of community supported agriculture. Editor's note: the following article was written as a class assignment for Dr. Greg Welbaum's Vegetable Production course at Virginia Tech. Emily provides some good history and information on the CSA marketing option for specialty crop growers." "Originally printed in Virginia Vegetable, Small Fruit and Specialty Crops, June 2002

  2. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  3. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  4. Agricultural Development in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas

    Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing...

  5. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  6. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  7. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  8. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  9. Nuclear techniques for food and agricultural development: 1964-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades

  10. Cognitive residues of similarity

    OpenAIRE

    OToole, Stephanie; Keane, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    What are the cognitive after-effects of making a similarity judgement? What, cognitively, is left behind and what effect might these residues have on subsequent processing? In this paper, we probe for such after-effects using a visual search task, performed after a task in which pictures of real-world objects were compared. So, target objects were first presented in a comparison task (e.g., rate the similarity of this object to another) thus, presumably, modifying some of their features befor...

  11. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  12. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  13. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  14. Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples, lettuce and potato of the Slovene origin in the years 2001 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik, Helena; Gregorčič, Ana; VELIKONJA BOLTA, Špela; Kmecl, Veronika

    2006-01-01

    Abstract 404 samples of apples, lettuce and potato produced in the Republic of Slovenia were analysed for pesticide residues at the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia in the years 2001 to 2004. Surveillance sampling in eight agricultural production areas was performed at market producers at the harvesting of products or in storehouses, after the pre-harvest interval of plant protection products used. Samples exceeding the maximum residue levels were the following: 3 apple samples (...

  15. Fire regimes and potential bioenergy loss from agricultural lands in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna; Lasko, Kristofer

    2015-01-15

    Agricultural fires in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) are a major cause of air pollution. In this study, we evaluate fire regimes and quantify the potential of agricultural residues in generating bioenergy that otherwise are subject to burning by local farmers in the region. For characterizing the fire regimes, we used MODIS satellite datasets in conjunction with IRS-AWiFS classified data. We collected crop statistical data for area, production, and yield for 31 different crops and mapped the bioenergy potential of agricultural residues. We also tested the MODIS net primary production (NPP) dataset potential for crop yield estimation and thereby bioenergy calculations. Results from land use-fire analysis suggested that 88.13% of fires occurred in agricultural areas. Relatively more fires and burnt areas were recorded during the winter rice residue burning season than the summer wheat residue burning season. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that nearly 16.5 Tg of crop residues are burned at 60% probability. MODIS NPP data could explain 62% of variation in field-level crop yield estimates. Our analysis revealed that in the IGP nearly 73.28 Tg of crop residue biomass is available for recycling. The energy equivalent from these residues is estimated to be 1110.77 PJ. From the residues, the biogas potential production is estimated to be 1165.1098 million m(3), the electric power potential at 20% efficiency is estimated at 61698.9 kWh, and the total bioethanol production potential at 21.0 billion liters. Results also highlight geographic locations of bioenergy resources in the IGP useful for energy planning. Controlling agricultural residue burning and promoting the bioenergy sector is an attractive "win-win" strategy in the IGP. PMID:24502932

  16. Technical potentials of biomass for energy services from current agriculture and forestry in selected countries in Europe, The Americas and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This report is a survey on the technical potential of biomass from current agriculture and forestry in the regions; Europe incl. Russia and Ukraine, USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The report provides projections for agricultural residue production assuming availability of fertilizers, plant protection and mechanisation. Data for land use, crop yield and production, agricultural residues, forestry potential and surplus land are included in the survey. This survey confirms a n...

  17. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  18. 40 CFR 180.587 - Famoxadone; tolerance for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cattle, liver 0.05 Cilantro, leaves 25 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, liver 0.05 Grape, raisin 1 4.0 Hop, dried cone 80 Horse, fat 0.02 Horse, liver 0.05 Milk, fat (reflecting negligible residues in whole milk) 0.06... or on the raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Grape 2.5 (d) Indirect...

  19. Gliocladium and Trichoderma in agricultural soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chen; LI Bao-du; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Gliocladium and Trichoderma are common fungi in agricultural soil. Several species of them were isolated and identified, great diversity was displayed in different agricultural soils of different crops,agricultural climate zones, different seasons, depths, different treated soybean cyst nematode soil,healthy and diseased crop soil. Among five crops soil samples, wheat and corn soil were found to possess the largest number of Gliocladium and Trichoderma separately. Gliocladium and Trichoderma of three major crops showed consistent changing patterns with seasonal variation. Corn soil displayed distinct vertical distribution of Trichoderna. There is a different distribution of the two fungi in diseased and healthy plant soil. Among the various isolated methods, diluted plate method is the best for isolating Gliocladium, and Trichoderma could be found in plant residue method and be tolerant to steam for two minutes. In the soybean cyst nematode soil mycobiota, the frequency of Gliocladium is higher than that of the others fungi, and Trichoderma may have the role of bioremediation in herbicide treated soil. Similarly, Gliocladium occurred frequently in different climate zones.

  20. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  1. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  2. Poll Tax in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Under the crisis constrains, the Romanian government tries to balance the budget, to stop the inflation and decrease unemployment, but its financial possibilities to do so prove to be much smaller than necessary. As far as agriculture is concerned, because of the strong connection of this branch to the European rural mechanism, the state intervention plays the key role in the protection and promoting the national production, in competition with other global producers. The taxation system still owes unexpected effects, influences the prices for the animal and vegetal production, the sales and the profits of this branch, in the context of included fluctuating profit particularities. Is poll tax a possibility or a necessity for agriculture?

  3. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  4. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  5. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  6. Agriculture and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How will increases in levels of CO2 and changes in temperature affect food production? A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO2 but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall? That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO2 from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO2 by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops

  7. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author)

  8. Poll Tax in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2011-01-01

    Under the crisis constrains, the Romanian government tries to balance the budget, to stop the inflation and decrease unemployment, but its financial possibilities to do so prove to be much smaller than necessary. As far as agriculture is concerned, because of the strong connection of this branch to the European rural mechanism, the state intervention plays the key role in the protection and promoting the national production, in competition with other global producers. The taxation system stil...

  9. Research on agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Renborg, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    A Cobb-Douglas type production function is estimated for the Swedish agricultural sector over the period 1944/45 - 1986/87. Total production of the sector is the dependent variable. Public research and advisory services are introduced as independent variables together with labour, land, variable capital and inputs bought from other sectors and a yield variable. Research is introduced with lags from 6 to 24 years from research inputs to effects on the total sector production. Research lags of ...

  10. Coffee in world agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sochůrková, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor thesis The coffee in world agricultur in the theoretical part deals with the important historical events associated with coffee. In connection with the coffee and basic concepts associated with the cultivation of coffee trees, the collection and processing of coffee beans. On the basis of data on coffee production were selected countries that are major producers of coffee in the world. For each country were given basic information and data on the areas producing coffee in the country...

  11. Effective monitoring of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

    2011-06-01

    An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

  12. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  13. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  14. Urban conservation agriculture with vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    D.I.A. Edralin; Kieu, L.N.; TRAN, D; Creason, S.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2014-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a project to promote vegetable gardening with conservation agriculture in urban schools. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  15. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  16. PRESENT FRAMEWORK OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2007-01-01

    The international agricultural insurance market has an important dimension. The experience of economically developed countries revealed the fact that without a stable development of agricultural insurances, there is no chance for high performance agriculture. This will require the establishment of a framework for responding to severe systemic events affecting agricultural production, and establishing an appropriate regulatory environment to foster private sector innovation and investment in s...

  17. Compaction properties of agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    TANG, Anh Minh; CUI, Yu Jun; Eslami, Javad; DEFOSSEZ BERTHOUD, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The compaction of field soils due to repeated rolling of agricultural vehicles is one of the main reasons for the agricultural soil degradation. A good understanding of the compaction properties of these soils is essential for an optimum organisation of agricultural activities, and therefore for environmental protection in terms of nitrate migrations. In the present work, the compaction properties of agricultural soils from four sites in France are studied after experimental data ...

  18. Conservation agriculture and ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Dillaha, Theo A.; Cheryl B. Heatwole Shenk; Moore, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation agriculture has many agricultural and food security benefits. In addition, conservation agriculture has potential on- and off-site ecosystem service benefits that are the focus of this paper. Ecosystem services provided by conservation agriculture fall into three main categories: provisioning services such as increased food production; regulating services such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation, reducing losses of soil, pesticides, nutrients and other potential contam...

  19. Uses of ICT in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Mahant; Abhishek Shukla; Sunil Dixit; Dileshwer Patel

    2012-01-01

    The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in agriculture is increasingly important. E-Agriculture is an emerging field focusing on the enhancement of agriculture and rural development through improved information and communication processes. More specifically, e-agriculture involves the conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural domain, with a primary focus on ag...

  20. Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-70C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

  1. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  2. Surgical Treatment of Residual Esotropia

    OpenAIRE

    Mravičić, Ivana; Gabrić, Nikica; Pasalić, Adis; Glavota, Vlade; Drača, Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Residual esotropia is a common problem following bilateral medial rectus (MR) recessions for esotropia. The patient was 30 years old men who underwent billateral MR recession of both eyes in the childhood. Recession was repeated on the right eye few years after the first surgery, but residual esotropia progressed. Prior to our surgery residual angle of esotropia was 50PD° with restriction of abduction and elevation of the left eye. Sinechiolysis et myectomia of right MR and sinech...

  3. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C14-labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Wind erodibility, soil moisture, and freeze-thaw frequency: Implications of harvesting corn residue for energy feedstock in southwest Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependence on foreign oil has led to increased interest in bioenergy, and the harvest of crop residues for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Crop residue has many important functions in production agriculture systems, among which are protection of the soil surface from wind and water erosion and...

  5. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...... policy recommendations....

  6. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  7. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Forgács; Judit Beke

    2011-01-01

    The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  8. AGRICULTURE IN AN ECOSYSTEMS FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Aillery, Marcel P.; Hrubovcak, James; Kramer, Carol S.; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Tegene, Abebayehu

    1996-01-01

    By broadening the definition of an ecosystem to include economic activities, can we better characterize the interactions and relationships among agricultural activities and important indicators of ecological system health? This paper addresses research approaches for assessing the role of agriculture in an ecosystems context. Environmental regulation and resource management policies have heightened the interest in understanding interactions among agricultural activities and the natural resour...

  9. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  10. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture......, - environmental impact and nature, - potentials of organic farming, - community, consumer and market, and - policy and financial strategies....

  11. Microwave emission and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  12. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  13. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  14. Farmer Co- designed strategies to reduce post-harvest residue removal for household use and restore soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, E; Norton, U.

    2012-01-01

    Soil resource depletion and land degradation are key contributing factors to food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Novel conservation agriculture practices (CAP) encourage smallholder farmers to leave post-harvest residue in the field for the purpose of soil organic matter (SOM) restoration and soil water conservation. Many farmers understand the importance of crop residue retention for soil fertility. Due to resource limitations and everyday demands, retaining residues is often imposs...

  15. Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pestici...

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  17. Proceedings of the 6. biennial residue-to-revenue residual wood conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the future of biomass energy development and the role of renewable energy resources in energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO {sub 2}) levels. The impact of high energy prices and the development of strategies for the wood products industry were reviewed. Global market trends for wood products were discussed, and the status of biomass energy products in relation to climatic change was examined. Issues concerning forest residues, sawmill wastes, agricultural residues and urban organic materials were discussed along with trends in Canadian surplus mill waste production. Residual wood energy projects and developments in Canada, North America and Europe were outlined. Biomass development in relation to forest fires and insect disturbances was discussed. Cogeneration technologies using wood wastes for thermal heat, steam and electricity were presented, as well as transportation fuel technologies for the production of ethanol. Issues concerning biomass energy development and environmental waste disposal were examined. Government policies in relation to renewable energy source development were also discussed. Thirteen presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  18. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  19. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  20. Differential human capital and structural evolution in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The growth of market capitalism and the technological advances of the last two centuries underlie the relentless process of structural change in agriculture. Substantial occupational migration out of farming and geographical migration from rural to urban areas is a characteristic of most, if not all, economies in the 20th century. The process of rural-urban migration, and the resulting urban problems have received considerable attention. The fate of the residual farm population has received l...

  1. Dutch (organic) agriculture, carbon sequestration and energy production

    OpenAIRE

    Burgt, van der, Maarten; Staps, S.; Timmermans, B.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in soils is often mentioned in the discussions about climate changes. In this paper the opportunities for carbon sequestration in Dutch agriculture are discussed at farm and national level. Farm internal carbon sources are already completely used in livestock farming. The effect under arable conditions is limited in time and very limited compared to national CO2 emission. External sources are scarce. Energy production out of crop residues and manure via biogas installatio...

  2. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  3. Biostimulants in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eBrown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants, which may be derived from a wide range of natural or synthetic processes, are now widely used in agriculture and yet the mode of action of these materials is not well understood. On the basis of available literature, and based upon the diversity of biostimulant responses highlighted in this focus issue, we hypothesize that biostimulants function by directly interacting with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant. The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism.

  4. Agricultural futures as becoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dan Kristian; Kjeldsen, Chris

    This paper explores how the unfolding of an alternative future for agriculture consists of struggles to assemble a heterogeneous network of natural relations and social relations and technological relations. The site of this exploration is a profiled project, where a zero emission and landless...... in the conventional production, regarding animal welfare and working conditions for employees.The exploration accounts for the entanglement and the shape-shifting that happens as the project moves between different settings (administrative, natural, technical, political and locality). It shows how the project gains...

  5. Chapitre IV. Les agricultures

    OpenAIRE

    Galinier, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Les Otomis tirent l'essentiel de leurs revenus de l'agriculture. Mais la diversité des conditions géographiques et climatiques introduit d'impressionnantes disparités dans la mise en valeur du sol. La frange montagneuse et côtière remarquablement privilégiée contraste avec le haut pays, comme la lande de Texcatepec. Au centre du paysage agricole, le maïs tient la première place. Avec la culture des haricots et du piment, il réalise la triade fondamentale de l'alimentation otomi, comme dans la...

  6. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  7. Modelling sustainable bioenergy potentials from agriculture for Germany and Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model for analyzing the sustainable potential of agricultural biomass for energy production. Available land and residue potentials are assessed up to 2030 for Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Two scenarios are presented: a ''business as usual'' scenario is compared to a sustainability scenario. The latter implements a comprehensive sustainability strategy, taking also into account non-agricultural land use such as building activity and nature conservation. On the one hand our model quantifies the conflict of objectives between enhanced extensification in agriculture and increased area for nature conservation. On the other hand the synergies in restricting built up area and increased mobilisation of agricultural residues are assessed. Additionally the impact of reduced subsidized agricultural exports from the EU is calculated, also as an indicator for the influence of world food markets on bioenergy potentials. Our results show that the sustainable energy potential from agricultural biomass is strongly restricted for Germany and the Czech Republic compared to their energy demand. But in Poland and Hungary native agricultural biomass provides a much higher potential for energy supply, even if sustainability is comprehensively considered. However, this is strongly influenced by the amount of agricultural exports of each country. For bioenergy from agricultural cultivation to remain a sustainable option in the energy sector, its influence on the food markets must be respected more thoroughly and a comprehensive approach to sustainable development in land use is a prerequisite. (author)

  8. On tide-induced lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 1. Lagrangian residual current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    Residual currents in tidal estuaries and coastal embayments have been recognized as fundamental factors which affect the long-term transport processes. It has been pointed out by previous studies that it is more relevant to use a Lagrangian mean velocity than an Eulerian mean velocity to determine the movements of water masses. Under weakly nonlinear approximation, the parameter k, which is the ratio of the net displacement of a labeled water mass in one tidal cycle to the tidal excursion, is assumed to be small. Solutions for tides, tidal current, and residual current have been considered for two-dimensional, barotropic estuaries and coastal seas. Particular attention has been paid to the distinction between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents. When k is small, the first-order Lagrangian residual is shown to be the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes drift. The Lagrangian residual drift velocity or the second-order Lagrangian residual current has been shown to be dependent on the phase of tidal current. The Lagrangian drift velocity is induced by nonlinear interactions between tides, tidal currents, and the first-order residual currents, and it takes the form of an ellipse on a hodograph plane. Several examples are given to further demonstrate the unique properties of the Lagrangian residual current.

  9. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi;

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling of...

  10. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  11. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoaie George Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farms of CSA types are a viable alternative to trade of agricultural products coming from conventional agriculture. These farms are faced with a number of policy issues related to product, price, distribution and promotion. In order to elucidate the issues listed above, we have investigated the literature of specialty. Farmers must make more flexible the content of basket both quantitatively and in terms of the nature of food products offered. Consumers need information on ways of preparation or preservation of products. The growth of the processing degree in farm, and inclusion in the offer of services in ecotourism represent effective options to satisfy consumers. To offset the negative impact of high prices measures should be taken in reducing costs, more flexibility in rescheduling of payments due from customers and compensate for the lack of financial resources with the provision of farm work or subsidize a portion of the basket value from private or government sources. Delivery of baskets should be both at fixed points and at customers domicile. Farmers must provide customers the possibility so that they could harvest themselves the products they will buy. Negative influence of prices will be reduced by establishing an effective communication policy with the market, by organizing events on the farm or nearby towns, through blogs and social networks, and through participation in fairs and exhibitions. A greater customer involvement in farming activities will lead to the implementation of an effective marketing mix.

  12. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  13. Effect of Furfural Residue on Control of Soil Alkalization and Amelioration of Solonetz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIAXING; SONGRONGHUA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Furfural residue ,an industrial waste,is a kind of strongly acidic organic materials.Its comprehensive utilization in agriculture showed a significant effect on control of soil alkaliztion,amelioration of solonetz and increase of crop yields.In detail it may adjust pH,depress alkalinity,reduce bulk density and compactness and increase water permeability and retention ability of the soil.Meanwhile agricultural use of furfural residue provided an effective way to avoid its pollution of the soil,water and air.

  14. Residual stresses in welded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of residual stresses in welded structures is discussed in terms of their magnitude, directionality, spatial distribution, range and variability. The effects of the following factors on the residual stresses are considered: material properties, material manufacture, structural geometry, fabrication procedure, welding procedure, post-weld treatments and service conditions. Examples are given of residual stress distributions in plate butt welds, circumferential butt welds and weld cladding. These illustrate the different magnitudes and distributions of residual stress that can be found in different joint geometries, and demonstrate the effects of the mechanical, thermal and metallurgical properties of the constituent materials and the sensitivity of residual stresses to pass sequence and to the restraints applied during welding. Further examples for the common case of circumferential butt welds in pipes and pressure vessels are used to illustrate the extent of residual stresses as a function of distance from the weld and the effects of post-weld heat treatment. Measurements or analytical predictions of residual stresses are often subject to significant scatter or variability. This scatter may be due to systematic factors such as variability in measurement location or material properties, or to experimental error in measured data, erroneous assumptions in analytical modelling or unknown factors such as pre-existing residual stresses, inadequately documented welding or fabrication procedures or unrecorded local repairs. Improved prediction and reduction of uncertainty of residual stresses will require better recording of the whole manufacturing and service history of the welded structure and its component materials and better understanding and analysis of the many processes that may affect the residual stresses

  15. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and envir...

  16. Potential Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Organic Residues of Agro-Based Industries in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Kailash P. Yadav; Arbindra Timilsina; Rupesh K. Yadawa; Pokhrel, Chandra P.

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of exploring the potential of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic wastes from major agro-based industries in Nepal, four types of major industries using raw materials from agriculture are selected as sources of lignocellulosic residues. They include a sugar industry, a paper industry, a tobacco industry, and a beer industry. Data from secondary/primary sources were used to record organic residues from these industries and estimates were made of potential production o...

  17. The Opportunity to Develop Buffalo Production Based on Food Crop Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswandi

    2007-01-01

    Buffalo’s meat is an alternative commodity to meet the national meat requirement despite its low contribution (1.93%) compared to cattle’s meat (22%). Compared to other livestock, buffalo has some benefit characteristics, such as higher ability to utilize fibrous feed, higher metabolism capacity, etc. Agriculture crop residues are feed resources which are abundant and very potential to be used the whole year. Buffalloes can utilize the fibrous residues as roughages and agro industrial by prod...

  18. Laju Dekomposisi Secara Aerobik Dan Kualitas Kompos Dari Berbagai Residu Tanaman Dengan Penambahan Berbagai Dekomposer

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    Darwin Harahap. 067002001. The Aerobic Decomposition Rate and the Quality of Crop Residues Compost by Adding of Some Decomposers. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of some decomposers to increase the rate of the aerobic decomposition and to enhance the quality of compost from some crop residues. This research was done at North Sumatera Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology Laboratory Medan from April till June 2009. The research used of a complete block design ...

  19. The Role of Mulching with Residues of two Medicinal Plants on Weed Diversity in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Kamariari, Iliana; Papastylianou, Panagiota; Dimitrios BILALIS; Travlos, Ilias; Ioanna KAKABOUKI

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, there were studied the effects of mulch with the residues of two aromatic and medicinal plants (Sideritis scardica Griseb and Echinacea purpurea) on weed flora and first growth of a maize crop. A field and a pot experiment were conducted at Agricultural University of Athens. In particular, the field experiment was conducted under organic conditions, while in the pot experiment special attention was paid to the first growth of maize plants under the effect of plant residu...

  20. Safe apples for baby food production:search for pesticide preparations leaving minimum residues

    OpenAIRE

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Altogether 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agriculture practise within 6 trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and matured fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, c...

  1. LCA METHODS TO COMPARE TREATMENT OPTIONS ON BIOMASS RESIDUES PRODUCED IN A PALM-OIL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Bessou, Cécile; Heijungs, Reinout; De Snoo, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil systems generate large amounts of biomass residues. According to best agri-cultural practices, they are supposed to be returned back to plantation to maintain soil fertility. However, there are variations in practice. Differences in economic status and treatment options on biomass residues cause variations on the preference to perform LCA, leading to divergence in results that complicate interpretation. Difficulties found in comparing LCA results based on literature are not unusual. ...

  2. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  3. Determination of dichlorvos residue levels in vegetables sold in Lusaka, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinyangwe, Davies Mwazi; Mbewe, Boniface; Sijumbila, Gibson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Small scale and large scale farmers around Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia grow vegetables using intensive agriculture methods to satisfy the ever increasing demand. To ensure maximum yield they apply various types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these vegetables. Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agriculture for the control of various insect pests mainly in developing countries. The purpose of the study was to determine the residual levels ...

  4. Chemical characterization of three compost of (Sugarbeet) vinasee with other agroindustrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Blanco, M. J.; Madejón, Engracia; López Núñez, Rafael; Ron Vaz, M. D.; Cabrera, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Increasing amounts of liquid and solid wastes are produced by the food and agricultural industries in Andalusia. However, the recycling of these residues is not always billed and their elimination, is, at times, an environmental problem. Beet vinasse, a high density liquid waste from the sugar industry, contains high levels of OM (35%), N (3%) and K (3%), which make the vinasse a potential fertilizer. However, the direct application of concentrated vinasse on agricultural land ...

  5. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF FOOD STANDARD DETERMINATION: INTERNATIONAL EVIDENCE FROM MAXIMUM RESIDUE LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuan; Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Food safety standards have proliferated as multilateral and bilateral trade agreements constrain traditional barriers to agricultural trade. Stringent food standards can be driven by rising consumer and public concern about food safety and other social objectives, or by the lobbying efforts from domestic industries in agriculture. We investigate the economic and political determinants of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) on pesticides and veterinary drugs. Using a political economy framework ...

  6. Renewable energy: Energy from agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production. Wider applications will require either government incentives or genetic engineering of crops and improve efficiencies in conversion processes to lower costs.

  7. Use of antibiotics in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, V O; Duffy, B

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are essential for control of bacterial diseases of plants, especially fire blight of pear and apple and bacterial spot of peach. Streptomycin is used in several countries; the use of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and gentamicin is limited to only a few countries. Springtime antibiotic sprays suppress pathogen growth on flowers and leaf surfaces before infection; after infection, antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics are applied when disease risk is high, and consequently the majority of orchards are not treated annually. In 2009 in the United States, 16,465 kg (active ingredient) was applied to orchards, which is 0.12% of the total antibiotics used in animal agriculture. Antibiotics are active on plants for less than a week, and significant residues have not been found on harvested fruit. Antibiotics have been indispensable for crop protection in the United States for more than 50 years without reports of adverse effects on human health or persistent impacts on the environment. PMID:22849276

  8. [Determination of Butroxydim in Agricultural Products by LC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatani, Tomiaki; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Tada, Hiroyuki; Goto, Kotaro; Nemoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of butroxydim in agricultural products by LC-MS was developed. Butroxydim was extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot of the crude extract was cleaned up on an octadecyl silanized silica gel (C18) cartridge column (1,000 mg), followed by a salting-out step to remove water. Before purification on a silica gel (SI) cartridge column (690 mg), polar matrices were precipitated by adding ethyl acetate, n-hexane and anhydrous sodium sulfate successively. This process effectively removed caffeine and catechins and improved recovery when analyzing residual butroxydim in tea leaves. Recovery and repeatability were good; the relative standard deviations were less than 5% for all 12 tested agricultural products (brown rice, soybean, potato, spinach, cabbage, apple, orange, grapefruit, lemon, tomato, peas with pods, and tea). Average recoveries for 11 agricultural products, except for lemon, were 74-92%. PMID:26699270

  9. Nuclear techniques used in agricultural research in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques that are in use in agricultural research in Turkey are : a.) techniques for monitoring and assessing the environmental pollution - such as monitoring the pesticides residues in food and soil using14C labelled pesticide's ; also plant root investigations using 32P; b.) techniques for reducing the impact of increased plant productivity - such as the use of N tagged chemicals for optimizing the N fertilizer use and to determine the N2 - fixation capacities of legumes. Also improving the water management practices - such as the determination of soil water , soil moisture characteristic cures and the leaching in soils by using the neutron probe; c.) techniques for agricultural resource development - such as the use of 60Co and 137Cs for obtaining new genotypes. The benefits and disadvantages of the application of nuclear techniques in agricultural research will be reviewed

  10. Sustainable Agriculture: Towards a Conflict Management Based Agricultural Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Ahmadvand; Ezatollah Karami

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to provide an alternative conceptual framework for agricultural extension, which can deal with environmental scarcity, conflict and challenges in sustainable way. For this purpose, a brief history of agricultural extension and conflict is introduced and then conflict management approaches are reviewed. Finally, an alternative model is proposed to use conflict management approach as a basis for agricultural extension. The implication of conflict management approach in agr...

  11. Sustainable Agriculture: Towards a Conflict Management Based Agricultural Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah

    This study aims to provide an alternative conceptual framework for agricultural extension, which can deal with environmental scarcity, conflict and challenges in sustainable way. For this purpose, a brief history of agricultural extension and conflict is introduced and then conflict management approaches are reviewed. Finally, an alternative model is proposed to use conflict management approach as a basis for agricultural extension. The implication of conflict management approach in agricultural extension is far-reaching: it requires new modes of analysis and different roles and tasks.

  12. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  13. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  14. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  15. Water and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Klohn

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of water resources causes concern, especially with reference to agriculture-related applications. Such scarcity is not due to hydrological reasons, but goes back to the dynamics of human society and the way in which the resource is used. Thisarticle emphasizes the basic facts of this dynamic. For instance, while total quantity of water available yearly on our planet has not changed significantly, the human population has increased greatly –consequently, the quantity of water available per person is inferior.Natural disasters multiply themselves and have a greater resonance, perhaps helped by a climatic change, and their impact on society is dramatic. The human beings affected by disasters are generally not only the poorest, but are constrained to living on steep hills,along river beds that easily flood, and in arid regions of scarce productive potential. Beyond this, the volume of water appropriated in one way or another for human use is already considerable and the rhythm of water appropriation cannot be extended towards the future. Irrigation for agriculture itself amounts to about 70% of all water extraction. Our civilization, capable of exploring the solar system, has the technological solutions to the water problems, but the levels of costs and of the necessary social organization for their application make these solutions available only to the richest societies. The technical, economic and social solutions to overcome the water global crisis exist, but their application requires the existence of a political will, and, in many cases, of international cooperation. At present, such political will appears hesitant, and multilateral international cooperation is undergoing a deep crisis. It is necessary for a public opinion to be formed on these topics so that it can find expression at a political level.

  16. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    C.I. Costopoulou; M.S. Ntaliani; M.T. Maliappis; R. Georgiades; A.B. Sideridis

    2010-01-01

    Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs) and Open Access Archives (OAAs) ...

  17. Drug Residues and Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V, DVM

    2001-01-01

    Complaints and demands from consumers concerning a product usually occur after an incident involving injury, illness or death. However, this was not the case with the Alar scare with apples and it is not the case with the concern for drug residues in food animal products. There has been no increase in drug residues; in fact the rate of violation has steadily decreased. Neither has there been any outbreaks of illness, allergic reactions, or deaths related to residues, nor has there been a decr...

  18. Isotopes and radiations in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the spectacular advances in agriculture in developing nations have stimulated wide interest both in basic as well as adaptive research and in harnessing all the tools that science can offer for progress of agriculture. The nuclear tools are relevant in this respect and also offer particular promise in some areas. Ionising radiations and isotopes have immense applications in agriculture. Both radioisotopes and stable isotopes are being used

  19. Photovoltaic application in modern agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaxin; Muñoz Garcia, Miguel Angel; Moreda Cantero, Guillermo P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity in modern agriculture has shown its advantages since the 1970s when it was possible to obtain a substantial green energy without the pollution by burning fossil fuels (coal, oil or natural gas) or the threaten of nuclear accident. Due to the price descent of the PV system, some new applications are becoming economically attractive, like the combination of PV and agriculture. Meanwhile, the use of agricultural soils contributes to making photovoltaic a ...

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    There are three general classes of environmental implications from agriculture: (1) amenity implications; (2) habitat implications; and (3) ecological implications. Environmental "benefits" or "costs" from agriculture require a prior specification of the norm against which the status quo is to be compared. Agriculture is no longer simply an activity that produces commodities for local, regional, national, or international markets. Indeed, in the OECD countries, commodity abundance, not commod...

  1. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people')

  2. Organic Agriculture Research in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Development of Organic Agriculture stem from the demand for safe and environmentally friendly food, which arose from outcome mistakes made by the Green Revolution that failed to achieve sustainable food security. Organic Agriculture awareness started from the north where severe negative impacts of the Green Revolution exist. In order to counteract such negative effects to the environment, together with early awareness of the need to conserve the environment, Organic Agriculture spread to the ...

  3. Assessing environmental management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2012-01-01

    This paper incorporates interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and suggests a holistic framework for assessing the forms and efficiency of environmental management in agriculture. First, it defines environmental management as a specific system of social order regulating behaviour and relations of various agents related to natural environment, and environmental management in agriculture as eco-management associated with agricultural production. Second, it specifies spectrum of modes and...

  4. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic point of view new research suggests that the organic sector can only be conceptualized and understood in the general social context. If the sector is analyzed as independent of general social context,...

  5. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, S; Griffiths, J. K.; Webb, P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  6. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  7. Tailoring conservation agriculture to the needs of small farmers in developing countries: An analysis of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The defining characteristics of conservation agriculture (CA) are retention of crop residues on the soil surface and minimized soil disturbance. A major barrier to adoption of CA is the extensive prerequisite knowledge required for successful implementation. Other factors inhibiting the spread of CA among small scale farmers are the prevalence of crop-livestock systems, which often depend upon crop residues for animal feed; limited access to markets, capital or credit;...

  8. ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH AND SAFETY PERSPECTIVES TO PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Adeofun, C.O.; Opeolu, B.O.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, unlike industrial activity which has always resulted in pollution, has been environmentally benign for most of its history until after the Second World War when the system disintegrated. Then, crop residues were incorporated into the soil or fed to livestock, the manure returned to the land in amounts that could be absolved and utilized. Mechanized farming, however, is reliant on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Hence, crop residues and livestock excreta, which were once rec...

  9. Management of Antibiotic Residues from Agricultural Sources: Use of Composting to Reduce Chlortetracycline Residues in Beef Manure from Treated Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlortetracycline (CTC) is one of only ten antibiotics licensed in the U.S.A. for use as a growth promoter for livestock. The widespread use of CTC may contribute to development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of composting on the fate of C...

  10. CRITICAL ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR SUCCESS OF A BIOMASS CONVERSION PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE, YARD RESIDUE AND WOOD WASTE IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Granja, Ivan R.; VanSickle, John J.; Ingram, Lonnie; Weldon, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    This model evaluates the potential success of a cellulosic ethanol plant in Florida. Critical Economic factors of the plant were simulated to assess the ability of this project. These critical factors include the feedstock to be used, the cost of the facility, transportation costs and the discount rate for the net present value (NPV). Results and observations are presented in this paper.

  11. Biogas in Romanian Agriculture, Present and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have made a review of data available concerning the potential and technologies available to be applied in Romania to produce biogas in agricultural sector. Biogas application is especially interesting for medium and large farms, concentrated on specific surfaces, where a proper substrate collection can be organized. Reviewing data presenting the theoretical potential for livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 17 mil. MWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is 76,7 mil. MWh/year. However, there is a long way to be done in Romania to reach this potential, as in the present, the entire production of biogas is from industrial and municipal landfill and slurries - there are no operational on-farm biogas plants. Despite the high potential in terms of biogas production from agricultural sources, Romania has among the lowest biogas production in Europe. Although currently there are several biogas plants (not in agricultural sector totaling an installed capacity of only 4 MW, and producing in 2010 only 19 GWh electric power, the target for 2020 in Romania is 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. The main cause of the actual situation is the lack of economic incentives similar to those offered by countries as Germany. Without a review of relevant legislation, the progress of the biogas sector in Romania will be limited. Furthermore, the development of low-cost technologies available to Romanian farmers will contribute to the development of production of renewable energy from biogas and other biofuels.

  12. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Sribas Goswami; Ramananda Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, ...

  13. BEHAVIOR OF THE NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDE GLYPHOSATE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab; Othman M. Hakami

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate [N-phosphonomethyl]glycine is a systematic, non-selective, organophosphorus herbicide used worldwide in agriculture and industrial zones. Following its application, residues of glyphosate can threaten soil or aquatic organisms in adjacent water. In this study, we followed the degradation, stabilization, remobilization and leaching of 14C-glyphosate in three agricultural soils in laboratory incubations and in lysimeters under field condition...

  14. An ecologically sustainable approach to agricultural production intensification: Global perspectives and developments

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam, Amir; Friedrich, Theodor

    2012-01-01

    The root cause of agricultural land degradation and decreasing productivity – as seen in terms of loss of soil health -- is our low soil-carbon farming paradigm of intensive tillage which disrupts and debilitates many important soil-mediated ecosystem functions. For the most part agricultural soils in tillage-based farming without organic surface residue protection are becoming de-structured and compacted, exposed to increased runoff and erosion, and soil life and biodiversity is deprived of ...

  15. INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: VIEW FROM WITHIN THE LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Batie, Sandra S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    1993-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural research and education have gained acceptability within the land-grant system in less than a decade, an impressive change. Attitudes were changed by a set of forces which include lobbying by sustainable agriculture advocates, requests from farmers as a result of the cost-price squeeze of the early 1980's, changing demands for both environmental quality and less pesticide residues from food consumers, and the availability of new funding sources. Despite its hard-won ac...

  16. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of decentralized energy supply systems based on organic agricultural biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Kimming, Marie

    2011-01-01

    More and more farms apply organic production methods to reduce their environmental impact, but currently even organic farms are mainly using fossil fuels. Technologies available today or in the near future make it possible to produce heat, electricity and fuels from agricultural residues or woody biomass. The agricultural sector can thereby contribute to the fulfillment of climate goals and energy security without reducing the output of food products. The thesis describes and assesses possibl...

  17. Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Jitendra Kumar; Saini, Reetu; Tewari, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Production of liquid biofuels, such as bioethanol, has been advocated as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with rising crude oil prices, global warming and diminishing petroleum reserves. Second-generation bioethanol is produced from lignocellulosic feedstock by its saccharification, followed by microbial fermentation and product recovery. Agricultural residues generated as wastes during or after processing of agricultural crops are one of such renewable and lignocellulos...

  18. Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Kabul, Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Safi, Zikrullah

    2011-01-01

    Like elsewhere also in Kabul, Afghanistan urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has often been accused of being resource inefficient and unsustainable causing negatives externalities to community health and to the surroundings. These arise from the inappropriate management and use of agricultural inputs, including often pesticides and inter-city wastes containing heavy metal residues and pathogens. To address these concerns, parallel studies with the aims of quantification of carbon (C), nit...

  19. Propoxur residues in cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October, 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 ppm. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. (author)

  20. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.