WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural economics

  1. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...... point of view new research suggests that the organic sector can only be conceptualized and understood in the general social context. If the sector is analyzed as independent of general social context, it will lead to insufficient, and in worst case wrong, understandings and subsequently inadequate...

  2. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  3. Research Frontiers of Agricultural Economics and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang L.X.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The focus of research on Agricultural Economics and Management (AEM) has been switching from developed countries to developing countries. In important international journals on AEM such as "American Journal of Agricultural Economics" and "Agricultural Economics", the research objectives mainly focus on AEM problems in developing countries, e.g. the effects of globalization and liberalization on agricultural production in developing countries, and problems in agricultural resources and environmental protections in developing countries.

  4. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.

  5. [Theme: Economic Literacy Through Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In a series of articles, the authors indicate that in building a vocational agriculture program, developing students' abilities to deal with the economic impact of agricultural production should receive high priority. Discusses banking, taxes, economic principles, farm business management, and marketing as they relate to agriculture. (JOW)

  6. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying from direct cash tra

  7. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of the national economy which may represent a significant contribution to the economic growth if it is quantified properly. In Romania agriculture has declined significantly caused by various reasons. In frame of this study, we will attempt to discern their influence using official statistics. We will try to identify the place and the role of agriculture in Romania's actual economy from the perspective of GDP, investment in agriculture, the employment of this sector activity, because romanian agriculture remains an important sector in terms of view of agricultural area used, the contribution to GDP and, in particular, the percentage of the population employed.

  8. Energy production from agriculture: an economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.J.

    1986-05-01

    The crisis in sales on the world market of the European Economic Community's traditional agricultural products as well as Europe's concern for its energy independence, have led to the elaboration of agricultural diversification strategies and more specifically of agricultural projects which produce energy. This article evaluates the interest of such schemes in relation to the criterion of collective profitability.

  9. The Economics of Agricultural and Wildlife Smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, Peyton Michael

    2009-01-01

    The United States bans imports of certain agricultural and wildlife goods that can carry pathogens or diseases or whose harvest can threaten wildlife stocks or endanger species. Despite these bans, contraband is regularly uncovered in inspections of cargo containers and in domestic markets. This study characterizes the economic factors affecting agricultural and wildlife smuggling by drawing on inspection and interdiction data from USDA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and existing econ...

  10. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  11. The Economic Role of the Portuguese Agricultural Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rebelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 Portugal began to be influenced by a financial crisis, public budget troubles and an economic crisis. In line with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged that the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agricultural sector deserves a special attention. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic role of the Portuguese agricultural marketing cooperatives, including an overview of the Portuguese agricultural sector, the typology of Portuguese cooperatives and position in the agro food chain, the institutional environment, internal governance and performance of the agricultural cooperatives.

  12. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  13. 76 FR 62755 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting Notice AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, United States Department of Agriculture..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  14. Economic assessment of Dutch agricultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    To cope with globalisation and other changes in the industry, in the last 20 years the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture has reorganised its system for education, extension and research considerably. It moved away from the concept of a linear process of innovation to that of an agro-innovation system. T

  15. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  16. Agricultural Reciprocity under Economic Partnership Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Stevens; Jane Kennan

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates how the formation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with the EU might affect the ability of the six Development Cooperation Ireland programme countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to continue to provide protection to their domestic agri-food sectors. Various scenarios are constructed on the assumption that ‘substantially all' trade with the EU must be liberalised if the EPAs are to be compatible with WTO rules on regional trade agreements. The paper concludes that EP...

  17. Agricultural Insurance In Nigeria And The Economic Impact: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus M. Epetimehin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

  18. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  19. The economics of agricultural development: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumasset James

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development thinking has gone through several stages of fad and fancy, often without an understanding of previous fallacies. Its current doldrums are unfortunate given the unrivaled importance of agricultural development for poverty reduction in most development countries. After reviewing several policy and program areas, lessons are synthesized, and a forward-looking research framework suggested, especially regarding role of specialization in the evolution of economic organization. The corresponding role of government is seen to be the facilitation of economic cooperation, rather than social engineering.

  20. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Adjustment of Agricultural Structure on Agricultural Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We conduct empirical analysis of the contribution of various sectors of agriculture in Xinjiang to agricultural economic growth,and the impact of adjustment of these sectors on agricultural economic growth.The results show that the growth of farming has the greatest force to drive the growth of total agricultural output in Xinjiang,followed by animal husbandry;the rate of contribution of these two production sectors,farming and animal husbandry,not only shows high-frequency fluctuation,but also shows reverse fluctuation;the effect arising from adjustment of farming is gradually spreading to animal husbandry,forestry and fishery one by one,but the spreading rate is low.Finally the countermeasures and proposals are put forward to further adjust agricultural structure and promote agricultural economic growth of Xinjiang under the Twelfth Five-Year Plan as follows:adjust the industrial structure steadily,address the industry convergence and broaden the income-increase channels for the farmers;strengthen the input to adjustment of agricultural structure;stick to the combination of internal adjustment and external adjustment of agricultural industry.

  1. Great economic crisis in Polish agriculture - a remainder and caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Musiał

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents chosen aspects of the course of the so-called great economic crisis which took place in 1929-1933 in economy, including agricultural sector. The results of the crisis in the sphere of agricultural production, the use of production means and concerning shaping of the price level and price relationships were discussed. Attention was paid to the state intervention measures aimed to diminish the range of crisis in agriculture and reasons of their low efficiency. It was demonstrated that the crisis was very deep and beside the economy involved also the social, cultural and political spheres.

  2. 77 FR 58978 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY..., and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education,...

  3. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  4. FISCAL EFFECTIVENESS UNDER REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrudin Nasrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting agricultural sector performance and seeks the most effective policy in the presence of regional economic integration. It predicts the effectiveness of fiscal policy on the agricultural sector performance in four periods; the new order regime, the economic crisis, and pre and post China Free Trade Area (CAFTA. It also predicts the impact of fiscal policy on agricultural sector performance when CAFTA is fully implemented. It finds that fiscal policy is more effective in the optimum allocation of expenditures. It also finds that the agricultural sector can grow faster when the portion of capital expenditure increases.Keywords: Fiscal effectiveness, economic integration, agricultureJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17AbstrakMakalah ini menyelidiki efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam mendorong kinerja sektor pertanian dan mencari kebijakan yang paling efektif dengan adanya integrasi ekonomi regional. Makalah ini memprediksi efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam meningkatkan kinerja sektor pertanian dalam empat periode; rezim orde baru, krisis ekonomi, sebelum pelaksanaan China Free Trade Area (CAFTA, dan setelah pelaksanaan CAFTA. Makalah ini juga memprediksi dampak kebijakan fiskal terhadap kinerja sektor pertanian saat CAFTA sepenuhnya dilaksanakan. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa kebijakan fiskal lebih efektif dalam alokasi optimal dari pengeluaran. Analisis juga menemukan bahwa sektor pertanian dapat tumbuh lebih cepat ketika porsi peningkatan belanja modal meningkat.Keywords: Efektivitas fiskal, integrasi ekonomi, pertanianJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17

  5. Bio-economic Household Modelling for Agricultural Intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the quest for sustainable agricultural intensification through the development of a quantitative bio-economic modelling framework that allows assessment of new technology and policy measures in terms of household welfare and sustainability indicators. The main aim of the st

  6. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  7. SPECIFIC ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY INDICATORS OF INVESTMENTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu CICEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the beginning of the millennium has been marked by an economic crisis of major proportions, with impacts in all areas of activity, comparable to that of 1929-1933 (some economists believe that the current crisis was much stronger than that of the previous century and only the ability to respond promptly minimizes the devastating effects. In this context, one of the main modality for an economic revitalization is to increase business efficiency and rational use of resources, particularly in those fields which were not directly related to the global economic crisis. Of these, the crucial place is occupied by agriculture, considered as one of the most important vectors of welfare and economic development. In the context of increasingly limited resources and constantly multiplication and diversification of the requests, efficiency evaluation issues in agriculture, especially for investment processes, is vital to overcome the current situation. The paper aims to analyze the efficiency of agriculture activities, focusing on the investment process. The authors present general indicators to assess the efficiency in agriculture, and specific indicators of investment. Finally, there is a concrete case study of the specific indicators implementation.

  8. The Effects of Agricultural Informatization on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis Based on Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; TAN

    2013-01-01

    This article selects some major factors influencing the agricultural economic growth are selected,such as labor,capital input,farmland area,fertilizer input and information input.And it selects some factors to explain information input,such as the number of website ownership,types of books,magazines and newspapers published,the number of telephone ownership per 100 households,the number of home computers ownership per 100 households,farmers’ spending on transportation and communication,culture,education,entertainment and services, and the total number of agricultural science and technology service personnel.Using regression model,this article conducts regression analysis of the cross-section data on 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities in 2010.The results show that the building of information infrastructure,the use of means of information,the popularization and promotion of knowledge of agricultural science and technology,play an important role in promoting agricultural economic growth.

  9. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Zander, P.; Flichman, G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Meuter, E.C.; Andersen, E.; Belhouchette, H.; Blanco, M.; Borkowski, N.; Heckelei, T.; Hecker, M.; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stokstad, G.; Thorne, P.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other

  10. Yield of Agricultural Eco-economic System in Dongting Rim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maozhang; HOU; Yulin; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the efficiency of the agro-ecosystem of Dongting Rim in Hunan Province,this paper adopted the emergy theory to study the agricultural output of this region during 2001 to 2010.The results showed that the value of regional agricultural emergy output increased by44.68%to(6.50 E)sej,but lower than the growth of non-agricultural industry output.Compared with 2001,the emergy output of planting industry was(4.10E)sej in 2010 which occupied 63.09%of the total agricultural emergy output and got an increase of 2.93 percentage points,while the emergy output of stock farming got a decrease of 2.87 percentage points.The growth of fishery emergy output was not in conformity with the characteristics of Dongting Rim in Hunan.From the contrast between emergy output and economic output,we could find that the economic return ratio of planting industry and fishery industry were lower than those of forestry industry and stock farming industry,which indicated that it is necessary to improve the economic benefits of planting industry and fishery industry which were the traditional industries with advantages of the Dongting Rim in Hunan.

  11. Design of an agricultural economic statistical digitalized system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the management of large farms, a digitalized system of economic statistics is designed based on the Internet platform of the digitalized agricultural integrated system of Friendship Farm, the largest farm in the world. The system can also realize data storage by using the access databank technology. A dynamic website system, based on ASP technology, is used to implement the on-line inquiry of the statistical index of the agricultural economy and the diagrams of the index every y...

  12. The Role of Agriculture in Iran’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Khorami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector as one of the most important sectors in the process of development has always had a special status in world economy. However, relative decrease of the share of agriculture over the recent decades often leads one to believe that agriculture can be ignored in favor of those sectors which have a faster progress, whereas, on the contrary, in order to accelerate favorable economic transition agriculture must be encouraged. Therefore, this research seeks to study the role and effect of the agricultural sector in comparison to other sectors such as industry, services, mining and commerce on variables such as GDP, the remnant of bank facilities and credit organizations, total petroleum exports in Iran during the past 15 years. Research methodology is applied and of descriptive-correlational type. Data collection tool is previous documents and evidence. Data analysis method is step-by-step regression. The results of the research indicate that in the first, second and third regression models agriculture respectively has the third, first and second status in regard to level of effectiveness.

  13. Contributions of Agriculture to Economic Fluctuations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DACHIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and European integration could be advantages for the development of agriculture in Romania, which still holds a high relative position in the economy and has structures of business organization and employment that do not match the European model. Based on the empirical analysis of available data, the paper presents changes of the Romanian agriculture in the last two decades and their influence on the whole economy, by pointing out three important fields of macroeconomic fluctuations: gross domestic product, prices and employment. The extended size of the subsistence component in the agricultural sector keeps the dependence of production variations on the natural conditions, strongly influenced by climate changes, while inducing significant variations in the GDP, but is also a solution to soften the social effects of the economic crisis.

  14. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  15. Comparing Agricultural Economics Graduate Programs: What Are Prospective Students Options?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Darrell R.; Daniel, M. Scott; Jayson L Lusk

    2002-01-01

    Over 1,800 agricultural economics graduate students at 41 Ph.D. and master's degree granting institutions in the United States were surveyed to determine their demographic characteristics, academic motivations, financial assistance, scholastic output, and professional activities. Responses were received from 306 Ph.D. degree-seeking students and 244 students pursuing masters degrees. They indicated career advancement potential was their most important reason for pursuing a graduate degree. St...

  16. Essays on Water Resource Economics and Agricultural Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Steven Charles

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation discusses topics in the microeconomics of water resource economics and agricultural extension. In one chapter I use a hedonic model to explain the price of land transactions, and from this an implied value of irrigation water is inferred. In a separate chapter I develop measures of willingness-to-pay for water supply reliability measures, and estimate how consumers respond to changes in the price of residential water. My final chapter develops a model of a farmer's decision ...

  17. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  18. Strategic ways of economic development of agriculture in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko Vіtalіy M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data with respect to the modern state and tendencies of development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The issue of the optimal size of an agricultural enterprise is discussed in the scientific literature. The world practice shows that competitive advantages of farms are achieved through their unification for creation of various partnerships and co-operatives, which operate on the unprofitable basis. Powerful industrial enterprises, financial, trading and service structures took advantage of absence of co-operatives and monopolised production of agricultural products, holding significant areas of agricultural land on lease. Today, ten biggest Ukrainian agro-holdings have more than three million hectares of land or 7.5% of all lands. Big capital, trying to maximise profit, is specialised, as a rule, in mono-production. The article shows main ways of strategic development of agriculture in Ukraine. Depending on the main form of farm management, there are two directions of further development of agro-industrial production: development of big agro-industrial formations (branch organisation of agro-industrial production and vertical integration in the agro-industrial complex (AIC or co-operatives (territorial organisation of agro-industrial production and horizontal integration in AIC. Depending on the way selected by the state, an organisational and economic mechanism is created. The article develops conceptual grounds of state regulation of AIC in the context of development of major agro-industrial formations and agricultural service co-operatives.

  19. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF LAND FRAGMENTATION ON BULGARIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Atanasova Todorova

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically proven fact is that land fragmentation is a logical consequence of each land reform. The ownership restitution of land on small noncontiguous and spatially dispersed parcels prevents establishing of viable and profi table farms and hence becomes a holdback to an effi cient agriculture. This negative effect becomes increasingly stronger. The small land parcels impede applying of new technologies and production models, as well as the labor and machines’ efficient use. The scattered parcels make diffi cult the planned operation of land. Notwithstanding the land reform in Bulgaria is already completed, the resulting fragmentation continues to exist and exerts negative impact on the rural regions’ sustainable development. Improvement of these areas’ means of living is connected with the effi ciency of resource use, which may be achieved through land consolidation and territorial planning. The purpose of this study is to analyze the economic and social effects of fragmentation on agriculture in Bulgaria.

  20. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  2. Agriculture and economic growth in Ethiopia: growth multipliers from a four-sector simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for over half of Ethiopian GDP, yet the case for agriculture as a focus of economic growth strategies must rely on identifying a set of intersectoral linkages through which agricultural growth contributes to the growth of nonagriculture in the Ethiopian economy. This article develops a four-sector numerical simulation model of economic growth in Ethiopia which permits the calculation of macroeconomic growth multipliers resulting from income shocks to agriculture, services...

  3. Cluster Analysis of the Agricultural Economic Development in the Districts and Counties of Qingyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongya; MA

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of economic growth,agricultural development,the development of township enterprises and farmers’ income,we select 11 indicators to build the evaluation indicator system for the agricultural economic development in the districts and counties of Qingyang City. Using data processing and SPSS13. 0 statistical software,we carry out the cluster analysis of the level of economic development in the districts and counties,and divide the level of agricultural economic development of these districts and counties into three economic gradients in descending order:(i) The first gradient: Xifeng;(ii) The second gradient: Qingchi and Huachi;(iii) The third gradient: Huanxian,Heshui,Zhengning,Ningxian and Zhenyuan. The study results systematically reflect the level of agricultural economic development in the districts and counties,and point out the status of the districts and counties in Qingyang’s agricultural economic development. Finally we put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  4. Use Of Instruments For Environmental Marketing In Economic Activity Of Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Shkuratov; Irina Voronetska

    2012-01-01

    Improved marketing mechanism of agricultural enterprise through the introduction of environmental marketing. Grounded place, tasks and functions of environmental marketing in integrated environmental and economic management.

  5. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL INTEGRATION OF ROMANIA INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. CASE STUDY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE NORTH-WEST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development, by its magnitude, includes several fields, making many institutions are involved in the development and implementation. Structural Funds are the main financial instruments used by the European Union to reduce disparities and promote economic and social cohesion in Europe. For Romania, the regional development policy is a relatively new concept. Using multi-criteria method was attempted an analysis of the level of agricultural development and North-West agricultural sector contribution to economic growth in the region.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth of ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Towards the acceleration of the attainment of sustainable growth, most countries have focused on agricultural exports as a means of driving their economy. Developing countries of Africa are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and agricultural exports are a major determinant of economic growth of these countries. However, the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth of ECOWAS countries remains unclear. This study therefore evaluates the impact of agricultural exports on the economic growth of fifteen ECOWAS countries using panel data for the period 1980–2013. Variables employed are labour force participation rate, capital stock, agricultural exports, non-agricultural exports, inflation and economic growth. The results of the fixed-effect model show that agricultural exports have not impacted significantly on the economic growth of ECOWAS countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria with respect to the Republic of Benin, which is the selected baseline. The study also analysed the country combined effect of the agricultural exports and found that it was significant but the rate of impact was weak. The study recommends, among others, that even though agricultural exports had a significant impact on economic growth, there is still a need for ECOWAS governments to improve their agricultural sector as its significance is more noticeable in some countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

  7. International economic trade partners and competitions of the Russian on world agricultural market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses common and specific problems of international trade in Russia and its regions in agricultural sector, specific situation and methods of reformation, adaptation and modernization of the national and regional agricultural complexes, its resources base on the way to globalization processes in the world, including such forms of international trade of agricultural products and formation on this base of an industrial agricultural economics plus rate of the international agricultural trade expansion. Regions of Russia are quickly developing territories with very active integration into world economy system, having high tempo of economic rate growth and adaptation of the economy to specific situation and methods of diversification of the agricultural base resources; the analysis is made on agricultural production of international trade in such countries as China, the USA, the European Union, Argentina, Canada, India and Brazil while searching for new economic partners on international agricultural market.

  8. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 29-31, 2010. The public may file written...

  9. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet May 28-30, 2013. The public may file written...

  10. 76 FR 13124 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 30-31, 2011. The public may file written...

  11. 75 FR 61692 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet October 27-29, 2010. The public may file written...

  12. AGRICULTURE AND ITS PLACE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilorom Tadjibaeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.

  13. Economics of trees versus annual crops on marginal agricultural lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, T.; Mohan, D.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the CMA in Rajasthan, selected as one of the major problem states because of its hot, arid and drought-prone character, and its present declining agricultural, livestock and fuelwood production coupled with an expansion of the area under annual crops. The present situation in Rajasthan is described and estimates made of returns from current land based enterprises (annual crops and livestock rearing) in comparison with the expected costs and returns of establishing suitable tree crops in the area. The financial and social feasibility of changing land use from annual to tree crops (while maintaining livestock production) is discussed, together with a consideration of some management and policy issues. Six tree species (Acacia tortilis, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek, Prosopis cineraria, P. juliflora, Zizyphus species and Leucaena leucocephala) were identified as adaptable for the region and the economics of raising each over 1 felling cycle calculated. Depending on the species and cycle length, net annual returns were Rs 360-3270/ha (using a discount factor of 11%), with an expected return of Rs1680/ha if the species were allocated equally; this is considerably better than the expected returns from annual crops and standing farm trees (Rs-40 to Rs30/ha, with or without including the costs of family labor). Fifteen tables in the text and 9 in appendices give detailed breakdowns of costs and returns. 104 references.

  14. An economic theory-based explanatory model of agricultural land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Koomen, E.; Kuhlman, T.

    2015-01-01

    An economic theory-based land-use modelling framework is presented aiming to explain the causal link between economic decisions and resulting spatial patterns of agricultural land use. The framework assumes that farmers pursue utility maximisation in agricultural production systems, while conside

  15. Agricultural Foods Economic Efficiency Evaluation Based on DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ling Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of evaluation index system about the efficiency of agricultural product circular economy, this study quantitatively evaluates the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy in 11 districts and cities of Henan Province by DEA analysis. This study shows the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy has obvious differences in Henan Province. Therefore, improving the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy should adapt different measure according to local conditions, increase agricultural scientific and technological input and improve the quality of workers.

  16. Economic Growth and Government Subventions for Agriculture Sector in Algeria: An ARDL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari Fayçal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the impact of government support of the agricultural sector on the economic growth in Algeria. The study is based on cointegration relation and error correction model according to Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model developed by Pesaran and al (2001. The results indicated that the support of agriculture production and producers has a positive impact on the agricultural growth, while it has a negative impact on the economic growth in the long term. On the other side, the total agricultural support regardless of its relationship with production and producers has a positive impact on agricultural production growth and economic growth in the long term. Finally, the total support of the agricultural sector is more important than individual support for agricultural producers.

  17. Analysis of Influential Factors on Agricultural Surplus Labor Pro-fessionalization During China's Economic Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Li Lu-tang

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributed to the pool of studies about agricultural surplus labor in China, also acted as the root to the imminent settlement of the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. Using data from survey of agricultural surplus labor in 2012, which covered three provinces in northern, midwestern and southern parts of China, this paper analyzed the influential factors on agricultural surplus labor professionalization by adoption of a logistic regression model. It showed that agricultural surplus labor shortage could be explained by low-quality professionalization. It was a feasible and effective way to solve the issue of workforce shortage during economic downturn by improving agricultural surplus labor's professionalization.

  18. The Analysis on the Influence of Water Conservancy Investment on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Study Based on the Boom Period of Shandong Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping; CAO; Zhe; FENG; Jilian; HU

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses econometric methods to carry out a Granger causality test on the construction of water conservancy infrastructure construction and agricultural economic growth in the boom period(1981- 2002) of Shandong agriculture. Empirical results indicate that there exists two-way Granger causality between Shandong water conservancy infrastructure construction and Shandong agricultural economic growth.Therefore,water conservancy infrastructure construction has a significant influence on agricultural economic growth in Shandong.

  19. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui; WU

    2014-01-01

    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  20. THE PERSPECTIVE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL IN VRANCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of supplying raw materials for both the population and for the manufacturing industry. It is aimed that the organization of the agricultural area to be made so that the lands that have agricultural destination to be used as rationally as possible. Also, it is important to introduce in the agricultural circuit all the unused lands. The fragmentation of the agricultural land is a disadvantage in the process of rational organization of agricultural area. Efficient use of land, as a requirement of the intensive and durable agriculture is a complex activity that involves conservation activities and soil improvement. Due to the role that they have, the approach of the aspects referring to the medium and big farms has to be different from the approaches referring to the small farms. If the farms from the first category take into account the agriculture as a business, the small farms are important for the rural area by oferring food and social security and means of traditional production that contributes to the environment conservation. Romania's economic recovery can be achieved based on the attention that has to be given to this field. Being an important factor of social stability and of the maintainance of the ecological balance, agriculture enjoys an increasing attention worldwide. The supply and the demand of food determines the use of agricultural resources. The article presents the current situation of agriculture, at national and regional levels. Through this analysis, we

  1. Economic evaluation of GPS technology in Serbian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Dragan; Pokrajac, Slobodan; Simonović, Vojislav; Marković, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the level of savings in the application of the most modern technical systems for satellite guidance and control over performing agricultural operations throughout the season. The exemplary property was Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB), which covers about 21.000 hectares of arable land. The effects of plot shape and direction of movement of tractor-attachment units in calculating the savings from reduced overlapping of adjacent passes were studied. The analysis was c...

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  3. Modelling of Efficiency Change as a Source of Economic Growth in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezat-Jarzębowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the subject of economic growth in agriculture was raised. One of the determinants of this process, namely an efficiency change was under the assessment. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the changes of efficiency in the Polish agriculture. In the study, a stochastic parametric production function was used.

  4. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    McCarl, Bruce A.; U. Schneider; Murray, B.; Williams, J; Sands, R.

    2001-01-01

    The authors use the Agricultural Sector Model to analyze the economic potential of soil carbon sequestration as one of several agricultural greenhouse gas emission mitigation strategies, including afforestation. For low incentives on carbon emission savings, agricultural soil carbon sequestration is the most cost-efficient strategy. As incentive levels increase above $50 per ton of carbon equivalent, afforestation and biofuel production become the key strategies, while the role of soil carbon...

  5. Developing the organizational-economic relations during agricultural-industrial integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Okladchik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the need for economic integration of agricultural enterprises. Methods abstractlogical monographic. Results economic integration in agriculture is needed due to the destruction of economic relations in the period of economy liberalization and decrease in efficiency and productivity in agriculture. The solution to the problems of financing pricing and marketing of agricultural products lies in the sphere of forming integrative relations between enterprises producing processing and marketing agricultural products. Basing on the analysis of theoretical provisions the main forms of enterprises integration is identified such as contractual relationship without creating new legal entities formation of associations unions holding companies financialindustrial groups. It was found that the most effective are those forms of associations that form a complete closed cycle of production and sales i.e. holdings and financialindustrial groups. Basing on the analysis of the economic integration principles the necessity was determined of implementing the principle of stability of economic relations which will allow to overcome the crisis in the agrarian sector. In addition the author has formulated principles for the implementing the economic mechanism in integrated groups based on equality freedom and integrity of such groups. The key components of economic relations in terms of integration were identified ndash organizational unity of the technological process as well as the transformation of the interests of technologically related actors towards a common result. Scientific novelty the principle of stability of economic links during integration of agricultural enterprises was formulated. The necessity was proved of integrating the enterprises providing comparable levels of capacity utilization and the possibility of complete product sales as well as the necessity of forming integration relations as a single object of ownership

  6. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...... to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages...

  7. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their usefulnes

  8. National Economic Development Procedures Manual - Agricultural Flood Damage,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    the data used in developing these composite indices can be found in the Survey of Current Business . Since benefits accrue over a long period of time...related subjects in its AGRICOLA data base. Entries in this data base can be accessed using - the Information Retrieval Service available to Corps offices...review and interviews with farmers and other agricultural-related business persons. The functions were derived from investment costs, profits, and

  9. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  10. Estimating economic value of agricultural water under changing conditions and the effects of spatial aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Harou, Julien J; Howitt, Richard E

    2010-11-01

    Given the high proportion of water used for agriculture in certain regions, the economic value of agricultural water can be an important tool for water management and policy development. This value is quantified using economic demand curves for irrigation water. Such demand functions show the incremental contribution of water to agricultural production. Water demand curves are estimated using econometric or optimisation techniques. Calibrated agricultural optimisation models allow the derivation of demand curves using smaller datasets than econometric models. This paper introduces these subject areas then explores the effect of spatial aggregation (upscaling) on the valuation of water for irrigated agriculture. A case study from the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo Basin in North Mexico investigates differences in valuation at farm and regional aggregated levels under four scenarios: technological change, warm-dry climate change, changes in agricultural commodity prices, and water costs for agriculture. The scenarios consider changes due to external shocks or new policies. Positive mathematical programming (PMP), a calibrated optimisation method, is the deductive valuation method used. An exponential cost function is compared to the quadratic cost functions typically used in PMP. Results indicate that the economic value of water at the farm level and the regionally aggregated level are similar, but that the variability and distributional effects of each scenario are affected by aggregation. Moderately aggregated agricultural production models are effective at capturing average-farm adaptation to policy changes and external shocks. Farm-level models best reveal the distribution of scenario impacts.

  11. Socio-Economic Farm Types Calculated from the Agricultural Holdings Census in 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Udovc, Andrej; Kovacic, Matija; Kramaric, Franci

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the newly developed methodology for defining a socio-economic structure of farms, which was developed to analyse the socio-economic structure of Slovene farms based on data from Agricultural holdings census performed in year 2000. Developed methodology enables to define four main socio-economic types of farms: fulltime, part-time, supplementary and aged, based on data about employment status and work engagement of the core members of the farm’s family. The results are showi...

  12. ECONOMIC ESTIMATION OF REALIZATION OF TECHNICAL POTENTIAL OF THE ORYOL REGION AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature often there is an opinion on sharp decrease in technical potential of agriculture. At the same time the market offers technics with qualitative characteristics, is considerable different from technics of the previous generation. In the present article the analysis of technical equipment of agriculture of the Oryol region is presented. Authors spend an estimation of tendencies of updating of park of agricultural machinery, its age structure is analysed. Competitive advantages of various kinds of technics are considered. The economic estimation of realisation of technical potential of agriculture of the Oryol region is given.

  13. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  14. AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN GERMANY’S ECONOMIC STRATEGY IN 1942-1943

    OpenAIRE

    Tatarov A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article explores shift of emphasis in the Third Reich policy in the North Caucasus when agricultural resources of the region became the main object of economic exploitation and one of the most important source of Germany's food supply. Firstly the author shows the place the North Caucasus had in agriculture of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Despite a relatively small area and population, the region played an important role in the production of wheat, corn, sunflow...

  15. Modelling of the innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Roshchina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure, composition of innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management, which is a part of the overall management of the economy of the country as a whole and which target function is the innovative development of Ukraine are substantiated. A model of innovative economic mechanism of agricultural natural resources is a promising system for organizational and economic measures that permit to increase the production of agricultural products and improve its quality at the highest possible restoration of soil fertility and the environment on the basis of advanced technology. It is the model of the inter-organizational environmental management and economic measures in the agricultural sector. The concept of the model in the innovation of organizational-economic mechanism allows increasing the production of agricultural products that improves living standards of the population and export capacity of the country. It requires involving new land and water resources, radically improving their use under a strict control at the restoration of the consumed resources. In close connection with the organizational and administrative methods of environmental management in agriculture and natural resources an economic mechanism is used. It includes: improvement of tax policy; grants and concessional lending activities to enhance soil fertility; fines for land damages to the fund of the recovery of soil fertility; penalties for violations of the technology to the expenditures organic and mineral fertilizers and other measures provided the technological plan; payments for pollution from water resources without their purification while irrigating; environmental audit; environmental insurance in which value of rent value received from the biological assets is taken as the base

  16. Optimizing cultivation of agricultural products using socio-economic and environmental scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaheliNamin, Behnaz; Mortazavi, Samar; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrassoul

    2016-11-01

    The combination of degrading natural conditions and resources, climate change, growing population, urban development, and competition in a global market complicate optimization of land for agricultural products. The use of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production in the agricultural fields has become excessive in the recent years and Golestan Province of Iran is no exception in this regard. For this, effective management with an efficient and cost-effective practice should be undertaken, maintaining public service at a high level and preserving the environment. Improving the production efficiency of agriculture, efficient use of water resources, decreasing the use of pesticides and fertilizers, improving farmer revenue, and conservation of natural resources are the main objectives of the allocation, ranking, and optimization of agricultural products. The goal of this paper is to use an optimization procedure to lower the negative effects of agriculture while maintaining a high production rate, which is currently a gap in the study area. We collected information about fertilizer and pesticide consumption and other data in croplands of eastern Golestan Province through face-to-face interviews with farmers to optimize cultivation of the agricultural products. The toxicity of pesticides according to LD50 was also included in the optimization model. A decision-support software system called multiple criteria analysis tool was used to simultaneously minimize consumption of water, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides and maximize socio-economic returns. Three scenarios for optimization of agricultural products were generated that alternatively emphasized on environmental and socio-economic goals. Comparing socio-economic and environmental performance of the optimized agricultural products under the three scenarios illustrated the conflict between social, economic, and environmental objectives. Of the six crops studied (wheat, barley, rice, soybeans, oilseed rape

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  18. The Integration of Environmental Issues in The Agricultural Policy: The Role of Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Editors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies has attracted significant attention in recent years. The objective of this paper is to discuss the (past and future research questions in this area and the role of economic analysis in supporting decisions regarding the integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies, with a special focus on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP of the European Union (EU. The paper first examines the evolution of the process integrating environmental concerns into the CAP. Then, the role of economic analysis is discussed with reference to selected major issues, including: the evaluation of the relationship between agriculture and environmental impacts, and the economic value of such effects; the evaluation of policy effectiveness and efficiency; optimal policy design; the effects on markets and farm structures; and the coordination and governance of policy measures. The contents of these study areas are discussed and the research priorities required to meet future needs are identified. The work concludes by highlighting the need to develop more detailed policy analysis studies while, at the same time, developing a wider and more innovative vision of the role of agricultural policy in the global context.

  19. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  20. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  1. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ON CASSAVA PRODUCTIVITY IN KOGI STATE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilemona Adofu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the economic impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria. The results are drawn from a household survey covering the agricultural season of 2009/2010. The data obtained from interview schedule was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics for this study include frequency, percentages and means. The hypothesis was tested using chisquare. The result shows that 79.33% of the respondents adopt the use of improved variety within the period under study. The analysis done on the revenue of the respondents before and after the adoption of the improved agricultural technology shows that revenue of farmers after the adoption of innovations are better off than revenue generated before adoption by N27,750 on the average per farmer. This result shows that the impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity is positive. Additionally, the results attest to the importance of increasing agricultural productivity in tandem with improvements on the adoption and use of improved agricultural technologies and its availability to the reach of farmers with the farmers’ ability to store food. This findings is consistence with Idachaba and Ayoola, (1995 who observed that improved agricultural helped in increasing agricultural productivity.

  2. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an econometric-proc

  3. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  4. Impact of Agricultural Modernization,Economic Growth and Industrialization on the International Competitiveness of Agricultural Products:Based on the Empirical Analysis of Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2015-01-01

    The expanded agricultural trade deficit in recent years has caused widespread concern about the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.In this paper,guided by Michael Porter’s diamond model theory,based on agricultural production and trade data in China and the world from 1986 to 2011,we use principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model,to perform an empirical analysis of the impact of agricultural modernization,economic growth and industrialization on the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.The results show that China’s agricultural modernization is slow,the demand for agricultural products caused by economic growth is increased,and excessive rural labor transfer due to industrialization leads to decline in the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.China should increase its efforts to promote the modernization of agriculture and level of industry nurturing agriculture;use WTO rules to create a good international and domestic environment for the development of China’s agriculture and improvement of the international competitiveness of agricultural products;give full play to the role of demand in boosting the industrial upgrading of domestic agriculture.

  5. Water reclamation and intersectoral water transfer between agriculture and cities--a FAO economic wastewater study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Ingo; Salgot, Miquel; Koo-Oshima, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Cost-benefit studies on replacing conventional agricultural water resources with reclaimed water in favour of cities are still rare. Some results of a study under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) are presented. By means of an illustrative example at Lobregat River basin in Spain, it could be proved that reclaimed water reuse and intersectoral water transfer can result in economic and environmental benefits at the watershed level. The agricultural community faces cost savings in water pumping and fertilising, increases in yields and incomes; the municipality benefits from additional water resources released by farmers. Farmers should be encouraged to participate by implementing adequate economic incentives. Charging farmers with the full cost of water reclamation may discourage farmers from joining water exchange projects. Particularly in regions with water scarcity, investments in reclaimed water reuse and water exchange arrangements usually pay back and are profitable in the long term.

  6. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    on changes in management practices due to adaptation or land use changes. These have been estimated through a socio-economic model that accounts for the evolution of population, GDP, agricultural land use and other relevant socio-economic variables linked to climate change adaptation. The combination of the results of the SARA model, the WAAPA model and the socioeconomic model allow the estimation of total economic value of agricultural production in terms of fraction of GDP.

  7. Ecological and economic dynamics of the Shunde agricultural system under China's small city development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Campbell, Daniel E

    2009-06-01

    The agricultural and industrial development of small cities is the primary environmental management strategy employed to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development strategy will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of the Chinese landscape. In this study, we examined the agricultural development of Shunde, a small city in Guangdong Province, over the period 1978 until 2000. Our analysis of the ecological and economic dynamics of the agricultural system revealed the dominant role of labor in the intensification of agricultural production, even though the use of fuels, fertilizers and machines also increased during this time. The Shunde agricultural system was examined from both biophysical or donor-based and human utility or receiver-based perspectives, using emergy and economic methods, respectively. After 22 years of urbanization, the Shunde agricultural system was still able to fill 96% of the local demand for agricultural products using only 6% of its total yield compared to using 14% of the total yield in 1978. Aquaculture developed quickly during the study period as grain production decreased. In 2000, the production of fish, pork, and vegetables accounted for 92% of the total emergy output of the system; however, the emergy buying power of the money received in exchange was lower than the emergy contained in the products exported. The excess emergy exported is the basis for a high quality diet delivered to city dwellers at a relatively low price. In the 1980s, the productivity of both land and labor increased; but after 1992 the productivity of labor decreased, causing the efficiency of the whole agricultural system to decrease. We recommend that processing plants be established for the main agricultural products of Shunde to decrease the emergy loss in trading and to increase employment. The effect of including monetized ecosystem services in the balance between

  8. The economical contracting management in Agricultural Cooperatives: tools for evaluating their performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and management contracts involve strategic actions, legal and operational purposes that make possible to convert the goal of an organization on results that express the fulfillment of the mandates and satisfies customers on the basis of the duties and obligations set out in the negotiating document. This article aims to get inside into the performance evaluation of the management of the recruitment of Agricultural Cooperatives and to reflex about the insufficiencies evidenced in this process. To which we developed a theoretical valuation and economic procurement praxiological showing a group of deficiencies that have impacted in the contracts management The study was able to obtain, process, analyze, interpret and argue the problems associated with economic contracting and justify the need to propose a system of indicators to assess recruitment management Agricultural Cooperatives in the province of Sancti Spiritus, the results revealed the ineffectiveness of the process and the negative impact on the productive base.

  9. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF USE OF GROUND RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosnikov S. N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Land resources are the basis of agricultural production, the issue of increasing the efficiency of their use is always relevant. The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic use of land resources in the agricultural organizations of the Krasnodar region. Cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out in two stages: an initial set of agricultural organizations with the help of cluster analysis is divided into homogeneous groups; for each cluster we have constructed a production function, which reflects the relationship between the value of the gross output of the agricultural land area, the average annual number of employees, the average annual value of fixed and current assets. The analysis has allowed identifying homogeneous groups of five agricultural companies. The analysis of the production function has shown that the companies of the first cluster of agricultural land use lands with maximum efficiency, the gross output value of 1 hectare of agricultural land was 70,1 thousand rubles, and the degree of influence of agricultural land on the value of gross output reaches its maximum value and is 83%. Agricultural organizations included in clusters of three and five, have a minimum efficiency of agricultural lands use – 20,3 and 21,2 thousand rubles respectively. Based on the analysis, we have made recommendations that improve the efficiency of land: to use the best varieties that are resistant to a range of diseases and pests in the production; to observe the optimum time of harvesting, cultivation and protection of plants; to use smart energy and resource saving technologies, as well as soil conservation technologies; to improve and maintain soil fertility

  10. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  11. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  12. Where Land Use Changes Occur: Using Soil Features to Understand the Economic Trends in Agricultural Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rivieccio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the major land use change processes over the 1990–2008 period in Abruzzo region (Central Italy in relation to the characteristics of the soils and with particular regard to their capability for agricultural purposes, in order to highlight their implications on agricultural productivity. The relative changes in the agricultural incomes and land values were also estimated. To this end, we proposed an inventory approach as a flexible and feasible way for monitoring land use changes at multiple scales. As main outcomes, the shrinkage of agricultural lands and their internal changes (intensification vs. extensification processes were highlighted. The shrinkage of agricultural lands was strictly related to: (a reforestation process in mountain areas and less productive lands after land abandonment; and (b urbanization on plains and more productive lands. Although the intensification process was demonstrated to have a positive effect on the overall regional agricultural incomes, especially on high quality soils, this was not adequate to compensate the economic loss due to the other land use changes, especially in marginal areas and low-to-medium quality soils. Finally, the paper discusses the geographical pattern of land use change processes across the region, including their interrelations and combined effects, and ultimately offers recommendations to decision-makers addressing future sustainable development objectives from local to global scale.

  13. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCTION OF NEW RICE GROWING AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelensky P. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes historical and economic aspects of the rice industry evolution in the Krasnodar region. The basic means of increasing the economic efficiency of rice production are demonstrated: reduction of production costs and growth of profitability. The role of new agricultural practices aiming at optimization of rice mineral nutrition is highlighted. The data are provided on the economic impact of liquid nitrogen fertilizers and application of new micronutrients in rice crops. It is shown that the use of liquid nitrogen top-dressing in rice crops leads to reduction of costs by 1000 rubles/ha compared to traditional practices. The effectiveness of micronutrients application on rice has been confirmed experimentally by the use of water-soluble fertilizer Poligro Bits. According to the received data the yield increase in the rice varieties Khazar, Rapan and Diamond was 0,53-1,33 t/ha with improved grain quality. Calculations show the economic feasibility of the introduction of this practice. Based on the research results the recommendations have been issued on the improvement of rice production and its economic efficiency. Among them is the use of modern agricultural practices, introduction of new rice varieties, innovative optimization methods of rice mineral nutrition, upgrading of rice farmers’ skills, introduction of marketing structures for rice farms

  14. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  15. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  16. Environmental and socio-economic vulnerability of agricultural sector in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonyan, Ani

    2014-08-01

    Being a mountainous country, Armenia has undergone different kinds of natural disasters, such as droughts, floods, and storms, which have a direct influence on economy and are expected to occur more frequently in terms of climate change, raising the need to estimate economic vulnerability especially in agricultural sector. Agriculture plays a great role in national economy of Armenia, with 21% share in Gross Domestic Production (GDP). For this reason, the estimation of agricultural resources of the country, their vulnerability towards current and future climate, and assessment of economical loss of the agricultural crop production due to climate change are the main goals of the given study. Crop productivity in dependence on climatic elements - temperature, radiation, precipitation, wind field, etc. has been estimated, further on interpolating these relations for future climate conditions using climate projections in the region for the time period of 2011-2040. Data on air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and direction for the period of 1966-2011 have been taken from 30 stations from the measuring network of Armenian State Hydrometeorological Service. Other climatic parameters like potential and actual evapotranspiration, soil temperature and humidity, field capacity, and wilting point have been calculated with the help of an AMBAV/AMBETTI (agroclimatic) model (German Weather Service). The results showed that temperature increase accompanied with evapotranspiration increase and water availability decrease especially in low and mid-low altitudes (where the main national crop production is centralized) caused a significant shift in the phenological phases of crops, which is very important information for effective farming dates, giving an opportunity to raise efficiency of agricultural production through minimizing the yield loss due to unfavorable climatic conditions. With the help of macroeconomical analysis of the crop market, it was

  17. Health, agricultural, and economic effects of adoption of healthy diet recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid

    2010-11-13

    Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.

  18. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozheng; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  19. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  20. Sustainable Agriculture- Mandatory Approach for Regional and National Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Sorcaru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a considerable agricultural potential, Tecuci Plain being one of the nationalagricultural regions with high potential, which can generate economic growth at regional and alsonational level.The study main objective is to analyze thedynamics of the main crops, livestock andcrop production in the region, for each administrative unit, between 1970-2011 trying to determinethe major trends and patterns, identifying the favorable and restriction factors and also thepossibilities of thedevelopment of primary economic activities by practicing a sustainableagriculture.The research usedthe data obtainedfrom the Bucharest National Instituteof Statistics,but also fromlocal institutions(Galati&VasluiCounty Department of StatisticsandGalati&VasluiDepartment for Agriculture andRural Development. We also used the cartographic method in orderto highlight the dynamics of the agricultural activities whichcan beanytimeanalyzed bythelocalauthoritiesdirectlyresponsible forthe evolution ofthe region′sagriculturein the last twodecades.The results reflected significantagriculturaldisparities betweenthe ruraladministrativeunitsfromthecentreof theregion(nearTecuci City and the ones from north and south,disparitieswhich webelieveareclosely related totheimplementationof sustainable agriculture.

  1. AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN GERMANY’S ECONOMIC STRATEGY IN 1942-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarov A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores shift of emphasis in the Third Reich policy in the North Caucasus when agricultural resources of the region became the main object of economic exploitation and one of the most important source of Germany's food supply. Firstly the author shows the place the North Caucasus had in agriculture of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Despite a relatively small area and population, the region played an important role in the production of wheat, corn, sunflower, meat and other products. It is emphasized that the region was of special interest to Germany primarily for its oil fields which allowed solving the fuel problems. But with the failure of Hitler’s "oil plans" the agricultural products became the most important revenue source for the German economy in the North Caucasus in 1942-1943. The author shows that for stable agricultural exploitation the occupation regime not only refused the collective farms’ accelerated elimination but also adapted them to harvesting crops and saving huge livestock. Using the pro-Nazi newspapers and archival documents, the author reveals the occupier’s methodology of action and propaganda by local supporters of the regime for a timely crops harvest. In conclusion, the results of agrarian policy of Germany in the North Caucasus are shown. This article is intended for specialists in the field of history and economics as well as a wide range of readers

  2. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  3. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  4. Intellectual Properties Rights-A strong determinant of economic growth in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Chaudhary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In the past few decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs has occupied center stage in debates about globalization, economic development and poverty elimination. This study concerns the strengthening of IPRs in the plant breeding industry and its effect on agriculture in India. In India, most of the population relies on agriculture for its livelihood. India is self-sufficient in wheat and paddy, but deficient in other agricultural products. Patents are good indicators of research and development output. Patent analysis makes it possible to map out the trend of technological change and life cycle of a technology – growth, development, maturity and decline. Patent information and patent statistical analysis have been used for examining present, technological status and to forecast future trends. One can determine the directions of corporate R&D and market interests by analyzing patent data. The present study is an attempt to analyze patents granted in India in the field of agriculture and importance of biotechnology-based innovations in agriculture

  5. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  6. Intellectual Properties Rights-A strong determinant of economic growth in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Kumar Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs has occupied center stage in debates about globalization, economic development and poverty elimination. This study concerns the strengthening of IPRs in the plant breeding industry and its effect on agriculture in India. In India, most of the population relies on agricul-ture for its livelihood. India is self-sufficient in wheat and paddy, but deficient in other agricultural products. Pat-ents are good indicators of research and development output. Patent analysis makes it possible to map out the trend of technological change and life cycle of a technology - growth, development, maturity and decline. Patent infor-mation and patent statistical analysis have been used for examining present, technological status and to forecast future trends. One can determine the directions of corporate R&D and market interests by analyzing patent data. The present study is an attempt to analyze patents granted in India in the field of agriculture and importance of biotechnology-based innovations in agriculture

  7. Organizational and Economic Forms and Effective Methods of State Regulation of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinat Fazltdinovich Gataullin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The multistructurality and variety of organizational and economic forms of business pattern in agriculture are reasonably related and presented in the form of the individual and private, collective, state, and also mixed business. The individual and private type of small rural business is country farms and those personal farms, which have commodity or partially commodity character. Collective business in agro-industrial sector of the Republic of Bashkortostan is conducted on the basis of collective-share and cooperative property. All republic agricultural organizations belong to cattle breeding, cattle breeding grain, and grain cattle breeding types, at various combinations of other industries, traditional for the republic as additional. The cattle breeding of milk and meat direction is characterized for all zones of the Republic. Different organizational and economic forms of enterprises have various level of efficiency. The existing experience confirms higher efficiency of large-scale enterprises in comparison to small-scale that is determined by the economic law of production concentration (density, scale, that is economy of scale. There are also distinctions in indicators of farm efficiency. The purpose of the work is the proposal development on creation of the effective agriculture support mechanism. In preparing the study, the methods of statistical data analysis, material analysis of reports of some farms for 2006-2013, also their inspections, indicators of budget performance of the Republic, SWOT analysis of the institutional potential assessment of the internal and external factors influencing the agro-industrial complex strategy development are used. Scope of the results: system of state regulation and support of agro-industrial complex taking into account the business patterns existing in agriculture. Conclusions and main results of the analysis: 1. At the present time, various ways in agriculture, at the right choice of

  8. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  9. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  10. [Coupling situation of agriculture-ecology-economic system in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess hilly and gully region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Ji-Jun

    2010-06-01

    Based on the investigations in the Zhifanggou Watershed of Loess hilly and gully region from 1938 to 2007, and the establishment of eco-environmental and socio-economic comprehensive evaluation indices and coupling model, this paper analyzed the coupling situation of the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed. During the study period, the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed had gone through the coupling processes of economic system vs. ecosystem initial regenesis-consumption-promotion-coordination, and of ecosystem vs. economic system primary response-lag behind-recovery-coordination. According to the coupling degree fitting curves and the coupling type classification, the current agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed was still in the situation of coupling, and would be well coordinated.

  11. Economic Specialisation, Resource Variability, and the Origins of Intensive Agriculture in Eastern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew I J Davies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern Africa contrasting ecological zones within relatively short distances encourage economic specialisations which are reliant upon one another. Connections between different economic groups are facilitated by a variety of institutionalised networks that encourage the movement of both goods and people across boundaries. The role of livestock as essential capital ensures a strong impetus to increase agricultural production for exchange while, at the same time, the need to acquire livestock through ties to the pastoral community ensures that certain agriculturalists are confined to relatively limited areas at the margins of pastoral zones. In contrast to traditional models of agricultural development, the shift to intensive techniques may not be a radical departure from earlier practices, but rather much less labour intensive and gradually developed, aimed at expanding and improving natural zones of high productivity. This situation may have been exasperated by climatic fluctuations while lineage systems of social organisation encourage the localised marginalisation of politically unified descent groups and the development and expansion of large-scale agricultural works.

  12. Industry and agriculture: Elements of the economic profile of Kladovo municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of spatial differentiation of the natural and socio-economic factors of development, we have seen the structural characteristics of the local industry and local agriculture, as two elements of the economy of Kladovo municipality, and the importance and role of these two elements in the spatial structure of the municipality. Particular attention was devoted in the course of this research, to the possibilities of intensifying the development of the less developed parts of the area. Activation of developmental potentials is directed towards a demographic revitalization and towards the establishment of a stable and progressive social-economic-ecological area, with an identity recognizable in the region. In that sense, we examine the inter-dependence of potentials limitations and risks for a more rapid future development of the municipality of Kladovo.

  13. Agriculture-industrial residues x natural gas. An economic of energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, L.H.N. [Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Carrocci, L.R.; Silveira, J.L.; Oliva, V.J. [Universidade Estadul Paulista, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta

    1999-07-01

    In this paper are presented following, as it's main objective, an economic analysis between biogas coming from agriculture-industrial-residues and natural gas. Above all, also make part of this work, illustrating figures of the most used types of biodigestors in Brazil and all of world, and briefly descriptions of the most used control and reduction technologies of the pollutants emissions from the combustion process through in the atmosphere. Must emphasise, above technical-scientific importance of this work, it's social -economic part at the poignant of the residues seizing with considerable calorific power for the energy generation, thereby promoting the ambiental pollution retrenchment (also detach here), looking for, in a coming future, the sustainable development at all of it completeness.

  14. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  15. Parallel Factor Analysis in Dual-class Tax Impacts of Agricultural Products: An Economic Research from Macro Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products using the parallel factor analysis. Along with the rapid economic development of China, the growing purchasing power of Chinese residents has been accelerated; particularly in the expensive agricultural products market. China has adjusted taxable items of consumption tax to narrow the gap between rich and poor and to promote social equity. The atrophy of the expensive agricultural products market brought by the tax may curb the growth and development of domestic agricultural products industry. In this study, the parallel factor analysis is employed to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products. The results indicate that the taxation system should be taken from a forward-looking aspect. The market supply and demand for expensive agricultural products and consumer behaviors should be combined with an overall consideration. Hence, specific adjustments China expensive agricultural products market have been eventually put forward.

  16. Socio-Economic Implications of Drought in the Agricultural Sector and the State Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the most severe drought in Texas history caused $7.62 billion in losses in the agricultural sector alone. This paper analyzes ripple effects of the 2011 drought in Texas agriculture on the entire state economy retrospectively in an effort to foster discussion on targeted mitigation measures in the long term. By using an Input-Output and social accounting matrix model, direct effects on livestock, cotton, sorghum, wheat, corn, hay, and timber production, as well as indirect effects on other related sectors, and finally induced effects from changing consumers behavior have been estimated. According to the results, the 2011 drought caused economic losses of $16.9 billion in the entire Texas economy and increased the unemployment by around 166,895 people. The agricultural sector alone lost around 106,000 jobs. The cotton farming experienced 91% of revenue losses (as compared to 2010, while the livestock production lost 32% in revenue. The decreased production yields and limited market supply directly influence market prices for those products, which might create additional spillover effects on export and import quantities. The presented analysis can be helpful for designing policies to launch mitigation programs for drought events in the future.

  17. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect; Agriculture et effet de serre: regulation economique des impacts croises et combinaison des politiques agricole et environnementale - Analyse pour la France et extension pour l'Union Europeenne. Analyse economique des interactions agriculture - effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2002-09-15

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  18. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment.

  19. Landscape diversity and the resilience of agricultural returns: a portfolio analysis of land-use patterns and economic returns from lowland agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abson David J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional agriculture is increasingly based on highly specialized, highly productive farms. It has been suggested that 1 this specialization leads to farms that lack resilience to changing market and environmental conditions; and 2 that by decreasing agricultural diversity, the resilience of the farming system also decreases. Methods We used agricultural gross margin (GM forecasts from 1966 to 2010 and remote sensing data from agricultural landscapes in the lowland UK, in conjunction with modern portfolio theory, to test the hypothesis that decreasing land-use diversity results in landscapes that provide higher, but more volatile, economic returns. We considered the role of spatial scale on the expected levels of volatility and resilience of agricultural returns. Results We found that: 1 there was a strong linear trade-off between expected GMs and the expected volatility of those GMs in real lowland agricultural landscapes in the UK; 2 land-use diversification was negatively correlated with expected GMs from agriculture, and positively correlated with decreasing expected volatility in GMs; 3 the resilience of agricultural returns was positively correlated with the diversity of agricultural land use, and the resilience of agricultural returns rose quickly with increased land-holding size at small spatial extents, but this effect diminished after landholdings reached 12,000 hectares. Conclusions Land-use diversity may have an important role in ensuring resilient agricultural returns in the face of uncertain market and environmental conditions, and land-holding size plays a pivotal role in determining the relationships between resilience and returns at a landscape scale. Creating finer-grained land-use patterns based on pre-existing local land uses may increase the resilience of individual farms, while maintaining aggregate yield across landscapes.

  20. ECONOMICS OF OPERATION AND STATE REGULATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papahchyan I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers current economic situation in the economy of the Krasnodar region, the importance of import substitution in the future functioning and regulation of regional development of agro-industrial complex. The positive impact on the agricultural economy, double sided grocery sanctions, the leadership of the rural economy of the region with annual growth of GDP of 9.2% (in Russia – 4,5% is pointed. The article shows that the growth of quantitative and qualitative indicators in the industry was provided with additional targeted investment to increase profitability of crop production to 44%. The advantages of big business that produces mostly grains are pointed out, because this factor will continue to determine the vector of development of agriculture. A big positive point of the livestock industry is the growth of profitability of milk production to 37%. At the same time, cattle breeding with the margin of 19.7% is still highly problematic on observance of technological discipline. Production of cattle meat remains unprofitable. A significant segment of production in farming is still taken by small farms. In 2014 the government regulated their development supporting them with money in the amount of more than 700 million RUB . The author believes to keep further growth of the livestock on it is necessary to stabilize the number of livestock, especially dairy cattle, to restore the production of pork, to continue the construction and reconstruction of farms and complexes, to provide animals with high quality food. The author also stresses the importance of development of business of rice growing, vegetable growing, fruit growing, the importance of updating and development of material and technical base. The work provides the data that at the expense of state regulation (support profitability of agriculture in the region has grown by an additional 7%, so it creates new opportunities for growth of the agricultural economy of our

  1. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  2. Grassland Degradation, Construction and the Economic-technological Strategies of Sustainable Development of Grassland-agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; YU Hua-ying; OKAMOTO Chinobu; WANG Yu-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Natural grassland in the West of Northeastern China is located in 40° 0′ - 43° 5′ N latitude and 117° 0′ -127° 5′ Elongitude. It lies in the Lisp River Valley, the Songhua River Valley and Nen River Valley. About 130 years ago, this region had rich natural grassland resources, was numerically 26.67 millions in hectare of grasslands.Since the last stage of Qing Dynasty, the grassland has been destroyed seriously in 3 times. Up to now, this region only preserved about 2 millions in hectare of the grasslands. In addition, 3.33 millions in hectare of the grasslands have changed from primary grassland to desertification, salinizatio-nalkalinization and degeneration grasslands in the form of patches of bare soil (their simple form of a name is "3 kinds of degeneration grasslands"). This paper indicaed that in any period both grasslands destruction and its restoration were relevant to economic changes and economic systems,particularly to market economy in that time. The following agricultural economic-technological strategies have been production bases of concentrated feed crops and coarse herbage crops.

  3. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  4. MIGRATION OF SURPLUS AGRICULTURAL LABOR IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC TRANSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖辉; 鲁柏祥; 陈欣欣

    2001-01-01

    This paper on the migration of the surplus farm labor during the economic transition of China, focuses on a case study of Zhejiang, China's eastern coastal province, with 45 million population and located in relatively developed area since the reform in 1978. The background and mechanism of Chinese surplus farm labor migration are discussed briefly in the first section. Detailed analysis and development of this topic are based on the Zhejiang case, and consists of two parts: a review of the migration history of surplus agricultural labor in Zhejiang since the 1978 reform; and further analysis and key points are given in the second part. The third sector focuses on challenges and recommendation of policies.

  5. Comprehensive flood economic losses: review of the potential damage and implementation of an agricultural impact model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Gwladys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an annual loss averaging 580 M€ between 1990 and 2014, floods are the main natural catastrophe (Nat Cat risk for the French Nat Cat compensation scheme. As part of its role in this scheme, the Caisse Centrale de Réassurance (CCR offers state guaranteed reinsurance programs and has been modelling the risk of flooding since 2003. This model is based on the traditional valuation approach of direct tangible costs which pairs a physical model with exposure through damage curves. CCR wishes now to widen the studied damage scope to insured and noninsured economic costs and has been collaborating with the SAF research laboratory from the Institute of Financial and Insurance Sciences (ISFA since 2014. CCR’s model has been used to estimate the insured direct damage to residential and non-residential properties and it is now being developed to include damage to vehicles, agriculture and network infrastructures. Research is also being carried out to take into account business interruptions and indirect losses using an Input-Output model. This article describes the undergoing work on model development to estimate the damage to agriculture.

  6. Threats to agriculture at the extensive and intensive margins : economic analyses of selected land-use issues in the U.S. West and British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eagle, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key Words Agriculture-environment interactions, economic modelling, sage grouse, yellow starthistle, urban-rural fringe, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), farmland conservation, direct marketing Agricultural land uses are frequently challenged by competing land demands for urban uses and for n

  7. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  8. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    -economic scenarios that are consistent with climate change scenarios used in climate impact studies. Furthermore, the pairwise comparison approach developed by Saaty [Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York] provides a useful tool for the quantification from narrative storylines......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...

  9. Economic Assessment of Producing Corn and Cellulosic Ethanol Mandate on Agricultural Producers and Consumers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Adusumilli, Naveen C.; Ronald D. Lacewell; C. Robert Taylor; M. Edward Rister

    2016-01-01

    Strong support for the biofuels program in the USA is expected to influence dedicated biomass crops production. Their production is expected to compete for resources with traditional crops and in turn influence commodity prices, economic surplus, and trade balance. Implications of dedicated biomass crop as bioenergy feedstock, alternative energy policies, and government initiatives on agricultural producers and consumers are evaluated using a national quantitative model, AGSIM. Economic impac...

  10. Protected areas and agricultural expansion: Biodiversity conservation versus economic growth in the Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Mayra Cristina Prado de; Mello, Kaline de; Toppa, Rogério Hartung

    2017-03-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands. The results showed that the landscape patterns were affected by the economic cycles. The predominant crop surrounding the protected area is sugar cane, which increased by 39% during this period, followed by citrus. This landscape change is connected to the Brazilian oil crisis in 1973. The rapid expansion of sugar cane was largely driven by Brazil's biofuel program, the "Proálcool" (pro-alcohol), a project in 1975 that mixed ethanol with gas for automotive fuel. The forest loss occurred mainly between 1971 and 1988, decreasing the forest cover from 17% in 1971 to 12.7% in 2008. Most of the forest patches are smaller than 50 ha and has low connectivity. Throughout the years, the fragments in the buffer zone have become smaller and with an elongated shape, and the park has become isolated. This forest fragmentation process and the predominance of monoculture lands in the buffer zone threaten the protected areas, and can represent a barrier for these areas to provide the effective biodiversity conservation. The measures proposed are necessary to ensure the capability of this ecosystem to sustain its original biodiversity.

  11. Status of Teaching Pre-Vocational Subjects in the Junior Secondary School Level (Agricultural Science and Home Economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndem, J. U.; Akubue, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the status of teaching pre-vocational subjects in junior secondary school level. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was 2,916, while the sample for the study was 215 pre-vocational teachers and agricultural science and home economics students. The study was carried out in Afikpo Education…

  12. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen losses from cropland soil in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available For the comprehensive assessment of the policy impact on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape are important factors that must be considered. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI with the bio-geochemistry model DNDC to simulate greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analysed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists in four steps (i the definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii setting up of environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show first results of the nitrogen budget in cropland for the area of fourteen countries of the European Union. These results, in terms of estimated nitrogen fluxes, must still be considered as illustrative as needs for improvements in input data (e.g. the soil map and management data (yield estimates have been identified and will be the focus of future work. Nevertheless, we highlight inter-dependencies between farmer's choices of land uses and the environmental impact of different cultivation systems.

  13. Technical potential and its role in development of innovational economics of agricultural entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Mikhailovich Gogolev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of economic development of an enterprise with a particular point of assessment of capital-labor and ratio capitalequipment accumulation conditions and their further changes depending on thestrategy of thecompany. To construct a mathematical model of the economy's growth indicators, Solow model which adequately reflects the key aspects of the economy-wide process of expanded reproduction and helps to highlight the main features of the formal models of the dynamics is applied, as well as Shell model with applying Pontryagin maximum principle. An organization's readiness to investment processes — investment «maturity» — is seen through the current level of technical capacity and current capital-labor ratio. The substantiation of the need for a certain level of saturation of agricultural equipment in the organization as a secure mean of ensuring the optimum performance of work in the most intense phase of the production of complex planting and harvesting is provided. To construct a mathematical model reflecting the dependence of capital-labor productivity on capital-labor ratio, a mathematical model in the form of the production function of Cobb-Douglas type is suggested.

  14. The economic impact of multifunctional agriculture in Dutch regions: An input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, P.W.; Heide, van der C.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional agriculture is a broad concept lacking a precise definition. Moreover, little is known about the societal importance of multifunctional agriculture. This paper is an empirical attempt to fill this gap. To this end, an input-output model was constructed for multifunctional agriculture

  15. Ecological and economic principles of rational agricultural lands use based on landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndzya, Olena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the methodological providing and real state of agricultural lands and agrolandscape use in Ukraine. Basic directions of agricultural earth use organization are investigated on landscape basis. The experience of native scientists in forming and developing the theory and practice of landscape approach in agriculture is worked out. Basic directions of the agrolandscape planning are determined. The agricultural typology of land is considered in details and that allows to divide the lands according to their descriptions and constituents. The methodology of the landscape contour and land-reclamation agriculture systems is investigated. Positions of this methodology were put into the Conception of high productive ecologically permanent agrolandscapes forming and improvement of the of agriculture systems based on landscape. The value of the adaptive landscape agricultural system mechanism of forming is reflected. The direction of ecological landscape use and its basic constituents are examined.

  16. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled. The..., and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  17. Is it appropriate to support the farmers for adopting conservation agriculture? Economic and environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Troccoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA in the last decades has been spread in several parts of the world, especially in South and North America and Australia. In Italy, however, its adoption is often restrained by the risk to have a reduction in crop production in the early years of transition from conventional (CT to CA. To quantify sufficient financial support to promote no-tillage and CA, a mini-review about main effects of CA was conducted. The effect on crop yield, soil fertility - especially as it is influenced by the chemical, physical and microbiological factors - on soil compaction, the economic balance of the farm and the cost of equipment for direct seeding, the influence of environment on soil erosion, water retention, emissions of greenhouse gases, and carbon sequestration are briefly treated. The paper reports findings from national and international scientific literature and some results from long-term experiments conducted in Southern Italy. The main conclusions are about the reduction of yield in the first years of transition from CT to CA (from -5 to -10%, an improvement of soil fertility (soil organic carbon increases in the upper layers, reduction of management cost (less machinery operations, improvement of soil C sequestration (in specific conditions, a reduction of greenhouse gases emission and soil erosion risk. The paper provides the scientific basis in order to justify and quantify the amount to be paid to the farmers who decide to adopt the model of CA, oriented to protect the agro-ecosystem and to promote the principle of subsidiarity. Finally, a proposal of public subsidy in cash and for machinery purchase has been described.

  18. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  19. The Influence of Groundwater Depletion from Irrigated Agriculture on the Tradeoffs between Ecosystem Services and Economic Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant

    2016-01-01

    An irrigated agricultural landscape experiencing groundwater overdraft generates economic returns and a suite of ecosystem services (in particular, groundwater supply, greenhouse gases reduction, and surface water quality). Alternative land cover choices indicate tradeoffs among the value of ecosystem services created and the economic returns. These tradeoffs are explored using efficiency frontiers that determine the least value in ecosystem services that must be given up to generate additional economic returns. Agricultural producers may switch to irrigation with surface water using on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery systems in response to groundwater overdraft, and this has consequences for the bundle of ecosystem service values and economic returns achievable from the landscape. Planning that accounts for both ecosystem service value and economic returns can achieve more value for society, as does the adoption of reservoirs though lowering the costs of irrigation, increasing groundwater levels, and reducing fuel combustion and associated GHG emissions from groundwater pumping. Sensitivity analyses of per unit value of ecosystem services, crop prices, and the groundwater and water purification model parameters indicate tradeoff among ecosystems service values, such as the use of a high-end social cost of carbon ultimately lowers groundwater supply and water purification value by more than 15%. PMID:28033405

  20. Integrating a Detailed Agricultural Model in a Global Economic Framework: New methods for assessment of climate mitigation and adaptation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Calvin, K.; Zhang, X.; Wise, M.; West, T. O.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change and food security are global issues increasingly linked through human decision making that takes place across all scales from on-farm management actions to international climate negotiations. Understanding how agricultural systems can respond to climate change, through mitigation or adaptation, while still supplying sufficient food to feed a growing global population, thus requires a multi-sector tool in a global economic framework. Integrated assessment models are one such tool, however they are typically driven by historical aggregate statistics of production in combination with exogenous assumptions of future trends in agricultural productivity; they are not yet capable of exploring agricultural management practices as climate adaptation or mitigation strategies. Yet there are agricultural models capable of detailed biophysical modeling of farm management and climate impacts on crop yield, soil erosion and C and greenhouse gas emissions, although these are typically applied at point scales that are incompatible with coarse resolution integrated assessment modeling. To combine the relative strengths of these modeling systems, we are using the agricultural model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate), applied in a geographic data framework for regional analyses, to provide input to the global economic model GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model). The initial phase of our approach focuses on a pilot region of the Midwest United States, a highly productive agricultural area. We apply EPIC, a point based biophysical process model, at 60 m spatial resolution within this domain and aggregate the results to GCAM agriculture and land use subregions for the United States. GCAM is then initialized with multiple management options for key food and bioenergy crops. Using EPIC to distinguish these management options based on grain yield, residue yield, soil C change and cost differences, GCAM then simulates the optimum distribution of the available

  1. Readiness of the Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries Sectors for the 2015 ASEAN Economic Community: A rapid appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.; Villamil, Isabela Rosario G.

    2015-01-01

    The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) transforms the ASEAN region into a single market and production base by 2015. This promotes greater competition for the Philippine agriculture and fisheries (A and F) sectors. With the country's A and F sector lagging behind its neighboring ASEAN countries, there are fears that local industries will be displaced. The Global Trade Analysis model suggests an increase in both imports and exports as an impact of tariff reforms. The sectors ready for integration ...

  2. The economic impact of multifunctional agriculture in The Netherlands: A regional input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, P.W.; Heide, van der C.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multifunctional agriculture is a broad concept lacking a precise and uniform definition. Moreover, little is known about the societal importance of multifunctional agriculture. This paper is an empirical attempt to fill this gap. To this end, an input-output model is constructed for multifunctional

  3. Economic Impacts and Program Involvement in Agricultural Mechanics Competition Projects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagriff, Roger D.; Rayfield, John; Briers, Gary; Murphy, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) is a well-documented, valuable, and integral part of agricultural education programs (Bryant, 2003; Cheek, Arrington, Carter, & Randall, 1994; Deyoe, 1953; Dyer & Osborne, 1996; Moore, 1988; Roberts & Harlin, 2007). Cole and Connell (1993) found that there was little research regarding the…

  4. Economic dynamics of tree planting for carbon uptake on marginal agricultural lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of agricultural lands can be expected to take on an important role in the CO2 emissions reduction policy arsenal of some countries. To date, identification of suitable (marginal) agricultural lands has been left mainly to foresters, but their cri

  5. Analysis of future agricultural change: a farm economics approach applied to Dutch arable farming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This study of agricultural change deals simultaneously with: (a) farm planning, ie. the constant adaptation to changing circumstances at the level of the individual farm firm and (b) conditional forecasting, ie. the analysis of alternative agricultural and environmental policy views and their impact

  6. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mayzelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use conversion and resulting flood control result in gains of at least $2.3 billion, as compared to costs of $0.3 to $0.7 billion for treatment options over a 20 year period. Buffer zones would maintain the economic integrity of the region and concur with prevailing policy options. Thus, managed agricultural recharge buffer zones are a potentially attractive option for communities facing financial constraint and needing to diversify their portfolio of policy and infrastructure approaches to meet drinking water quality objectives.

  7. Assessment of China' s economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang-hua; CHANG Ying; NING Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities.On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimatingmethods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess theeconomic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billionRMB Yuan, which accounted for 4. t % of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmlandconversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing withthat in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  8. Analysis of economic indicators for GPS technologies application in Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB)

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Dragan; Krstić, Dragan; Simonović, Vojislav; Marković, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the level of savings in the application of modern technical systems for satellite guidance and control over performing agricultural operations throughout the season. The exemplary property was Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB), which covers about 21.000 hectares of arable land. The effects of plot shape and direction of movement of tractor-attachment units in calculating the savings from reduced overlapping of adjacent passes were studied. The analysis was carried ou...

  9. Economic Assessment of Producing Corn and Cellulosic Ethanol Mandate on Agricultural Producers and Consumers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen C. Adusumilli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong support for the biofuels program in the USA is expected to influence dedicated biomass crops production. Their production is expected to compete for resources with traditional crops and in turn influence commodity prices, economic surplus, and trade balance. Implications of dedicated biomass crop as bioenergy feedstock, alternative energy policies, and government initiatives on agricultural producers and consumers are evaluated using a national quantitative model, AGSIM. Economic impacts include effect on cropping patterns, crop prices, fertilizer prices, consumer and producer surplus, and trade balance. Economic analyses based on alternative assumptions related to marginal lands currently in conservation use returning to crop production as well as biomass crop yields are conducted. Results indicate that present biofuel policies are associated with large costs to consumers in terms of increased commodity prices and negative trade balance. Increase in net farm income is offset by decrease in consumer surplus. The results represent a robust set of economic impacts, which suggests policy makers to consider the unexpected economic consequences of bioenergy policy and warrants consideration of multiple alternative energy sources to achieve a sustainable energy goal.

  10. Analysis on construction of the Supply Chain and Brand of Guangxi Characteristic Economic Agricultural Products——A Case Study of Guilin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,it is briefly introduced that Guangxi characteristic economic agricultural products are currently characterized by typical regional features and strong competitiveness.Then,Guilin is taken as an example,the problems existing in constructing the supply chain and brand of Guilin characteristic economic agricultural products are pointed out after the analysis of its current situations,the problems include weak agricultural production infrastructure,weak deep products processing capacity,low modernization level of storage and transportation as well as short of fixed marketing channels;meanwhile,brand construction faces the problems of little top brands and few differentiated products.Finally,some measures are proposed to solve these problems from the perspectives of establishing the management idea of agricultural products supply chain and enhancing the awareness to protect agricultural products brand,it is also suggested that these measures be extended to the whole Guangxi autonomous region in order to explore the way of the development of Guangxi characteristic agriculture.

  11. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE TOWN COVACI, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara DUMA COPCEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to get information concerning the technical and fertility features of agricultural lands to be able to determine their present general production capacity in different crops and, implicitly, the uses that underlies technically and scientifically the most proper practical measures of rational use and conservation of the land for the benefit of the specialists. We focussed in the present study on the lands belonging to the cadastral territory of the commune of Covaci (Timiş County, i.e. the soil types identified within this perimeter. They are studied in relation to environmental factors that impact them and making up, with them, homogeneous ecological territory units with specific suitability for different agricultural or forestry uses and with different improvement requirements and technologies. The goals were: - characterising the natural framework; -identifying and characterising soil types and subtypes; -calculating land assessment grades; establishing suitability and classifying agricultural lands into fertility classes.

  12. Economic assessment of the impact of climate change on the agriculture of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Nomman Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies how climate change affects the agricultural productivity in Pakistan`s four provinces Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and the N.W.F.P., measured as weighted food crop yields per hectare, for the food crops wheat, rice and maize. By considering the RABI (Nov-Apr growing season and including a measure for drought to capture the occurrence of extreme events, exacerbated through climate change, the proposed hypothesis is that changing climatic variables have reduced and are reducing the agricultural productivity and thus posing a threat to long term food security. To depict the effect of climate change, several control variables are introduced in a panel framework for intertemporal analysis. As a result, we should expect lower levels of productivity in the arid zones with greater climatic pressure and adverse effects on food security through lower agricultural yields.

  13. Economic Potential of Biomass from Unused Agriculture Land for Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, A.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice (SRC) on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia was examined. At present, SRC is not completely recognized in Croatian legislative and considerations in energy strategy and action plans. The paper aspires...... to contribute to better understanding of the role SRC can take in national and local energy planning. The methodology is provided for regional analysis of biomass energy potential on unused agricultural land and for assessing the cost of the biomass at the power plant (PP) location considering transport...... plants and appropriate size of seasonal heat storage is discussed for each case study. Case studies have shown the potential for use of previously unused agricultural land to help achieve national targets for renewable energy sources as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions, help diversify...

  14. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning...... biomass represents an incentive for the development of fruit production on such agricultural land. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for several parameters: cost of biomass, investment costs in CHP systems and combined change in biomass and technology cost....

  15. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  16. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  17. Agricultural GHG emissions in the EU: an exploratory economic assessment of mitigation policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Dominguez, I.; Fellmann, T.; Witzke, H.P.; Jansson, T.; Oudendag, D.; Gocht, A.; Verhoog, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a quantitative assessment of possible implications of the implementation of specific policy options to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU. The mitigation policy scenarios proposed and analysed within this report are all exploratory, i.e. it is intende

  18. Economic analysis of Dutch agricultural land use in a changing policy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study empirically investigates farmers’ decision-making on agricultural land use change in the Netherlands. Five driving factors influencing decision making on both on-farm land adjustments and changes to the size of the farm are selected: increased price volatil

  19. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in regulating the global carbon cycle and its feedbacks within the Earth system. Compelling evidence exists that soil carbon stocks have reduced in many regions of the world, with these reductions often associated with agriculture. In a Danish contex...

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC GROUNDS FOR REALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS BY INDIVIDUAL SUBSIDIARY ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor PASKA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the problem of marketing of agricultural produce of private farmers. It is developed an evaluation priority for channel selection and reasonable approaches for improving the distribution infrastructure in terms of Ukraine's accession to the WTO.

  1. Organizational-economic grounds for realization of agricultural products by individual subsidiary economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paska Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the problem of marketing of agricultural produce of private farmers. It is developed an evaluation priority for channel selection and reasonable approaches for improving the distribution infrastructure in terms of Ukraine's accession to the WTO.

  2. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  3. Response to 'Combining sustainable agricultural production with economic and environmental benefits'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumberg, J.; Andersson, J.A.; Giller, K.E.; Thompson, J.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that a recent commentary piece in The Geographical Journal on Conservation Agriculture (CA) and the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) (Kassam and Brammer 2012 was misleading because it drew very selectively from the literature, and presented its conclusions as both widely accepted and

  4. Economic Efficiency, Allen / Uzama and Morishima Elasticities of Smallholder Agriculture In Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa MAGANGA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to measure the economic efficiency of Dedza smallholder Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum farmers in Malawi using a translog cost frontier, inefficiency effect model and input Elasticities from Seeming Unrelated Regression Model for asystem of cost share equations for labour, fertilizer, seed and land. A sample of 200 farmers has been considered from Dedza district in Malawi. Results indicate that the mean economic efficiency of Irish potato production in Dedza District is 0.61 with scores ranging between 0.12 and 0.94. The economic efficiency differences are significantly explained by non-farm employment, education, credit access, farm experience, degree of specialization, household size and frequency of weeding. The highest input substitution existed between labour and fertilizer, followed by seedfertilizer.

  5. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  6. Economic analysis and policy implications of wastewater use in agriculture in the central region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Weldesilassie, Alebel Bayrau

    2008-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to analyze the impact of wastewater use in agriculture. It mainly focused on three aspects of wastewater use for irrigation and their policy implications: impact on crop production and productivity; its impact on the health of farmers; and the value attached to its safe use for irrigation. The main objectives of the study were, therefore, 1) to define the farming system of wastewater farmers and to analyze the impact of wastewater on crop productivity; ...

  7. ARE Update: Special Issue-The Economics of the Drought for California Food and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sumner, Daniel A.; Hanak, Ellen; Mount, Jeffrey; Medellín-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay R.; Howitt, Richard E.; MacEwan, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    1.Putting California's Latest Drought in Context. California's latest drought has focused attention on water management practices and policies. This article describes how the system has adapted to managing water scarcity and recurring droughts. It identifies some of the early lessons learned, including promising ways to adapt to water scarcity and areas of continued vulnerability. 2. Agricultural Irrigation in This Drought: Where Is the Water and Where...

  8. The sustainability of changes in agricultural technology: The carbon, economic and labour implications of mechanisation and synthetic fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    New agricultural technologies bring multiple impacts which are hard to predict. Two changes taking place in Indian agriculture are a transition from bullocks to tractors and an associated replacement of manure with synthetic fertilisers. This paper uses primary data to model social, environmental and economic impacts of these transitions in South India. It compares ploughing by bullocks or tractors and the provision of nitrogen from manure or synthetic urea for irrigated rice from the greenhouse gas (GHG), economic and labour perspective. Tractors plough nine times faster than bullocks, use substantially less labour, with no significant difference in GHG emissions. Tractors are twice as costly as bullocks yet remain more popular to hire. The GHG emissions from manure-N paddy are 30 % higher than for urea-N, largely due to the organic matter in manure driving methane emissions. Labour use is significantly higher for manure, and the gender balance is more equal. Manure is substantially more expensive as a source of nutrients compared to synthetic nutrients, yet remains popular when available. This paper demonstrates the need to take a broad approach to analysing the sustainability impacts of new technologies, as trade-offs between different metrics are common.

  9. APPLICATION OF "FLEXIBLE" DURATIONS OF FIELD WORK IN THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION OF THE COMPOSITION COMBINE FLEET OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bershickiy Y. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In assessing the optimal composition of machine and tractor fleet nomenclature and quantitative composition of parks of technical means and some parameters of production technology are used as varying variables, leaving the timing of mechanized fieldwork fixed. At the same time, changing the duration of mechanized operations in the most intense periods of the field season can significantly affect the amount of the basic means of mechanization as a part of machine and tractor fleet, the value of investments in its formation. The article used a method of determining the composition of the machine and tractor fleet of agricultural organizations considered the "flexible" duration of the mechanized operations in field and based on the iterative adjustment of the results of the optimization of machine and tractor fleet by the criterion of the minimum difference between savings investment and value of crop losses. The analysis showed that the economically viable term of harvesting of winter crops for domestic combine harvester Acros-530 is a period of 16 days. The article analyzes the economic efficiency of the different periods of the harvesting campaign using imported agricultural machinery. This work presents a sensitivity analysis of the effect of reducing the need to combine at different periods of cleaning of grain crops to the level of prices for products and equipments

  10. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  11. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING SUMMARY OF THE GREEK AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1950-2010: CENTRAL GREECE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Th. PAPAILIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the analysis of the economic and social development of a country or a region can be achieved either by using macroeconomic theories, or through a microeconomic approach (Sakellaropoulos, 1993. The innovation of this paper lies in the use of accounting techniques for capturing the relevant developments and in the fact that there are no similar studies in the Greek bibliography, except some fragmentary approaches of the 1950’s (Euelpides, 1953. Specifically, the objective of this article is the presentation of the social and economic development in a major region in Greece with the use of accounting statements. For this purpose the balance sheets and the income statements of the specific region were estimated per decade throughout the postwar period and the social-economic facts are tried to associate with the figures.The article is structured in three parts. The first refers to the methodology of the research. In the second, balance sheets and profit/loss accounts are presented in detail with the use of financial statement analysis methods and are attempted to correlate with the social-economic incidents. In the third the findings are evaluated.

  12. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt : A Ricardian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in...

  13. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  14. THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE OF 1966, A STATISTICAL REPORT. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT NO. 120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE HIRED FARM WORKING FORCE, AND ON THE EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS FROM FARM AND NONFARM WAGE WORK FOR 1966 IS PRESENTED. THE DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE ANNUAL SURVEY CONDUCTED FOR THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE BY THE BUREAU OF CENSUS. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED APPROXIMATELY 35,000 HOUSEHOLDS INTERVIEWED…

  15. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  16. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI: methodology and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulatewicz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI. This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  17. Environmental and economic evaluations of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Sobek, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    Agricultural and forestry residues have been converted to energy for centuries. The technologies employed range from straightforward approaches such as combustion to produce heat to more involved approaches such as pyrolysis of the residues to produce medium-Btu synthetic gas, charcoal, and oil. Thus there is no one technology that can be characterized as the best or most promising for conversion of agricultural and forestry residues into energy. Therefore, to accurately assess the potential of agricultural and forestry residues as energy resources, an array of current conversion options should be addressed. Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems ae examined. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  18. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poeplau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988–1997 (Inventory I, 2001–2007 (Inventory II and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III, and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0–20 cm SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr−1 over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  19. The Efficacy of the Legal Framework of Agricultural Charge as Secured Credit Transaction in the Economic Development of Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwunze, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the background of an underdeveloped agricultural sector and the huge amount of money government at all levels have at various times committed to the development of the sector in the form of agricultural loans to farmers, this article assesses the efficacy of agricultural charge as secured credit transaction in Nigeria. It shows that due to legal, institutional and attitudinal deficiencies, agricultural charge as secured credit transaction has failed to engender needed development of the agricultural sector particularly and the Nigerian economy generally. It concludes that if the present effort of government at diversifying the Nigerian economy, mainly in the direction of agriculture must yield results, a legal, social and economic environment that facilitates the use of farms as security for advances must prevail.

  20. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    in the effort to reduce agricultural P runoff. Continued application of P in excess of crop requirements causes P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment through surface runoff and erosion and through leaching via the soil matrix or macropores...... of transporting and applying manure to fields means that increasing mineral-fertilizer prices does not generate a sufficient incentive for farmers to reallocate all P surpluses generated by livestock between farms and fields. The aim of the thesis is to increase the understanding of the long-term impacts....... Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  1. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE EXPLOATATION IN SOUTH OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara CHIHAIA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity, as variation of life form on Earth is the base of agriculture, in each of its fields, from the food to the services provided by ecosystems, the main streams and links of production. Standards or requirements that farmers must meet to be eligible for subsidies contribute to maintain biodiversity. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the costs needed to implement environmental standards and their implications for farm rentability. This study was made in farms with different size in the south part of Romania. Even if it can be seen a increase of production expenses which lead to a light decrease of farms profitability, the long-term benefit of biodiversity conservation is considerably.

  2. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Cereal Production: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem Bawayelaazaa Nyuor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic impacts of climate change on cereal crop production in Northern Ghana using 240 households comprising maize and sorghum farmers. The Ricardian regression approach was used to examine the economic impacts of climate change based on data generated from a survey conducted in the 2013/2014 farming seasons. Forty-year time-series data of rainfall and temperature from 1974 to 2013, together with cross-sectional data, were used for the empirical analysis. The Ricardian regression estimates for both maize and sorghum showed varying degrees of climate change impacts on net revenues. The results indicated that early season precipitation was beneficial for sorghum, but harmful for maize. However, mid-season precipitation tended to promote maize production. Temperature levels for all seasons impacted negatively on net revenue for both crops, except during the mid-season, when temperature exerted a positive effect on net revenue for sorghum. Our findings suggest that appropriate adaptation strategies should be promoted to reduce the negative impacts of prevailing climate change on cereal crop production.

  3. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS

  4. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  5. 农村合作经济组织推动农业保险发展研究%Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芬; 李茂松

    2011-01-01

    分析了合作经济组织作为农业保险发展有效载体的有利条件:合作经济组织推动了规模化经营,破解了小户分散经营难题;合作经济组织可以解决农民组织化程度低的问题;合作经济组织可以大大缩减农业保险运营成本;合作组织能在一定程度上降低道德风险和逆向选择;合作组织在一定程度上降低了农业生产风险,提高了农业风险的可保性.同时,指出了农业合作经济组织作为农业保险经营载体的局限性:合作经济组织的覆盖范围小,组织规模小,不利于农业风险的分散;合作经济组织资金缺乏,本身发展还不够规范,不利于载体功能的发挥;专业合作组织成员文化素质低,不利于农业保险的推行.提出了推进农业保险发展的农民合作经济组织模式,如农业保险合作社(相互会社)模式、“龙头企业(公司)+专业合作组织(种养大户)+保险”的模式、专业合作社代理农业保险模式.最后,简要说明了农业保险对农业合作经济组织的促进作用.%The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organizations promote quantitative management and solve the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants' low systemization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance management are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative

  6. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  7. Russia's transition process in the light of a rising economy: Economic trajectories in Russia's industry and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hockmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years Russia has faced an astonishing economic growth, coinciding with the era of Vladimir Putin's presidentship. Accordingly, it is not surprising that commonly these rising economic trajectories are attributed to progress in terms of transition initiated and further triggered by Putin's government. This paper is trying to investigate empirically whether the current growth in Russia tends to be caused mainly by (1 success of transition or just by (2 favourable external circumstances such as rising prices for oil, gas, etc. Thus, analytically, progress in transition has been approximated by efficiency estimates, which are - from a theoretical point of view - expected to be rising in course of transition of a formerly planned economy towards a free market system. In order to capture potentially different trajectories of several sectors and regions industry and agriculture have been considered separately, each at regionally aggregated level over a period of 11 years. In general, little evidence of the anticipated rising trends could be found. Instead, notable ups, downs and divergences among regions and sectors were uncovered. According to this analysis, Russia's current growth rates cannot be attributed to general success of transition. Instead, besides reaping the benefits of favourable external circumstances at world markets, from an empirical point of view, scale effects and slightly rising productivity appear to be the main causes of the recent track record. Moreover, in the industry the trend is also triggered by technological progress, which may indicate the turnaround after a decade of decline and give a reason to believe in an initiation of a long-term growth process. Unfortunately, in agriculture little evidence for such a sustainable growth process was evident so far. In general, the inter-sectoral integration in Russia's economy seems to be still quite low.

  8. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  9. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  10. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to

  11. Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Lampe, Martin [Organization for Ecomonic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (France); Willenbockel, Dirk [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Ahammad, Helal [Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra (Australia); Blanc, Elodie [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cai, Yongxia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fujimori, Shinichiro [National Inst. for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba (Japan); Hasegawa, Tomoko [National Inst. for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba (Japan); Havlik, Petr [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) (Austria); Heyhoe, Edwina [Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, Canberra (Australia); Kyle, G. Page [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lotze-Campen, Hermann [Postdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Mason d' Croz, Daniel [International Food Policy Research Inst., WA (United States); Nelson, Gerald [International Food Policy Research Inst., WA (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sands, Ronald [Economic Research Service (ERS), Washington, DC (United States); Schmitz, Christoph [Postdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Tabeau, Andrzej [Wageningen Univ. and Research Center (Netherlands); Valin, Hugo [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) (Austria); van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationas (FAO), Roma (Italy); van Meijl, Hans [Wageningen Univ. and Research Center (Netherlands)

    2013-12-02

    Recent studies assessing plausible futures for agricultural markets and global food security have had contradictory outcomes. Ten global economic models that produce long-term scenarios were asked to compare a reference scenario with alternate socio-economic, climate change and bioenergy scenarios using a common set of key drivers. Results suggest that, once general assumptions are harmonized, the variability in general trends across models declines, and that several common conclusions are possible. Nonetheless, differences in basic model parameters, sometimes hidden in the way market behavior is modeled, result in significant differences in the details. This holds for both the common reference scenario and for the various shocks applied. We conclude that agro-economic modelers aiming to inform the agricultural and development policy debate require better data and analysis on both economic behavior and biophysical drivers. More interdisciplinary modeling efforts are required to cross-fertilize analyses at different scales.

  12. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system.

  13. Rethinking the Role of Agriculture and Agro-Industry in the Economic Development of Thailand: Input-Output and CGE Analyses (Ph.D. Dissertation)

    OpenAIRE

    Thaiprasert, Nalitra

    2006-01-01

    Thailand’s economic development has been quite successful in terms of achieving high growth rate and reasonable per capita income. The country’s economic performance in terms of the transformation of production and exports are tending toward the normal pattern of increasing share of manufactured products. However, the major problems Thailand is still facing are the late reduction of its agricultural labor force, inequality that has occurred as a result of the development process, and problems...

  14. Economics of fossil fuel substitution and wood product sinks when trees are planted to sequester carbon on agricultural lands in western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Krcmar-Nozic, E.; Stennes, B.; Gorkom, van R.

    1999-01-01

    To meet its international commitment to reduce CO2 output by 7% from the 1990 level by 2012, Canada will rely to some extent on terrestrial carbon uptake, particularly afforestation of marginal agricultural land. The economics of afforestation is examined for northeastern British Columbia and all of

  15. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Agricultural Energy Consumption and Agricultural Economic Growth in Different Regions of China%中国区域农业生产用能与农业经济增长关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉莉; 牛叔文; 李怡涵; 张馨

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output show obvious regional differences in China.Based on data of agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output value during the period 1990 to 2008,the authors used cluster analysis methods to conceptually partition the entire country into four regions,i.e.,high growth to high consumption(I),low growth to high consumption(II),low growth to low consumption(III),and high growth to low consumption(IV).Then a panel data model was built to unravel the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output in different regions.Results show that the integrated characteristics between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth in different areas can generally be reflected by the four regions that high energy consumption areas are located mainly in the eastern region,but these areas are not necessarily high agricultural growth.Low energy consumption areas are located mainly in the western region,but these areas are not necessarily low agricultural growth.There exist co-integration relationships between agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output in each region.Differences in the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth for the four regions and different provinces in each region were revealed quantitatively by model analysis.From the model test results,it was found that the correlation coefficient is positive between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth in region I and region IV,whereas the correlation coefficient is negative in region II and region III.This demonstrates that energy consumption plays an important role in promoting agricultural economic growth in high growth to high consumption(I) and high growth to low consumption(IV);however,this rule cannot be applied to other regions.At the same time,the close degree of the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth was

  17. Sustainability Assessment in Wine-Grape Growing in the New World: Economic, Environmental, and Social Indicators for Agricultural Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators have been used in many sustainability assessment methods, however, disagreements over a common definition and scope for the sustainability concept have led to many distinct assessment methods, which are not often directly comparable. Before developing a sustainability assessment, it is essential to: define sustainability and specify the viewpoint of the assessor, the purpose of the assessment, and the context and time frame of the assessment. This article presents a short list of indicators and a method that can be readily adopted by any agricultural business or region to assess sustainability, making any organization, region or crop qualitatively comparable. These indicators were proposed by 83 top-level executives in 14 group interviews conducted using our adapted nominal group technique (ANGT. Executives were sourced from wine-grape growing organisations from New World wine-producing countries that also owned vineyards, and they considered everyday management practices of farms. These indicators, grouped within three categories (economic, environmental, and social were ranked by their importance. The method defines qualitative indicators that, in the context of distinct wine regions or crops should be quantified to maintain their relevance and usefulness.

  18. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Investigation on the Regional Branding Mode of Modern Agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone——From the Perspective of Country-of-origin Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The theory of the country-of-origin image is discussed and the natural relations between county-of-origin image and the regional brand are explored.The paper points out that the dispersion of agriculture has intensified the natural relations to a large extent.The paper probes into the branding status of agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic zone and points out the problems of it.In the first place,the agricultural industrial system is complete but there is no unified agricultural regional brand;in the second place,the weak awareness on protecting brand leads to the irrational behaviors on damaging brand.From the perspective of the image of the country of origin,the branding mode of agriculture is established and the countermeasures on improving the competitiveness of agricultural products are put forward.Firstly,the leading role of the government should be fully displayed;secondly,the image protection of original production place and regional brand promotion of the agricultural region should be intensified;thirdly,the functions of local pillar industries in protecting image and regional branding should be fully made use of.

  1. Agrarian-Economic Structure of Agricultural Holdings in Poland and East Germany: Selected Elements of Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierska-Thöle Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine differences in the development of farms in Poland against the agriculture of East Germany, and to show areas with similar conditions for development. The time range of the research covered the years 2002-2010, i.e. the stage of preparation of Polish agriculture for accession to the European Union, the implementation of pre-accession aid programmes, and the establishment and implementation of the tools of the Common Agricultural Policy. To assess the level of agricultural development, natural, productive and social characteristics were adopted. Spatial variations in the analysed features were based on the variation coefficient (Vz, and the level of agricultural development, on Perkal’s index (Wi. In the analysed period the range of variation and the degree of the spatial dispersion of sub-indices changed, indicating a deepening of the polarisation processes in agriculture. The implementation of CAP intensified the process of specialisation and modernisation in agriculture, an example of which is the increase in the average farm size and in agricultural productivity. On the other hand, agricultural production intensified, as exemplified by a decrease in the minimum value in six of the analysed characteristics, which indicates growing disparities.

  2. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  3. Co-integration Analysis of the Relationship between Logistics Transportation and Economic Growth of Agriculture in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis selects freight volume and passenger capacity from 1978 to 2008 in Zhejiang Province and the total output value of the primary industry as the object of research, uses quantitative method of co-integration analysis to analyze the freight volume and passenger capacity, and the total output value of the primary industry in Zhejiang Province. After the stationary test of the time sequence, I conduct the regression analysis of the relationship between freight volume and the total output value of agriculture, and the relationship between passenger capacity and the total output value of agriculture. In addition, I conduct Granger causality test of the relationship between freight volume and passenger capacity, and the total output value of agriculture. The results show that the transportation of Zhejiang Province has promoted the development of agricultural economy prominently, and the development of agricultural economy plays indistinctive role in promoting the transportation volume in Zhejiang Province.

  4. Innovative approaches to investment decisions substantiation in the sphere of agricultural land use on the base оf ecological and economic assessment of investment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Marekha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to elaborate innovative theoretical and methodological issues and practical recommendations concerning formation of ecological and economic assessment of investment quality, substantiation of investment decisions in the sphere of agricultural land use. The results of the analysis. The analysis of investment quality is undertaken in frames of the analysis of a category «investment». The author finds out that the category of «investment quality» can be investigated from economic and financial sides. From economic point of view, investments are regarded as expenditures on economic reproduction. From financial side, investments are considered as actives that are invested to the business activity in order to receive a profit. The author emphases that such twofold innovative approach can be taken as a principle for determining the category «investment quality». By the meaning of investment quality in agricultural land use one should understand a holistic characteristic of resource attributes that enable to satisfy investment demands in agriculture on the whole and to meet the interests of individual investors in particular. The author distinguishes investment strategies by the features of agricultural ecological and economic system and outlines the following ones: government strategy, banking strategy, self-investment strategy and foreign strategy. A set of ecological and economic indicators of investment quality is formed in the article. In authors’ opinion, the system of ecological and economic indicators of investment quality must include: optimal investment structure adjusted to the influence of ecological factor; the risk of investment portfolio adjusted to the influence of ecological factor; index of profitability of the investment portfolio adjusted to the influence of ecological factor. For identification of the investment quality the researcher proposes to use additional indicator

  5. 农业用水权有偿转让经济技术措施研究%Economic Technology of Agricultural Water Right Compensable Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣四海

    2009-01-01

    从经济学角度出发,探讨了农业用水权转让的经济管理集成技术,研究内容包括农业初始水权的界定与水权分配、国家政策环境对农业用水权有偿转让的影响、农业用水权有偿转让主要内容、程序步骤等,最后结合河南省群库灌区调查,计算分析了灌区用水量转让、农业用水转移的供水价格与供水年限以及农业用水量转让后对当地工农业经济和农民收入的影响等.研究成果对我国农业用水权有偿转让以及工农业经济发展具有一定的参考价值.%Starting from economic viewpoints, the systematic economic management technology of agricul-tural water right transfer were studied, which include water right initial allocaltion, national policy influ-ence, water right trading, water right trading system, etc. Finally, based on investigation for Qunku Irri-gaiton District, calculation and analysis were carried out for water transfer, water price, water supply pe-riod, industrial and agricultural economic influence. The present fingdings should be an important refer-ence value for agricultural water right compensable transfer and related economic development.

  6. Analysis of the Farmers Economic Behavior to Reduce the Environmental Effects of Agricultural Chemical Inputs (a Case Study of Kashaf- Rood Basin in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the analysis of the farmers economic behavior to reduce the adverse environmental effects of agricultural chemical inputs by using contingent valuation approach and Tobit model by Heckman's two stage. To achieve the desired goal, 100 questionnaires collected by a random sampling from farmers of Kashaf- rood basin in Mashhad city in 2013. Results showed that variables of age, education, type of agricultural activity, index 2 (farmers agree with the adverse effects of overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, index 5 (farmers agree with investments to protect the soil and water, Sex, number of households employed in agriculture, experience in the use of soil and water conservation practices, total area under cultivation and index 4 (farmers agree with well being of available soil and water have a significant impact on the farmers financial participation to reduce the adverse environmental effects of chemical fertilizers. also, variables of age, education, total amount annual consumption of chemical pesticides per year, sex, main job, number of households employed in agriculture, type of agricultural activity, net savings of agriculture, land ownership status, total amount annual consumption of fertilizer per year, index 1 (farmers agree with benefits of preventing soil washing, index 4 (farmers agree with well being of available soil and water and index 5 (farmers agree with investments to protect the soil and water have a significant impact on the farmers financial participation to reduce the adverse environmental effects of chemical pesticides. According to the study results, Suggestions is presented for reducing the adverse environmental impacts of chemical inputs.

  7. Les débouchés énergétiques de l'agriculture de la Communauté Economique Européenne Energy Outlets for Agriculture in the European Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'agriculture de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CEE connaît une crise profonde au niveau de ses débouchés. Ainsi, même dans un contexte où l'indépendance énergétique n'est plus une préoccupation majeure, une production massive d'énergie par l'agriculture reste un projet à priori digne d'intérêt. Cette étude précise les modalités d'application concrètes d'une telle politique et tente une évaluation économique permettant d'apprécier la viabilité d'un tel schéma. Elle présente, en particulier, un positionnement par rapport aux solutions agricoles plus classiques actuellement mises en oeuvre et qui pourtant ne sont guère satisfaisantes. Agriculture in the EEC is in the midst of a deep crisis concerning its outlets. Even in a context where energy independence is no longer a major preoccupation, massive energy production by agriculture is still a problem worthy of interest, a priori. This article specifies concrete procedures for applying such a policy and tries to make an economic evaluation to assess the viability of such a scheme. In particular, it describes a position in relation to the most conventional agricultural solutions now being implemented and that are proving not to be very satisfactory.

  8. Agronomic, economical and social potentialities of the main oleaginous biodiesel raw materials and their adoption by the familiar agriculture; Potencialidades agronomica, economica e social das principais oleaginosas materias-primas do biodiesel e sua adocao pela agricultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluszz, Thaisy; Machado, Joao Armando Dessimon [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Agronegocios (CEPAN)]. E-mails: thaisy@terra.com.br; joao.dessimon@ufrgs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the properties of various oleaginous vegetables which are raw material for the production of biodiesel by the familiar agriculture in small and average properties at the different Brazilian regions, under the agronomic, economic and social aspects.

  9. Economic efficiency assessment of greenhouse gases mitigation for agriculture; Analyse af omkostningseffektiviteten ved drivhusgasreducerende tiltag i relation til landbruget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubgaard, A.; Moeller Laugesen, F.; Staehl, E.E.; Bang, J.R.; Schou, E.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Oerum, J.E.; Dejgaerd Jensen, J.

    2013-08-15

    The report contains the contributions by the Institute of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO) to a Danish Government appraisal of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction measures. The policy goal is a 40 per cent reduction in total Danish GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. The GHGs analysed in the present study include emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide and methane plus soil carbon sequestration. The purpose of the study is to identify GHG mitigation measures related to agriculture which can deliver cost-effective contributions to the targeted reduction in GHG emissions in Denmark. A total of 21 GHG mitigation measures are included in the assessment. The stipulated implementation period is 2013 to 2020. The cost calculations have a time horizon equal to 30 years, i.e. from 2013 to 2042. The GHG reduction potential, expressed in CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}-eq), is calculated as the sum of the effect on the emission of CO{sub 2} (with and without changes in soil carbon), methane and nitrous oxide. The 21 mitigation measures are listed below (figures in brackets show the assumed implementation potential): 1. Biogas from livestock manure/slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 2. Biogas from slurry and maize (10 % of total slurry production) 3. Biogas from organic clover 4. Additional fat in diet for dairy cows (80% of conventional dairy cow stock and 20 % of organic dairy cow stock) 5. Additional concentrated feed in diet for other cattle (25 % of cattle stock under 2 years of age) 6. Prolonged lactation period for dairy cows (10 % of dairy cow stock) 7. Acidification of slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 8. Covers on slurry containers (40 % of total slurry production) 9. Cooling of pig slurry (10 % of pig slurry) 10. Nitrification inhibitors in nitrate fertilisers (100 % of chemical fertilisers with nitrogen) 11. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for degassed slurry in nitrogen quota system (50 % of total slurry production) 12. Increased nitrogen

  10. Social, environmental and economic aspects of the organic agriculture –case study in Verê, State Of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Aní Caovilla Follador

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic agriculture consist in a holistic system of production management which foment and improvement the agroecosystem health and, in specific the biodiversity, the cycles and biological activities, reason because this work had as objective analyze the economic environmental, social and political factors, that conditioning the organic production systems evolution, limiting their diffusion in function of the existent potential. For that, were employed the bibliographic and field research methodology applied in 10 agricultural proprieties located in Verê county, at Paraná State, with the organic food cultivation. The results demonstrated that detaching the vegetables which united with other products are totally commercialized in the municipal district and region. Was possible to verify that the production and commercialization of organic food comes obtaining force and achieving each time more space and, for a greater expansion is necessary that the consumer acquire conscience about the importance of the acquisition of products that are derived of the organic agriculture. Also, is necessary establishing specific public politeness, in the federal, state and municipal extents, which promotes the organic agricultural diffusion. With relation to the certification, the utilization of the life cycle assessment of the organic product showing adequate because consider the production conditions.

  11. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary sourc

  12. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  13. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product 'Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  14. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  15. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  16. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission.

  18. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE EPIGEAL FAUNA IN THE CORN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM IN OCNA SIBIU (SIBIU COUNTY IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The arthropods have the role of biologic indicators, of diagnosis instruments regarding the negative effects of the human intervention in the structure and functioning of the agricultural ecosystems. Their presence or absence, the growth or lowering of their populations in the agricultural ecosystems can indicate the state of health of these systems and their good functioning. The aim of our researches is establishing the fauna structure of the community of arthropods at the soil level in the corn agricultural ecosystem in Ocna Sibiu, (Sibiu County; the characterization of the communities of invertebrates under the aspect of numerical abundance and of that of relative one; framing the entomologic fauna into a beneficial or pest one, the identification of the culture technology for the researched area. Regarding the applied researched methods, they were as follows: the using of pitfall traps (Barber traps that were at the level of the soil as well as the method of direct collecting of the fauna from the plants. As a result of our researches there was established the taxonomic and quantitative structure of the collected fauna through the methods of pitfall traps (Barber traps in Ocna Sibiu during 2012; there were identified 13 taxonomic groups. From the total of the collected agricultural fauna gathered by the help of pitfall traps in Ocna Sibiu locality there were identified 51 species of insects from which 30 were beneficial ones and 21 pest ones, the dominating order being Coleopteron with 35 species. The establishment of the group of arthropods, especially of the entomologic fauna, beneficial or pest indicates the equilibrium or the disequilibrium state from the researched corn three field systems. The ratio between the two types of fauna permits choosing the optimum method of maintaining the equilibrium between the species of the system and applying those measures of management in order to affect less the system in its assembly and to

  19. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  20. Economic Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change Induced by Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Agricultural Productions and Available Water Resources (Case Study: Down Lands of the Taleghan Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mozaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse gases absorb the radiation reflected from the earth surface which would otherwise be sent back into space. The composition and mixture of these gases make life on earth possible. In recent years, human activity has affected both the composition and mixture of the atmosphere, modifying the climate. When climate changes, crop production is affected. There are many studies that consider the type and amount of production changes for particular crops, places and scenarios. Others attempt to expand knowledge about production changes and their impacts on economy and regional welfare. Climate change affects agriculture through direct and indirect affects i.e. temperature, and precipitation changes in the biological and physical environment. Restriction in water availability is one of the most dramatic consequences of climate change for the agricultural sector. Water availability is expected to be even more limited in the future. Scarcity of water is due to potential evapotranspiration increase. It is related to increase in air and earth surface temperatures. This phenomenon is important in low-precipitation seasons, and is even more severe in dry areas. The number of regions with loss of soil moisture is expected to increase, resulting in direct economic consequences on the production capacity. Considering the above decisions, the main objective of this paper is to integrate climate change into agricultural decision-making by using an Economic Modeling System to identify the impacts of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions on agricultural sector productions and available water resources in the down lands of the Taleghan Dam. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of greenhouse gases on climate variables of temperature and precipitation under emission scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 were evaluated using time series data from 1981- 2008 and General Circulation Models (GCM. Then Ordinary Least Squares (OLS was used

  1. Socio-economic characterization of integrated cropping systems in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ur Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the households rely on agriculture as their main occupation. Thirty percent of the households were owners of the land and the rest cultivated either rented or sharecropped land. Most of the families (70 % were headed by a member with primary education, and only 10 % of the household head had a secondary school certificate. Irrigationwater was obtained from waste water (37 %, canals (27 %, and mixed alternative sources (36 %. A total of 35 species were cultivated in the UPA systems of which were 65% vegetables, 15% grain and fodder crops, and 5% medicinal plants. Fifty-nine percent of the households cultivated wheat, mostly for auto-consumption. The 51 % of the respondents grew cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and gourds (Cucurbitaceae in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Group marketing was uncommon and most of the farmers sold their produce at the farm gate (45 % and on local markets (43 %. Seeds and fertilizers were available from commission agents and dealers on a credit basis with the obligation to pay by harvested produce. A major problem reported by the UPA farmers of Faisalabad was the scarcity of high quality irrigation water, especially during the hot dry summer months, in addition to lacking adequate quantities of mineral fertilizers and other inputs during sowing time. Half of the respondents estimated their daily income to be less than 1.25 US$ and spent almost half of it on food. Monthly average household income and expenses were 334 and 237 US

  2. Economic analyses of agricultural co-substrates for use in biogas plants; Wirtschaftlichkeitsuntersuchungen zum Einsatz landwirtschaftlicher Kosubstrate in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, P.; Ploechl, M.; Heiermann, M. [Inst. fuer Agrartechnik Bornim, Abt. Technikbewertung und Stoffkreislaeufe, Potsdam (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The study analyses the effect of different factors (yields, production costs, methane yields, amount of co-substrates, investment costs and economies of scale) on the profitability of crops as inputs in biogas production plants. The profitability of silages from perennial ryegrass, alfalfa, maize and barley varies mainly within positive economic results, while rapeseed, hemp and topinambur mainly present a range of negative results. Fresh rye and silages from rye and wheat show equal positive and negative variation of results. Even the economic result of biogas plants is determined by investment costs, the sum of effects resulting from variations of yields, co-substrate production costs, amount of co-substrates, methane yields and economies of scales is decisive for the profitability of biogas plants. (orig.)

  3. Economic gains fromtargeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-01-01

    -loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20–25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N...... and the average farm would gain approximately 14–21 €/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5–10 €/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater......From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest...

  4. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  5. Economic and Social Sustainability through Organic Agriculture: Study of the Restructuring of the Citrus Sector in the “Bajo Andarax” District (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Torres

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 1000 hectares of citrus fruits crops are grown in the Bajo Andarax district in Almeria (Spain. The withdrawal of EU subsidies for conventional production led to a drastic loss of economic profitability of the holdings and, consequently, the abandonment of most of the conventionally managed farms of the district. In this context, a restructuring of the citrus sector from conventional to organic farming was implemented as a strategic measure to achieve the long-term sustainable development of the holdings. This study examines the citrus sector of the district and performs a comprehensive evaluation of the economic sustainability of this shift from conventional to organic production. In addition, the impact of the restructuring of the sector on the social sustainability both at the farm level and at the municipality level is studied. The results of the study are of interest to other agricultural areas of compromised profitability in which a shift towards organic production can represent a viable alternative for the economic and social sustainability of the holdings.

  6. The research of situations and trends of agricultural products logistics of the centra plains economic region%浅析中原经济区农产品物流现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海燕

    2014-01-01

    By analysing the current situations of agricultural products logistics of the centra plains economic region ,the author considers the trends will be new kind of agricultural cooperation organization ,major processing of agricultural prod-ucts company joining in agricultural products logistics ,modern agricultural products logistics region ,wholesale market of agricultural products and modern supermarket chains .%通过分析中原经济区农产品物流现状,认为重视新型农业合作组织、大型农产品加工企业介入农产品物流、推进现代化农产品物流园区、农产品批发市场和现代化连锁超市发展是中原经济区农产品物流的发展趋势。

  7. Emergy Analysis for Agricultural Eco-economic System in Hunan Province%湖南农业生态经济系统能值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴磊; 向平安

    2011-01-01

    以湖南农业生态经济系统为研究对象,应用能值理论和方法,对2008年湖南农业生态经济系统运行状况进行了研究,并对反映系统结构功能的能值指标以及系统的可持续发展状况进行了深入分析,结果表明:湖南农业生态经济系统环境贡献率、能值自给率比较低;经济能值投入率、净能值产出率、环境负载率、能值投资率比较高;可持续发展性能比较合理.湖南农业要实现可持续发展应优化能值投入,合理利用辅助能,加快结构调整,提高净能值产出率,降低环境负载率,加强生态环境建设.%The operating status of agricultural eco-economic system in Hunan Province in 2008 was studied by using emergy theory and method, and the emergy index which can reflect system structure and functions and the sustainable developmental status of the system were analyzed deeply. The results showed that the agricultural eco-economic system in Hunan Province has low environmental contribution ratio and emergy self-sufficiency ratio and high economic emergy investment ratio, net emergy yield ratio, environment load ratio and emergy investment ratio, so its sustainable development performances were reasonable. To achieve the goal of sustainable development, the agriculture in Hunan Province should optimize emergy investment, reasonable utilization of auxiliary energy, expediting adjustment of structure, increase of net emergy yield ratio, decrease of environment load ratio, and strengthening construction of eco-environment.

  8. Economic, Environmental and Moral Acceptance of Renewable Energy: A Case Study-The Agricultural Biogas Plant at Pěčín.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochozka, Marek; Maroušková, Anna; Šuleř, Petr

    2017-03-08

    The production of renewable energy in agricultural biogas plants is being widely criticized because-among other things-most of the feedstock comes from purpose-grown crops like maize. These activities (generously subsidized in the Czech Republic) generate competitive pressure to other crops that are used for feeding or food production, worsening their affordability. Unique pretreatment technology that allows substitution of the purpose-grown crops by farming residues (such as husk or straw) was built 6 years ago on a commercial basis in Pěčín (Czech Republic) under modest funding and without publicity. The design of the concept; financial assessment and moral viewpoint were analyzed based on practical operating data. It showed that the apparatus improves economic, environmental and moral acceptance as well. However, according to the government's view, public funding for this type of processing was shortened, "because waste materials represent a lower cost". The impact of such governance was analyzed as well.

  9. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  10. Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks as pest in agricultural crop of economic interest of the municipalities Abreu and Aguada de Pasajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Díaz García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was developed during six winter and spring seasons in the municipalities of Abreus and Aguada de Pasajeros with the aims to know the preference of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks and levels of incidence for crops. The data filed were obtained in the Protection Station of Yaguaramas about four the crops in the register of existent areas, stationary fields, journeys of itinerary, reports of seasons and historical territorial registration. It was analyzed the levels of incidence by varieties, sowing times or plantation according to meteorological variables. It was picked up affected crops and frequency of incidence of the mite, percentage of area with presence and level of incidence per crops and season. It is reported the white mite as important pest, with high percent of affected areas in cold and spring season for potato, common bean, cowpea, pepper at fields and greenhouse. This surpassed the Control Economic Threshold in all cultivations sowed or planted; not being this way in common bean that only it happened in two seasons. In February-March, April-May the higher incidences occurred in the fields, without a marked preference for pepper greenhouse. The highest incidences happened to minimum temperature of 18 0C and 94 % of relative humidity. It don not put on in evidence the preference of the mite for some variety of the crops in study; throwing differences among early, intermediate and late season for pepper greenhouse in spring and for common bean and cowpea.

  11. THE FUNCTION DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION OF SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT%丝绸之路经济带农业经济协作功能分区规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓华

    2015-01-01

    ,it put forward three recommendations for the country's agricultural economic cooperation,namely (1) to enhance the in-dustry'stop design of the cooperation zone,especially on the layout of agricultural production base,and to realize the win-win development of the cooperation zone by the integration of agriculture with city and industrial develop-ment;(2) to actively adjust and optimize the industrial structurebased on the characteristics of agricultural re-sources and the advantages of the agricultural industry development mode in the cooperation zone;(3) to establish and improve the division of labor and cooperation mechanism realizing the economic integration in the countries a-long the silk road economic belt.

  12. On the Development of Circular Agriculture in Ecological Economic Zone of Poyang Lake%论鄱阳湖生态经济区循环农业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国勤

    2015-01-01

    在调查研究的基础上,对鄱阳湖生态经济区发展循环农业的意义、优势、模式,以及存在的问题和应采取的对策等进行了深入分析,认为:(1)鄱阳湖生态经济区发展循环农业具有节约资源、保护环境、提高农产品质量、增加农民经济收入、提升干部群众素质和助推建设“美丽湖区”等多方面的意义;(2)鄱阳湖生态经济区发展循环农业具有气候适宜、土壤肥沃、生物多样、资源丰富、环境优美、交通便利、区位优越、基础良好和政策扶持等诸多有利条件和优势;(3)当前,鄱阳湖生态经济区循环农业主要有立体型、共生型、再生型、循环型、减灾型、休闲型、低碳型和复合型等类型与模式;(4)根据调查,目前鄱阳湖生态经济区循环农业发展尚存在认识不深、重视不够、资金不足、技术不新、模式不优、推广不力、素质不高、规模不大、链接不紧、交流不多、奖惩不力和效益不佳等各种问题;(5)针对存在的问题,应采取如下对策和措施:加强学习,加深认识;科学规划,有序发展;增加投入,改善条件;优化模式,创新技术;扩大规模,提高效益;培训人才,提升素质;开展交流,扩大合作;健全制度,规范管理;重视科技,加强研发;强化推广,服务“三农”。%On the basis of investigation and research, the significances, advantages, modes, problems, and countermeasures of the development of circular agriculture in the ecological economic zone of Poyang Lake were analyzed deeply. (1) There are a lot of significances in the developing circular agriculture in ecological economic zone of Poyang Lake, for example, saving resources, protecting environment, improving the quality of agricultural products, increasing the economic income of farmers, enhancing the sense of quality of the cadres and the masses, and

  13. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  14. Philosophy and Strategy for Development of New Style Agricultural Modernization in Agricultural Region of Central Plains Economic Zone%中原经济区农区新型农业现代化发展的思路与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡世忠

    2013-01-01

    In order to advance the development of new style agricultural modernization in the agricultural region of Central Plains Economic Zone,this paper gave a clear definition of agricultural region of Central Plains Economic Zone as well as a clear connotation and features of new style agricultural modernization,and deeply analyzed the main factors that limitted the new style agricultural modernization in the agricultural region of Central Plains Economic Zone.This pqper put forward the overall idea of "complete industrial chain,cultivating industrial cluster,high standard,strong support,creating brand and expanding functions" as well as countermeasures and proposals for the development of new style agricultural modernization in the agricultural region of Central Plains Economic Zone.%为了更好地在中原经济区农区发展新型农业现代化,对中原经济区农区范围进行了界定,并明确阐述了新型农业现代化的内涵和特色,深刻分析了河南省农区新型农业现代化发展的主要限制因素,提出河南省农区新型农业现代化发展的“全链条、育集群、高定位、强支撑、创品牌、拓功能”的总体思路、对策和建议.

  15. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  16. Climate change and the economics of biomass energy feedstocks in semi-arid agricultural landscapes: A spatially explicit real options analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Connor, Jeffery D; Raja Segaran, Ramesh; Meyer, Wayne S; Bryan, Brett A; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2017-05-01

    The economics of establishing perennial species as renewable energy feedstocks has been widely investigated as a climate change adapted diversification option for landholders, primarily using net present value (NPV) analysis. NPV does not account for key uncertainties likely to influence relevant landholder decision making. While real options analysis (ROA) is an alternative method that accounts for the uncertainty over future conditions and the large upfront irreversible investment involved in establishing perennials, there have been limited applications of ROA to evaluating land use change decision economics and even fewer applications considering climate change risks. Further, while the influence of spatially varying climate risk on biomass conversion economic has been widely evaluated using NPV methods, effects of spatial variability and climate on land use change have been scarcely assessed with ROA. In this study we applied a simulation-based ROA model to evaluate a landholder's decision to convert land from agriculture to biomass. This spatially explicit model considers price and yield risks under baseline climate and two climate change scenarios over a geographically diverse farming region. We found that underlying variability in primary productivity across the study area had a substantial effect on conversion thresholds required to trigger land use change when compared to results from NPV analysis. Areas traditionally thought of as being quite similar in average productive capacity can display large differences in response to the inclusion of production and price risks. The effects of climate change, broadly reduced returns required for land use change to biomass in low and medium rainfall zones and increased them in higher rainfall areas. Additionally, the risks posed by climate change can further exacerbate the tendency for NPV methods to underestimate true conversion thresholds. Our results show that even under severe drying and warming where crop yield

  17. Assessing the impacts of Best Management Practices on nitrate pollution in an agricultural dominated lowland catchment considering environmental protection versus economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marcelo B; Guse, Björn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2017-03-15

    Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas. Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model are important tools for land cover and land use changes investigation and the assessment of BMPs implementation effects on water quality. Thus, in this study, buffer strip, fertilization reduction and alternative crops were considered as BMPs and were implemented in the SWAT model for the Treene catchment. Their efficiency in terms of nitrate loads reduction related to implementation costs at the catchment scale was investigated. The practices correspond to the catchment conditions and are based on small and mid areal changes. Furthermore, the BMPs were evaluated from the perspective of ecologic and economic policies. The results evidenced different responses of the BMPs. The critical periods in winter were addressed by most of the BMPs. However, some practices like pasture land increase need to be implemented in greater area for better results in comparison to current activities. Furthermore, there is a greater nitrate reduction potential by combining BMPs containing fertilization reduction, buffer strips and soil coverage in winter. The discussion about efficiency showed the complexity of costs stipulation and the relation with arable land and yield losses. Furthermore, as the government policies can be divergent an integrated approach considering all the involved actors is important and seeks a sustainable development.

  18. SWOT Analysis on Modern Agriculture Characteristic Competitive Industry of the Economic Zone Along the Yellow River%宁夏沿黄经济区农业特色优势产业分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国华

    2011-01-01

    The development of the modern agricultural industry is critical for the improvement of the comprehensive production capacity of agriculture. In the past few years, the agricultural structure has been optimized along the way, and the regional characteristics takes into initial shape, which accelerating the pace of modern agriculture characteristic competitive industry' s construction. By stating the resource endowment of the agriculture characteristic competitive industry of the economic zone along the Yellow River, this paper based on the current situation, takes SWOT analysis to evaluate its strengths, the weaknesses, the opportunities and the threats, and provides a development strategy as the theory evidence for the agricultural characteristic competitive industry of the economic zone along the Yellow River.%为研究宁夏沿黄经济区农业结构,发展区域特色农业,优化现代农业产业体系,论述了宁夏沿黄经济区农业特色优势产业资源,用SWOT分析方法对其优势、劣势、机遇和挑战进行分析,并在此基础上提出发展思路.可为沿黄经济区农业特色优势产业发展研究提供参考.

  19. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  20. Research on Supplying Mechanisms of Rural Economic Able-person in Construction of New Countryside——Based on the Phenomenon of Intelligence Returning in Under-developed Agricultural Plain Area of Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of the discussions on researches of economic able-person by researchers at home,it can be concluded that economic able-person has become the important mode promoting rural development.The research makes a discussion on the rural intelligence returning theory and points out that as a marketing action,rural intelligence returning functions directly and effectively on the supplying to rural economic able-person.The research also makes an analysis of the supplying mechanisms of rural able-person intelligence returning of the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province.And results show that transferring of rural surplus labors takes place among provinces;farmers accelerate in returning to hometowns to make money and returning phenomena would tend to be normal.With more and more popular the intelligence returning phenomenon in rural areas,the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province would make enough profits.

  1. Optimal Cropping Pattern Based on Multiple Economic, Regional, and Agricultural Sustainability Criteria in Sari, Iran: Application of a Consolidated Model of AHP and Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fallahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining a suitable cropping pattern is an important task for planners and requires an exact and realistic decision-making process based on several goals and criteria corresponding to secure the interest of agricultural beneficiaries in long-term. Accordingly, this study reviews the current pattern operated by farmers in Sari, Iran, and intends to provide a cropping pattern that considers the multifold regional and agricultural sustainability criteria along with economic considerations. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the study goals, a consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming was applied. For this purpose, we constructed a three-level AHP, including a goal (determining the weight of each crop, seven criteria, and seven alternatives. Profitability, compatibility with regional and geographical conditions, water consumption, environmental effects of cropping, job creation opportunities, skill and proficiency required for producing a crop, and risk taken to cultivate a crop were considered as the criteria in the model. Seven alternative crops including rice, wheat, rapeseed, barley, soybean, clover, and vegetables were considered too. The next step is determining the weight of each criterion with regard to the goal and the weight of each alternative with regard to each criteria. By multiplying these weights, final weights for various crops were obtained from the model. Derived weights for each crop were then applied as objective function coefficients in the Linear Programming model and the model was solved subject to the constraints. Results and Discussion: Optimal cropping pattern determined based on the consolidated model of AHP and Linear Programming and the results compared to a scenario that only looks forward to maximizing the economic interests. Due to the low profitability of rapeseed and barley, these crops eliminated from the pattern in the profit-maximizing scenario. According to the results, the

  2. 芜湖市农业龙头企业经济运行情况分析%On Economic Operation of Agriculturally Industrialized Bibcock Enterprises in Wuhu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,agricultural industrialization in Wuhu has developed in a full swing with prominent effects,and contributed to better local economic development.Due to global financial storm,exportation of many enterprises has been reduced.Such problems as price waving,operation risk increase,lack of investment and scale shrinking are what corporations have to face.Hence,relevant departments are responsible for supporting business development by means of financial and technological measures.%近几年芜湖市农业产业化发展速度快、势头强、成效显著,总体运行质量良好,为芜湖市经济又好又快发展作出了重要贡献。但受全球金融风暴影响,企业产品出口创汇受挫,企业面临着价格波动、经营风险加大、资金紧张以及规模偏小等问题。所以,有关部门应加大培育力度,通过金融、技术等方面予以支持,促进芜湖农业经济又好又快发展。

  3. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  4. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with water depth) or at risk of being waterlogged (17.1% area with 2-3 m ground water depth). Local resource inventory showed prevalence of several illegal private channels in Mewat district. These private channels divert degraded canal waters into the nearby intersecting drains and thereby increase extent of surface irrigated agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm), manganese (Mn: 0

  5. Las empresas del sector agropecuario: racionalidad económica y gestión Companies of the Agricultural Sector: Economic Rationality and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Bibiana Mora Rendón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación desarrollada en algunas asociaciones de pequeños y medianos productores agropecuarios en la región del Suroeste antioqueño, y propone un análisis sobre la gestión en estas organizaciones empresariales del sector agropecuario, vinculadas a la economía solidaria. La importancia de estas asociaciones radica en que trabajan con el objetivo de satisfacer las necesidades, las aspiraciones y los deseos de las personas, las familias y las comunidades donde se encuentran establecidas. La metodología utilizada parte del enfoque cualitativo, que permite comprender la dinámica en la toma de decisiones y las relaciones que entablan los directivos entre sí y con los demás asociados; la información se obtuvo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a las personas encargadas de la gestión. Los resultados muestran cómo uno de los problemas de estas organizaciones es el subdesarrollo en que se encuentra el factor gestión.This article is the result of a research carried out by some associations of small and medium agricultural producers in the southwestern Antioquia region, proposes a reflection on the management in these enterprise organizations of the agricultural sector, linked to the solidarity-based economy. The importance of these partnerships is that they work with the aim of satisfying the needs, aspirations and desires of the individuals, families and communities where are inserted. The methodology used here obeys to the qualitative approach that allows to understand the dynamics in the decision making and relationships that take place among themselves and with other partners the information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were applied to persons entrusted with the management. The results show that one of the problems of these organizations, is the underdevelopment of the management factor.

  6. 中原经济区现代都市农业发展研究%Research on the Development of Modern Urban Agriculture in Central Plains Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦普

    2015-01-01

    都市现代农业作为现代农业体系的重要组成部分,对于提升河南农业的战略性基础地位,推进中原经济区建设具有重要作用。为解决中原经济区现代都市农业发展缺乏整体布局和科学规划,存在功能定位单一,经营主体组织化程度偏低等主要问题。政府应充分发挥其宏观调控功能,提升规划水平,积极探索都市农业的发展模式,提高龙头企业和农民专业合作组织等经营主体的组织化水平,着力于中原经济区都市农业的内涵提升和整体联动发展。%As an important part of modern agricultural system ,urban modern agriculture played an important role to promote Henan agricultural strategic foundation and the construction of the central plains economic zone .In order to solve the problems such as lacking of overall layout and scientific planning ,function orienta‐tion of the single ,and low degree of organization ,in the development of modern urban agriculture in central plains economic zone ,the government should make full use of the functions of macroeconomic regulation and control ,enhance the level of planning and explore the development mode of urban agriculture ,improve organiza‐tional level of leading enterprises ,farmers'professional cooperative organizations and other operators ,focusing on the central plains economic zone the connotation of urban agriculture and the overall linkage development .

  7. Management of agricultural waste for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution: adsorption behaviors, adsorption mechanisms, environmental protection, and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhafez, S E Abd; Hamad, H A; Zaatout, A A; Malash, G F

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution. Also, the performance analysis, adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, etc. are discussed in this article. The results obtained from optimization by batch mode are achieved under the following conditions: initial concentration, 150 ppm; amount of rice husk, 1 g; average particle size, 0.25 mm; temperature, 25 °C; pH, 4; agitation rate, 180 rpm; and contact time, 60 min. RH exhibits a high degree of selectivity for Cu(II) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm is fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models with R (2) 0.998 and 0.997, respectively. The adsorption is well governed by the pseudo-second-order kinetics. It is observed that the rate of adsorption improves with decreasing temperature, and the process is exothermic and non-spontaneous. Particular attention has being paid to factors as production processes, fixed/operational cost, production cost, and profit. The techno-economical analysis is presented in this study that provides precise demands on capital for a fixed investment, provisions for operational capital, and finally provisions for revenue. The social, economical, and environmental benefits by industrial point of view using low-cost adsorbent are also

  8. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  9. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabo Chen

    Full Text Available Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Principal component analysis (PCA, Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA and Redundancy analysis (RDA were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

  10. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

  11. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  12. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  13. Agriculture for development in Iraq?: Estimating the impacts of achieving the agricultural targets of the national development plan 2013–2017 on economic growth, incomes, and gender equality:

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haboby, Azhr; Breisinger, Clemens; Debowicz, Darío; El-Hakim, Abdul Hussein; Ferguson, Jenna; van Rheenen, Teunis; Telleria, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential effects of achieving the agricultural goals set out in Iraq’s National Development Plan (NDP) 2013–2017 using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that raising agricultural productivity in accordance with the NDP may more than double average agricultural growth rates and add an average of 0.7 percent each year to economywide gross domestic product during the duration of the plan. As a consequence, the economy not only dive...

  14. Thesis in agricultural economic management professional talent training patterns of innovation and practice%探讨高职农业经济管理中专业人才培养的创新模式及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳梅

    2014-01-01

    Along with the industrialization of agriculture, rural development to speed up the pace of urbanization, the rural cooperative economy organization and agricultural development, urgently needs a large number of high-end technolo-gy of agricultural economic management talent. Higher vocational agricultural economic management professional personnel training, greatly improving the student's professional ability and professional quality, innovation and entrepreneurship abili-ty is improved obviously. Also improve the scale and quality of school education, cultivate professional talents also did good demonstration effect.%伴随农业的产业化、农村发展转变为城镇化步伐的加快,在农村合作的经济组织和农业的发展中,急切需求大量技术高端的农业经济管理人才。高职农业中经济管理的专业人才培养,大大提高了学生的专业能力及其职业素质,创新、创业的能力也明显提高。还提升了学校办学的规模和质量,培养出的专业人才还做到了较好的示范效果。

  15. Practice Mode Reform of Agriculture and Forestry Economic Management Based on The Target of Talent Education%基于人才培养目标的农林经济管理专业实习模式改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小锋; 镇玲

    2012-01-01

    In view of the higher forestry college of agriculture and forestry economic management the plight of the professional training,according to the agriculture and forestry economic management professional talent,puts forward the reform the existing economic management professional practice mode of agriculture and forestry,namely refining production internship direction,increase the laboratory simulation practice,time and number flexibility to practice,strengthen the practice teaching staff construction.%针对高等农林院校农林经济管理专业实习面临的困境,依据农林经济管理专业人才培养目标,提出改革现有农林经济管理专业实习模式,即细化生产实习方向,增加实验室模拟实习环节,灵活安排实习时间与人数,加强实践教学队伍建设。

  16. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector; Spatialisation des impacts de la regulation economique de l'effet de serre d'origine agricole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2004-02-15

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  17. 基于能值分析的宁夏农业生态经济系统可持续发展研究%Research on sustainable development of agricultural ecological economic system based on emergy analysis in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯修升; 冯骁

    2016-01-01

    Emergy analysis method provides a unified approach for the comparison and analysis of input and output of the agricultural ecological economic system, and its index system provides a quantitative method for calculating sustainable development of the agricultural ecological economic system as well. This paper calculated the emergy input of environment and resources and auxiliary energy, the emergy output, the emergy self-sufficiency ratio, the emergy investment ratio, the emergy yield ratio, the environmental loading ratio, and the emergy sustainability index of Ningxia agricultural ecological economic system. The analysis results show that the emergy input of environment and resources is too much, and Ningxia agricultural ecological economic system has high emergy self-sufficiency ratio, low emergy investment ratio, low emergy yield ratio and low environmental loading ratio which show that Ningxia’s agricultural development is still in the traditional agriculture model and it’s sustainable development index is in appropriate level.%能值分析法为如何分析和评价农业生态经济系统的投入和产出提供了统一的标准,其指标体系为农业生态经济系统可持续发展测算提供了定量方法。根据2013年数据,计算出宁夏农业生态经济系统环境资源、辅助能值等投入和能值产出,以及能值自给率、能值投资率、能值产出率、环境负载率、可持续发展指数等能值指标,分析结果表明:资源环境能值对宁夏农业生态经济系统投入较高,能值自给率高,能值投资率和能值产出率较低,农业发展还处于传统农业的经营模式;环境负载率和可持续发展指数处于比较合适的水平。

  18. 江苏高职农机专业设置与区域经济发展吻合度研究%Adaptability about Higher Professional Settings of Agricultural Machinery Major and Regional Economic in Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; 翟旭军; 王国强

    2015-01-01

    Professional settings should meet the characteristics of regional industry, offer the service to regional economy. Agricultural machinery industry in Jiangsu is located in the national front row, but agricultural machinery talent gap is very big. Through the analysis of the actual situation of the agricultural machinery industry and agricultural machinery talents resources in Jiangsu province, put forward countermeasures and suggestions of agricultural machinery professional settings to coordinate with regional economic.%专业设置要与区域产业特征相吻合,为区域经济服务。江苏的农机产业位于全国前列,农机人才的缺口非常大,通过分析江苏省农机工业发展实际情况、农机人才资源现状,进而提出农机专业设置与区域经济协调发展的对策和建议。

  19. Economic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China bounces back from several setbacks during the first half of this year to maintain its double-digit economic growth China’s economy withstood dis- ruptions to its agricultural sector caused by snow storms at the beginning of this year and the Sichuan earthquake in May and posted eco-

  20. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  1. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  2. 农业科技进步对四川省经济增长的作用分析%Analysis about the Contribution of the Agricultural Sci-ence and Technology Progress to Economic Growth of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉明; 童伟; 王烨蓉

    2015-01-01

    在四川省经济的快速发展过程中,农业科技进步对它起大了多大程度的作用?针对该问题,本文在借鉴索洛模型的基本思想的基础上,构造了包含科技进步在内的四川省经济增长模型,同时采用了增长速度法和生产函数法,计算了固定资产的投资、第一产业劳动力投入和农业科技进步对四川省经济增长的贡献率,具体分析了1978~2012年四川省农业科技发展水平对经济增长的贡献,最后根据分析结果提出了合理的决策建议。%In the rapid development of the economy in Sichuan Province, how about the contribution of the agricultural science and technology progress to its economic growth? Aiming at the problem, this paper, in reference to the idea of Solow model, con-structs Sichuan Province economic growth model, which contains the progress of science and technology. At the same time, using growth rate method and production function method, this paper calculates the contribution rates of fixed assets investment, labor input of primary industry and agricultural scientific and techno-logical progress to Sichuan Province economic growth, then ana-lyzes the contribution of Sichuan Province agriculture science and technology development level to economic growth of the years 1978 to 2012, finally, according to the results, the paper puts for-ward the reasonable suggestions for the decision.

  3. Economic Analysis on Backwardness of China' s Agricultural Insurance Development%我国农业保险发展滞后的经济学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 曹文

    2009-01-01

    The essay pointed out that the establishment of the agricultural social insurance system is an essential requirement for sustainable development. However, due to the quasi-public product attrib-utes and double externality of agricultural insurance, and in the absence of government subsidies, the emergence of a market failure, and lack of supply and demand, resulting in slow development of agri-cultural insurance in China or even a decline. The development of agricultural insurance in China is not only far behind the developed countries, even has a larger gap with India, Brazil and other devel-oping countries. We should take the following measures to improve the agricultural insurance system in China: to quicken the relevant legislation of the agricultural insurance; to increase financial sup-port of agricultural insurance; to accelerate the pace of structural reform of agricultural insurance bus-iness; to establish a sound system of agricultural insurance services; to establish an effective mecha-nism for risk diversification in agriculture.%指出建立农业保险制度是社会可持续发展的必然要求.但由于农业保险的准公共产品属性和双重外部性,在没有政府补贴的情况下,出现了市场失灵,供给和需求均不足,导致我国农业保险发展缓慢甚至萎缩.我国农业保险的发展不仅远远落后于发达国家,甚至同印度、巴西等发展中国家也有较大的差距.认为应采取以下措施完善我国农业保险制度:加快农业保险的相关立法;加大对农业保险的财政支持力度;加快农业保险经营体制改革步伐;建立健全农业保险服务体系;建立有效的农业风险分散机制.

  4. Causes of Low Agricultural Output and Impact on Socio-economic Status of Farmers: A Case Study of Rural Potohar in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesa Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture being the key sector for economy of Pakistan occupies central place. Since its inception, this sector is subsistent and facing many risks and vulnerability. Over the time due to technological gap in developing countries, they failed to develop rapid expansion and productivity in this sector. The present study is a qualitative analysis conducted to explore the causes of low productivity in agriculture sector, and finding its impacts on the socioeconomic status of farmer. The study conducted a questionnaire survey for the rural farmers residing in Potohar region. A sample of 100 respondents has been chosen, and analysis is carried out by using SPSS software. The study concluded that the higher growth rate for the agriculture sector is very important for a fast overall improvement of the economy, macroeconomic constancy, employment generation, and decrease in rural poverty.

  5. The Economic Growth Effect of Labor Input in China's Agricultural Sector%我国农业部门劳动力投入的经济增长效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 夏海勇

    2012-01-01

    Under the frame of effect of agricultural labor input To avoid the omitted-variable agricultural production function, this paper looks into the growth using the Chinese provincial panel data between 1995 and 2009. bias resulted from ecological fallacy, the changes of natural conditions are accommodated into the production function in accordance with the features of primary industry. It is shown in the empirical result that the agricultural labor input is not significantly related to economic growth as a whole. However, some new trend could be seen from the relationship between agricultural labor input and growth in recent years. Since the Lewis Turning Point is looming upon, the scarcity and marginal product value of labor appears, thus showing its economic growth effect.%本文在农业生产函数的框架下,利用1995~2009年间中国省际面板数据研究了我国农业部门劳动力投入的经济增长效应。为避免生态学谬误导致的忽略变量偏误,本文根据第一产业的特征把自然条件纳入了生产函数分析框架中。研究结果表明,整体而言,我国农业劳动力对经济增长的贡献率并不显著;近年来,农业劳动力投入与经济增长的关系呈现新的趋势,由于"刘易斯拐点"的逐步呈现,劳动力逐渐体现出生产要素所固有的稀缺性和边际产出价值,农业劳动力对经济增长的贡献开始凸显。

  6. Profitability Analysis for Agricultural Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture production is based on a process both economically as well as the biological one, the work results are influenced, more than any branch of economic, natural and climatic conditions are subject to higher risk and permanently. Due to the features of production in agriculture, we believe that it is necessary such as performance agricultural units to be assessed under a system of specific indicators. The correct assessment units are closely related agricultural economic-financial investment in agriculture. In the following we present and analyze a complex system of specific performance indicators of the extremely for assessing agricultural units.

  7. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构与绩效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开红

    2012-01-01

    基于对三峡库区100家农业合作经济组织的问卷调查结果,以结构方程模型为分析工具,对农业合作经济组织的治理结构与绩效进行了实证分析.结果表明,股权结构对于合作组织的绩效有着最关键的影响,系数高达0.92;监督机制和理事套结构对于合作组织来说重要程度相当,影响系数分别为0.87和0.86,仅次于股权结构;成员的退出能力大小对于组织的绩效也有相当重要的影响,系数为0.74.由此指出了当前三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构中存在的影响其组织绩效的问题,并提出了相应的解决对策.%On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area .this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organisations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations.and the impact coefficient is 0. 87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members' quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations, with impact coefficient of 0. 74. Thus, the problems influencing the performance of organizations, in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Are, are pointed out. Finally, corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Thus pointed out that the current governance structure of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of agricultural cooperative economic organizations affect the organizational performance issues and .

  8. Study on Agricultural Economics Integration between Fujian and Taiwan in the post-ECFA Era%后ECFA时代闽台农业经济一体化战略的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翊; 周江梅; 蔡紫燕

    2012-01-01

    在当今区域经济一体化加速发展的新形势下,促进闽台农业经济一体化的实现,具有十分重要的意义。ECFA实施催化区域经济整合,促使两岸农业深入合作,其中闽台农业合作加速明显。福建现代农业转型和台湾农业经济纾困,将后ECFA时代闽台农业经济一体化的构想提上了战略高度。闽台农业经济一体化的战略规划根源于闽台农业间存在的要素互补性、产业梯度性、共同市场溢出效应,以及制度对共同利益的诉求,因此战略规划具体集中体现于资源配置一体化、产业发展一体化、产品市场一体化及政策制度一体化。%Nowadays,promoting economic integration between Fujian and Taiwan has fundamental significance in the new situation of regional economy integration.Under the implementation of ECFA,regional economic had integrated,the cooperation of agriculture on both sides was enhanced,especially the agriculture cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan was accelerated obviously.The idea on agricultural economics integration between Fujian and Taiwan in the post-ECFA Era was put on the strategic height.The strategic planning of agricultural economics integration between Fujian and Taiwan was rooted in the elements complementarity,the industry gradient,the spillover effects of Common Market and the demand of the system for common interest,so the strategic planning was specifically reflected in the allocation of resources integration,industry development integration,product marketing integration and policy system integration.

  9. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  10. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  11. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  12. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  13. 江西省农业生态经济系统能值分析%Emergy Analysis of Agricultural Eco-economic Systems in Jiangxi Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟程; 徐水太

    2009-01-01

    应用H.T. Odum 的能值分析理论方法,对江西省农业生态经济系统的能值流进行了分析.结果表明,2005年能值投入量为4.46×10~(22)sej,能值产出量为6.21×10~(22)sej,净能值产出率为1.00,环境负载率为0.61,可持续发展指数为1.63.江西农业处于传统农业向现代农业转变的转型期.为了促进江西农业的可持续发展,应加强系统的能值投入和农业基础设施的建设,增大农业的科学技术研究和推广力度,优化系统的能值投入结构,调整农业产业结构.%Based on the theory of emergy analysis created by H. T. Odum .the emergy flow of agricultural eco-economic systems in Jiangxi Province was quantitatively investigated. The results indicate that the solar emergy input,the solar emergy output,the net emergy output ratio,the environment loading ratio and the sustainability index in 2005 were 4.46×10~(22) sej,6.21×10~(22) sej.1.00,0.61 and 1.63,respectively. Jiangxi is now in the stage of transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jiangxi ,it was suggested that the emergy input and infrastructure construction of agriculture should be reinforced,which needed to increase the investment in agricultural science and technology,optimize the structure of the emergy input in the Eco-economie system and adjust the agricultural structure.

  14. Agriculture and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  15. Assessment the Socio-economic Factors Affecting Rural Youth Attitude to Occupation in Agricultural (Case of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer- Ahmad Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mosaee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in this causal-correlation field researchwas to identify effective factors on rural youth's attitudetowards agricultural occupation, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-AhmadProvince, Iran. Rural youth 15-25 years old in Kohgiluyeh andBoyer- Ahmad province were the population of this study.The technique of sampling was cluster sampling. The techniqueof data collection is questionnaire. The panel of experts wasused to validity of the questionnaire. Corenbach Alpha wasused to gain assurance of the reliability of the questionnaire(α=0.79. The results of multivariate regression indicate thevariables of type of farming system, rate of relation to organizations,participation in extension and education courses, insurance, age and income have the main role in showing the variationsof attitude to agricultural occupation.

  16. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF LIBERALIZATION OF THE WORLD AGRICULTURAL TRADE FOR THE AGRI-FOOD SECTOR OF ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The state of agri-food trade in two selected trade blocs from the African region was presented in the paper. Moreover, the possibilities of development of trade, production, demand and prices in agri-food sector of ECOWAS countries in view of changes caused by further liberalization of the world agricultural trade were discussed. A general equilibrium model Global Trade Analysis Project was used in the research to make the projections. The results of the analysis showed that a greater degree of liberalization of the world agricultural trade could cause an increase in the value of export and import of certain plant origin products, as well as may contribute to the decline in production and prices for these products. 

  17. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  18. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  19. 农地融资的法律经济学分析%An Analysis of Agricultural Land Financing from the Perspective of Economics of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祖林

    2011-01-01

    In China,there are serious institutional obstacles and transaction restraints in agricultural land financing.The key to removing these obstacles is to expand the circulation field of rights and interests of agricultural land and open up new financing channels of securitization and mortgage markets.Effective methods of market cultivation include innovating the rural financial system,establishing an agricultural risk dispersive mechanism combing commercial insurance,policy insurance and risk protection,and intensifying the financial and tax policy support.%农地融资在中国存在严重的制度障碍和交易抑制。拓展农地权益流转领域、开创农地权益证券化融资和质押市场,是破解其制度障碍的关键。创新农村金融体制,建立商业保险、政策保险和风险保障三位一体的农业风险分散机制,并加大对农地融资的财政与税收政策扶持,则是农地融资市场培育的有效方法。

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES AND HAY HARVESTING IN ECONOMIC LIFE OF TRANSBAIKAL REGION INDIGENOUS POPULATION IN LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury B. Sandanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issues of farm business transformation of Transbaikal farmers in late XIX – early XX century under the influence of capitalism growth. The agrarian history in Transbaikal region is of vital importance due to the overwhelming majority of rural population for the period under review. The author points out the key transformations of Russian and Buryat farmers of Transbaikal region resulted from transition to capitalist production relations. The facts and data of market and goods/money relationships of Buryat farmers are firstly introduced for scientific use. The role of Buryat settlements (uluses in developing market channels for agricultural products and hired agricultural labor forces are analyzed. The author conclusively proves the increase in capacity of agricultural industries and handicrafts among rural inhabitants based on the preceding scientists’ papers, making use of existing historical literature on the subject matter and appealing to a wide variety of published and unpublished papers. Some data about development of forest industries, cropping, hunting and fishing among indigenous population are of great interest as being the only thing for their livelihood. Moreover, it becomes possible to evaluate the degree of capitalist relations among Evenks farmers based on the survey of archival materials, the greater part of which are firstly introduced for scientific use. 

  1. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...... are particularly compelling when combined with marketing system improvements. Moreover, technological change in cassava appears to be a particularly strong lever for increasing female and overall household welfare, especially when risk is considered....

  2. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  3. Performance of Microfinance Institutions in The Economic Empowerment of Women in Rural Are: Comparative Study in The Fisher, Agriculture, and Industrial Community in Tangerang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhaer Pakkana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discover the performance of the financial independence, the members’ welfare, and accessibility of microfinance institutions to the rural areas in the Tangerang District. To measure the financial dependence is using financial ratios. Measuring levels of performance of the members’ welfare and accessibility using Chi-Square. The results found that, first, the level of welfare of members. The coastal areas have a higher loan value than other regions. Expenditure and income of members, industrial areas have high levels of spending and revenues higher than other regions. The performance of a range to members based on a group basis. Second, the performance of financial independence, categorized as "Healthy". The coastal area is 86.40, the area around the industrial area is 85.71 and agricultural area is 83,73. Third, the level of non-performing loans, the coastal area is 0.03, the industrial area is 0,26, and the agricultural area is 0.19.DOI:  10.15408/sjie.v6i1.4637 

  4. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  5. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  6. Development of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations: A New Review under New Classical Frameworks%农业合作经济组织发展:新兴古典框架下的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉凯; 张柏杨

    2011-01-01

    在新兴古典框架下,刻画农业合作经济组织的专业化分工经济模型,运用超边际分析方法,探讨了农业合作经济组织的内在演化机制.以湖北宜昌柑橘业合作经济组织实际发展为例,运用数据进行了相关检验.数理分析结果表明:农业合作经济组织所在区域的交易条件、生产专业化程度、交易效率与农民收入程度成正相关,着手改善经济环境,才能为合作经济组的继续发展提供动力.%Under new classical frameworks, the text has portrayed the division of economy originating in specialization of cooperative organization, and inframarginal analysis method was used to discuss the internal evolution mechanism of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. Taking the case of the actual development of Yichang citriculture cooperative economic organization, correlation test was carried out by using data. Mathematical analysis results indicated that the trading conditions, the specialization of production and trading efficiency are in positive correlation with farmers' income. Therefore, the improvement of the economic environment can provide powder for the further development of cooperative economic organization.

  7. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  8. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  9. 农林经济管理专业新型实践教学模式构建%Construction of New Social Practice Teaching Mode for Agricultural Economics and Management Specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕红霞; 薛兴利; 厉昌习

    2012-01-01

    农经专业现行实践教学存在实践能力内生性强、专业知识转化差,专业知识与服务"三农"缺少有效衔接等不足。根据农林经济管理专业特点、实践阶段和学生需求,构建的三种新型实践教学运行模式,即就近选点的实践基地模式、优化项目的实验室模式和灵活多元的毕业实习模式,可以促使学生将专业知识转化为能力,实现学以致用的目的。%The current practice teaching of agricultural economics and management specialty has many defects such as the strong endogenesis in practical abilities, the poor transformation of professional knowledge, the lacking of effective connection between professional knowledge and serving "three agricultures" and so on. The article designed three new types of practice teaching modes according to the characteristics of agricultural economics and management specialty, practice teaching and needs of students. The new modes are the nearest-selected practice base mode, the optimization project laboratory mode and the flexible and plural graduation practice mode, which can help students to transform professional knowledge into the ability so as to learn to meet the needs in future practical situations.

  10. 鄱阳湖生态经济区农业优势产业布局研究%Distribution of Agricultural Advantage Industries in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧一智; 张飞

    2011-01-01

    Poyang lake ecological economic zone (PLEEZ) is the most important agricultural production area in Jiangxi province. Analyzing the advantages of regional agriculture will provide reference for policy making in developing effective ecological agriculture in this area, An analysis of agriculture, crop production, animal production and fishing industries in PLEEZ by using LQ reveals that its crop production, animal husbandry and fishery enjoy comparative advantages in the whole province; except in Nanchang, Jiujiang, and Yingtan, the agriculture of most counties boasts comparative advantage in the whole province. Moreover, within PLEEZ, the advantage industries in the counties are also revealed in the analysis. Based on the result of LQ and combining the agricultural industry basis and development situation of this area, we come up with a distribution of agricultural advantage industries in PLEEZ, namely, crop production ( including high - quality crop, oil-bearing crop, cotton and vegetable production base ), forestry ( including fruit and tea leaf production base), animal production (swine, beef cattle and water fowl production base), and fishery. Finally, some countermeasures are given.%鄱阳湖生态经济区是江西省最重要的农产品产区,分析区域农业产业优势可为鄱阳湖生态经济区区域农业产业结构调整和相关政策制定提供参考。利用区位法(LQ)对鄱阳湖生态经济区农业及内部各行业(种植业、牧业、林业和渔业)进行分析,结果表明,鄱阳湖生态经济区种植业、牧业、渔业在全省范围内具有比较优势,除南昌、九江、鹰潭3个市区外,大部分县(市、区)的农业在全省范围内具有比较优势;以鄱阳湖生态经济区为背景区域,通过区位商比较阐明了鄱阳湖生态经济区各个县(市、区)农业优势所在。根据农业区位商的结果,结合鄱阳湖生态经济区区域农业产业基

  11. Resilience and adaptations of rural communities and agricultural land use in the tropical Andes: Coping with environmental and socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadel, Ch.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a long settlement history of the tropical Andes, rural farming communities have always been exposed to conditions of ecological and economic vulnerability, risks, and even disasters. This has resulted, at certain times and in some regions, to a destabilization of livelihoods and to a manifestation of various forms of marginalization, to poverty or outmigration. However, Andean communities , over a long time, have given admirable testimonies of resilience and adaptations in the face of adverse conditions or new challenges. This paper examines the potentials and different facets of resilience and adaptation strategies of the rural campesinado in the tropical Andes. It emphasizes the proven traditional concepts of verticality, complementarity, reciprocity, and mutual community support, which to date support the feasibility and sustainability of Andean farming and community survival. In spite of this recognition, it is argued that Andean rural livelihoods always had to adapt to new developments, to threats and challenges, as well as to opportunities and alternative potentials. In the face of an almost ubiquitous penetration of modernization, new technologies, and economic and cultural globalization, the fundamental question arises, whether this can be considered as a path to progress and development, or as a threat to the survival of small-scale farming and rural community living. The paper concludes by formulating, albeit in a tentative form, some general suggestions for ‘development’ approaches and for research priorities in the rural Andes.

    A pesar de una tradición muy extensa del asentamiento humano en los Andes tropicales, las comunidades campesinas siempre enfrentaron condiciones de vulnerabilidad ecológica y económica, con varios riesgos, y aun desastres. Eso ha resultado, en diversos tiempos y en algunas regiones, en una estabilización de la superviviencia humana y en varias manifestaciones de marginalización, de

  12. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  13. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  14. STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SYSTEM IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Tushar

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual theory of agriculture marketing encompasses the fields of operations, marketing and agricultural economics. It provides an array of options to explore the linkages between the producers, traders and buyers of the markets. As efficient, integrated, and responsive marketing systems form the core of economic development, it is of critical importance for optimal use of resources and to stimulate farmers to increase their output. The approaches used for studying the agricultural ...

  15. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  16. 新疆农业经济增长方式转变实现度变化与可持续发展%Transformation Degree of Agricultural Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊黑钢; 李新萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper selected productivity, modernization, and material input, structure configuration, management, ecological environment and water level as stair indexes, together with 14 secondary indexes constituted index system for evaluating transformation mode of agricultural economic growth in Xinjiang. Achieving degrees were obtained through the calculation of the achieving degree's equation. Based on the average annual growth rate (from 1991 to 2001) in achieving degree,prefectures were divided into five categories of fast-growth,faster- growth,steady-growth, slower growth and slow growth. As a whole, the transformation of agricultural economic growth mode is quite slow in Xinjiang. Aimed at achieving different types of each prefecture, we came up with their corresponding strategy and countermeasures for the sustainable development.%选取了生产率、现代化程度、物质投入、结构配置、经营方式、生态环境和水资源利用7个一级指标14个二级子指标构成了新疆农业经济增长方式转变实现度评价的指标体系.通过实现度方程计算出各地州市的实现度.依据各地州的1991到2001年10a实现度的年均增长率将其分为5种类型:增长极快型、增长较快型、增长平稳型、增长较慢型、增长极慢型.总体上新疆农业经济增长方式转变较慢.针对各地州市实现度增长的不同类型,提出了其各自可持续发展的农业经济增长方式转变策略、时策.图2,表4,参21.

  17. 一个改进的农业生产函数模型:兼论遗传资源对江苏省农业经济增长的贡献%An Improved Agricultural Production Function Model and Contribution Analyses of Genetic Resources to Agri- cultural Economic Growth in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江月; 濮励杰; 朱明; 戴小清; 陈新建; 韩明芳

    2014-01-01

    遗传资源是农业生产中重要的投入要素,通过将遗传资源投入纳入C-D生产函数模型,并对2001—2007年江苏省农业生产经济数据进行分析,计算江苏省遗传资源及其他生产要素对农业经济增长的贡献率。结果表明,江苏省农业经济增长主要依赖于动物遗传资源投入和科技进步。与固定资产和劳动力投入要素相比,遗传资源对农业经济增长的整体贡献明显,其中动物遗传资源的贡献高于植物遗传资源。因此,江苏省应优化农业结构,提高遗传资源利用率,加大科技投入,推进农业现代化建设。%Genetic resource is an important input factor in agricultural production. Usually contributions of production fac⁃tors such as labor, fixed assets and technology to agricultural economic growth were calculated using the C⁃D production function model. While in this study, the concept of genetic resources was firstly introduced into the model to evaluate con⁃tributions of the factors to agricultural economic growth. For that end, Jiangsu Province was cited as a case for study. Cal⁃culation of contributions of genetic resources and other production factors to agricultural economic growth was done based on the data of agricultural production in Jiangsu Province from 2001 to 2007. Results show that agricultural economic growth in Jiangsu Province depends mainly on input of animal genetic resources and technological innovation. Although the contribution of technological innovation to agricultural economic growth in Jiangsu Province is high, while that of genetic resources is also significant. Meanwhile, the contribution of animal genetic resources is larger than that of plant genetic re⁃sources. Therefore, Jiangsu Province should optimize its agricultural structure, improve its utilization of genetic resources, and increase its sci⁃tech input so as to promote the construction of its modern agriculture.

  18. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  19. 对农业科研单位经济实体利润考核的探讨%DISCUSSION ON THE PROFIT ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC ENTITY IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金妍萍; 蔡鹭茵; 夏海英

    2011-01-01

    该文针对部分农业科研单位经济实体业绩考核中仅以净利润作为业绩考核指标的方式作了一些探讨,提出综合考虑利润质量、利润来源等因素,对净利润作适当调整,以考核利润作为业绩考核的依据,引导经营者重长远、重质量、重现金流。%This paper discussed the net profit as the only index for the performance evaluation of economic entity in part of agricultural scientific research institute,and put forward the needs for adjusting the net profit with comprehensively consideration profit quality,profit source and other factors,to guide operators to pay attention to long-term,quality,and cash flow.

  20. Research on Influence Factorson Graduation Thesis Quality in Economics and Management Major of Agricultural Universities%农业院校经管类本科生毕业论文质量影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕德宏; 刘俊; 包赫囡

    2016-01-01

    According to the course scores of 302 college graduates in economics and management majors of agricultural universities, this paper used factor analysis theory and software SPSS19. 0 Effect to find out the influ-ence factors on graduation thesis quality. The result showed that theoretical knowledge, knowledge application and innovation quality are the three common influence factors though with different degrees. Based on the result, this paper came up with some suggestions on thesis quality improvement: paying more attention to theoretical knowledge education and giving consideration to application and innovation education, optimizing syllabus design and expanding practice teaching links.%依据302名农业院校经管类本科毕业生的学业成绩,利用因子分析方法和SPSS19.0的效应分析,对本科生毕业论文质量影响因素进行分析。研究认为,理论知识、知识应用以及创新素质是影响本科生毕业论质量的三个公共因子,但影响程度各不相同,据此提出应重视理论知识和应用创新教育、优化课程安排和拓宽实践环节等对策建议。

  1. 现代农业经济学学科演变与前沿问题--基于教材建设视角%Evolution and Cutting-Edge Questions of Modern Agricultural Economics Discipline---Discussion on Teaching Material Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅鹏; 吕明; 尹宁

    2014-01-01

    农业经济学教材是农业经济人才培养和学科体系建设的重要组成部分。分析农业经济学的形成及演进趋势,主要有从农场、庄园管理起源到重农思想演进、从唯苏教条到马克思主义中国化,以及吸收国外有益成果到自成体系几条路径和向资源经济学、区域经济学等方向演进的趋势。探讨国内已有的农业经济学教材,有生产力和生产关系研究体系的、有经济管理体系的、也有三农研究混合体系的,可以说各有千秋和特色。笔者认为,从农业经济学的起源、发展和学理出发,借鉴现有各种版本教材的体系和特色,一本真正能反映农业经济系统专门知识的现代农业经济学教材,应该主要设立农业现代化的组织与现状、农业生产资源要素、农产品市场供求与调节及消费、农业生产宏观环境和宏观调控四个部分,力求沿着农产品产业链体系,从农业生产的发生、发展到产品的流通消费全过程来研究农业经济问题。%Teaching materials for the course of Agricultural Economics is an important component of talent training and discipline system construction .The formation and evolution trends of Agricultural Economics are analyzed , which begins from the management of farms and manors , and goes on to discuss the emphasis on farming,the transformation from the dogma of following only Soviet to the sinicization of Marxism ,and the de-velopment from absorbing beneficial foreign achievements to several routes of establishing its own system , as well as the tendency towards Resource Economics and Regional Economics .Each of the domestic teaching ma-terials of agricultural economics has its own merits and characteristics .The concern covers the research system of productivity and relations of production ,the system of economic management and the mixed system of resear-ches on “Three Agriculture”.With the reference ,we will

  2. 75 FR 25199 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... One Washington Circle Hotel, 1 Washington Circle, NW., Washington, DC 20037. You may submit comments...; (E) Agriculture systems and technology; and (F) Agriculture economics and rural communities. To...

  3. Ethiopian Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ethiopia is the third populous country in Africa. The 17 years of military government (Derg) period 1974-1991 witnessed a centralized economic system and the post-Derg reform has taken the way of market-oriented system for 10 years. Economic and social achievements are observed in Ethiopia during the reform period.

  4. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  5. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry: Economic Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Economists are rarely brought into the interdisciplinary research until the biophysical scientists have developed their models, made their measurements or completed their research task. The research economist is then brought in to do what amounts to a consulting task – provide some numbers that indi

  6. 基于农村信用体系建设的涉农经济组织和农户信用提升研究%Research on Agriculture Economic Organizations and Farmers Credit Enhancement Based on the Construction of Rural Credit System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕罡; 王静; 周宗放; 李丽

    2012-01-01

    我国涉农经济组织和农户的信用存在一些难以规避的缺陷,导致农业贷款难的困境。本文从涉农经济组织和农户信用道德建设,信用制度与法律建设,产权制度,信用环境,信用标准及信用等级评定,信用组织创新,征信和信用担保中介服务市场,农村信用管理等八个方面阐述了农村信用体系建设的基本思路,并讨论了涉农经济组织和农户的信用提升问题。%Agriculture economic organizations and farmers credit in China has some unavoidable defects that lead to the plight of agricultural loans difficult.This paper specifically elaborated the essential train for the rural credit system construction from eight aspects.They are agriculture economic organizations and farmers' moral construction,credit system and legal construction,property right,credit environment,credit standards and rating,credit organization innovation,credit and credit guarantee intermediary services market,and rural credit management.Furthermore,it also discussed agriculture economic organizations and farmers credit enhancement.

  7. Precision agriculture '09 : papers presented at the 7th European conference on precision agriculture, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Goense, D.; Lokhorst, C.

    2009-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is becoming ever more relevant as the agricultural industry struggles to come to terms with the environment, economics, traceability, vehicle guidance and crop management. Whilst some benefits have proved elusive, others contribute positively to today's agriculture. Research co

  8. 7 CFR 2.68 - Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2.68 Section 2.68 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.68 Administrator, National...

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  10. 技术进步方向、资本-劳动替代弹性对中国农业经济增长的影响%The Impact of the Direction of Technological Progress, the Substitution Elasticity between Capital and Labor on the Growth of Agricultural Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岳平; 钟世川

    2016-01-01

    本文从理论上分析了资本-劳动替代弹性和技术进步方向对农业经济增长的影响,估算了28个省份1978-2013年要素替代弹性和技术进步偏向指数。研究结果显示,要素替代弹性大于1,技术进步主要偏向于资本;要素替代弹性和技术进步偏向指数与农业经济增长率呈正相关关系,即要素替代弹性促进农业经济增长,在要素替代弹性大于1的情况下,技术进步偏向资本促进农业经济增长。%This paper theoretically discusses the influence of capital-labor substitution elasticity and biased technological progress on agricultural economic growth and the results from the estimate of the factor substitution elasticity and biased techno-logical progress index of 28 provinces in 1978-2013 show that the value of the factor substitution elasticity is more than 1, and the technological progress mainly favor capital. The results from using the panel data model to test the effect of factor sub-stitution elasticity and biased technological progress on agricultural economic growth show that Capital-labor substitution elas-ticity and biased technological progress index have a positive correlation with the agricultural economic growth rate, that is, they can promote the agricultural economic growth. The result is consistent with the theory that the elasticity of factor substitu-tion can promote agricultural economic growth, and the capital biased technological progress tends to promote agricultural eco-nomic growth when the factor substitution elasticity is greater than 1.

  11. Agricultural lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  12. Emergy Evaluations of Denmark and Danish Agriculture Assessing the Limits of Agricultural Systems to Power Society

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    As the process of industrialization has run its course over the twentieth century, the relative importance of agriculture as an economic activity and a means of cultural sustenance for nations has declined dramatically. In this thesis, a historical ecological-economic perspective offers insights into both the causes and effects of Danish agriculture's decline in economic importance relative to the economy of Denmark as a whole. Emergy evaluations were made of the national economy and agricult...

  13. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  14. 黄土丘陵区山地立体种养循环生产能流特征与经济效益分析%Analysis of economic efficiency and energy flow characteristics of a circular and integrated agriculture model in the Loess hilly region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰; 吴发启; 彭小瑜; 佟小刚

    2016-01-01

    为揭示陕北黄土丘陵区典型循环农业生产模式的功能和效益,研究以宜君县山地立体种养结合循环生产模式为例,分析了该循环生产模式的能量流动和经济效益特征。结果表明:山地立体种养结合模式的有机能/无机能比达到46.2,是传统种植模式的92倍;种养结合模式和传统模式的能流密度分别为19.7,7.0 MJ/(m2·a)。种养结合模式的系统内依存度为37.4%,远高于传统模式,显示出较强的系统自我维持能力和稳定性。种养结合模式的能量产投比为1.07,略小于传统模式的1.14,但其成本利润率、年均收益率和经济产投比分别达到137.6%、4.6%和2.4,均高于传统模式的81%、2.7%和1.8;种养结合模式和传统模式的投资回收期分别为4年和7年。综上,山地立体种养结合模式能够有效地利用系统废弃物,提高能量利用效率,表现出良好的经济效益和较强的抵抗经济风险的能力,在该丘陵区具有良好的推广价值。%As the foundation of the national economy industry, agriculture is facing the increasingly prominent resource constraints and environmental problems. At present, the development of agriculture in China has been mainly based on an extensive predatory mode of operation with one-way flow of resources, agricultural products, and wastes. Conventional production systems are characterized by high resource consumption, low material and energy utilization rates, and considerable pollutant emissions. Due to excess input of pesticides, fertilizers, and energy and food safety issues, the conventional production model has resulted in the exhaustion of agricultural resources such as water, land, and energy, destroying the eco-environment. While circular agriculture is a kind of new mode of agricultural development with the features of environmental friendly, economical and feasible. The use of ecological recycling in agriculture has been widely

  15. 鄱阳湖生态经济区农业龙头企业带动农户能力分析——基于105家农业龙头企业的调研%Analysis of Farmer-driving Ability of Leading Agricultural Enterprises in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Region——Based on A Survey of 105 Leading Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 翁贞林; 张月水

    2012-01-01

    以鄱阳湖生态经济区南昌县等7县(市)的农业龙头企业调研数据为依据,在分析农业龙头企业带动农户情况的基础上,运用SPSS软件对农业龙头企业带动农户能力进行了主成分分析.研究结果表明影响鄱阳湖生态经济区农业龙头企业带动农户能力的主要因素是:资金扶持、社会保障、优惠服务(种苗、技术、信息)方面、价格扶持、农户月薪.根据这一研究结论提出了相应的政策建议.%Based on the questionnaire investigation data from the leading agricultural enterprises in seven counties (cities) in the Poyang Lake Eco -economic Region, and on the basis of the farmer -driving situation of leading agricultural enterprises, this study analyzed the farmer - driving ability of leading agricultural enterprises by principal component factor analysis with SPSS software. The results were obtained as follows: capital support, social security, preferential service (seed and seedling, technology, and information) , price support, and farmers salary were the main factors affecting the farmer -driving ability of leading agricultural enterprises in the Poyang Lake Eco - economic Region. According to the above results, the corresponding policy recommendations were put forward.

  16. Consultancy Services in Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Žimbrek

    1997-12-01

    Meetings, lectures, practical demonstration of technology, mass media and introduction of computer technology are important aids which should be further developed as well as bigger financial aid for these purposes. Those depend on better future economic position of the agriculture and the economy in a whole.

  17. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  18. International Experience Comparison and Reference on College Service to Agricultural Development and Rural Economic Construction%高校服务农业发展和农村经济建设的国际经验比较与借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸿雁; 郭翔宇

    2012-01-01

    针对处于农业发展和农村经济建设不同阶段和水平的美国和日本,结合自身发展特点,找出不同国家高校为农业发展提供服务的共同特征,从中得到我国农业高校服务新农村建设的启示。%According to agriculture development and rural economic development of the different stages and levels in American and Japanese,combined with its own features,the common features of service that the different university provided for agricultural development were found out,the solution to agricultural university service to the construction of new countryside was obtained.

  19. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  20. Cyanobacteria: an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, N.K.; Rai, A.K.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the st

  1. Coping with crisis risk in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the major findings of an international workshop on coping with crisis risk in European agriculture. The workshop took place as part of an EU sixth framework project entitled: Income stabilisation: Design and economic impact of risk management tools for European agriculture. T

  2. Global climate change and US agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  3. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong; JIN

    2013-01-01

    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.

  4. Tendencies in financing the agricultural and food sector under the common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brzozowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland, having joined the EU, became subject to regulations that significantly changed the conditions under which its food industry functioned. As markets opened up to each other, the possibilities of sale increased and competitiveness of economic entities improved. Mobilised public funds contributed, among other things, to modernisation of agricultural holdings and food industry enterprises, improvement of their competitiveness, construction of the infrastructure and multifunctional development of rural areas. The paper discusses tendencies in financing agriculture under the Common Agricultural Policy in Poland against the production and economic situation of the agricultural and food sector.

  5. Climate change and drought risks for agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.; Put, M.; Zaal, F.; Keulen, van H.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in rainfall patterns and risk of crop failure are discussed in this chapter. Agriculture is by far the most important economic activity in the region. The success of this economic activity relies heavily on water availability during the growing season. For rainfed production systems timing a

  6. Farm multifunctional diversification and agricultural landscape trasformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Chiodo

    Full Text Available The work aims to analyze changes in agricultural landscape linked to transformations in agricultural productive system. The territory for analysis is situated along the “internal Marche ridge” of the Apennines, in the province of Ancona (Marche region, partly included in the Regional Natural Park “Gola della Rossa e Frassassi”. The work aims at elaborating an investigative methodology which can highlight the transformation of territorial structures and the dynamics that influence management of the territory and landscape in order to provide operative instructions for an integrated elaboration of instruments for urban planning and economic programming, specially for agricultural policies. Multi-functionality and diversification in agriculture are the instruments that can help agriculture to improve the economic value of products and at the same time to improve the quality of territory and landscape.

  7. Quantum Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  8. Agricultural Targeted,Land Tenure Change and Tools of Using Right Transfer——Review on the Development of Modern Agriculture by Land Transfer under the New Economic Normal Status%农业发展的目标性、制度变迁的规范性与农地流转的工具性 ——对经济新常态下农地流转与现代农业发展的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良悦

    2016-01-01

    中国的农地流转经历了一个逐步探索和认识的过程,先后经历了政策外的允许,到农业生产经营过程中的困惑与探索,再到对土地流转的规范与引导,直至形成现代农业发展与生产方式转变的基本路径这样一个过程.与此相对应,农地制度也发生了家庭承包责任制、土地承包经营权(平分地权)、新型农业经营体系构建三次质的变迁.所以,对土地流转的认识必须与农地制度的变迁结合起来,才能准确理解其内涵和把握其实质.农地流转是一个政策工具,现代农业发展是其根本目标,农地制度的变迁是一种规范化的要求.经济新常态是我国经济发展过程中的战略性调整,为现代农业发展提供了机遇与环境.现代农业发展的基本内容是新型农业经营体系的构建,以及在此基础上的新产业、新业态和新模式,这一目标的实现需要在农地制度变迁规范约束下的土地流转.%China''s agricultural land using transfer has gone through a gradual process of exploring, which it has been permited by policy, puzzled in running and guided by regulated, and now was as a basic path of modern agriculture development. Correspondingly, the agricultural land tenure has also undergone three reform, that is a household contract responsibility system, land contract and management rights, building new agricultural management system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the meaning accurately and essentially that makes the land using right transfer combined with the changes of farmland system. The paper argued that the agricultural land using right transfer is a policy tool, modern agriculture development is the fundamental goal,and changes in agricultural land system is a standardized requirements. The new economy normal status is a course of our country''s economic development strategic adjustment, which provide opportunities for the development of modern agriculture and the

  9. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  10. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  11. 农业经济转型背景下复合型农经人才培养探讨——基于职业能力的视角%Research on the Cultivation of Compound Talents in Agricultural Economics under the Transformation of Agricultural Economy Based on the Perspective of Professional Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王夷平; 许春艳; 王桂霞

    2015-01-01

    农业经济管理学科人才培养中存在着非农化趋势、专业狭窄等问题,导致培养的农业经济管理人才的职业能力与现代农业职业岗位需要不适应.应对农业经济转型与农业经济管理学科创新发展要求,农业经济管理专业人才培养模式改革需要积聚高校各学科综合优势,并以优质交叉学科资源创建复合型人才培养平台,塑造和培养复合型职业技能人才,以实现农业经济管理学科人才职业能力与职业岗位的直接对接.%The existing problems, like non-agriculturalization trend and narrow specialties in the talents cultivating of discipline of Agricultural Economy Management, resulted in the non-adaptability between professional ability of the talents of Agricultural Economy Management and the vocational post requirements of modern agriculture. Dealing with the requirements of the transformation of agricultural economy and the innovation and development of discipline of Agricultural Economy Management, reforming traditional mode of talent cultivating of discipline of Agricultural Economy Management needs to aggregate the comprehensive advantages of every discipline, construct a platform for cultivating compound talents with high-quality interdisciplinary resources, shape and cultivate compound talents with vocational skills, in order to realize the direct connection between the vocational ability and the vocational posts under the discipline of Agricultural Economy Management.

  12. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  13. Economic analysis of agricultural enterprises in Turkey according to their level of success Análise econômica de empresas agrícolas na Turquia de acordo com seu nível de sucesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kizilaslan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, agricultural enterprises in Turhal, Tokat were grouped based on their degree of success, their structural characteristics have been identified and their outcomes of activities discussed. The objective of the study was to determine the aspects that render successful agricultural enterprises different from other agricultural enterprises. The point to be achieved through the study is to assist agricultural enterprises with a more effective utilization of existing means in order to help them to develop. Data has been collected from 71 agricultural enterprises, which have been determined by Neyman's Method that is a stratified sampling method, via questionnaires. The Criterion of Agricultural Income Per Enterprise Land Decar has been applied for the classification of the enterprises according to their level of success. When the agricultural income was sufficiently examined in the enterprises, moderate successful and unsuccessful enterprises cannot obtain agricultural income to meet family labor force cost. Their agricultural level is quite below the sum of the family labour wage equivalent and the real interest of the equivalent capital. Therefore, the agricultural income of the examined enterprises is considered insufficient. The rate of the net product to the active capital is 3.45% in successful enterprises, 0.57% in those with moderate success, and for the unsuccessful ones, it has a negative value of -2.22%. This ratio for successful enterprises is close to 5%. Accordingly, the successful enterprises work more efficiently in comparison to the other enterprise groups.Neste estudo, empresas agrícolas de Turhal, Tokat foram agrupadas com base em seu grau de sucesso, suas características foram identificadas e seus resultados de atividades discutidos. O objetivo do estudo é determinar os aspectos que diferenciam empresas agrícolas de sucesso das demais. O ponto a ser alcançado pelo estudo é assistir as empresas agrícolas com um

  14. Agricultural capacity and economic aspects of the main oleaginous with potential for biodiesel production for use in Brazilian transportation sector; Capacidade agricola e aspectos economicos das principais oleaginosas com potencial para producao de biodiesel para uso no setor de transporte brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabieri, Rodrigo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: galbieri@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Law n. 11.097, of January 13th, 2005, stabilised as mandatory the addition of 2% of biodiesel in the diesel beginning in 2008, increasing this amount to 5% in 2013. Many economics, environmental and social benefits can be reached through this new law. The diversity of raw material that could be used to produce biodiesel is large, mainly to the vegetables oil producer ones. Does the following cultures: palm oil, soy, babacu, peanut, mamona, and sunflower have enough stabilised agriculture areas to supply the goal of B2 and B5? What regarding to future fuel of type B10, B15 and B20? (author)

  15. Priority Directions of Improving the State Regulation of Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Konstantinovna Sanakoeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews primary directions for economical regulation of agriculture, for solving problems of insufficient funds of agricultural enterprises. Goals for development of agricultural economics growth and competitive abilities are determined, economical measures for governmental support are described as functions of system for development of agricultural market. The authors reveal the problems of innovational and optimizational model for development of agriculture, and system of state regulative and supportive measures for implementing the innovational model of development by consolidation of self-development mechanisms within revealing of inner economical reserves and activisation of “growth points” for resource potential. The mutual system dependence for mechanisms of taxes and subsidiaries and their influence on budget and socio-economical externalities are analyzed. It is substantiated that the state regulation of agricultural markets must take into account low incomes of small agricultural business, not allowing to accumulate necessary funds for starting cooperation. Due to that, the article specially reviews issues of loan availableness for small agricultural enterprises, including private farmings, peasant farms and cooperatives created by them, and, for this goal, the issues of marketing effectiveness for production of such small forms of agriculture are further reviewed. As a result of research, the authors discovered the necessity for government support of socially important businesses in agriculture, which are not of high profitability and, due to that, are not attractive for investors, but are necessary for saving the traditional rural lifestyle and maintaining important social functions for sustainable development.

  16. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  17. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  18. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  19. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  20. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  1. 基于博弈模型的农地流转中集体经济组织道德风险分析%Analysis of Moral Risks in Collective Economic Organizations in Agricultural Land Transfer Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓玲; 张绍良; 胡璐; 张韦唯

    2011-01-01

    为规避地方集体经济组织的道德风险,通过选取3种农地流转模式,从信息经济学角度运用博弈方法对集体经济组织的败德行为表现进行分析,运用博弈论的分析方法,构建农户与集体经济组织的博弈模型,通过模型分析从委托代理机制完善、流转程序、道德意识、奖惩机制4个方面提出了约束集体经济组织败德行为的具体措施.%Choosing three modes of agricultural land transfer, this paper analyzes the moral risks in local collective economic organizations by means of game from the perspective of informative economics and. Based on asymmetric information, constructs the gambling model between the farmers and collective economic organizations, proposing measures for restricting moral risks in collective economic organizations in terms of entrusted surrogate mechanism, procedure of transfer, moral consciousness and mechanism of rewards and punishment.

  2. How to Develop Low-carbon Agriculture in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of low-carbon economy nowadays,the development of agriculture is necessary to adapt to the situation of global economic development,and transform the agricultural development models. This paper firstly gives an overview of low-carbon economy and lowcarbon agriculture,and then points out the possibility of developing the low-carbon agricultural economy in China,and describes the ways to develop the low-carbon agricultural economy. Finally,this paper puts forth the corresponding recommendations for the development of the lowcarbon agricultural economy.

  3. The Restrictions and Their Innovation of Formal Institutions on Sustainable Agriculture Development in Central Economic Region(CER)%中原经济区农业可持续发展的正式制度制约及创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜威漩

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable development of agriculture is the important aim and lasting impetus of the CER construc -tion, and the basis and guarantee of coordinating among the industrialization , the urbanization and the agricultural modernization .The restrictions of formal institution on sustainable agriculture development in the CER lie in :The dual management institution of the household registration has weakened the external environment of sustainable agri -culture development;the incomplete farmland property rights institution has weakened the sustainable usage of agri -cultural production resources such as farmland resources; the incomplete rural public goods supply institution has weakened the material basis for sustainable agriculture development;incomplete rural social security institution has weakened the intrinsic power of sustainable agriculture development .The management institution of the household registration, the farmland property rights institution , the rural public goods supply institution , and the rural social security institution must be innovated and perfected in order to realize sustainable agriculture development in CER .%  农业可持续发展是中原经济区建设的重要目标之一,是“三化”协调的基础和保障,是中原经济区建设持久的推动力。中原经济区农业可持续发展的正式制度制约在于:二元户籍制度弱化了农业可持续发展的外部化境,不完善的农地产权制度弱化了农地等农业生产资源的可持续利用,不完善的农村公共物品供给制度弱化了农业可持续发展的物质基础,不完善的农村社会保障制度弱化了农业可持续发展的内在动力。要实现中原经济区农业可持续发展,就要对户籍管理制度、农地产权制度、农村公共物品供给制度及农村社会保障制度加以创新和完善。

  4. Investigation on the Regional Branding Mode of Modern Agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone--From the Perspective of the Image of Country of Origin%关中-天水经济区现代农业区域品牌建设模式探究——基于原产地形象的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安周

    2011-01-01

    The theory of the image of country of origin is discussed and the natural relations between the image of county of origin and the re gional brand are explored. The paper points out that the dispersion of agriculture has intensified the natural relations to a large extent. The paper probes into the branding status of agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic zone and points out the problems of it. In the first place, the agricultural industrial system is complete but there is no unified agricultural regional brand; in the second place, the weak awareness on protecting brand leads to the irrational behaviors on damaging brand. From the perspective of the image of the place of origin, the branding mode of agriculture is established and the countermeasures on improving the competitiveness of agricultural products are put forward. Firstly, the leading role of the government should be fully displayed; secondly, the image protection of original production place and regional brand promotion of the agricultural region should be intensified; thirdly, the functions of local pillar industries in protecting image and regional branding should be fully make use of.%论述了原产地形象理论,探讨了原产地形象与区域品牌之间具有天然的关联,指出农业的分散性则在很大程度上强化了这种联系.深入透析了关中一天水经济区农业区域品牌现状:一是关中一天水经济区农业产业体系齐全但缺乏统一的农业区域品牌;二是品牌保护意识薄弱导致在一定程度上还存在破坏品牌形象的非理性行为.基于原产地形象视角,构建了农业区域品牌建设模型,结合该模型提出了提升农业区域品牌竟争力的对策:一是充分发挥政府的引导作用;二是加强原产地形象保护与农业区域品牌推广;三是发挥农产品龙头制造企业在原产地形象保护与区域品牌建设中的主体作用.

  5. Facing the Crisis: Third World Agriculture in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Tabatabai, Hamid

    1990-01-01

    Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)

  6. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  7. Perspectives for Romania on adopting agricultural innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlight the efforts Romania needs to do on the path of agricultural development through innovation. A smart, modern agriculture could contribute to a wide variety of economic, societal and environmental goals. Considering its potential in this sector, Romania should learn from the experience of other European countries how to manage its rich resources. Innovative technologies, products and practices can help make the most efficient and sustainable use of natural resources, and thereby improve farming process.

  8. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert...

  9. Direction of Exports of Commercial Agricultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural commodities like tea, coffee, spices, oilseeds, cotton and cashew can be grouped under cash crops. They are traditional export items, which aggregate to 50% of total agricultural exports by India. These items are ready for consumption after some value addition. They are used as raw material in food and other industries. The commodities can be ranked high in hierarchy of demands after food items like wheat and rice. The economic status of the consumer plays a significant role in t...

  10. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  11. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  12. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  13. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  14. Integrated modelling of climate, water, soil, agricultural and socio-economic processes: a general introduction of the methodology and some exemplary results from the semi-rid Northeast of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Maarten; Jaeger, Annekathrin; Bronstert, Axel; Güntner, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Many semi-arid regions are characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress. Integrated studies including climatology, hydrology, and socio-economic studies are required both for analysing the dynamic natural conditions and to

  15. 7 CFR 2.67 - Administrator, Economic Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agriculture system, including general economic analyses of the international financial and monetary aspects of..., institutions, or individuals with comparable goals, and with the concurrence of the Office of International...: Review all proposed decisions having substantial economic policy implications....

  16. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  17. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  18. Rural Women Participate in Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE rural market economy is becoming feminized because many male laborers are transferring to nonagricultural work. Women are now making a show of their decisive force in utilizing agricultural resources. As a result, agriculture’s sustainable development will more and more depend on women’s qualifications, including how well they will manage agricultural resources and how well they will master science and technology. In fact, rural women don’t yet have full economic independence. Although they have involved themselves in economic activities and have played a

  19. Review Of Development And Characteristics Of Organic Agriculture In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.

  20. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  1. The Evolution, Trend and Inspiration of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union: A Game Analysis between Regional Economic Integration and Trade Liberalization%欧盟共同农业政策的演进、走向与启示——基于区域经济一体化和贸易自由化的博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2012-01-01

    The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in EU is the game process between regional economic integration and global trade liberalization. Since 1962, the Common Agricultural Policy has gone through several reforms. Its policy objective is shifting from an emphasis on agricultural development to an emphasis on both agriculture and country development, so that environment and sustainable development are getting more and more concerns; its policy measures are shifting from a single price support to a variety of measures such as price support, income support, and country development support, so that market liberalization is improving; its policy framework is shifting from close to open, so that global integration is increasing. But the Common Agricultural Policy is still facing a big internal and external pressure. First, internal economic costs are still high; second, the EU enlargement has led to increased internal coordination costs; third, in recent years, the continuing rise in international food prices is increasing the pressure on the policy spillover effect. The EU Common Agricultural Policy is closely related to the multilateral trade negotiations, and the Doha negotiations have reached deadlock. The EU common agricultural policy is also in a dilemma. But the EU's basic attitude of expecting more space for its agricultural development with fewer costs has never changed. All these may have a positive inspiration to China's food security.%欧盟共同农业政策的改革就是区域经济一体化和全球贸易自由化的博弈过程。实施50年以来,政策目标从强调农业发展转向强调农业、农村并重,对农村环境、可持续发展关注越来越多;政策手段由单一价格支持转为价格支持、收入补贴、农村发展支持多种综合措施.市场自由化程度有所提高;政策框架由封闭逐步转向开放,全球化一体化程度不断提高。但是共同农业政策的困境并未解除,首先

  2. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  3. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  4. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  5. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L., ed.; Kato, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  6. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted;

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  7. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  8. Economic Assessment of Zoonotic Diseases: An Illustrative Study of Rift Valley Fever in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, D L; Lusk, J L; Marsh, T L; Coble, K H; Szmania, S C

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of a Rift Valley Fever outbreak, a virus that spreads from livestock to humans, often through mosquitoes. Developing a 'one health' economic framework, economic impacts on agricultural producers and consumers, government costs of response, costs and disruptions to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and human health costs (morbidity and mortality) are estimated. We find the agricultural firms bear most of the negative economic impacts, followed by regional non-agricultural firms, human health and government. Further, consumers of agricultural products benefit from small outbreaks due to bans on agricultural exports.

  9. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  10. Analysis on the Evolution of Agricultural Structure about Pan-Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jiang; LIU Zhi-ying

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the definition of agricultural structure,this paper firstly analyzes the change of industrial and spatial structure of agriculture of Pan-Yangtze River Delta,then inspects the relationship between the development of economics and the evolution of agricultural structure,an the end it provides policy recommendation about the development and adjustment of agricultural structure for the future.

  11. Prospect of Modern Agriculture: the Promising Microbe Agriculture: from the Analysis of "Resource Scarcity" and "Marginal Utility" in Technical Economics%现代农业前瞻:广阔的微生物农业——兼以科技经济学辨析“资源稀缺”、“边际效用”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨承训; 杨承谕

    2012-01-01

    The petrochemical agriculture is coming to an end, and high -end ecological agriculture must be de- veloped through the industrial revolution of agriculture based on technological innovation. The agriculture of nearly ten thousand years mainly utilizes plants and animals (two- dimension agriculture) ,but has little cogni- tion and use of the third dimension, i. e. , microbe. Technological innovation can combine the optimization of eco- logical environment and the depth and wideness of resource utilization, break through the absolute limits of re- source scarcity and marginal utility, and expand and develop new industries. This is why Qian Xuesen brought forward the concept of microbe agriculture. It can be divided into two parts : one is the two - dimension agricul- ture optimized mainly through recycling, and the other is a newly emerging independent industry based on the in- dustrial revolution of agriculture. To be developed in four stages, the near future, the mid term, the long term, and the far future, microbe agriculture can overcome the limits of two - dimensional agriculture and actually real- ize "factory farming". In the initial stage now, we should concentrate our forces to solve the major problems and make improvement step by step, so as to realize thorough change in the far future.%石化农业已走到尽头,要靠科技创新实现农业产业革命,开拓高端生态农业。近一万年的人类农业主要致力利用生物中的植物、动物(称"二维农业"),对于作为第三界的微生物认知和利用差距甚远。而科技创新可使生态环境的可优化性与资源利用的深广性相统一,冲破资源稀缺和边际效用的绝对化界限,可以拓展和构建新的产业,这就是钱学森提出的微生物农业。它可分为两大部分:一是主要以循环形式优化"二维农业";二是发展为独立的产业,成为未来农业产业革命的一大新兴产业。其发展分近期、中期、长期、

  12. Credit risk management in financing agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D. Wenner

    2010-01-01

    A griculture is an inherently risky economic activity. A large array of uncontrollable elements can affect output production and prices, resulting in highly variable economic returns to farm households. In developing countries, farmers also lack access to both modern instruments of risk management—such as agricultural insurance, futures contracts, or guarantee funds—and ex post emergency government assistance. Such farmers rely on different “traditional” coping strategies and risk-mitigation ...

  13. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) physical geography is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A countrys geographical location does, however, not only determine its agricultural conditions or disease environment. It also pins down a countrys relative position vis--vis other countries, affecting it

  14. Adaptation to climate change and climate variability in European agriculture: The importance of farm level responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Climatic conditions and hence climate change influence agriculture. Most studies that addressed the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change have focused on potential impacts without considering adaptation. When adaptation strategies are considered, socio-economic conditions and farm managemen

  15. 教学需求的农林经济管理人才培养方式探析%On the Training Mode of Agriculture-Forest Economic Managers:Based on the Teaching Demand Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丁丑; 乔志霞; 张艳荣; 肖志刚

    2015-01-01

    在我国高等教育经过连续多年扩招后,受生源质量、外界变化、就业压力等影响,农林经济管理专业人才培养方式亟待创新。基于此,针对农林经济管理专业学生开展了涵盖教学内容、教学方式、教材、教师角色、实践教学等方面的教学需求调查,发现在人才培养过程中存在专业方向不明确、课程设置不合理、教师教学能力不高、教学方式不灵活、多媒体教学效果差、实践教学体系不健全等一系列问题。据此提出调整专业方向、优化课程体系、加强师资培养、践行多样化教学方式、规范多媒体教学、健全实践教学体系等对策以改进农林经济管理人才培养方式。%This study aims at learning the needs of students majored in agricultural and forestry economy and management and improving ways of talents training mode.It takes the random cluster sampling meth-od and conducts a questionnaire survey among 260 subjects majored in Agricultural and Forestry Economy and Management in Gansu Agricultural University.It also employs methods of literature study, mathemat-ical statistics, and logical reasoning in the research.It concludes that talents training mode can be modi-fied through ways such as subdividing the orientation and major,optimizing the course system, improving the quality of teachers, practicing various ways of teaching, standardizing multi-media teaching, and promoting hierarchy of practical teaching.

  16. Agricultural uses of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R.S.; Behrends, L.L.; Burns, E.R.; Maddox, J.J.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A major concern of the Tennessee Valley Authority is to ensure efficient use of Tennessee Valley resources in achieving optimum economic development without degrading the environment. As part of this effort, TVA is exploring many uses for waste heat. Activities to develop ways to use waste heat in agricultural production are described. Primary objectives are to: (1) identify potential agricultural uses of waste heat, (2) develop and test technologies and management criteria for more productive uses, (3) demonstrate technologies in commercial-scale production facilities, and (4) provide technical assistance for commercial application. Waste heat research and development projects under investigation or being planned by TVA independently or cooperatively include: (1) controlled environment greenhouses, (2) biological ecycling of nutrients from livestock manures, (3) soil heating and irrigation, and (4) environmental control for livestock housing. (MHR)

  17. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  18. Swinger Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio D'Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Swinging is a sexual behavior of increasing relevance but substantially ignored in theoretical economic investigation. This paper has two major goals. The first is to describe what swinging is, discuss its economic relevance and single out the main characteristics of swinger behavior. To this end, the Italian situation has been considered as a type of case study. The second goal is to use standard and less-standard tools from economic theory to propose some preliminary assessments of the caus...

  19. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  20. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, B.; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  1. Ecological and Economical Effects of Agricultural Organic Wastes Returning on Rice Fields%农业有机废弃物还田的生态经济效益研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海勇; 李明德; 刘琼峰; 吴小丹

    2012-01-01

    通过大田试验,将稻草及其利用后的有机废弃物(菌渣、牛粪、沼渣)替代部分无机化肥应用于水稻生产,研究了其对土壤养分、微生物数量、酶活性、水稻产量及经济效益的影响.结果表明,与不施肥处理(CK)和纯施用化肥处理(NPK)相比,4种有机废弃物还田均能一定程度地增加土壤有机质、速效养分的含量,增加细菌、放线菌和真菌的数量,增加微生物总活性及脲酶、磷酸酶及脱氢酶的活性;与常规纯化肥处理相比,早稻增加实际收入15.0~2690.0元/hm2 (0.2%~29.7%),晚稻增加实际收入180.0 ~1 737.5元/hm2(1.3%~12.2%),其中沼渣还田效果最佳,同时能减少10% ~ 20%的无机化肥用量和处理农业有机废弃物6250 ~ 22500 kg/hm2,获得了生态、经济效益的双赢.但是,稻草焚烧处理在上述方面均未取得理想效果,且焚烧污染大气环境,是不可取的还田方式.%A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of straw and organic wastes of straw recycling (fungus dregs, cow dung and biogas dregs) returning on soil fertility, ecologic benefit and economic benefit. In this paper, two control treatments with no fertilizers and sole chemical fertilizers and four organic matter treatments and a straw burning treatment were set to determine the effects of above four organic residues on soil nutrients, soil microbia! CFUs, soil enzyme activities, rice yield and economic benefit. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter and available nutrients, the CFUs of bacteria and actinomycetes and fungus, and the activities of microorganism and urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase were increased with the application of the above four organic waste residues. Compared with NPK. treatment, the economic benefit in treatments with the incorporation of organic waste residues increased 15.0 - 2 690.0 yuan/hm2 (0.2% - 29.7%) in early rice and 180.0 -1737.5 yuan/hm2 (1.3% - 12

  2. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  3. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  4. 财政支农支出对四川农业经济增长贡献的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Contribution of Fiscal Expenditure to Sichuan' s Agricultural Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 邓刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the growth effects of Sichuan fiscal expenditure to the primary industry with Si- chuan' s fiscal expenditure and the primary industry - related data from 1978 to 2010, by using cointegration testing theory and error correction model. The results show that the growth elasticity of Sichuan fiscal expenditure relative to primary industry is 0. 794. The growth effect order from high to low of the fiscal expenditure structure to the Si- chuan's primary industry is: the supporting to rural production; the operating expenses of agriculture, forestry, water conservancy and meteorology departments; the investment in science and technology and agricultural infra- structure spending.%利用1978~2010年间四川财政支农和第一产业相关数据,运用协整检验理论及误差修正模型,分析了四川财政支农支出对第一产业的增长效应。研究结果显示,四川财政支农支出相对于第一产业GDP增长弹性系数为0.784。财政支农支出结构中对四川第一产业增长效应高低次序依次为:支援农村生产最高,农林水利气象等部门事业费次之,科技投入及农业基本建设支出最差。

  5. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.

  6. LENDING PROJECT IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL INDIVIDUAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia LITVIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.

  7. Investments and Growth in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of all countries, during the past centuries had aimed to balance the global raising number of population with the food production, as a basic requirement for mankind survival. Unlike the pessimistic view of Malthus and neo-maltusianists, who considered population and food resources a given disequilibrium, from the individual entrepreneurs and farmers up to the macroeconomic decedents of the rural policies, they all prove a continuous commitment to feed consumers with their basic requirements. This is why investments and subventions in agriculture have important particularities and consequences, and play a major role on the global market.

  8. New areas in agricultural and food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    of the laws of economics that growth in markets for food products, if any, is not in terms of quantity, but in terms of value. - Most industrialised economies are characterised by an oversupply of agricultural products. - A global tendency towards deregulation, decrease of government subsidies to producers...

  9. Mathematical Modeling of the Agriculture Crop Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Drucioc

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The organized structure of computer system for economic and ecological estimation of agriculture crop technologies is described. The system is composed of six interconnected blocks. The linear, non-linear and stochastic mathematical models for machinery sizing and selection in farm-level cropping system is presented in the mathematical model block of computer system.

  10. Wind energy applications in agriculture: executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.L.; Buzenberg, R.J.; Glynn, E.F.; Johnson, G.L.; Shultis, J.K.; Wagner, J.P.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents an assessment of the potential use of wind turbine generator systems (WTGS) in US agriculture. In particular, this report presents the number of WTGS's economically feasible for use in US agriculture and the conditions which yielded economic feasibility of WTGS's for certain agricultural applications. In addition, for each case, i.e., set of assumed conditions, under which WTGS's were found to be economically feasible, this report identifies (1) the agricultural WTGS applications in terms of location, type and size (complete farm and dedicated-use applications); (2) the number of WTGS's by wind machine and generator size category; (3) aggregate energy conversion potential; and (4) other technical and economic WTGS performance data for particular applications. This report also describes the methodology, data and assumptions used for the analysis. A major part of the study was the development and use of a rigorous analytical system to assess an application's wind power generation and use potential.

  11. Innovation systems, saving, trust, and economic development in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamuk, H.

    2014-01-01

    The five essays in the dissertation explore the interaction between economic development in Africa and three economic concepts from different fields: decentralized agricultural innovation systems, trust and saving practices. A relatively new view to boost agricultural growth is the implementation of

  12. ANALYSIS OF DIVERSIFICATION EFFORTS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROCHÁZKA, Petr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of agriculture enjoys less popularity over time in most of the developed countries, including Canada and the Czech Republic. Analysis in this paper provides interesting findings about activities of agricultural universities to increase enrollment into their programs. While the study is focused on Canada, it is possible to draw implications also for the Czech Republic as many of the characteristics pertaining to the education and agricultural sectors are similar. Enrollment into educational programs in agriculture in North America has been steadily declining in the last several decades. While the overall share of agriculture on national gross domestic product has also been falling, the need for qualified people in agriculture is still eminent as the shift to sustainable agriculture appears to be one of the key priorities of governments in the US and Canada. One of the ways how to facilitate interest of prospective students to study agriculture is to diversify the programs through offering of more major options. It is important to study the motivation and other stimuli for the choice of major in order to adapt the educational programs and attract more students. In the paper, factors influencing the choice of major are studied by analyzing survey data from the only agricultural college in Atlantic Canada. The results show significant differences in the socio-economic background among the prospective students based on the choice of major. For example, students interested in social sciences much more appraise more choices of major than students in biophysical fields. Based on the findings from the analysis, several recommendations are made. It is suggested, for example, that for students interested in biophysical sciences, sport plays an important role and thus, appropriate promotional campaign about recreation and sport facilities of a post-secondary agricultural educational institutions should be conducted. Analysis in this paper may serve

  13. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with i...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific.......This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...

  14. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  15. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... of science There is a “disconnection” between economics which focuses on structures and universal laws from those that are in contrast with the everyday of life of business activity, which are processual and dynamic. This discussion is the central issue in the paper, and is discussed from the perspective...

  17. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by a...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium......We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...

  18. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  19. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  20. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  1. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  2. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  3. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  4. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei; LI Gan-qiong; LI Zhe-min

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientiifc work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as wel as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamical y project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The fol owing conclusions are drawn:i) The production of major agricultural products wil continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield. i ) The growth of agricultural consumption wil be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufifciency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. i i) Agricultural trade wil continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im-ports wil slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  5. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei[1,2,3; LI Gan-qiong[1,2,3; LI Zhe-min[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientific work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as well as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamically project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The following conclusions are drawn: i) The production of major agricultural products will continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield, ii) The growth of agricultural consumption will be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufficiency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. iii) Agricultural trade will continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im- ports will slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  6. AGRICULTURE IN THE LIGHT OF EUROPEAN UNION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weiss

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP plays a special role in the European integration process and the implementation of a number of Community objectives beyond the traditional concept of functions of agriculture related to food production. Therefore, changes in progress, evolution and adaptation processes taking place in the framework of the CAP are characterised by high frequency and dynamics. They show how diverse and difficult conceptually and organisationally CAP system is. It fulfills the role in the evolution of economic and organisational solutions, economic development, the possibility of non-agricultural labour market, as well as the experience and changes in agriculture. The purpose of this article is a presentation of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in Polish agriculture.

  7. THE KNOWLEDGE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOBRE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, a key component of the structure of economic branches, should be addressed directly related to the maintenance of natural resources and their exploitation in a controlled way or the enhancement of their own, without resorting to inconsistent stimulus elements that can in time generate dysfunctions in products and the environment. Looking at things from this perspective, there is a need for a sustainable agriculture approach, given its social, ecological and economic representativeness, with active and continuous character.

  8. Modeling Agricultural Production Considering Water Quality and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Apland, Jeffrey; Grainger, Corbett; Strock, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Environmental goals often conflict with the economic goals of agricultural producers. The Cottonwood River in Minnesota is heavily polluted with nitrogen, phosphate and sediment from agricultural sources in the watershed. Goals of profit maximization for producers conflict with those of effluent alleviation. We incorporate water quality goals and risk into a mathematical programming framework to examine economically efficient means of pollution abatement while considering a wide range of alte...

  9. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city

    OpenAIRE

    Losada, H.; Rivera, J.; Cortes, J; Vieyra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production...

  10. 技术效率、技术进步、要素积累与中国农业经济增长——基于SFA的经验分析%Technology Efficiency, Technology Progress, Factor Accumulation and China's Agricultural Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡远凤

    2012-01-01

    本文运用随机前沿方法,将1988-2009年中国省份的农业劳动生产率变化分解为农业技术效率变化、技术进步、物质性要素投入变化和人力资本积累四个来源,分析了它们对中国农业经济增长的影响。结果表明,自1988年以来,技术进步、物质性要素投入变化和人力资本积累在总体上都促进了中国省份农业劳动生产率的增长,而技术效率变化却阻碍了大部分省份的增长,但总的来说,技术进步和技术效率变化的共同作用对增长的贡献还是最大的。%This paper decomposes the changes of China's provincial agricultural labor productivity between 1988 and 2009 into four sources with Stochastic Frontier Analysis, namely, the changes caused by technology efficiency change, technology progress, change of material factor inputs and human capital accumulation, and analyze their impact on China's agricultural economic growth. The results show that, since 1988, technology progress, change of material factor inputs and human capital accumulation, in general, have contributed to the growth of agricultural labor productivity in Chinese provinces, but technology efficiency change has hindered the growth of most provinces, nevertheless, the contribution of total factor productivity change, which comes from interactions of technology progress and technology ef- ficiency change, is the greatest.

  11. Research on Novel Pattern of Agricultural Economy based on Accurate Information Management System: A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang; Mengyan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural development in the less developed districts is a big challenge as they are resource poor regions and crops are grown under more risky agro-ecological conditions. In this paper, we conduct research on novel pattern of agricultural economy based on accurate information management system. Agricultural information is the agriculture prenatal, during and aider the information process, mainly to solve the problems in the development of agricultural production. Rural information includes rural economic information, rural management and related information, rural information culture and the rural social service information. Our system modifies the efficiency of managing materials which will largely enhance the economical result for the agricultural activities.

  12. THE NEED TO IMPROVE PRACTICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE AND SPECIALIZED INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the establishment of the market economy has required the elaboration and implementation of agricultural, alimentary and nutritional policies, based on scientific criteria, to ensure that the structure of Romanian agriculture would come close to that of the European Union agriculture. Agricultural policy needs to be coherent, flexible and directed towards the economic, social and environmental protection performance. Worldwide practice shows that empiric experience of economic agents does not suffice, but requires plenty of scientific knowledge. The hereby study undertakes to carry out a radiography of the production potential of agricultural operations in Romania and to demonstrate the need for improving practical information systems in agriculture and specialized industry.

  13. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  14. Agricultural biotechnology and its contribution to the global knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The theory of neoclassical welfare economics largely shaped international and national agricultural policies during the Cold War period. It treated technology as an exogenous factor that could boost agricultural productivity but not necessarily sustainable agriculture. New growth theory, the economic theory of the new knowledge economy, treats technological change as endogenous and argues that intangible assets such as human capital and knowledge are the drivers of sustainable economic development. In this context, the combined use of agricultural biotechnology and information technology has a great potential, not just to boost economic growth but also to empower people in developing countries and improve the sustainable management of natural resources. This article outlines the major ideas behind new growth theory and explains why agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers still tend to stick to old welfare economics. Finally, the article uses the case of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN) to illustrate an example of how new growth theory can be applied in the fight against poverty. CBN is a successful interdisciplinary crop research network that makes use of the new knowledge economy to produce new goods that empower the poor and improve the productivity and nutritional quality of cassava. It shows that the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology go far beyond the already known productivity increases and pesticide use reductions of existing GM crops.

  15. Pollution caused by peoples' use for socio-economic purposes (agricultural, recreation and tourism) in the Gölcük Plain Settlement at Bozdağ Plateau (Ödemiş-İzmir/Turkey): a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtaslan, Banu Ozturk; Demirel, Öner

    2011-04-01

    Mountainous areas, which form the largest geography of our country and are called reserves of resources owing to their difficulty of accessibility, have been increasingly under threat of exploitation and overuse in recent years. The area in question from among the mountainous areas, which are sensitive ecosystems with their environmental components, is the Bozdağ mass located in Gölcük Plateau Settlement, which has been subject to intensive construction and use. This study is intended to reveal the current uses of Gölcük Plateau (agricultural, recreation, and tourism) and determine the sources and effects of pollution as a result of these uses and aims at revealing how the permanent residents of Gölcük Plateau Settlement on Bozdağ Plateau, which is a center of attraction with respect of recreation and tourism activities, and those who go there only in certain periods, use the environment for tourism and recreational purposes, and determine their positive and negative impacts on environment through SWOT analysis.

  16. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and natural resources but also on human resource development in the relevant sector. The main purpose of the present research was to study and recognize agricultural development indicators from agriculture experts’ viewpoints (including researchers, trainers and extension experts in six provinces in Iran on the basis of Adjacent Provinces Plan. The study was designed with three phases of theoretical foundations, field operations and data analysis. The statistical population was 863 experts, out of which 198 experts were selected by stratified sampling. The validity and reliability of measurement tool (questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software package. The study was a correlation-descriptive study in which factor analysis statistics was used in addition to descriptive statistics. Experts grouped indicators of future agricultural development in nine groups (access to inputs, application of technologies for the development of human resource and sustainability; reduction of losses; economical development; improvement of infrastructures; agricultural mechanization; social status; improvement of marketing; land reform; yield increase. Results about the difference in respondents’ viewpoints revealed significant differences in experts’ viewpoints in six studied province about relevant variables and in their viewpoints about the components of agricultural development (infrastructure improvement, marketing, optimum management and sustainability, human resource development and economical

  17. No Easy Harvest: Policies and Priorities for Agriculture in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Barry N.

    1983-01-01

    The crisis in Jamaican agriculture is due to environmental factors like climate conditions and to social and economic factors like the plantation system. Along with mining, tourism, and manufacturing, agriculture has a key role to play in the Jamaican economy. Suggests ways to improve productivity by aid to family farms. (CS)

  18. Conventionalization, Civic Engagement, and the Sustainability of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that organic farming is synonymous with sustainable agriculture. The broad goals of sustainable agriculture include economic profitability, environmental stewardship, and community vitality. However, the "question of sustainability" (Ikerd, 2008) can be asked of any type of farming, including organic production. One way to…

  19. Conservation agriculture for food security in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    University of the Philippines - Los Baños

    2010-01-01

    This brochure describes the project to promote Conservation Agriculture as a technologically-feasible, economically-viable, environmentally-sustainable and gender-responsive production system that will contribute to food security of small farm communities in the Philippines. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  20. Implicit Sociology, Interdisciplinarity and Systems Theories in Agricultural Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Recurring political and economic crises in agriculture lie behind policymakers' demands for more interdisciplinary, problem-solving approaches. This article examines different systems theories in agricultural sciences that claim to adopt interdisciplinarity and to bridge a supposed gap between the n

  1. Conventionalization, Civic Engagement, and the Sustainability of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that organic farming is synonymous with sustainable agriculture. The broad goals of sustainable agriculture include economic profitability, environmental stewardship, and community vitality. However, the "question of sustainability" (Ikerd, 2008) can be asked of any type of farming, including organic production. One…

  2. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Schut, Marc; Muilerman, Sander; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production involves the scaling of agricultural innovations such as disease-resistant and drought-tolerant maize varieties, zero-tillage techniques, permaculture cultivation practices based on perennial crops and automated milking systems. Scaling agricultural innovations should take into account complex interactions between biophysical, social, economic and institutional factors. Actual methods of scaling are rather empirical and based on the premise of ‘find out what works in o...

  3. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  4. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent.

  5. Weed sustainable managment in agricultral and non-agricultural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Arcangeli; Cesare Sparacino; Pierluigi Meriggi

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is a way to assure the availability of natural resources for future generations.Weed managementin cultivated and not cultivated areas is part of sustainable agriculture as well, and has to face three important challenges:economical (to increase income and competitiveness of farm sector), social (give rural areas opportunity of economicdevelopment and improvement of living conditions), environmental (promote good agricultural practices andpreserve habitats, biodiversity...

  6. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  7. Agricultural and Rural Informatization Construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Currently,faced with the rapid development of information technology and increasing competition of the global economy,many countries have been very concerned about the issues of informatization concerning agriculture and rural areas. The level of informatization in the developed countries has been universally high,and some developing countries are also highly concerned about how to actively promote the rural market information service. With the increasing level of China’s economic development,agriculture and rural economy have placed a growing demand on informatization. From the overall perspective of agricultural and rural informatization,this paper gives a detailed analysis of current situation,goals,tasks and constraints about agricultural and rural informatization construction,and finally makes the corresponding recommendations.

  8. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  9. Co-integration Anaysis of Science and Technology inputs, Fixed Assets and agricultural Economic Growth in Hainan%科技投入、固定资产投资与海南农业经济增长的协整分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光辉

    2011-01-01

    According to the theory of co-integration and the results of vector error correction model (VECM), this paper performs an equilibrium relationship research on science and technology inputs, fixed assets investment and agricultural economic growth in Hainan. It draws a conclusion that there is a long-term equilibrium between the three variables. Both of them play an important role in the agricultral economic development.%根据协整理论,通过建立向量误差修正模型(VECM)分析了海南省科研投入.固定资产投资与海南农业经济增长的均衡关系。结果表明:科研投入、固定资产投资与海南农业经济增长之间具有长期均衡的关系.它们对经济增长具有重要的促进作用。

  10. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  11. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  12. Study on Connotations and Development Strategies of Creative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshan; YANG; Hailing; HE

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture is a new agricultural type with originality as a key element, integrating agricultural production activities into creative activities such as culture and art, broadening functions of agriculture and improving added value of agricultural products. Creative agriculture is characterized by external economy, technology integration, art appreciation, high efficiency and value, and it is significant for promoting inheritance of traditional culture, optimal allocation and regeneration of resources, optimal distribution of elements, expansion of agricultural functions, construction of beautiful countryside, cultural construction of rural areas, transformation of agricultural and rural economic growth mode. With agricultural resources as the foundation, sightseeing and leisure agriculture as the breakthrough point, by means of science and technology, many regions in China have explored products of creative agriculture and presented several typical cases of creative agriculture. However, these projects are mostly restricted by problems such as poor development concept, lack of supportive policies, and ineffective industrial integration. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we proposed path choice, supportive system and relevant policy suggestions for the development of creative agriculture.

  13. Agriculture--Agriculture Science--Seed Germination. Kit No. 51. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Samuel

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on seed germination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  14. Investigating the limits of multi functional agriculture as the dominant frame for Green Care in agriculture in Flanders and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, J.; Bock, B.B.; Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    European agriculture and rural areas are facing multiple socio-economic changes, including a transition from an agriculture-based to a service-based economy. This restructuring forces agricultural and rural actor-networks to reformulate their (self-)definitions. One reformulation prevailing both in

  15. Starting a Learning Progression for Agricultural Literacy: A Qualitative Study of Urban Elementary Student Understandings of Agricultural and Science Education Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexander Jay

    2010-01-01

    Science and agriculture professional organizations have argued for agricultural literacy as a goal for K-12 public education. Due to the complexity of our modern agri-food system, with social, economic, and environmental concerns embedded, an agriculturally literate society is needed for informed decision making, democratic participation, and…

  16. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  17. Economically Challenged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers must wrestle with how China can maintain stable GDP growth while overcoming inflation and natural disasters some economists believe that the country’s red-hot economic growth could slow down slightly this year. Yu Yongding,Director of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,forecasts that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate,which was 11.9 percent

  18. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  19. Free Trade and Economic Development of Agriculture%自由贸易与农业经济发展--G 函数与农产品特惠贸易分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中才

    2014-01-01

    Starting with G function, it has given the primary structure for part-general equilibrium, in which the components of market and the fixed quantity are directly stated. Therefore the part-general equilibrium model becomes the starting point, where the difference be-tween free trade and tariff barriers in terms of numerical value is defined. From this point, the analysis and discussion are developed in this paper employing those laws and theorems in economics, during which the related representations were expressed specifically.%利用G函数,直接陈述经济体内农业的市场成分和固定数量,从而给出该农业的一个局部均衡的一般初始结构。这些成为进行分析和讨论的出发点,进而在这个出发点下,定义自由贸易与关税壁垒的数值差别,得出有关的具体描述结构,然后根据有关定理就此展开分析和讨论。

  20. Economic crisis, world economy, economics and economic policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherstnev, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the current discussions on the the state of economics with special focus on the interreletionships between key ideas of economic theories and real actions of economic policy in the course of the global economic crisis.

  1. Interests of Insurance Business and Agricultural Producers: Metamorphoses of Agricultural Insurance with State Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Efimov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the basic aspects of the system of agricultural insurance with state support in the Russian Federation at the present stage. The relevance of the study is related to the presence of enduring problem that lies in the fact that, despite some efforts by the State of legislative, organizational and economic measures, insurance of agricultural risks in Russia does not give the desired effect. The authors provide clear arguments about the necessity of state support for agriculture, particularly insurance, analyze the volume of subsidized funds from the federal budget for the payment of premiums to insurance companies. The article contains the analysis of the amount of insurance premiums for agricultural insurance in the world and the proportion of premiums collected by Russian agro-stakeholders. The nonoptimality of structure types of agricultural insurance with state support is indicated. The authors describe the main problems and disadvantages of the existing system of agricultural insurance with state support (lack of awareness, a small number of insurance products, high rates of insurance rates, etc., as well as some of the contradictions of the current legislation (the “double subsidies”. As a good example, a model of agricultural insurance in the United States is shown. The reasoned conclusions are made about the imperfection of the current legislation in the area of agricultural insurance, which largely meets the interests of the insurer, not of the insured. It was noted that agricultural insurance with state support in the Russian Federation is insignificant in scale of agricultural areas and in the country as a whole. The authors also make contradictory conclusions on the development of agricultural insurance market in Russia, mainly related to the fact that the system of agricultural insurance in the Russian Federation is only in its infancy.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF ECOLOGIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvyagintseva O. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, an important task is to ensure food independence of Russia. This is due to the need of acceleration the import substitution in terms of the current foreign trade policy of the country. In this context, a priority task for managers of the agricultural sector is to increase profitability of agricultural production, taking into account compliance with its greening. The questions of improving the management of agricultural business through its transition to an innovative path of development, including the greening of nature are investigated in this article. We have investigated the concept of "agribusiness" in terms of its economic content. In addition, the main components of this category considered and described in the article. The article presents an analysis of the main results of environmental protection and the most important indicators of environmental management. We have shown the assessment of the dynamics of production and economic indicators of agribusiness management and ecologization and their relationship. On the basis of this study, we have made the conclusions about the need to reform the control system of agricultural production by using innovative mechanisms. Which, in turn, is possible using the four main directions of scientific and technical progress, including biological innovations, tools of technical progress, innovative approaches to the development of energy resources and the organizational and economic innovation

  3. Agricultural Science and Technologv Parks Initiated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yisheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ Agricultural S&T parks (ASTPs) constitute the bases for demonstrating modern agricultural practice engaged in intensive production and commercial operations with S&T achievements as their pillars and agricultural infrastructures as the mainstay. The emergence of ASTPs is a new economic phenomenon during the past decade, and among the 400-plus such parks, 36 are State ASTPs set up with the approval of the State Council. These ASTPs have created a benign environmental condition for the advance of agricultural science and technology in China and for the development of newand high-tech-based industries in the agricultural sector, and accordingly, they have played an important role in promoting modern agriculture, in enlivening rural economy, in increasing the income of farmers, and in restructuring agriculture.

  4. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second, rural tourism is the granger reason to agricultural food marketing and there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between them. From the VAR model, we can get that rural tourism will promote agricultural food marketing growth. LnRT at lag 1 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.48%; LnRT at lag 2 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.2%, so the effect of rural tourism on agricultural food marketing is obvious.

  5. Emergy Evaluations of Denmark and Danish Agriculture. Assessing the Limits of Agricultural Systems to Power Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haden, Andrew C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Rural Development Studies

    2003-03-01

    As the process of industrialization has run its course over the twentieth century, the relative importance of agriculture as an economic activity and a means of cultural sustenance for nations has declined dramatically. In this thesis, a historical ecological-economic perspective offers insights into both the causes and effects of Danish agriculture's decline in economic importance relative to the economy of Denmark as a whole. Emergy evaluations were made of the national economy and agricultural subsystem of Denmark for the years 1936, 1970 and 1999. Emergy is defined as all the available energy that was used in the work of making a product and expressed in units of one type of energy. In total, six separate emergy analyses were performed. By quantifying the emergy requirements of both a national agricultural system and the economy within which this system is nested, the analysis highlights the changing relationship of these two systems over a temporal scale of 63 years. The ecological sustainability of the studied systems is assessed through the calculation of emergy-based indices and ratios. In accordance with emergy theory, ecological sustainability is considered to be a function of the dependence of a system on renewable emergy, the degree to which the system depends on imported emergy, and the overall load that the system places on the environment. The analysis indicates that as the national economy of Denmark evolved to rely more on the use of nonrenewable emergy and on emergy appropriated through trade to stimulate economic activity and to generate wealth, its sustainability declined, and the importance of the Danish agricultural system to the national economy subsided. While the total amount of emergy supporting the economy of Denmark over the period studied increased substantially, the total emergy supporting agriculture remained relatively constant. Furthermore, though the emergy signature and thermodynamic efficiencies of Danish agricultural

  6. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  7. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  8. 祖厉河流域生态环境修复型农业经济模式探讨%An Explorative Study on Economic Mode for Rain-harvesting Agriculture in the Zuli River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩通; 乔立; 王鹤龄

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of resources around the Zuli River Basin is analyzed. First,the area is rich in land and thick in soil. However, loose topsoil, easy loam erosion and slightly alkaline soil are common sights here. Second,the Zuli River Basin is on one hand abundant with sunshine, but on the other hand the utilization of solar energy is low. So the utilization of solar energy is potentially of huge possibility. Though the climate of this area is mild,it differs greatly in plains,hills and loess tableland. The heat in plains is rich,while that of hills and loess tableland is short. What's more,the growing season around the river is so short that cold injury happens all the time. Finally,the precipitation is slight and changing with the spatial distribution. Obviously, the contradiction between the supply and requirement of water resources is becoming increasingly prominent. Typical examples of small watershed management show: the main technoIogical approach to develop the cyclic rain-harvesting eco-agricultural economy is to build a repairing system of ecological environment based on principles of scientific distribution and actual benefit. It is better to combine artificial control with ecological self-recovery and engineering measures. Coustruction should be carried on according to different function zones in the ecological and environmental repair system. By doing this,ecoenvironment around the Zuli River Basin can be repaired.%通过对祖厉河流域资源配置的分析:流域内土地面积大、土层较厚、表层土壤疏松、土肥容易流失;土壤呈微碱性,土壤养分氮少、磷缺、钾适中;祖厉河流域光照充足,辐射较强,但光能利用率低,提高太阳能利用率的潜力巨大;流域内气候温凉,山、川、塬热量差异较大,川区热量富足,山、塬区热量略欠;植物生长季节短,易发生冻害;祖厉河流域降水总量少,且减少趋势显著;降水时空分布不均匀,降水变率大;水资源供需矛

  9. Some impacts of the EU accession on the new member states’ agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit KISS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of the EU accession on the New Member States’ agriculture with special regard to production, employment, farmers’ income and intra-EU trade in agricultural goods on the basis of the latest statistical data of Eurostat. According to our findings, accession has provided incentives to agricultural production and to utilize natural endowments (mainly agricultural land; however, agricultural employment decrease could not be halted. Nevertheless, the economic situation of the farmers improved due to increasing incomes. Though the enlarged EU provided markets for the NMS agricultural products, the competition on their domestic markets increased significantly, resulting in massive import penetration. Consequently, most of the NMS agricultural trade balance deteriorated considerably. Concerning future prospects, it highly depends on the reformulation of the Common Agricultural Policy, the new budget of the EU and the domestic economic and agricultural situation of the NMS.

  10. 7 CFR 2.63 - Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Economics. 2.63 Section 2.63 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.63 Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics. Pursuant to § 2.21(a), subject to reservations in § 2.21(b), and subject to...

  11. Mearsurement and control system for agricultural robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Automation of agricultural equipments in the near term appears both economically viable and technically feasible. This paper describes measurement and control system for agriculture robot. It consists of a computer, a pair of NIR cameras, one inclinometer, one potentionmeter and two encoders. Inclinometer, potentionmeter and encoders are used to measure obliquity of camera, turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel, respectively. These sensor data are filtered before sending to PC. The test shows that the system can measure turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel accurately whether robot is at stillness state or at motion state.

  12. Experimental assessment of ecosystem services in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Porter, John Roy; Wratten, Steve

    2013-01-01

    . Agricultural and urban areas are by far the largest users of ecosystems and their services and (for the first time) this book explores the role that ecosystem services play in these managed environments. The book also explores methods of evaluating ecosystem services, and discusses how these services can...... be maintained and enhanced in our farmlands and cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers from a variety of fields, including applied ecology, environmental economics, agriculture and forestry, and also to local and regional planners and policy makers....

  13. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  14. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  15. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector, from past to present, had assumed very important duties on economic and social development of societies. It became a globally indispensable and strategic sector due to its various attributes such as: direct/indirect contributions to population nourishment, national income, employment, capital transfers, raw material supply for industry, exportation, biological diversity and ecological balance. Since the dawn of humankind, agricultural sector had gone through a variety of phases in terms of production activities and land proprietorship. Agricultural activities that emerged in the period of hunter-gatherer societies have been superseded by today’s specialized and planned agricultural enterprises utilizing information and technology. Agricultural accounting has also experienced a significant change in parallel with those improvements. This study aims to investigate historical development of agricultural accounting and difficulties encountered during its implementation. Research studies indicate that agricultural assets were initially recorded and inventory controls were performed by Sumerians. Until the Middle Ages, agricultural accounting did not experience any development, whereas it still encounters various difficulties eve

  16. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  17. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  18. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Kaffka, Stephen R [University of California, Davis; Langeveld, J.W.A. [Wageningen University, Netherlands

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  19. Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors,etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular usedR-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

  20. Shocks in economic growth=shocking effects for food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavallari, A.; Fellmann, T.; Hubertus Gay, H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one h

  1. The Impact of Climate Change to Agricultural Production in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region%气候变化对关中—天水经济区农业生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳; 薛亚永; 周旗; 杨荣

    2016-01-01

    Based on meteorological observation data sets in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region during 1960-2014, the temporal and mutation characteristics of climatic potential productivity were analyzed by using the Thornthwaite Memorial model,general linear regression analysis,Morlet wavelet analysis,Mann-Kendall method and IDW spatial interpolation. The results show that generally,in recent 55 years the average climatic potential productivity was 1053.8 kg/(hm2·a)and has a tendency to increase. The mutation of climatic potential productivity in the 1990's was relatively weak,as well as showed periodic change trend of each nested size dimension,consistent with the precipitation change cycle. The spatial distribution indicates that it was high in south and east areas compared with the corresponding middle and west area. Precipitation is the dominant factor affecting the development of climatic potential productivity. Warming and humidifying are beneficial to the increase of the climatic potential productivity ,whereas the humidifying increase is more significant. In addition,the warmer and wetter climatic changing is the important reason for the climatic potential productivity increase.%以1960—2014年关中—天水经济区所辖七市一区气象站点逐日气温和降水量实测值为基础,利用Thornthwaite Memorial模型表征气候变化对农业生产造成的影响,综合运用气候倾向率、Morlet小波函数、Mann-Kendall非参数检验法、Yamamoto分析、IDW空间插值对其时空变化特征进行诊断分析.结果表明:关天经济区近55年来,平均气候生产潜力为1053.8 kg/(hm2·a),呈逐年增加趋势,并于20世纪90年代发生弱突变.周期变化呈现大小尺度相互嵌套,与研究区降水周期变化基本一致.空间分布区域差异性明显,表现为南部高于中部、东部高于西部.降水是制约经济区农业发展的主导因素,增温和增湿均有利于区域农业生产,但增湿效应更为显著,此

  2. A Survey of Human Resource Management and Qualification Levels in Hungarian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berde, Csaba; Piros, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The question of quality and value of human resources have been at the forefront of Hungarian agriculture for the past few years. The decreasing number of agricultural employees in Hungary in the last decade (1990-2000) is a result of the crisis caused by the change of the socio-economic system rather than economic and technological development.…

  3. STREAMING INTERACTION OF AGRICUL-TURAL AND PROCESSING ENTERPRISES OF AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research of stream-ing scheme of interaction between agricultural (AGC and processing (PP agricultural enterprises which were developed by the authors of the mathematical model for calculation of economic efficiency of AGC circuits and PP, as well as for the calculation of economic efficiency of the companies in case of their association

  4. Identification of Business Informatics Specifics in Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kubata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper deals with analysis and identification of business informatics specifics in agricultural enterprises in the Czech Republic farming at land of size up to 500 hectares. The study is based on thorough review of literature about latest issues in agriculture business informatics. There is a follow up to certain results of previous research on business informatics in agriculture that was conducted by authors in 2013. The analysis has brought findings that business informatics has several peculiarities that must be regarded in informatics implementation and innovation. Those are common economic and organisational effects and further aspects typical for the agriculture such as climate, local conditions and seasonal nature of production.

  5. Economic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At a hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on August 22,2006, James A. Dorn, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Cato Institute, offers his ideas on the impact of China's financial system and monetary policies on U.S. exchange rates, capital markets and interest rates. Excerpts follow.

  6. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  7. Economic Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  8. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  10. IMPACT OF FOREIGN POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL INSTABILITY ON U.S. AGRICULTURAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Awokuse, Titus O.; Gempesaw, Conrado M., II

    2003-01-01

    Very little research exists on the potential impact of political and institutional instability on agricultural trade. This paper evaluates the effects of political instability on U.S. agricultural exports. Relative to effects of potential instability measures, we found that the economic variables are more significant determinants of bilateral agricultural trade.

  11. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  12. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  13. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  14. Agricultural lung diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  15. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  16. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  17. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  18. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  19. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent. We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able to assess the situation on different scales and see how it is evolving, and also provide assistance for rational management that is compatible with farmers’ production targets.

  20. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long

    2006-01-01

    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.

  1. The economic origins of ultrasociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, John; Krall, Lisi

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasociality refers to the social organization of a few species, including humans and some social insects, having a complex division of labor, city-states, and an almost exclusive dependence on agriculture for subsistence. We argue that the driving forces in the evolution of these ultrasocial societies were economic. With the agricultural transition, species could directly produce their own food and this was such a competitive advantage that those species now dominate the planet. Once underway, this transition was propelled by the selection of within-species groups that could best capture the advantages of (1) actively managing the inputs to food production, (2) a more complex division of labor, and (3) increasing returns to larger scale and larger group size. Together these factors reoriented productive life and radically altered the structure of these societies. Once agriculture began, populations expanded as these economic drivers opened up new opportunities for the exploitation of resources and the active management of inputs to food production. With intensified group-level competition, larger populations and intensive resource exploitation became competitive advantages, and the "social conquest of Earth" was underway. Ultrasocial species came to dominate the earth's ecosystems. Ultrasociality also brought a loss of autonomy for individuals within the group. We argue that exploring the common causes and consequences of ultrasociality in humans and the social insects that adopted agriculture can provide fruitful insights into the evolution of complex human society.

  2. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  3. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world.

  4. Toward malaysian sustainable agriculture in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GROSU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

  6. Fujian/Taiwan Agricultural Cooperation Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIANHUA

    2005-01-01

    SINCE implementation of the reform and opening policy, Fujian Province has seen rapid economic growth. Located on China's southeast coast across the Taiwan Straits from Taiwan,Fujian is this island province's nearest neighbor and has benefited greatlv from their cooperation, particularly in the agricultural field. In the early 1980s, Fujian's GDP was only 1/40 that of Taiwan. By the early 1990s, this ratio had narrowed to 1/13,

  7. Economic Optimism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ever since January 14 when the Chinese Government unveiled plans to revamp the steel and automobile sectors, the country has embarked on an ambitious and comprehensive scheme of restructuring some of its key industries. This was done in an effort to keep the economy on track amid an adverse economic situation. Eight other sectors have been added into this revitalization package, ranging from electronics and information technologies to textiles, shipbuilding and petrochemicals,

  8. 公共经济学视角下的农林高校大学生基层就业问题分析%Analysis on Grass-roots Employment Problems of Agriculture and Forestry Colleges Students under the Angle of Public Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧静; 曹颖; 崔璐莹; 李春艳

    2011-01-01

    从公共经济学的角度探讨了农林高校中的农林类专业毕业生基层就业问题,把就业界定为混合产品的范畴,分析了高校毕业生面向基层就业中的市场失灵原因.为发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用,应从混合产品的提供方式入手,确定政府在促进基层就业中的有效定位,并发挥农林高校在为基层输送和培养人才中的重要作用.%Grass-roots employment problems of agriculture and forestry college graduates were discussed from the angle of public economics. Moreover, the employment was defined as mix products and market failure reasons in grass-roots employment of college graduates were analyzed. What(s) more, in order to play the basic role in resource allocation, the effective segmentation of government in promoting grass-roots employment was confirmed from the providing ways of mix products to play an important role in grass-roots transmission and talents training.

  9. Regional Differences in the Demand for Agricultural Socialized Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; LI

    2015-01-01

    With the gradual deepening of China’s agricultural modernization,establishing a sound agricultural socialized service system is of great significance to improving the efficiency of resource use and achieving sustainable agricultural development. On the basis of the micro survey data on China’s 12 provinces,we analyze the intensity of demand for agricultural socialized service in different regions as well as the main factors influencing farmers’ demand willingness. The results show that there are regional differences in farmers’ demand for agricultural socialized service,and among multiple factors affecting the demand willingness of agricultural socialized service,farmers’ individual characteristics,household economic characteristics and farmers’ social communication behavior have varying degrees of impact on farmers’ choice of service.

  10. Production Structure of Agriculture in Huai’an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the data in 1990-2009 Huai’an Statistical Yearbook and Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is analyzed.Result shows that economic efficiency of planting industry is significantly lower than that of other industry types of agriculture;and the production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is unbalanced and needs further optimization.The reasons for the imbalance in industrial structure are various,such as the relatively low quality of agricultural employees,the backward marketing of planting,and the lack of standardization management.Finally,corresponding suggestions are put forward,including developing education,conducting vocational training,improving the human capital stock of Huai’an City,cultivating the leading enterprises for agricultural product processing,and realizing the scale agglomeration effect of agricultural production in planting industry.

  11. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  12. Sustainable agriculture: an explanation of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M J

    1993-01-01

    Close relationships between agriculture and many areas of human activity determine countless interlinkages with global issues of natural environment protection, human population increase, food supply, industry and world trade. This broad context promotes different perceptions of sustainable agriculture by different interest groups. Profitable diversification away from overproduction of basic commodities and satisfaction of environmental pressure groups are major preoccupations in developed countries. Elsewhere the main concerns is to maintain a trend of increasing production: food security with a future dimension. Achieving this depends essentially on protecting the agricultural resource base. Inputs and input substitution are important co-related issues but the core of sustainability is the avoidance of any attrition of the potential for future production; this demands that we guard soil, water sources, grazing lands and gene pools against loss and degradation. Though superficially biophysical or technical in nature, most problems of resource degradation and eroding potential are rooted in economic, social and political issues; few such problems will be solved unless the primacy of these issues is recognized and addressed. Sustainable agriculture will likely remain elusive until governments and other agencies accept it as arising only as the outcome of a synthesis of strategies on population, employment, economic planning, technical research and national investment.

  13. INVESTIGATING THE SUSTAINABLE ASPECTS OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the sustainability in the farming sector is a core objective of the European Union which generates important consequences on the life’s quality. The sustainable agriculture has to bring an own contribution to the raising of the food safety and security, development and revitalize rural areas, environmental protection.In Romania improving the sustainability features of the agricultural practices is an ongoing preoccupation of the making cisional factors, the sustainable development being introduced in the national strategies and implemented in the practice by the agricultural holdings. This paper investigates the main characteristics of sustainability of Romanian agriculture having in view the three pillars of sustainable development, namely, economic aspects, social aspects and environmental aspects. For achieving this purpose it is carried out a dynamic analysis of the holdings’ economy which have a commercial profile from Romania and the other EU new member states. The analysis results reveal the contribution of some production factors on the economic efficiency to sustainable growth of holdings. The study findings suggest the action directions that have to be addressed by the decisional factors in order to consolidate the sustainability of farming practices.

  14. THE EVOLVING CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRONELA-SONIA NEDEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the definition of sustainability in development literature has varied widely and broadened in scope. The concept arose in response to economic growth models that characterized development approaches over the last half century. It was eventually recognized that such models did not adequately address social inequalities and led to environmental degradation. The concept gained wider use after the World Commission on Environment and Development published "Our common future" (Brundtland 1987. The economic, social, political and ecological dimensions of the rural environment are complex and have multiple implications, starting with theoretical and practical reasons. The process of urbanization that takes place at world-wide level has become one of the global problems of mankind, because of the disparities created between the countryside and the city, which arematerialized in the cultural, economical and social aspects that are synthesized in the terms of urban and rural civilizations, which define the different realities of the geographical space. Because the concept of sustainable agriculture is still evolving, this paper reviews the ideas, practices and policies that make the basis ofsustainable agriculture concept, in order to suggest to others practical steps that may be appropriate for them in moving toward sustainable agriculture.

  15. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  16. Regional Agricultural Input-Output Model and Countermeasure for Production and Income Increase of Farmers in Southern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural input and output status in southern Xinjiang,China is introduced,such as lack of agricultural input,low level of agricultural modernization,excessive fertilizer use,serious damage of environment,shortage of water resources,tremendous pressure on ecological balance,insignificant economic and social benefits of agricultural production in southern Xinjiang,agriculture remaining a weak industry,agricultural economy as the economic subject of southern Xinjiang,and backward economic development of southern Xinjiang.Taking the Aksu area as an example,according to the input and output data in the years 2002-2007,input-output model about regional agriculture of the southern Xinjiang is established by principal component analysis.DPS software is used in the process of solving the model.Then,Eviews software is adopted to revise and test the model in order to analyze and evaluate the economic significance of the results obtained,and to make additional explanations of the relevant model.Since the agricultural economic output is seriously restricted in southern Xinjiang at present,the following countermeasures are put forward,such as adjusting the structure of agricultural land,improving the utilization ratio of land,increasing agricultural input,realizing agricultural modernization,rationally utilizing water resources,maintaining eco-environmental balance,enhancing the awareness of agricultural insurance,minimizing the risk and loss,taking the road of industrialization of characteristic agricultural products,and realizing the transfer of surplus labor force.

  17. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  18. The Realization Path of Japan’s Agricultural Modernization and Its Precious Experience for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-guang; XIE Ping

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the per capita arable land area is small, the natural resources are short, and agricultural production has the typical characteristics of the peasant economy. Even if there are many unfavorable conditions, the level of agricultural modernization of Japan has exceeded that of many developed countries. We conduct comparative analysis on the development characteristics of China’s agriculture and Japan’s agriculture, and summarize the realization path of Japan’s agricultural modernization. Based on the reality of China, we can draw on the following experience from Japan: establishing and improving the agricultural legislation for agriculture; improving the rural cooperative economic organizations; deepening the reform of the agricultural land property right system; increasing the government’s direct funds input of into agriculture; improving the agricultural technology extension system.

  19. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  20. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize