WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural economics

  1. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Mevel, Simon; Bouet, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    India is considering approving genetically modified (GM) rice, but it fears losing rice exports to sensitive countries with import regulations on GM food, and may wait for China to lead the way. Using a multiregion, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the economic effects of introducing GM rice in India with or without China in the presence of labeling and import approval regulations of GM food in GM sensitive importing countries. We find that the welfare gains with GM ric...

  2. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, INTERDEPENDENCE AND UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jock R.

    1982-01-01

    Interdependence has always been central to economics but assumes pressing importance for agricultural economists as they deal with industrialising agricultures. Continued unresolvable uncertainties, when properly recognised, also add to the challenge of relevant work in agricultural economics. The related roles of interdependence and uncertainty are illustrated through examples from the progress of agricultural technology and enhancement of food security.

  3. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...... policy recommendations....

  4. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic point of view new research suggests that the organic sector can only be conceptualized and understood in the general social context. If the sector is analyzed as independent of general social context,...

  5. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  6. Research Frontiers of Agricultural Economics and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang L.X.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The focus of research on Agricultural Economics and Management (AEM) has been switching from developed countries to developing countries. In important international journals on AEM such as "American Journal of Agricultural Economics" and "Agricultural Economics", the research objectives mainly focus on AEM problems in developing countries, e.g. the effects of globalization and liberalization on agricultural production in developing countries, and problems in agricultural resources and environmental protections in developing countries.

  7. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS CURRICULA

    OpenAIRE

    Schurle, Bryan W.; Comer, Dorothy A.

    1995-01-01

    The potential use of computers and electronic technology have created considerable interest among educators in agricultural economics. This paper provides an overview of the use of electronic technology within agricultural economics curricula; examines areas in which technological development offers promise and examines issues associated with adoption of the technology.

  9. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU; ANA-GABRIELA BABUCEA

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is a sector of the national economy which may represent a significant contribution to the economic growth if it is quantified properly. In Romania agriculture has declined significantly caused by various reasons. In frame of this study, we will attempt to discern their influence using official statistics. We will try to identify the place and the role of agriculture in Romania's actual economy from the perspective of GDP, investment in agriculture, the employment of this sector ac...

  10. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of the national economy which may represent a significant contribution to the economic growth if it is quantified properly. In Romania agriculture has declined significantly caused by various reasons. In frame of this study, we will attempt to discern their influence using official statistics. We will try to identify the place and the role of agriculture in Romania's actual economy from the perspective of GDP, investment in agriculture, the employment of this sector activity, because romanian agriculture remains an important sector in terms of view of agricultural area used, the contribution to GDP and, in particular, the percentage of the population employed.

  11. Northeast Agriculture: The Overlooked Economic Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Christopher Laughton

    2012-01-01

    Farm Credit East recently supported an independent study by Dr. Rigoberto Lopez of the University of Connecticut (see page 25 for full profile) to quantitatively estimate the multiplier impact of Northeast agricultural production on the larger economy. This report presents those findings as an instructional resource for government, economic development agencies and our nonfarm neighbors to truly appreciate the economic and community benefits of successful, profitable agricultural producers. T...

  12. An Economic Analysis of Ugandan Agricultural Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Komarek, Adam M.; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.

    2006-01-01

    Transaction costs and poor asset endowments appear to be major impediments to small scale agricultural development in Uganda. Reasons for the lack of commercialisation of agriculture, and the barriers to increasing the value of banana crop sales and banana production are the focus of this paper. Using agricultural household economics theory, an empirical analysis based on the Heckman model is unertaken. Data collected through a primary farm survey in three different regions of Uganda form the...

  13. Dynamic agricultural supply response under economic transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Liu, Fengwei; You, Liangzhi

    2010-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic economic transformation and is facing the challenge of ensuring steady agricultural growth. This study examines the crop sector by estimating the supply response for major crops in Henan province from 1998 to 2007. We use a Nerlovian adjustment adaptive expectation model. The estimation uses dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) panel estimation based on pooled data across 108 counties. We estimate acreage and yield response functions and derive the supply...

  14. Economics of the Common Agricultural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Wichern

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy has been assessed as an important reform in the right direction with respect to allocational efficiency and regarding environmental, animal welfare and food safety requirements. From an economic point of view the introduction of decoupled direct payments will reduce distortions in production decisions and, thus improve sectoral efficiency. Several papers have supported this reform. While acknowledging and supporting these views with respect to...

  15. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  16. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  17. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS RESEARCH AND THE EXPERIMENT STATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Bradford, Garnett L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of agricultural economics research within the land-grant university system. Fundamental differences between research in the biological sciences and the social sciences are delineated. Implications of these differences for experiment station research programs are discussed. Recommendations are made which have potential for enhancing the role of agricultural economics within colleges of agriculture.

  18. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE IN METROPOLITAN AREAS: ECONOMICS AND REGULATORY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    Metropolitan agriculture is economically important, especially in the Northeast. While faced with substantial economic and regulatory obstacles, commercial farming in urban areas is surviving and even prospering. In terms of standard models of agriculture in economic development, this is a puzzle. But more detailed, spatial economic models indicate how labor-intensive production of perishable commodities in urbanized areas can make economic sense, especially when coupled with environmental am...

  19. A Comparison of Salary Structures between Economics and Agricultural Economics Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmer, Christiana E.; Hillmer, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to empirically assess the difference between the prevailing salary structures in economics and agricultural economics departments at public institutions in the United States. We find that average salaries in economics departments tend to be higher than salaries in agricultural economics departments. Regression analysis suggest that years since Ph.D. explains a greater proportion of salaries in agricultural economics departments while the tier of school explains a great...

  20. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  1. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Adjustment of Agricultural Structure on Agricultural Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shi-Peng; Luo, Shuai

    2012-01-01

    We conduct empirical analysis of the contribution of various sectors of agriculture in Xinjiang to agricultural economic growth, and the impact of adjustment of these sectors on agriculture economic growth The results show that the growth of farming has the greatest force to drive the growth of total agricultural output in Xinjiang, followed by animal husbandry; the rate of contribution of these two production sectors, farming and animal husbandry, not only shows high-frequency fluctuation, b...

  2. Ecological and economic substantiation of measures to protect agricultural lands

    OpenAIRE

    V. Lyushyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with terms of increasing the efficiency and interconnection of the land protection system elements in agriculture on each level of land management. Theoretical and methodological provisions regarding ecological and economic feasibility of measures to protect agricultural land, taking into account the natural climatic and organizational-economic conditions of production, as well as the ecological state of land resources, are refined.

  3. The Economic Role of the Portuguese Agricultural Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rebelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 Portugal began to be influenced by a financial crisis, public budget troubles and an economic crisis. In line with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged that the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agricultural sector deserves a special attention. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic role of the Portuguese agricultural marketing cooperatives, including an overview of the Portuguese agricultural sector, the typology of Portuguese cooperatives and position in the agro food chain, the institutional environment, internal governance and performance of the agricultural cooperatives.

  4. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REPORT 2003 OF THE NETHERLANDS: SUMMARY

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, Petra; van Bruchem, Cees

    2004-01-01

    This report offers an English summary of the Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2003. It presents a survey of the economic state of Dutch agriculture and horticulture. First, attention is paid to general economic and political developments and to the development of the agricultural complex. Next, the report deals with the rural area and with environmental issues. Following a description of the production structure and production factors in agriculture, profitability and income formation in the vario...

  5. Agricultural economic report 2003 of the Netherlands: summary

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, P.; Bruchem, van, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report offers an English summary of the Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2003. It presents a survey of the economic state of Dutch agriculture and horticulture. First, attention is paid to general economic and political developments and to the development of the agricultural complex. Next, the report deals with the rural area and with environmental issues. Following a description of the production structure and production factors in agriculture, profitability and income formation in the vario...

  6. Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Rodent Control Using

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Iddo; Motro, Yoav; Horvitz, Nir; Kimhi, Ayal; Leshem, Yossi; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Nathan, Ran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We develop an empirical framework for evaluating the profitability of the use of barn owls to control rodent populations by locating nesting boxes in agricultural areas. Barn owls’ behavior is incorporated into the analysis by estimated functions that relate agricultural production to the birds’ spatial patterns of hunting and nesting choices. The model was developed based on agricultural and zoological data collected in a kibbutz in northern Israel. Focusing on alfalfa, the presence...

  7. Economic Ecology Benefits Research of Combined Circular Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Xiong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the thrift and cyclic utilization of natural resources, improving agricultural economic benefit and ecological efficiency are the basic requirements of combined circular agriculture, and also the inevitable directions of Chinese agricultural development. This paper based on farmer economic theory, take the farmer fertilizer inputs of the three provinces Shandong, Shanxi, Hubei as examples, through establishing econometric models, through knowing the farmer reduction inputs and its influence factors in combined circular agriculture, to make study to the economic ecology benefits research of combined circular agriculture. The research result shows only under "incremental utilization" and "decremental utilization" these two choices, most farmers tend to the decremental utilization of fertilizer"; in addition, the gender, family agricultural acreage of agricultural production decision makers, the cognition degree, government technical support degree of farmers to combined circular agriculture all have obviously impact on fertilizer application behaviors. To further stimulate farmers reduce using means of production during productive process, it needs to promote paying attention to the guidance of agricultural productive large-scale growers and women, improve the cognition degree of farmers to combined circular agriculture, reinforce government technical support degree, and improve economic ecology benefits of combined circular agriculture.

  8. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  9. Agricultural R&D and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dinopoulos, Elias

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops a dynamic general-equilibrium model of Schumpeterian growth which is fueled by industrial and agricultural R&D. The former is private and results in better production processes, whereas the latter is government-financed (public and applied) R&D and generates better crop varieties. The arrival of innovations in either sector is stochastic. The model is used to calculate the steady-state equilibrium and the growth-maximizing mix of agricultural and industrial R&D investments....

  10. Agricultural Economic Report 2006 of the Netherlands: summary

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, P.; Bruchem, van, J.

    2006-01-01

    This report offers an English summary of the Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2006. It presents a survey of the economic state of Dutch agribusiness. First, attention is paid to general economic and political developments and to the development of the agricultural complex. Next, the report deals with the rural area and with environmental issues. Following a description of the production structure and production factors in agriculture, profitability and income formation in the various sub sectors a...

  11. Agricultural Economic Report 2008 of the Netherlands; Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous; van Bruchem, Cees

    2008-01-01

    This report offers an English summary of the Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2008. It presents a survey of the economic state of Dutch agribusiness. First, attention is paid to general economic and political developments and to the development of the agricultural complex. Next, the report deals with the rural area and with environmental issues. Following a description of the production structure and production factors in agriculture, profitability and income formation in the various sub sectors a...

  12. Agricultural economic report 2005 of the Netherlands: summary

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, P.; Bruchem, van, J.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an English summary of the Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2005. It presents a survey of the economic state of Dutch agribusiness. First, attention is paid to general economic and political developments and to the development of the agricultural complex. Next, the report deals with the rural area and with environmental issues. Following a description of the production structure and production factors in agriculture, profitability and income formation in the various sub sectors...

  13. Agricultural economic report 2004 of the Netherlands: summary

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, P.; Bruchem, van, J.

    2004-01-01

    This report offers an English summary of the Landbouw-Economisch Bericht 2004. It presents a survey of the economic state of Dutch agribusiness. First, attention is paid to general economic and political developments and to the development of the agricultural complex. Next, the report deals with the rural area and with environmental issues. Following a description of the production structure and production factors in agriculture, profitability and income formation in the various sub-sectors a...

  14. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1988-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  15. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1991-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  16. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1985-1987

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  17. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1979-1981

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  18. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1982-1984

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  19. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1994-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  20. ECONOMIC RESEARCH OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURE, 1997-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Dote, Grace

    2000-01-01

    This bibliography of Giannini Foundation members' publications, Economic Research of Interest to Agriculture was first issued on May 6, 1951, the eighty-first birthday of A.P. Giannini, and included the Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics members' works from 1929 through 1950. The first three issues were compiled and edited by the Giannini Foundation's first librarian, Orpha E. Cummings, 1930-1958. The issues that followed were edited by librarians, Mary Lida Eakin, 1958-1967; Virgi...

  1. Organic Agriculture in Denmark - Economic Implications of a Widespread Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wynen, Els

    1998-01-01

    To assess the effects of a hypothetical widespread adoption of organic practices in Denmark, a four-region, partial equilibrium model of the Danish agricultural sector, the Danish Organic Agriculture Project (DOAP), was constructed for the Danish Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Economics (SJFI). DOAP contains 3 farm sectors, crops, dairy and pigs, and permits farmers to have up to 16 cropping activities. Detailed costs of production are modelled in each sector and region. DOAP contain...

  2. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  3. Economic assessment of Dutch agricultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    To cope with globalisation and other changes in the industry, in the last 20 years the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture has reorganised its system for education, extension and research considerably. It moved away from the concept of a linear process of innovation to that of an agro-innovation system. T

  4. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  5. The Elicitation of Subjective Probabilities with Applications in Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia E. NORRIS; Randall A. Kramer

    1990-01-01

    Probability judgements are important components of decision making under uncertainty. In particular, economic decisions can be aided by assuring more accurate assessment of probabilities and more realistic modelling of economic problems through the inclusion of subjective probabilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques which can be used to elicit subjective probabilities and the ways in which these techniques can be incorporated into agricultural economics research. The...

  6. Economic and Environmental Perspectives on Sustainable Agriculture Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem

    1995-01-01

    There is a great deal of concern today to ensure that economic development, including agricultural development, is sustainable. It is being increasingly emphasized that this sustainability requires care to be taken of the natural environment. This is because the natural environment is both the source of important resources that support economic activity and an avenue or sink for disposal of wastes from economic activity. Soil and water are for example, important natural resources used in agri...

  7. The Agricultural Economics Challenge: An online program where high school students learn economics and agriculture of the Salinas Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bocanegra, Leti; Harrison–Smith, Margie

    2005-01-01

    The National Steinbeck Center created a virtual farm online to teach high school students economic principles by using a local lettuce company as a model. This article traces the development of the program, offers an overview of the Agricultural Economics Challenge game as well as the challenges the Museum faces in implementing the program.

  8. Agricultural Insurance In Nigeria And The Economic Impact: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus M. Epetimehin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

  9. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  10. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Drabenstott, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Industrialization is rapidly becoming a topic of great attention. Driven by fundamental economic forces, industrialization seems likely to advance ore quickly in the coming decade to more industry segments. By changing the way agriculture does business, industrialization will also bring change to public policy and agricultural institutions. Commodity policy will increasingly be out of step with a product-oriented industry. And as industrialization blurs the lines between producers and process...

  11. Land and Agriculture in the Philippines: An Economic History Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O. D. Corpuz

    1992-01-01

    This article explains the land system established since the late 16th and 17th centuries as a result of the Spanish conquest, and traces the various types of landholdings and their economic roles to the end of the Spanish era. Except for the government purchase of the friar haciendas in 1903, the structure of the land system — and of agriculture — was not changed during the United States occupation era. The cadastering and titling systems favored large landholders and plantation agriculture, ...

  12. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Adjustment of Agricultural Structure on Agricultural Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We conduct empirical analysis of the contribution of various sectors of agriculture in Xinjiang to agricultural economic growth,and the impact of adjustment of these sectors on agricultural economic growth.The results show that the growth of farming has the greatest force to drive the growth of total agricultural output in Xinjiang,followed by animal husbandry;the rate of contribution of these two production sectors,farming and animal husbandry,not only shows high-frequency fluctuation,but also shows reverse fluctuation;the effect arising from adjustment of farming is gradually spreading to animal husbandry,forestry and fishery one by one,but the spreading rate is low.Finally the countermeasures and proposals are put forward to further adjust agricultural structure and promote agricultural economic growth of Xinjiang under the Twelfth Five-Year Plan as follows:adjust the industrial structure steadily,address the industry convergence and broaden the income-increase channels for the farmers;strengthen the input to adjustment of agricultural structure;stick to the combination of internal adjustment and external adjustment of agricultural industry.

  13. The economics of agricultural development: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumasset James

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development thinking has gone through several stages of fad and fancy, often without an understanding of previous fallacies. Its current doldrums are unfortunate given the unrivaled importance of agricultural development for poverty reduction in most development countries. After reviewing several policy and program areas, lessons are synthesized, and a forward-looking research framework suggested, especially regarding role of specialization in the evolution of economic organization. The corresponding role of government is seen to be the facilitation of economic cooperation, rather than social engineering.

  14. FISCAL EFFECTIVENESS UNDER REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: INDONESIAN AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrudin Nasrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting agricultural sector performance and seeks the most effective policy in the presence of regional economic integration. It predicts the effectiveness of fiscal policy on the agricultural sector performance in four periods; the new order regime, the economic crisis, and pre and post China Free Trade Area (CAFTA. It also predicts the impact of fiscal policy on agricultural sector performance when CAFTA is fully implemented. It finds that fiscal policy is more effective in the optimum allocation of expenditures. It also finds that the agricultural sector can grow faster when the portion of capital expenditure increases.Keywords: Fiscal effectiveness, economic integration, agricultureJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17AbstrakMakalah ini menyelidiki efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam mendorong kinerja sektor pertanian dan mencari kebijakan yang paling efektif dengan adanya integrasi ekonomi regional. Makalah ini memprediksi efektivitas kebijakan fiskal dalam meningkatkan kinerja sektor pertanian dalam empat periode; rezim orde baru, krisis ekonomi, sebelum pelaksanaan China Free Trade Area (CAFTA, dan setelah pelaksanaan CAFTA. Makalah ini juga memprediksi dampak kebijakan fiskal terhadap kinerja sektor pertanian saat CAFTA sepenuhnya dilaksanakan. Hasil analisis menemukan bahwa kebijakan fiskal lebih efektif dalam alokasi optimal dari pengeluaran. Analisis juga menemukan bahwa sektor pertanian dapat tumbuh lebih cepat ketika porsi peningkatan belanja modal meningkat.Keywords: Efektivitas fiskal, integrasi ekonomi, pertanianJEL Classification Numbers: E62, F15, Q17

  15. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, G.C.; Valin, H.; Sands, R.D.; Havlik, P.; Ahammad, H.; Deryng, D.; Elliott, J.; Fujimori, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heyhoe, E.; Kyle, P.; Lampe, von M.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Croz, d' D.M.; Meijl, van H.; Mensbrugghe, van der D.; Muller, C.; Popp, A.; Robertson, R.; Robinson, S.; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, C.; Tabeau, A.A.; Willenbockel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and

  16. Improvement of economic management tools for agricultural land use

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Palenychak

    2014-01-01

    In the process of agrarian reform, the focus was on the reform of land relations, creation of new organizational and legal forms of management. An important prerequisite for ecologically safe and effective use of land resource potential is to improve economic instruments in the management system of land use within the agricultural sphere.

  17. Bio-economic Household Modelling for Agricultural Intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the quest for sustainable agricultural intensification through the development of a quantitative bio-economic modelling framework that allows assessment of new technology and policy measures in terms of household welfare and sustainability indicators. The main aim of the st

  18. SPECIFIC ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY INDICATORS OF INVESTMENTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu CICEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the beginning of the millennium has been marked by an economic crisis of major proportions, with impacts in all areas of activity, comparable to that of 1929-1933 (some economists believe that the current crisis was much stronger than that of the previous century and only the ability to respond promptly minimizes the devastating effects. In this context, one of the main modality for an economic revitalization is to increase business efficiency and rational use of resources, particularly in those fields which were not directly related to the global economic crisis. Of these, the crucial place is occupied by agriculture, considered as one of the most important vectors of welfare and economic development. In the context of increasingly limited resources and constantly multiplication and diversification of the requests, efficiency evaluation issues in agriculture, especially for investment processes, is vital to overcome the current situation. The paper aims to analyze the efficiency of agriculture activities, focusing on the investment process. The authors present general indicators to assess the efficiency in agriculture, and specific indicators of investment. Finally, there is a concrete case study of the specific indicators implementation.

  19. Leadership Development in Agricultural Economics: Challenges for Academic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Crafting and executing strategy are key tasks to be carried out by a manager of an enterprise. Unit leaders are managers of an academic enterprise called a department. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of information collected from interviews with unit leaders of departments of agricultural economics and discuss challenges being faced by these unit leaders in March 2009.

  20. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  1. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Office of the Secretary National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  2. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension,...

  3. The Effects of Agricultural Informatization on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis Based on Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; TAN

    2013-01-01

    This article selects some major factors influencing the agricultural economic growth are selected,such as labor,capital input,farmland area,fertilizer input and information input.And it selects some factors to explain information input,such as the number of website ownership,types of books,magazines and newspapers published,the number of telephone ownership per 100 households,the number of home computers ownership per 100 households,farmers’ spending on transportation and communication,culture,education,entertainment and services, and the total number of agricultural science and technology service personnel.Using regression model,this article conducts regression analysis of the cross-section data on 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities in 2010.The results show that the building of information infrastructure,the use of means of information,the popularization and promotion of knowledge of agricultural science and technology,play an important role in promoting agricultural economic growth.

  4. Design of an agricultural economic statistical digitalized system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the management of large farms, a digitalized system of economic statistics is designed based on the Internet platform of the digitalized agricultural integrated system of Friendship Farm, the largest farm in the world. The system can also realize data storage by using the access databank technology. A dynamic website system, based on ASP technology, is used to implement the on-line inquiry of the statistical index of the agricultural economy and the diagrams of the index every y...

  5. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  6. Contributions of Agriculture to Economic Fluctuations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DACHIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and European integration could be advantages for the development of agriculture in Romania, which still holds a high relative position in the economy and has structures of business organization and employment that do not match the European model. Based on the empirical analysis of available data, the paper presents changes of the Romanian agriculture in the last two decades and their influence on the whole economy, by pointing out three important fields of macroeconomic fluctuations: gross domestic product, prices and employment. The extended size of the subsistence component in the agricultural sector keeps the dependence of production variations on the natural conditions, strongly influenced by climate changes, while inducing significant variations in the GDP, but is also a solution to soften the social effects of the economic crisis.

  7. Ranking agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics journals: A note

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2012-01-01

    This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks for the first time Economics journals in the field of Agricultural, Environmental and Natural Resource. Specifically, by using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 32 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with t...

  8. Factors Influencing Job Choice among Agricultural Economics Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Katherine; Popp, Jennie S. Hughes; Bruce L Dixon; Newton, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies factors that influence agricultural economics professionals’ job choice between academic and government employment. Respondents agreed that job responsibilities were the most important factor in choosing their current position. They also agreed that having a positive work environment, good salary, family time, adequate resources, and professional and social interaction were important job attributes. Proportionally more women than men regarded partner opportunities, n...

  9. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  10. Strategic ways of economic development of agriculture in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko Vіtalіy M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data with respect to the modern state and tendencies of development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The issue of the optimal size of an agricultural enterprise is discussed in the scientific literature. The world practice shows that competitive advantages of farms are achieved through their unification for creation of various partnerships and co-operatives, which operate on the unprofitable basis. Powerful industrial enterprises, financial, trading and service structures took advantage of absence of co-operatives and monopolised production of agricultural products, holding significant areas of agricultural land on lease. Today, ten biggest Ukrainian agro-holdings have more than three million hectares of land or 7.5% of all lands. Big capital, trying to maximise profit, is specialised, as a rule, in mono-production. The article shows main ways of strategic development of agriculture in Ukraine. Depending on the main form of farm management, there are two directions of further development of agro-industrial production: development of big agro-industrial formations (branch organisation of agro-industrial production and vertical integration in the agro-industrial complex (AIC or co-operatives (territorial organisation of agro-industrial production and horizontal integration in AIC. Depending on the way selected by the state, an organisational and economic mechanism is created. The article develops conceptual grounds of state regulation of AIC in the context of development of major agro-industrial formations and agricultural service co-operatives.

  11. AGRICULTURE AND GLOBALIZATION, ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY’S ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speran a Liliana Neagu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The key feature of the agriculture\\'s globalization is the mere fact that some countries successfully integrated their agriculture and food industry, while others failed to do it. Globalization is a manifestation of the world market\\'s force whose main consequence is the fact that the State s economic power is more and more transferred to the private business milieu. It has emerged economic corporations and areas having territorial or municipal autonomy, as well as foundations and associations playing an ever more important part. Farmer groups make agriculture to be more efficient A sustainable development of the rum! space is required as climate changes in the natural resource basins and even major political changes haw lately occurred. The rural development\\'s main goals are to reorganize the territory and to improve the land, to set up new communication networks and enlarge the existing ones, along with the resources conservation and renewal and to preserve the environmental balance, and the landscape improvement and the development of the countryside tourism and leisure facilities and upgrading the rural public conveniences and utilities system. Emphasis is put on IT and the continuous training of the producers. The markets are better and better organized and it is advisable to join a vocational group or association in order to enter them, otherwise you risk to put out products for self-consumption only. It is developing an economic diplomacy more and more willing to understand the farmers and their representatives, who can indirectly have, a wider lobby opportunity, this way, and a go-between capacity among fanners enabling them to contact more skilful and trained ones or ever more globalizing international organizations and institutions.

  12. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  13. INVOLVEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS IN GRADUATE AGRIBUSINESS PROGRAMS: AN UNCOMFORTABLE LINKAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Biere, Arlo W.

    1988-01-01

    Departments of agricultural economics face a changing environment. Some argue for the adoption of the Master of Agribusiness degree. I argue that agribusiness in not well differentiated from agricultural economics and that the forte of agricultural economics departments is teaching applied economics, not teaching management. Furthermore, in today's dynamic, open economy, a good understanding of economics is more valuable than ever before. Rather than leave our area of strength, we should look...

  14. Transformation of agricultural sector of Ukrainian economics: some social and economic results

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Elena; Borodina, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural sector of Ukrainian economics is in the period of transformations, which are accompanied by increase of negative tendencies in the social sphere: depopulation of significant territories, worsening of living conditions for rural population, increasing of mass poverty, growing unemployment, sharp income differentiation. High social losses against a background of development of large-scale commercial production, land concentration and capitalization of production are leading to incr...

  15. Differential Marketing of Agricultural Products Dominated by Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Differential marketing is a strategy opposed to competitive convergence mainly characterized by seeking development in differences. Therefore, marketing of agricultural products dominated by rural cooperative economic organizations has an important practical role. Taking Manas County in Xinjiang Province as an example, agricultural marketing system dominated by rural cooperative economic organizations develops rapidly, mainly reflected in â‘ constructing agriculture industry association based...

  16. Ecological and economic components of the agricultural sector development in Ukraine in terms of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ostapenko; T. Shkabara

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with appropriateness of adaptation of the agricultural national system to new environmental economic determinants. A component structures within the system of agricultural interactions in terms of climate change have been determined. Ways of improving the complex economic, social and ecological processes at the level of agricultural enterprises have been suggested.

  17. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  18. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  19. Agriculture in Developing Countries and the Role of Government: Economic Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kanza, Patrick; Vitale, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in Developing countries and the Role of Government: From an Economic Perspective Agriculture has been a critical driver of well-being for centuries, ensuring food security and catalyzing productivity needed for economic prosperity (Robin, 2011). According to the International Food Policy Research Institute, sixty-five percent of African relies on agriculture as a primary source of livelihood, where small-scale famers are responsible for ninety percent of agricultural production (I...

  20. On the Economics of Precision Agriculture: Technical, Informational and Environmental Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Anvec, Tihomir; Whelan, Brett; McBratney, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated framework of biophysical and economic modelling as a novel approach towards precision agriculture research. A theoretical economic model determining the optimal number of precision agriculture management units within a given field of land is presented. The model is expanded to account for the value of the research information provided be the precision agriculture researchers. Since the inherent environmental values associated with precision agriculture are oft...

  1. The use of grey literature in the agricultural economics field : a quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa; Sala, Cesare; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention to GL a number of methodological issues remain unsolved, basically standards of presentations and indicators for measuring GL use. The main aim of this paper is to study the use of GL in agricultural economics. This field of agricultural science is an interesting point of observation because it represents a social science (economics) in an applied context (agricultural). Previous studies showed that all agricultural research fields are strongly connected to ag...

  2. Cluster Analysis of the Agricultural Economic Development in the Districts and Counties of Qingyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongya; MA

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of economic growth,agricultural development,the development of township enterprises and farmers’ income,we select 11 indicators to build the evaluation indicator system for the agricultural economic development in the districts and counties of Qingyang City. Using data processing and SPSS13. 0 statistical software,we carry out the cluster analysis of the level of economic development in the districts and counties,and divide the level of agricultural economic development of these districts and counties into three economic gradients in descending order:(i) The first gradient: Xifeng;(ii) The second gradient: Qingchi and Huachi;(iii) The third gradient: Huanxian,Heshui,Zhengning,Ningxian and Zhenyuan. The study results systematically reflect the level of agricultural economic development in the districts and counties,and point out the status of the districts and counties in Qingyang’s agricultural economic development. Finally we put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  3. Use Of Instruments For Environmental Marketing In Economic Activity Of Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Shkuratov; Irina Voronetska

    2012-01-01

    Improved marketing mechanism of agricultural enterprise through the introduction of environmental marketing. Grounded place, tasks and functions of environmental marketing in integrated environmental and economic management.

  4. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL INTEGRATION OF ROMANIA INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. CASE STUDY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE NORTH-WEST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development, by its magnitude, includes several fields, making many institutions are involved in the development and implementation. Structural Funds are the main financial instruments used by the European Union to reduce disparities and promote economic and social cohesion in Europe. For Romania, the regional development policy is a relatively new concept. Using multi-criteria method was attempted an analysis of the level of agricultural development and North-West agricultural sector contribution to economic growth in the region.

  5. International economic trade partners and competitions of the Russian on world agricultural market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses common and specific problems of international trade in Russia and its regions in agricultural sector, specific situation and methods of reformation, adaptation and modernization of the national and regional agricultural complexes, its resources base on the way to globalization processes in the world, including such forms of international trade of agricultural products and formation on this base of an industrial agricultural economics plus rate of the international agricultural trade expansion. Regions of Russia are quickly developing territories with very active integration into world economy system, having high tempo of economic rate growth and adaptation of the economy to specific situation and methods of diversification of the agricultural base resources; the analysis is made on agricultural production of international trade in such countries as China, the USA, the European Union, Argentina, Canada, India and Brazil while searching for new economic partners on international agricultural market.

  6. AGRICULTURE AND ITS PLACE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilorom Tadjibaeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.

  7. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  8. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ..., Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet March 29-31, 2010. The public may file written...

  9. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board. DATES: The National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board will meet May 28-30, 2013. The public may file written...

  10. A Brief Introduction to the History of Computing in Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.

    2013-01-01

    These are the notes from the departmental retirement seminar on computing technology employed in agricultural economics presented by Dr. Debertin in April, 2013. These notes and photographs describe the history of computing in agricultural economics over a period of over 40 years from 1969-2013.

  11. Environmental and economic assessment of the agricultural land management state on the contaminated areas

    OpenAIRE

    O. Grynyk

    2013-01-01

    Ecological and economic assessment of the agricultural land management state in the contaminated areas has been given in the article. Directions for an agricultural production rehabilitation and agricultural land sustainable management in areas contaminated owing to Chernobyl accident have been offered

  12. An Intersectoral Perspective on the Relationship between the Agricultural and Industrial Sectors in Chinese Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Jinding, Lin

    1992-01-01

    In a developing economy characterized by economic dualism, the interrelationship between the growth of the agricultural sector and that of the industrial sector is crucial for overall development. Theoretically, the agricultural and industrial sectors are closely linked. Agricultural progress would depend increasingly on the growth of industrial development and vice versa. However, no mutual dependency occurred in the Chinese economic development process. A causality test between the agricult...

  13. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are

  14. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  15. Research in Agricultural Economics 1919-1990:Seventy-two Years of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    1991-01-01

    In this article, we trace the historical development of analytical (quantitative) research techniques used in empirical agricultural economics research by examining the articles in volumes of the Journal of Farm Economics (JFE) and the American Journal of Agricultural Economics (AJAE) from its inception in 1919 to 1990, a total of 72 years. We first determine for each article whether or not empirical results were obtained and then identified the particular quantitative technique employed in o...

  16. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CONFLICTS: AGRICULTURAL USE OR CULTIVATION BIOMASS SECOND GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Trohlyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To negotiate the consequences of agricultural modernization as an example of nature Polissya areas in Ukraine. Studies addressing the conceptual foundations of ecological and economic conflict over agricultural use or cultivation of second generation biomass due to the transformation of land use during the economic reforms in the country. Proposed to solve it through socio-ecological-economic assessment of environmental audit procedure in the context of the strategy of "green" economy.

  17. The Role of Vocational Education in Agriculture--Economic Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillion, Martin B.

    1982-01-01

    Vocational agriculture is education for work. By meeting the needs of the economy and the job market, it can meet the needs of the individual. Although human resource development is important, vocational agriculture should focus on job-relevant competencies and cost effectiveness. (SK)

  18. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  19. The Analysis on the Influence of Water Conservancy Investment on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Study Based on the Boom Period of Shandong Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping; CAO; Zhe; FENG; Jilian; HU

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses econometric methods to carry out a Granger causality test on the construction of water conservancy infrastructure construction and agricultural economic growth in the boom period(1981- 2002) of Shandong agriculture. Empirical results indicate that there exists two-way Granger causality between Shandong water conservancy infrastructure construction and Shandong agricultural economic growth.Therefore,water conservancy infrastructure construction has a significant influence on agricultural economic growth in Shandong.

  20. Needs, Modes and Efficiency of Economic Organizations and Public Interventions in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a fundamental development in theory and understanding of market, private, collective and public organizations in recent years. This paper incorporates achievements of the interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (combining Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences) and suggests a framework for assessing the needs and efficiency of economic organizations and public interventions in agriculture. Our new approach incl...

  1. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui; WU

    2014-01-01

    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  2. THE PERSPECTIVE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL IN VRANCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of supplying raw materials for both the population and for the manufacturing industry. It is aimed that the organization of the agricultural area to be made so that the lands that have agricultural destination to be used as rationally as possible. Also, it is important to introduce in the agricultural circuit all the unused lands. The fragmentation of the agricultural land is a disadvantage in the process of rational organization of agricultural area. Efficient use of land, as a requirement of the intensive and durable agriculture is a complex activity that involves conservation activities and soil improvement. Due to the role that they have, the approach of the aspects referring to the medium and big farms has to be different from the approaches referring to the small farms. If the farms from the first category take into account the agriculture as a business, the small farms are important for the rural area by oferring food and social security and means of traditional production that contributes to the environment conservation. Romania's economic recovery can be achieved based on the attention that has to be given to this field. Being an important factor of social stability and of the maintainance of the ecological balance, agriculture enjoys an increasing attention worldwide. The supply and the demand of food determines the use of agricultural resources. The article presents the current situation of agriculture, at national and regional levels. Through this analysis, we

  3. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  5. The economic impacts of climate change on the Chilean agricultural sector: A non-linear agricultural supply model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ponce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture could be one of the most vulnerable economic sectors to the impacts of climate change in the coming decades, with impacts threatening agricultural production in general and food security in particular. Within this context, climate change will impose a challenge to policy makers, especially in those countries that based their development on primary sectors. In this paper we present a non-linear agricultural supply model for the analysis of the economic impacts of changes in crop yields due to climate change. The model accounts for uncertainty through the use of Monte Carlo simulations about crop yields. According to our results, climate change impacts on the Chilean agricultural sector are widespread, with considerable distributional consequences across regions, and with fruits producers being worst-off than crops producers. In general, the results reported here are consistent with those reported by previous studies showing large economic impacts on the northern zone. However, our model does not simulate remarkable economic consequences at the country level as previous studies did.

  6. Effects of Environmental Regulation on Economic Activity and Pollution in Commercial Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sneeringer, Stacy E.

    2009-01-01

    Research on environmental regulation’s effects on economic activity has largely focused on manufacturing, ignoring one of the major polluters in the U.S. – commercial agriculture. As livestock production has become increasingly mobile, regulation has become an important criterion in firm location. This article extends the literature on environmental regulation’s economic effects to commercial agriculture by exploiting a series of regulations adopted in North Carolina in the 1990s. During this...

  7. Vertically integrated entities in agriculture: economic principles of organization and laws of development

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gutorov

    2011-01-01

    The article is an attempt of a scientific substantiation and generalisation of economic principles of organization and the laws of development of vertically integrated companies in the agriculture of Ukraine. The research methods are: the analysis, synthesis, generalisation and ordering. The results of research: the basic economic principles of organization and the objective laws of development of the superlarge vertically integrated companies in the agriculture of Ukraine are reflected in th...

  8. The economic and social impact of European funds in the Romanian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Antohi, Valentin Marian; Liliana Mihaela MOGA

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and analyze the stages undergone by the Romanian agriculture, within the context of integration in the European Union, and the transformation that occurred in the aftermath of accession. On this line, the social and economic effects of agriculture integration and the direction of the Romanian agriculture development have been forecasted through a research conducted at the rural area level of the North East Development Region. The research was based on data collecte...

  9. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline

    OpenAIRE

    Gallai, Nicola; Salles, Jean-Michel; Settele, Josef; Vaissière, Bernard E.

    2009-01-01

    International audience There is mounting evidence of pollinator decline all over the world and consequences in many agricultural areas could be significant. We assessed these consequences by measuring 1) the contribution of insect pollination to the world agricultural output economic value, and 2) the vulnerability of world agriculture in the face of pollinator decline. We used a bioeconomic approach, which integrated the production dependence ratio on pollinators, for the 100 crops used d...

  10. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted to pollinator decline

    OpenAIRE

    Gallai, Nicola; Salles, Jean-Michel; Settele, Josef; Vaissière, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    There is mounting evidence of pollinator decline all over the world and consequences in many agricultural areas could be significant. We assessed these consequences by measuring 1) the contribution of insect pollination to the world agricultural output economic value, and 2) the vulnerability of world agriculture in the face of pollinator decline. We used a bioeconomic approach, which integrated the production dependence ratio on pollinators, for the 100 crops used directly for human food wor...

  11. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    McCarl, Bruce A.; U. Schneider; Murray, B.; Williams, J; Sands, R.

    2001-01-01

    The authors use the Agricultural Sector Model to analyze the economic potential of soil carbon sequestration as one of several agricultural greenhouse gas emission mitigation strategies, including afforestation. For low incentives on carbon emission savings, agricultural soil carbon sequestration is the most cost-efficient strategy. As incentive levels increase above $50 per ton of carbon equivalent, afforestation and biofuel production become the key strategies, while the role of soil carbon...

  12. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  13. Women Helping Women in Agricultural Economics? Same-Gender Mentoring and Early Career Research Productivity for Agricultural Economics Ph.D.s

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmer, Michael J.; Hilmer, Christiana E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the first to empirically examine the degree to which student outcomes differ across gender-mentorship configurations for agricultural economics Ph.D. recipients. Using a Negative Binomial regression model, we find that female students working with male advisors average statistically fewer total publications in their early careers than men working with male advisors.

  14. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  15. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  16. Developing the organizational-economic relations during agricultural-industrial integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Okladchik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the need for economic integration of agricultural enterprises. Methods abstractlogical monographic. Results economic integration in agriculture is needed due to the destruction of economic relations in the period of economy liberalization and decrease in efficiency and productivity in agriculture. The solution to the problems of financing pricing and marketing of agricultural products lies in the sphere of forming integrative relations between enterprises producing processing and marketing agricultural products. Basing on the analysis of theoretical provisions the main forms of enterprises integration is identified such as contractual relationship without creating new legal entities formation of associations unions holding companies financialindustrial groups. It was found that the most effective are those forms of associations that form a complete closed cycle of production and sales i.e. holdings and financialindustrial groups. Basing on the analysis of the economic integration principles the necessity was determined of implementing the principle of stability of economic relations which will allow to overcome the crisis in the agrarian sector. In addition the author has formulated principles for the implementing the economic mechanism in integrated groups based on equality freedom and integrity of such groups. The key components of economic relations in terms of integration were identified ndash organizational unity of the technological process as well as the transformation of the interests of technologically related actors towards a common result. Scientific novelty the principle of stability of economic links during integration of agricultural enterprises was formulated. The necessity was proved of integrating the enterprises providing comparable levels of capacity utilization and the possibility of complete product sales as well as the necessity of forming integration relations as a single object of ownership

  17. Socio-economic analysis of conservation agriculture in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2011-01-01

    Southern Africa, a region little affected by the Green Revolution and likely to suffer severe detrimental impacts from climate change, faces pervasive poverty, hunger, and environmental degradation. Conservation agriculture may be a sustainable and effective way to resolve these issues, but stakeholders need accessible and solid evidence of its effectiveness. The purpose of this report is to analyze the impact of CA on the Southern Africans countries of South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe thro...

  18. Economic and Social Factors in Mate Selection: An Ethnographic Analysis of an Agricultural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Brown, Karen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the impact of a variety of causal factors--economic, social, familial, and dyadic--on ethnoreligious marriages over 50 years in an Illinois agricultural community. Indicated that economic and social factors were more powerful influences in mate selection than is evident in much of the current research on premarital relationships.…

  19. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their usefulnes

  20. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN AGRICULTURAL AND RESOURCE ECONOMICS: HOW USEFUL ARE THEY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Ann; Wheeler, William J.; Zwick, Rami

    1993-01-01

    Experimental economics has the potential to fill some of the gaps in the economist's tool kit. This article describes experimental economics, its advantages and disadvantages, and why this tool might be a good choice in some situations. The article summarizes the history of its use by agricultural and resource economists. An illustrative example compares laboratory experiment data with survey data.

  1. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  2. Position of Agriculture in Sub-Saharan GDP Structure and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    K. Tomšík; L. Smutka; J.-P. E. Lubanda; Rohn, H.

    2015-01-01

    Africa is a continent with specific problems differentiating this part of the world from other regions. Low economic performance ranks most of African countries among the poorest. On the other hand, African resources and unexploited opportunities offer a potential for a considerable economic development. Agricultural sector plays a specific role in African economic development because its share in total employment and GDP formation is enormous high. The aim of the paper is to analyze main cha...

  3. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  4. Sustainable Agriculture: A Question of Ecology, Economics, Ethics or Expedience?

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Pannell; Schilizzi, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Sustainability is the paradigm of our time, yet its use as a guide to planning or decision making is clouded by its ambiguity and the multiplicity of definitions in use. In this paper we address the issue of how best to deal with the multi-faceted nature of sustainability. We outline each of the facets of sustainability which have been discussed in literature, but suggest that most of them boil down to three basic concepts: environmental stability, intergenerational equity and economic effici...

  5. Economic value of crop residues in African smallholder agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Berazneva, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to our understanding of the use and management of crop residues in East African highlands and farmers' decision-making associated with this important on-farm resource. Using the data from a socio-economic and household production survey of a sample of 310 households in 15 villages in western Kenya conducted in 2011-2012, the analysis shows that the decision to allocate maize residues to organic fertilizer and the amount of such allocation among Kenyan farmers is in uenc...

  6. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  7. Jobless Economic Growth in Africa: Is there a Role for Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kobena T. Hanson; Frannie Leautier

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs data from 48 African countries over the period 1990-2010 to investigate the performance of African economies with respect to job creation and its relation to economic growth. We submit that the main drivers, among others, appear to be the creative use of the agricultural sector and the level of innovation and sophistication in agriculture. The insights provide some lessons for countries seeking to speed up job creation under low growth scenarios as well as those seeking to ...

  8. New Forms of Economic Cooperation in Family Agriculture: The Case of Condominios in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano-Estrada, Eduardo; Sacco dos Anjos, Flavio

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyze the Condominios as economic associations adapted to the characteristics of family agriculture in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Firstly, they analyze the process of modernization of Brazilian agriculture that took place in the 1960s and 1970s under the military governments, giving special attention to the selective and exclusive effects this process had on small farmers. Within the framework of this process, they then go on to study the development o...

  9. Agricultural economics and transition: What was expected, what we observed, the lessons learned. Proceedings (Volume II)

    OpenAIRE

    Csáki, Csaba; Fogács, Csaba

    2008-01-01

    Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally planned economic system started in the early 1990's. During this time agricultural and rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structural changes with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate of success in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food and agricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the 'transition' in its traditional inter...

  10. Analysis of future agricultural change: a farm economics approach applied to Dutch arable farming.

    OpenAIRE

    Wossink, G.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This study of agricultural change deals simultaneously with: (a) farm planning, ie. the constant adaptation to changing circumstances at the level of the individual farm firm and (b) conditional forecasting, ie. the analysis of alternative agricultural and environmental policy views and their impact.Chapter I gives a general introduction and sets out the objectives and scope of the study. The specific research objectives were: (1) to develop a model system based on farm economics to assess th...

  11. Modelling of the innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Roshchina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure, composition of innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management, which is a part of the overall management of the economy of the country as a whole and which target function is the innovative development of Ukraine are substantiated. A model of innovative economic mechanism of agricultural natural resources is a promising system for organizational and economic measures that permit to increase the production of agricultural products and improve its quality at the highest possible restoration of soil fertility and the environment on the basis of advanced technology. It is the model of the inter-organizational environmental management and economic measures in the agricultural sector. The concept of the model in the innovation of organizational-economic mechanism allows increasing the production of agricultural products that improves living standards of the population and export capacity of the country. It requires involving new land and water resources, radically improving their use under a strict control at the restoration of the consumed resources. In close connection with the organizational and administrative methods of environmental management in agriculture and natural resources an economic mechanism is used. It includes: improvement of tax policy; grants and concessional lending activities to enhance soil fertility; fines for land damages to the fund of the recovery of soil fertility; penalties for violations of the technology to the expenditures organic and mineral fertilizers and other measures provided the technological plan; payments for pollution from water resources without their purification while irrigating; environmental audit; environmental insurance in which value of rent value received from the biological assets is taken as the base

  12. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  13. Nutritional and Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Agriculture in Imbaburra, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Jake

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional and Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Agriculture in Imbabura, Ecuador Intervention projects in the developing world normally aim to satisfy either the nutritional needs of a group, or advancing the economic stability, but not both. One of the many issues that may arise by narrowly focusing and creating an aid program is that although a group may be fed, they are not equipped to mitigate risks that will arise after project completion and thus continue or revert back to a malnourish...

  14. Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits Associated With U.S. Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Luanne

    2005-01-01

    This case study reviews the economic, social, and environmental benefits associated with organic agriculture in the United States. Measurable impacts are quantified by comparing indicators of benefits in counties with organic farms and counties without. Statistical differences across counties with and without organic farms provide preliminary evidence that organic farms may generate a variety of direct and indirect benefits. Of 36 indicators tested across a range of economic, social, and envi...

  15. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  16. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ON CASSAVA PRODUCTIVITY IN KOGI STATE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilemona Adofu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the economic impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria. The results are drawn from a household survey covering the agricultural season of 2009/2010. The data obtained from interview schedule was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics for this study include frequency, percentages and means. The hypothesis was tested using chisquare. The result shows that 79.33% of the respondents adopt the use of improved variety within the period under study. The analysis done on the revenue of the respondents before and after the adoption of the improved agricultural technology shows that revenue of farmers after the adoption of innovations are better off than revenue generated before adoption by N27,750 on the average per farmer. This result shows that the impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity is positive. Additionally, the results attest to the importance of increasing agricultural productivity in tandem with improvements on the adoption and use of improved agricultural technologies and its availability to the reach of farmers with the farmers’ ability to store food. This findings is consistence with Idachaba and Ayoola, (1995 who observed that improved agricultural helped in increasing agricultural productivity.

  17. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  18. The Integration of Environmental Issues in The Agricultural Policy: The Role of Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Editors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies has attracted significant attention in recent years. The objective of this paper is to discuss the (past and future research questions in this area and the role of economic analysis in supporting decisions regarding the integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies, with a special focus on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP of the European Union (EU. The paper first examines the evolution of the process integrating environmental concerns into the CAP. Then, the role of economic analysis is discussed with reference to selected major issues, including: the evaluation of the relationship between agriculture and environmental impacts, and the economic value of such effects; the evaluation of policy effectiveness and efficiency; optimal policy design; the effects on markets and farm structures; and the coordination and governance of policy measures. The contents of these study areas are discussed and the research priorities required to meet future needs are identified. The work concludes by highlighting the need to develop more detailed policy analysis studies while, at the same time, developing a wider and more innovative vision of the role of agricultural policy in the global context.

  19. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  20. FORMATION OF AN EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhanko G. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of creating an effective organizational-economic mechanism of management in agricultural production and the substantiation for the use of a problem-oriented approach in the management of business structures. The article is an exploratory, it has reflected the fact that it dealt with the peculiarities of agricultural production in modern conditions, and it has identified factors increase the effectiveness of entrepreneurial activity in agriculture, the necessity, in order to improve production efficiency, of the use of a problem-oriented approach in the management of business structures. The article considers specific features of agriculture, without which it is impossible to ensure the desired performance of a functioning business structures. It is proved that the solution of the problems of modern development of agricultural production, enhance the competitiveness of domestic enterprises in connection with the entry into WTO is closely linked to the identification of such features and the determination of their effect (stimulating or inhibiting the final results of functioning of economic entities in the agricultural sector. In the article, much attention is paid to the issue of performance management entrepreneurship business entities engaged directly in agricultural production, which represents a system of organizational and technological management, providing specified volumes of production and raw materials for the processing industry, meeting the requirements of quality and sustainability and affordable prices for a wide range of consumers, as well as the definition of the specific objectives of the performance management of agricultural producers. In the article the urgency of the problem-oriented approach with identified problems identify the factors increasing the efficiency of agricultural production and to develop an optimal management decisions for specific agrifood systems

  1. Impact of Agricultural Modernization,Economic Growth and Industrialization on the International Competitiveness of Agricultural Products:Based on the Empirical Analysis of Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2015-01-01

    The expanded agricultural trade deficit in recent years has caused widespread concern about the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.In this paper,guided by Michael Porter’s diamond model theory,based on agricultural production and trade data in China and the world from 1986 to 2011,we use principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model,to perform an empirical analysis of the impact of agricultural modernization,economic growth and industrialization on the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.The results show that China’s agricultural modernization is slow,the demand for agricultural products caused by economic growth is increased,and excessive rural labor transfer due to industrialization leads to decline in the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.China should increase its efforts to promote the modernization of agriculture and level of industry nurturing agriculture;use WTO rules to create a good international and domestic environment for the development of China’s agriculture and improvement of the international competitiveness of agricultural products;give full play to the role of demand in boosting the industrial upgrading of domestic agriculture.

  2. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an econometric-proc

  3. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  4. DISTANCE EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS: AN ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT ACCEPTANCE AND PERFORMANCE.

    OpenAIRE

    Batte, Marvin T.; Forster, D. Lynn; Larson, Donald W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of student evaluation of and performance in three agricultural economics classes offered at distance by audio-visual connection in real time. Multiple regression analyses of student questionnaire data are used to examine the relationship between student attributes and their evaluation of and performance in the distance-offered course.

  5. An empirical economic assessment of impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Suman

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia, using the Ricardian method. A multiple linear regression model with net revenue per hectare as response variable has been fitted with climate, hydrological, soil, and socioeconomic variables as explanatory variables. There is one main cropping season in Zambia, lasting from November to April. Crop product...

  6. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  7. Socio-economic issues of promotion and labour motivation in agricultural organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the typical labour stimulation system in Russian agricultural enterprises, based on the tariff-salary system. It is shown that this scheme inevitably leads to equal wage distribution between all workers except piece-workers: this causes demotivation of time-worker, professionals and managers. Internal economic mechanism built on the basis of tariff-salary system does not correspond to market conditions. To solve the urgent problems of labour stimulation in the Russian agricultural companies in terms of market, a labour evaluation and payment system called «Rost» is suggested. It is already implemented in a number of agricultural enterprises of Perm and Chelyabinsk regions, showing high economic and social efficiency.

  8. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    on changes in management practices due to adaptation or land use changes. These have been estimated through a socio-economic model that accounts for the evolution of population, GDP, agricultural land use and other relevant socio-economic variables linked to climate change adaptation. The combination of the results of the SARA model, the WAAPA model and the socioeconomic model allow the estimation of total economic value of agricultural production in terms of fraction of GDP.

  9. The economical contracting management in Agricultural Cooperatives: tools for evaluating their performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and management contracts involve strategic actions, legal and operational purposes that make possible to convert the goal of an organization on results that express the fulfillment of the mandates and satisfies customers on the basis of the duties and obligations set out in the negotiating document. This article aims to get inside into the performance evaluation of the management of the recruitment of Agricultural Cooperatives and to reflex about the insufficiencies evidenced in this process. To which we developed a theoretical valuation and economic procurement praxiological showing a group of deficiencies that have impacted in the contracts management The study was able to obtain, process, analyze, interpret and argue the problems associated with economic contracting and justify the need to propose a system of indicators to assess recruitment management Agricultural Cooperatives in the province of Sancti Spiritus, the results revealed the ineffectiveness of the process and the negative impact on the productive base.

  10. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF USE OF GROUND RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosnikov S. N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Land resources are the basis of agricultural production, the issue of increasing the efficiency of their use is always relevant. The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic use of land resources in the agricultural organizations of the Krasnodar region. Cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out in two stages: an initial set of agricultural organizations with the help of cluster analysis is divided into homogeneous groups; for each cluster we have constructed a production function, which reflects the relationship between the value of the gross output of the agricultural land area, the average annual number of employees, the average annual value of fixed and current assets. The analysis has allowed identifying homogeneous groups of five agricultural companies. The analysis of the production function has shown that the companies of the first cluster of agricultural land use lands with maximum efficiency, the gross output value of 1 hectare of agricultural land was 70,1 thousand rubles, and the degree of influence of agricultural land on the value of gross output reaches its maximum value and is 83%. Agricultural organizations included in clusters of three and five, have a minimum efficiency of agricultural lands use – 20,3 and 21,2 thousand rubles respectively. Based on the analysis, we have made recommendations that improve the efficiency of land: to use the best varieties that are resistant to a range of diseases and pests in the production; to observe the optimum time of harvesting, cultivation and protection of plants; to use smart energy and resource saving technologies, as well as soil conservation technologies; to improve and maintain soil fertility

  11. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Francis; AKSOY, M. Ataman

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in food and other commodity prices have highlighted concerns that many poor countries are net food importers and higher food prices would worsen their trade balances. In this article, we analyze the changes in food trade balances associated with the 32% increase in food prices from 2000/2001 to 2004/2005. We find a small deterioration in food trade balances of low-income countries and an improvement in middle-income countries. The deterioration is most severe for countries in...

  12. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, S. Niggol; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a new cross-sectional methodology that explicitly incorporates adaptation into an analysis of the impacts of climate change. The methodology examines how a farmer will change choices of species and number to adapt to climate. The approach is applied to study Africa, where the impacts of climate change are expected to be the most severe. The results indicate that in warmer places, African farmers switch from beef cattle to more heat-tolerant goats and sheep. In wetter pla...

  13. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture : report 2 : preliminary results of selected scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshreshtha, S.N. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada) Dept. of Agricultural Economics; Boehm, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Centre for Studies in Agriculture, Law and Environment; Bonneau, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Regina, SK (Canada); Giraldez, J.C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    A modelling study was conducted in which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from major crops and livestock enterprises were estimated in a gas by gas basis. The Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA) was specifically developed for this purpose. The model was calibrated for the base year 1990 and was used to estimate emission levels for the year 2010. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are the three atmospheric gases that are generally recognized as the major GHGs. Several agricultural activities, such as use of fuel for running machinery and the use of fertilizer can generate these gases. Other practices can actually reduce GHG emissions (for example, increasing the amount of organic matter stored in the soil). According to the model, it was determined that during the period 1990 to 2010, anthropogenic emissions from agriculture will decrease from 61.4 Mt per year to 57.5 Mt per year. Seven strategies were tested to assess the effectiveness of mitigative measures and production paths. This report is the second in a series of three technical reports which will describe the integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to assess the economic and the GHG emission impacts of agricultural policies at regional and national levels. 34 refs., 15 tabs., 9 figs., 3 appendices.

  14. Animal-agriculture Based Entrepreneurship: Descriptive Norms, Perceived Economic Viability and Behavioural Intention among Final Year Agriculture Related Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osikabor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and entrepreneurship are tools of salvaging poverty, especially among agriculturally educated youths. This study therefore investigated descriptive norms, perceived economic viability and behavioural intention regarding animal-agriculture based entrepreneurship among final year agriculture related students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty one copies of randomly administered questionnaires yielded data whose analysis reveal that a little above half of the respondents have ‘serious’ behavioural intention to engage animal-agriculture based entrepreneurship. Marital status, institutional category and discipline affiliation had significant effects on this behavioural intention (p0.05. Age and descriptive norms are significantly related to this behavioural intention, but perceived economic viability is the best predictor of same (p<0.01. Being married, a college rather than a university student as well as being in animal-related discipline are associated with greater behavioural intention to engage in animal-agriculture based entrepreneurship.

  15. Socioeconomic Development of Ukraine’s agricultural sector in the context of foreign economic strategic choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Dyachenko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the preconditions and specifics for developing Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy and generalizes the experience of other countries in the impact of their strategies on their integration into the European Union and the development of their agricultural sector. The author evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the main aspects of Ukraine’s international economic integration and considers the scope of choices for the country’s foreign economic strategy. She emphasizes the need to deal comprehensively with the integration of the agroindustrial complex (AIC, to use the available potential of the AIC more efficiently, to remove flaws in the legal framework and contradictions in the development of the national economy, and also considers the value of implementing an integration policy with more consideration of the country’s economic interests.

  16. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  17. The Agricultural Industry And Economic Growth In South Africa – An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. TEWELDEMEDHIN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study measures the source of short-term agricultural economic growth in South Africa, using the Exact Maximum Likelihood (EML method by categorizing the variables into five main categories: cyclical reversion, structural policies and institutions, stabilization policies, cyclical volatility and external conditions. The statistically significant finding of structural policies and institutional category variables imply that the sector growth was achieved with improved education, financial depth, and trade openness. However, the negative relationship of financial depth (RDGDP indicates the sector is suffering from a debt crisis. Therefore, farmers need to follow an effective debt management system. The cyclical reversion was found to be statistically significant and related negatively. This shows that there is an important connection between the business cycle and agricultural economic growth.

  18. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozheng; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  19. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  20. Promoting the competitiveness of South African agriculture in a dynamic economic and political environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ortmann, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    South African (SA) farmers are faced with a dynamic global economic and trade environment caused by the liberalisation of international markets and rapid advances in information and communication technologies In addition to dealing with the deregulation of domestic agricultural markets in the 1990s, SA farmers also have to adapt to a dynamic political environment and other challenges, including land reform, AgriBEE, new labour legislation and minimum wages, property taxes, skills levies, unce...

  1. Economic and Nutritional Implications from Changes in U.S. Agricultural Promotion Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Shuay-Tsyr; Rickard, Bradley J.; Liaukonyte, Jura

    2014-01-01

    Promotion programs that subsidize advertising for exported agricultural products continue to be used despite much criticism that they are an inefficient use of taxpayer money. At the same time, others have advocated for an increase in funds to support domestic advertising for fruits and vegetables. We investigate the economic and nutritional effects from changes in both export and domestic promotion expenditures for horticultural and nonhorticultural commodities. Simulation results show that ...

  2. The competitive advantage of velvet beans as an economic agricultural commodity / Edward James Daniel de Villiers

    OpenAIRE

    De Villiers, Edward James Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The competitive advantage of velvet beans as an economic agricultural commodity. In the past 40 years, although food insecurity, poverty and environmental degradation persist, worldwide farmers have made considerable progress in increasing per capita food production whilst better understanding natural-resource management. Literature indicates that — in the decades to come — food demand will both grow and change for three reasons, namely increased numbers of people, increased income (people wi...

  3. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development, rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system, rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training, this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work, there are following problems. (1) Accounting behavior is not standard, and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; (2) Internal control is not ...

  4. University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics Staff Paper Series No. 425

    OpenAIRE

    Coxhead, Ian; Shively, Gerald E; X. Shuai

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the interactions between development policies and upland agriculture expansion with a model of household-level responses to economic and technical factors, based on characteristics of the household and farming system. The authors assess the validity of the model with data from farm households in the region bordering the Mt Kitanglad Range National Park in southern Mindanao, using results of surveying low income corn and vegetable farms. Crop prices and productivity influe...

  5. AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN GERMANY’S ECONOMIC STRATEGY IN 1942-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarov A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores shift of emphasis in the Third Reich policy in the North Caucasus when agricultural resources of the region became the main object of economic exploitation and one of the most important source of Germany's food supply. Firstly the author shows the place the North Caucasus had in agriculture of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Despite a relatively small area and population, the region played an important role in the production of wheat, corn, sunflower, meat and other products. It is emphasized that the region was of special interest to Germany primarily for its oil fields which allowed solving the fuel problems. But with the failure of Hitler’s "oil plans" the agricultural products became the most important revenue source for the German economy in the North Caucasus in 1942-1943. The author shows that for stable agricultural exploitation the occupation regime not only refused the collective farms’ accelerated elimination but also adapted them to harvesting crops and saving huge livestock. Using the pro-Nazi newspapers and archival documents, the author reveals the occupier’s methodology of action and propaganda by local supporters of the regime for a timely crops harvest. In conclusion, the results of agrarian policy of Germany in the North Caucasus are shown. This article is intended for specialists in the field of history and economics as well as a wide range of readers

  6. Systematic framework and measures of economic policy in function of Serbian agriculture improvement requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko KATIC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant economic activities in Serbia is agriculture, which also represents the base for food industry and some other branches of processing industry. In this field Serbia finds its developmental opportunity in future period. Inclusion of the country in EU, as well as in the World Tourist Organization, implies appropriate preparation and qualification in this field, so there could be more successful deal with rising competitiveness of foreign goods, in conditions of increasing liberalization level of foreign trade. Therefore, domestic regulatory rules must be adjusted to EU regulatory rules, like as concrete measures regarding agriculture and rural development improvement must be adjusted to the measures in the Joint EU Agrarian Policy. Serbian agriculture is in quite bad condition, and financial possibilities of the state, to expedite its development by abundant assets, are still insufficient. In terms of recession, caused by world economic crisis, too, incentive assets reduce, while making business in this field become more and more aggravated. This paper points out, in short, to significance and condition of agriculture in Serbia, on regulatory rules and future plan documents important for this field, as well as on concrete measures, which have to be undertaken in order to improve this activity.

  7. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  8. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  9. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  10. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  11. Intellectual Properties Rights-A strong determinant of economic growth in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Kumar Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs has occupied center stage in debates about globalization, economic development and poverty elimination. This study concerns the strengthening of IPRs in the plant breeding industry and its effect on agriculture in India. In India, most of the population relies on agricul-ture for its livelihood. India is self-sufficient in wheat and paddy, but deficient in other agricultural products. Pat-ents are good indicators of research and development output. Patent analysis makes it possible to map out the trend of technological change and life cycle of a technology - growth, development, maturity and decline. Patent infor-mation and patent statistical analysis have been used for examining present, technological status and to forecast future trends. One can determine the directions of corporate R&D and market interests by analyzing patent data. The present study is an attempt to analyze patents granted in India in the field of agriculture and importance of biotechnology-based innovations in agriculture

  12. Intellectual Properties Rights-A strong determinant of economic growth in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Chaudhary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In the past few decades the subject of intellectual property rights (IPRs has occupied center stage in debates about globalization, economic development and poverty elimination. This study concerns the strengthening of IPRs in the plant breeding industry and its effect on agriculture in India. In India, most of the population relies on agriculture for its livelihood. India is self-sufficient in wheat and paddy, but deficient in other agricultural products. Patents are good indicators of research and development output. Patent analysis makes it possible to map out the trend of technological change and life cycle of a technology – growth, development, maturity and decline. Patent information and patent statistical analysis have been used for examining present, technological status and to forecast future trends. One can determine the directions of corporate R&D and market interests by analyzing patent data. The present study is an attempt to analyze patents granted in India in the field of agriculture and importance of biotechnology-based innovations in agriculture

  13. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  14. Selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the selected landscape-ecological limitations of development of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. Suitability of location of intensive agricultural and forest-economic activities was determined after assessment of three classes of landscape-ecological limitations as given by the types of abiotic complexes, nature protection of nature and natural resources, and the action of stress factors. Their interaction determines the number and class of limitations of agricultural and forest-economic activity. The procedure of processing used is similar to that applied to the maps 4 and 8. (authors)

  15. Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertenberger, Laura; Koellner, Thomas; Binder, Claudia R. [Department for Environmental Sciences, Natural and Social Science Interface (NSSI), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)

    2006-06-01

    Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical

  16. Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications

  17. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  18. [Coupling situation of agriculture-ecology-economic system in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess hilly and gully region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Ji-Jun

    2010-06-01

    Based on the investigations in the Zhifanggou Watershed of Loess hilly and gully region from 1938 to 2007, and the establishment of eco-environmental and socio-economic comprehensive evaluation indices and coupling model, this paper analyzed the coupling situation of the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed. During the study period, the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed had gone through the coupling processes of economic system vs. ecosystem initial regenesis-consumption-promotion-coordination, and of ecosystem vs. economic system primary response-lag behind-recovery-coordination. According to the coupling degree fitting curves and the coupling type classification, the current agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed was still in the situation of coupling, and would be well coordinated.

  19. Economic Specialisation, Resource Variability, and the Origins of Intensive Agriculture in Eastern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew I J Davies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern Africa contrasting ecological zones within relatively short distances encourage economic specialisations which are reliant upon one another. Connections between different economic groups are facilitated by a variety of institutionalised networks that encourage the movement of both goods and people across boundaries. The role of livestock as essential capital ensures a strong impetus to increase agricultural production for exchange while, at the same time, the need to acquire livestock through ties to the pastoral community ensures that certain agriculturalists are confined to relatively limited areas at the margins of pastoral zones. In contrast to traditional models of agricultural development, the shift to intensive techniques may not be a radical departure from earlier practices, but rather much less labour intensive and gradually developed, aimed at expanding and improving natural zones of high productivity. This situation may have been exasperated by climatic fluctuations while lineage systems of social organisation encourage the localised marginalisation of politically unified descent groups and the development and expansion of large-scale agricultural works.

  20. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scatasta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system is based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present an extension to previous results specifying further two sub-models assessing economic impacts of cropping systems at farm and regional level. Following a real option approach we show how both social and private costs and benefits, both at farm and regional level, can be classified in reversible and irreversible, and what irreversibility means for the size of the uncertainty associated to the adoption of agricultural innovations. All the qualitative models are developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modeling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.

  1. Agricultural Drainage and Gulf Hypoxia: Economic Targeting of Farmland to Reduce Nitrogen Loads in a Minnesota Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Petrolia, Daniel R.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Mulla, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural nitrogen losses are the major contributor to nitrogen loads in the Mississippi River, and consequently, to the existence of a hypoxic, or "dead", zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Focusing on two small agricultural watersheds in southwestern Minnesota, simulation results from the Agricultural Drainage And Pesticide Management (ADAPT) model were combined with a linear-optimization model to evaluate the environmental and economic impact of alternative land-use policies for reducing nitro...

  2. INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATION OF AUTHORS IN THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, 1988-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Cleve E.; Willis, Lisa M.; Shea, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Opaluch and Just reported the top 20 departments in pages per faculty of articles in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics for the five year period 1968-1972. To determine how much has changed and how much has not during the intervening two decades, the analysis was repeated for the five year period 1988-1992. Some things seem not to change. University of California, Berkeley, remains at the pinnacle twenty years later. And 13 of the top 20 departments two decades ago, remain there d...

  3. Economic interdependence and complexity: Falaj agriculture and ceramic production in the southeast Arabian iron age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last fifteen years surveys and excavations in the United Arab Emirates and Sultanate of Oman have revealed a widespread and distinctive material culture dating to the late second and first millennium BC. In this paper the results of PIXE-PIGME analysis of ceramics from the Iron II period (1100-600 BC) are presented. In combination with ceramic distribution data, the analysis permits the identification of ceramic production areas. More importantly, however, the analysis, when combined with environmental and subsistence strategy data, provides an insight into the relationship between agricultural intensification and ceramic production and the varying degrees of economic complexity which existed at this time

  4. Agriculture-industrial residues x natural gas. An economic of energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, L.H.N. [Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Carrocci, L.R.; Silveira, J.L.; Oliva, V.J. [Universidade Estadul Paulista, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta

    1999-07-01

    In this paper are presented following, as it's main objective, an economic analysis between biogas coming from agriculture-industrial-residues and natural gas. Above all, also make part of this work, illustrating figures of the most used types of biodigestors in Brazil and all of world, and briefly descriptions of the most used control and reduction technologies of the pollutants emissions from the combustion process through in the atmosphere. Must emphasise, above technical-scientific importance of this work, it's social -economic part at the poignant of the residues seizing with considerable calorific power for the energy generation, thereby promoting the ambiental pollution retrenchment (also detach here), looking for, in a coming future, the sustainable development at all of it completeness.

  5. Industry and agriculture: Elements of the economic profile of Kladovo municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of spatial differentiation of the natural and socio-economic factors of development, we have seen the structural characteristics of the local industry and local agriculture, as two elements of the economy of Kladovo municipality, and the importance and role of these two elements in the spatial structure of the municipality. Particular attention was devoted in the course of this research, to the possibilities of intensifying the development of the less developed parts of the area. Activation of developmental potentials is directed towards a demographic revitalization and towards the establishment of a stable and progressive social-economic-ecological area, with an identity recognizable in the region. In that sense, we examine the inter-dependence of potentials limitations and risks for a more rapid future development of the municipality of Kladovo.

  6. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    of economic incentives applied in the agricultural sector on 1) P-surplus application rates at the field level; 2) the accumulation of P in the soil; 3) the level of risk of P losses to the aquatic ecosystem; and 4) farm economics when analysed using a profit maximization approach. The thesis consists of four...... and identifies the most important parameters to include in a dynamic model where farm profit is maximized over time whilst taking soil-P dynamics into account. The paper focuses on heterogeneity of farm type and how these farmers utilize the soil-P stock and apply P fertilizers. The second paper completes...... profit maximization model is developed for an area in the catchment area of Odense Fjord, Denmark. The area covers 3,993 hectares and is cultivated by 258 arable, cattle and pig farmers. The paper investigates two different general incentives for reducing soil P losses: a tax on mineral-fertilizer P...

  7. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  8. Parallel Factor Analysis in Dual-class Tax Impacts of Agricultural Products: An Economic Research from Macro Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products using the parallel factor analysis. Along with the rapid economic development of China, the growing purchasing power of Chinese residents has been accelerated; particularly in the expensive agricultural products market. China has adjusted taxable items of consumption tax to narrow the gap between rich and poor and to promote social equity. The atrophy of the expensive agricultural products market brought by the tax may curb the growth and development of domestic agricultural products industry. In this study, the parallel factor analysis is employed to investigate the dual-class tax impacts on China agricultural products. The results indicate that the taxation system should be taken from a forward-looking aspect. The market supply and demand for expensive agricultural products and consumer behaviors should be combined with an overall consideration. Hence, specific adjustments China expensive agricultural products market have been eventually put forward.

  9. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE FIRMS ASSISTED BY THE OKLAHOMA FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerschied, Ann; Woods, Michael D.; Willoughby, Charles V.; Holcomb, Rodney B.; Tilley, Daniel S.

    2003-01-01

    An economic impact study of the Oklahoma Food and Agricultural Products Research and Technology Center was conducted to analyze the impact of the firms the Center has assisted and the impact of services provided by the Center. The economic impact of the firms assisted was calculated using an IMPLAN model.

  10. Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Viscosi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

  11. Socio-Economic Implications of Drought in the Agricultural Sector and the State Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the most severe drought in Texas history caused $7.62 billion in losses in the agricultural sector alone. This paper analyzes ripple effects of the 2011 drought in Texas agriculture on the entire state economy retrospectively in an effort to foster discussion on targeted mitigation measures in the long term. By using an Input-Output and social accounting matrix model, direct effects on livestock, cotton, sorghum, wheat, corn, hay, and timber production, as well as indirect effects on other related sectors, and finally induced effects from changing consumers behavior have been estimated. According to the results, the 2011 drought caused economic losses of $16.9 billion in the entire Texas economy and increased the unemployment by around 166,895 people. The agricultural sector alone lost around 106,000 jobs. The cotton farming experienced 91% of revenue losses (as compared to 2010, while the livestock production lost 32% in revenue. The decreased production yields and limited market supply directly influence market prices for those products, which might create additional spillover effects on export and import quantities. The presented analysis can be helpful for designing policies to launch mitigation programs for drought events in the future.

  12. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio......Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...

  13. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect; Agriculture et effet de serre: regulation economique des impacts croises et combinaison des politiques agricole et environnementale - Analyse pour la France et extension pour l'Union Europeenne. Analyse economique des interactions agriculture - effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2002-09-15

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  14. Landscape diversity and the resilience of agricultural returns: a portfolio analysis of land-use patterns and economic returns from lowland agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abson David J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional agriculture is increasingly based on highly specialized, highly productive farms. It has been suggested that 1 this specialization leads to farms that lack resilience to changing market and environmental conditions; and 2 that by decreasing agricultural diversity, the resilience of the farming system also decreases. Methods We used agricultural gross margin (GM forecasts from 1966 to 2010 and remote sensing data from agricultural landscapes in the lowland UK, in conjunction with modern portfolio theory, to test the hypothesis that decreasing land-use diversity results in landscapes that provide higher, but more volatile, economic returns. We considered the role of spatial scale on the expected levels of volatility and resilience of agricultural returns. Results We found that: 1 there was a strong linear trade-off between expected GMs and the expected volatility of those GMs in real lowland agricultural landscapes in the UK; 2 land-use diversification was negatively correlated with expected GMs from agriculture, and positively correlated with decreasing expected volatility in GMs; 3 the resilience of agricultural returns was positively correlated with the diversity of agricultural land use, and the resilience of agricultural returns rose quickly with increased land-holding size at small spatial extents, but this effect diminished after landholdings reached 12,000 hectares. Conclusions Land-use diversity may have an important role in ensuring resilient agricultural returns in the face of uncertain market and environmental conditions, and land-holding size plays a pivotal role in determining the relationships between resilience and returns at a landscape scale. Creating finer-grained land-use patterns based on pre-existing local land uses may increase the resilience of individual farms, while maintaining aggregate yield across landscapes.

  15. Assessing the Economic Impact of Energy Price Increases on Washington Agriculture and the Washington Economy: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, David W.; Leroy Stodick; Kathleen Painter

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium, multi-sector economic model of the Washington economy was developed to examine the economic impact on the Washington economy, especially the agricultural industries, from increasing energy prices experienced in 2005 and 2006. The energy group includes such fossil fuel-based commodities as gasoline and diesel fuel (refined petroleum products), natural gas, nitrogenous fertilizer, and petrochemical products. The economic model shows how the Washington economy adjusts to t...

  16. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  17. ECONOMICS OF OPERATION AND STATE REGULATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papahchyan I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers current economic situation in the economy of the Krasnodar region, the importance of import substitution in the future functioning and regulation of regional development of agro-industrial complex. The positive impact on the agricultural economy, double sided grocery sanctions, the leadership of the rural economy of the region with annual growth of GDP of 9.2% (in Russia – 4,5% is pointed. The article shows that the growth of quantitative and qualitative indicators in the industry was provided with additional targeted investment to increase profitability of crop production to 44%. The advantages of big business that produces mostly grains are pointed out, because this factor will continue to determine the vector of development of agriculture. A big positive point of the livestock industry is the growth of profitability of milk production to 37%. At the same time, cattle breeding with the margin of 19.7% is still highly problematic on observance of technological discipline. Production of cattle meat remains unprofitable. A significant segment of production in farming is still taken by small farms. In 2014 the government regulated their development supporting them with money in the amount of more than 700 million RUB . The author believes to keep further growth of the livestock on it is necessary to stabilize the number of livestock, especially dairy cattle, to restore the production of pork, to continue the construction and reconstruction of farms and complexes, to provide animals with high quality food. The author also stresses the importance of development of business of rice growing, vegetable growing, fruit growing, the importance of updating and development of material and technical base. The work provides the data that at the expense of state regulation (support profitability of agriculture in the region has grown by an additional 7%, so it creates new opportunities for growth of the agricultural economy of our

  18. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  19. Grassland Degradation, Construction and the Economic-technological Strategies of Sustainable Development of Grassland-agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; YU Hua-ying; OKAMOTO Chinobu; WANG Yu-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Natural grassland in the West of Northeastern China is located in 40° 0′ - 43° 5′ N latitude and 117° 0′ -127° 5′ Elongitude. It lies in the Lisp River Valley, the Songhua River Valley and Nen River Valley. About 130 years ago, this region had rich natural grassland resources, was numerically 26.67 millions in hectare of grasslands.Since the last stage of Qing Dynasty, the grassland has been destroyed seriously in 3 times. Up to now, this region only preserved about 2 millions in hectare of the grasslands. In addition, 3.33 millions in hectare of the grasslands have changed from primary grassland to desertification, salinizatio-nalkalinization and degeneration grasslands in the form of patches of bare soil (their simple form of a name is "3 kinds of degeneration grasslands"). This paper indicaed that in any period both grasslands destruction and its restoration were relevant to economic changes and economic systems,particularly to market economy in that time. The following agricultural economic-technological strategies have been production bases of concentrated feed crops and coarse herbage crops.

  20. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  1. MIGRATION OF SURPLUS AGRICULTURAL LABOR IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC TRANSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖辉; 鲁柏祥; 陈欣欣

    2001-01-01

    This paper on the migration of the surplus farm labor during the economic transition of China, focuses on a case study of Zhejiang, China's eastern coastal province, with 45 million population and located in relatively developed area since the reform in 1978. The background and mechanism of Chinese surplus farm labor migration are discussed briefly in the first section. Detailed analysis and development of this topic are based on the Zhejiang case, and consists of two parts: a review of the migration history of surplus agricultural labor in Zhejiang since the 1978 reform; and further analysis and key points are given in the second part. The third sector focuses on challenges and recommendation of policies.

  2. Economic and social impacts of nuclear accidents on the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic and social impact of a major nuclear accident on the agricultural sector are reviewed. The associated costs are evaluated by more or less proper methods depending on the duration and severity of the post accident situation. Calculating such costs is necessary in order to allow farmers, farm-food enterprises, and public authorities to define the indemnification levels as well as to identify means of minimizing the accident consequences. The indemnification procedures are described in a section dedicated to liability issues and the costs due to Chernobyl accident. Concerning the limitation of accident consequences the responsibility falls upon the public authorities. In regard for decision making the existent methods vary according to the situation complexity and proposed objectives. Examples are given to point out the costs and social impact

  3. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  4. The Economic Role of Nigeria’s Subsistence Agriculture in the Transition Process: Implications for Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Apata, Temidayo Gabriel; Folayan, A.; Apata, O.M.; Akinlua, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of subsistence-oriented agriculture in Nigeria in the 1990s to 2000s. The start out by discussing the diverging economic effects of the growth of subsistence agriculture in Nigeria since the transition process started. The quantitative analysis of this sector’s role is carried out by means of an applied Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model applying a 1994 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) as base year data. The innovation of the article is to disaggregate prima...

  5. Threats to agriculture at the extensive and intensive margins : economic analyses of selected land-use issues in the U.S. West and British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eagle, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key Words Agriculture-environment interactions, economic modelling, sage grouse, yellow starthistle, urban-rural fringe, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), farmland conservation, direct marketing Agricultural land uses are frequently challenged by competing land demands for urban uses and for n

  6. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  7. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Richards; Heitor Pellegrina; Leah VanWey; Stephanie Spera

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of appr...

  8. The main directions of the social and economic development of agricultural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is spoken about change of state strategic installation on management of agricultural territory: refusal from practically inefficient tactical both operative and transition to the organization system business - planning all agricultural subjects also legal, investment, consulting, control and insurance support realization the developed plans. On the basis of the common circuit of social and economic rehabilitation, ordering of the agricultural enterprises and classifications of areas are offered three scripts of rehabilitation. The area of the first group assumes creation of several agrarian financial and industrial groups with meat, dairy and agricultural specialization. The area of the second group is a zone of the most risky agriculture and the big remoteness of facilities from each other and from the regional center. The area of thirds of group includes the majority of injured areas of the Gomel and Magilew regions

  9. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  10. Assessment of the economic impact of ozone on the agricultural sector in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is the most damaging secondary pollutant to agricultural production, according to the literature. It is estimated that 90% of crop losses due to air pollution are caused by ozone. The economic impact of ozone on 20 agricultural commodities in Ontario is assessed in two steps. In the first, ozone contour maps are generated for the province. The results suggest an average ozone concentration of 40 ppB, higher than the natural background of 20 ppB. The second step measures the change in consumer and producer surplus that results from reductions in ozone levels in Ontario from 40 ppB to 20 ppB. Consumer plus producer surpluses correspond to the area below the demand curve and above the supply curve to the left of their intersection. A nonlinear programming model that maximizes consumer and producer surpluses, subject to a set of constraints, was run twice. The first run incorporates realized yields and production costs, and the second incorporates biological yield changes owing to ozone and the associated changes in production costs. The difference in value of the objective functions between the two runs shows the net benefits of reduced ozone levels. Results indicate an average net benefit of $64.3 million/y or 5.8% of the total value of all the crops considered. Average annual consumer benefits are $44.1 million and producer benefits $20.2 million. Not all producers benefit from ozone reductions; producers of fresh vegetables lose while producers of grain corn, soybeans, and winter wheat gain. 54 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Increasing organic carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Eriksson, Jan O.; Lundblad, Mattias; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Management changes can induce significant alterations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Including trends in SOC within a certain land-use category can thus strongly influence the annual national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the European Union has therefore decided that all member states shall report the evolvement of SOC within agricultural soils to increase the incentives to mitigate climate change by improving the management of those soils. Here, we present the country and county-wise SOC trends in Swedish agricultural mineral soils on the basis of three soil inventories conducted between 1988 and 2013. In the past two decades, the average topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC content of the whole country increased from 2.48% to 2.67% representing a relative change of 7.7% or 0.38% yr-1. This is in contrast to trends observed in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland. We attributed this positive SOC trend to the increasing cultivation of leys throughout the country. Indeed, the below-ground carbon input of perennial grasses is up to fourfold as compared to cereals, which leads to a significant soil carbon sequestration potential under cropping systems with ley. The increase in ley proportion was significantly correlated to the increase in horse population in each county (R2=0.71), which has more than doubled in the past three decades. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area as long-term set-aside land (mostly old leys) also contributed to an increase in leys. This discloses the strong impact of rather local socio-economic trends on soil carbon storage, which also need to be considered in larger-scale model applications. This database is used in the continuous validation process of the Swedish national system for reporting changes in SOC stocks.

  12. Status of Teaching Pre-Vocational Subjects in the Junior Secondary School Level (Agricultural Science and Home Economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndem, J. U.; Akubue, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the status of teaching pre-vocational subjects in junior secondary school level. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was 2,916, while the sample for the study was 215 pre-vocational teachers and agricultural science and home economics students. The study was carried out in Afikpo Education…

  13. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen losses from cropland soil in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, A.; Marchi, G.; Koeble, R.; Kempen, M.; Britz, W.; Li, C.

    2007-07-01

    For the comprehensive assessment of the policy impact on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape are important factors that must be considered. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI with the bio-geochemistry model DNDC to simulate greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (greenhouse gas emissions), air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analysed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists in four steps (i) the definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii) downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii) setting up of environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv) aggregating results for interpretation. We show first results of the nitrogen budget in cropland for the area of fourteen countries of the European Union. These results, in terms of estimated nitrogen fluxes, must still be considered as illustrative as needs for improvements in input data (e.g. the soil map) and management data (yield estimates) have been identified and will be the focus of future work. Nevertheless, we highlight inter-dependencies between farmer's choices of land uses and the environmental impact of different cultivation systems.

  14. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen losses from cropland soil in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available For the comprehensive assessment of the policy impact on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape are important factors that must be considered. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI with the bio-geochemistry model DNDC to simulate greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analysed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists in four steps (i the definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii setting up of environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show first results of the nitrogen budget in cropland for the area of fourteen countries of the European Union. These results, in terms of estimated nitrogen fluxes, must still be considered as illustrative as needs for improvements in input data (e.g. the soil map and management data (yield estimates have been identified and will be the focus of future work. Nevertheless, we highlight inter-dependencies between farmer's choices of land uses and the environmental impact of different cultivation systems.

  15. Technical potential and its role in development of innovational economics of agricultural entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor' Mikhailovich Gogolev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of economic development of an enterprise with a particular point of assessment of capital-labor and ratio capitalequipment accumulation conditions and their further changes depending on thestrategy of thecompany. To construct a mathematical model of the economy's growth indicators, Solow model which adequately reflects the key aspects of the economy-wide process of expanded reproduction and helps to highlight the main features of the formal models of the dynamics is applied, as well as Shell model with applying Pontryagin maximum principle. An organization's readiness to investment processes — investment «maturity» — is seen through the current level of technical capacity and current capital-labor ratio. The substantiation of the need for a certain level of saturation of agricultural equipment in the organization as a secure mean of ensuring the optimum performance of work in the most intense phase of the production of complex planting and harvesting is provided. To construct a mathematical model reflecting the dependence of capital-labor productivity on capital-labor ratio, a mathematical model in the form of the production function of Cobb-Douglas type is suggested.

  16. Are new institutional economics enough? Promoting photovoltaics in India's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology can bring emissions-free electricity to rural areas without access to the grid. Currently, policymakers are seeking ways to expand markets for off-grid PV from solar home systems to productive uses in order to enhance income generation and contribute to social development. This paper explores the role of the state in promoting such market growth. As a start, the state must improve institutions, thus echoing popular recommendations based in new institutional economic theory (NIE) that are currently touted by the World Bank and other large development agencies. Yet, NIE's framework may be insufficient because it fails to offer viable solutions to overcoming political barriers that contribute to technological path dependency. A case study in Punjab, India, where an agricultural PV water pumping program showed promising signs of successful market penetration in its first 3 years of operation, illustrates how the NIE's shortcomings manifest themselves in practice. The program was beginning to penetrate market entry for PV pumps via competition between PV providers. However, the government of India achieved this feat by providing subsidies to wealthy farmers, a move that is frowned upon by the NIE school. Based on findings from the case study, states should look beyond NIE's framework to expand and improve PV markets in productive uses by accounting for political constraints, assessing how PV technology can improve development goals, and cultivating locally appropriate service delivery models

  17. Economic Impact of Agricultural Liberalisation Policies on Organic Farming in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jürn

    2007-01-01

    The poor international competitiveness of Swiss agriculture and the high level of border protection in place have given rise to an ongoing public debate in Switzerland about whether agricultural markets should be comprehensively liberalised. More specifically, three different partial revisions of Swiss legislation on agriculture are currently under discussion (AP 2011 reform, WTO liberalisation agreement, EU agricultural free trade agreement), all of which aim to improve the competitiveness o...

  18. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate.

  19. Ecological and economic principles of rational agricultural lands use based on landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndzya, Olena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the methodological providing and real state of agricultural lands and agrolandscape use in Ukraine. Basic directions of agricultural earth use organization are investigated on landscape basis. The experience of native scientists in forming and developing the theory and practice of landscape approach in agriculture is worked out. Basic directions of the agrolandscape planning are determined. The agricultural typology of land is considered in details and that allows to divide the lands according to their descriptions and constituents. The methodology of the landscape contour and land-reclamation agriculture systems is investigated. Positions of this methodology were put into the Conception of high productive ecologically permanent agrolandscapes forming and improvement of the of agriculture systems based on landscape. The value of the adaptive landscape agricultural system mechanism of forming is reflected. The direction of ecological landscape use and its basic constituents are examined.

  20. Using Coupled Hydrologic and Agro-economic Models to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural Activity on Streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation substantially alters the timing and magnitude of surface water flows, and continued agricultural intensification to keep up with demand means perpetual stress on surface water resources. A critical challenge is to manage irrigation in a way that balances ecosystem health with sustaining agricultural economies. Coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic models are promising tools for meeting this challenge: the models can quantify 1) how water withdrawal for irrigation impacts streamflows, 2) how these impacts propagate through a surface water system, 3) how the amount of water available for irrigation changes the allocation of resources (e.g. land, water) to available crops, and 4) the impact of water availability on agricultural economies. However, these models can be very data intensive, which limits their applicability. We present a parsimonious coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic model that uses the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) method, extensively used in agricultural resource economics, and calibrates to data on allotment of agricultural inputs, available from sources such as the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. PMP assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize net revenues, justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of the agroeconomic model. We improve the standard PMP model by 1) having the calibrated model reproduce not only the observed input allotment but also the observed yield, and 2) using the ensemble Kalman filter equations to solve the mathematical programming problem recursively, which permits refinement of the model calibration as new observations become available. We demonstrate the proposed agroeconomic model by coupling it to HEC-HMS, a hydrologic model capable of simulating regional natural and man-made water distribution networks, to investigate the sensitivity of streamflows to the allocation of agricultural inputs (land and water) in response to changes in climatic and economic

  1. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled. The..., and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 720-3684; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  2. Is it appropriate to support the farmers for adopting conservation agriculture? Economic and environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Troccoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA in the last decades has been spread in several parts of the world, especially in South and North America and Australia. In Italy, however, its adoption is often restrained by the risk to have a reduction in crop production in the early years of transition from conventional (CT to CA. To quantify sufficient financial support to promote no-tillage and CA, a mini-review about main effects of CA was conducted. The effect on crop yield, soil fertility - especially as it is influenced by the chemical, physical and microbiological factors - on soil compaction, the economic balance of the farm and the cost of equipment for direct seeding, the influence of environment on soil erosion, water retention, emissions of greenhouse gases, and carbon sequestration are briefly treated. The paper reports findings from national and international scientific literature and some results from long-term experiments conducted in Southern Italy. The main conclusions are about the reduction of yield in the first years of transition from CT to CA (from -5 to -10%, an improvement of soil fertility (soil organic carbon increases in the upper layers, reduction of management cost (less machinery operations, improvement of soil C sequestration (in specific conditions, a reduction of greenhouse gases emission and soil erosion risk. The paper provides the scientific basis in order to justify and quantify the amount to be paid to the farmers who decide to adopt the model of CA, oriented to protect the agro-ecosystem and to promote the principle of subsidiarity. Finally, a proposal of public subsidy in cash and for machinery purchase has been described.

  3. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  4. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgosz, Benjamin; Kato, Edward; Ringler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a par...

  5. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  6. An econometric analysis of the effects of institutions and economic transformation on agricultural land prices: case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Haniza

    2011-01-01

    This thesis seeks to investigate key drivers of the agricultural land market in a country undergoing economic structural transformation. The Ricardian land price model is extended to reflect different scenarios with regards to flexibility of land supply and competition for alternative uses for land. In addition, the study examined various non-market influences on price: (i) state intervention to determine and stabilise land supply for competing uses; (ii) transaction costs in land exchange an...

  7. Agricultural Policies and Soil Degradation in Western Canada: An Agro-Ecological Economic Assessment, Report 2: The Environmental Modeling System

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Bouzaher; Shogren, Jason F.; Derald Holtkamp; Gassman, Philip W; David Archer; P. G. Lakshminarayan; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Randall Reese

    1994-01-01

    An environmental modeling system is being constructed around the EPIC model that will be interfaced with an economic component (RS-CRAM) within an integrated modeling system to analyze agricultural policies such as GRIP for western Canada. A description of the major EPIC subcomponents is provided, including the most important data inputs. An environmental database also has been constructed for EPIC. This database consists of: (1) soil layer and landform data in separate databases for each Pra...

  8. Analysis of future agricultural change: a farm economics approach applied to Dutch arable farming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This study of agricultural change deals simultaneously with: (a) farm planning, ie. the constant adaptation to changing circumstances at the level of the individual farm firm and (b) conditional forecasting, ie. the analysis of alternative agricultural and environmental policy views and their impact

  9. An economic optimal-control evaluation of achieving/maintaining ground-water quality contaminated from nonpoint agricultural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study developed a methodology that may be used to dynamically examine the producer/consumer conflict related to nonpoint agricultural chemical contamination of a regional ground-water resource. Available means of obtaining acceptable ground-water quality included pollution-prevention techniques (restricting agricultural-chemical inputs or changing crop-production practices) and end-of-pipe abatement methods. Objectives were to select an agricultural chemical contaminant, estimate the regional agricultural costs associated with restricting the use of the selected chemical, estimate the economic costs associated with point-of-use ground-water contaminant removal and determine the least-cost method for obtaining water quality. The nitrate chemical derived from nitrogen fertilizer was selected as the contaminate. A three-county study area was identified in the Northwest part of Tennessee. Results indicated that agriculture was financially responsible for obtaining clean point-of-use water only when the cost of filtering increased substantially or the population in the region was much larger than currently existed

  10. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mayzelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use conversion and resulting flood control result in gains of at least $2.3 billion, as compared to costs of $0.3 to $0.7 billion for treatment options over a 20 year period. Buffer zones would maintain the economic integrity of the region and concur with prevailing policy options. Thus, managed agricultural recharge buffer zones are a potentially attractive option for communities facing financial constraint and needing to diversify their portfolio of policy and infrastructure approaches to meet drinking water quality objectives.

  11. Economic feasibility of CHP facilities fueled by biomass from unused agriculture land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Antun; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, Boris;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia is used to investigate the feasibility of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities fueled by such biomass. Large areas of agricultural land that remain unused...... work and is now used to investigate the conditions in which such energy facilities could be feasible. The overall potential of biomass from short rotation coppice cultivated on unused agricultural land in the scenarios with 30% of the area is up to 10PJ/year. The added value of fruit trees pruning...

  12. Assessment of China' s economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang-hua; CHANG Ying; NING Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities.On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimatingmethods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess theeconomic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billionRMB Yuan, which accounted for 4. t % of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmlandconversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing withthat in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  13. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  14. On the Economic Returns to a College Degree in Agriculture: What do we Know?

    OpenAIRE

    Kostandini, Genti; Mykerezi, Elton; West, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the returns to agricultural majors compared to other majors offered in four-year institutions. We find that, after accounting for the necessarily rural location of those with college degrees in agriculture, monetary returns to education are much closer to the median than naive rankings imply. As individuals acquire college degrees in pursuit of monetary and non-monetary goals, earnings are generally an imperfect measure of success for any degree, but they appear more so fo...

  15. Crop diversity effects on productivity and economic returns under dryland agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing crop diversity has been identified as a method to improve agronomic performance of cropping systems and increase provision of ecosystem services. However, there is a need to understand the economic performance of more diverse cropping systems. Crop productivity and economic net returns we...

  16. ECONOMIC ANALISYS OF A COFFEE-BANANA SYSTEM OF A FAMILY-BASED AGRICULTURE AT THE ATLANTIC FOREST ZONE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ponciano Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems can reduce the risks of investing in just one crop. However, there are uncertainties like other agricultural and forestry activities. Therefore, there is the need for economic studies under conditions of economic risk of agroforestry systems. This work reports an analysis of the main components of costs and revenues of an agroforestry system with coffee and banana, as well as an analysis of its economic performance through indicators: net present value, equivalent period benefit (or cost, family labor revenue and a sensitivity analysis of net present value. The main cost components in the system are the human labor and mineral and organic fertilizers applied in coffee, and the costs for the production of coffee outweigh the costs of banana production. The monthly income from the production of bananas balances the costs of coffee production, generating a positive cash flow in the studied period. Financial indicators showed positive values, demonstrating the economic viability of the system with coffee and banana. The agroforestry system is economically feasible, even with variations of ± 20% in production costs and selling prices of their products. Variables that showed greater sensitivity on the net present value were the selling price of coffee and bananas, and the cost of coffee production.

  17. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE TOWN COVACI, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara DUMA COPCEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper is to get information concerning the technical and fertility features of agricultural lands to be able to determine their present general production capacity in different crops and, implicitly, the uses that underlies technically and scientifically the most proper practical measures of rational use and conservation of the land for the benefit of the specialists. We focussed in the present study on the lands belonging to the cadastral territory of the commune of Covaci (Timiş County, i.e. the soil types identified within this perimeter. They are studied in relation to environmental factors that impact them and making up, with them, homogeneous ecological territory units with specific suitability for different agricultural or forestry uses and with different improvement requirements and technologies. The goals were: - characterising the natural framework; -identifying and characterising soil types and subtypes; -calculating land assessment grades; establishing suitability and classifying agricultural lands into fertility classes.

  18. Economic assessment of the impact of climate change on the agriculture of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Nomman Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies how climate change affects the agricultural productivity in Pakistan`s four provinces Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and the N.W.F.P., measured as weighted food crop yields per hectare, for the food crops wheat, rice and maize. By considering the RABI (Nov-Apr growing season and including a measure for drought to capture the occurrence of extreme events, exacerbated through climate change, the proposed hypothesis is that changing climatic variables have reduced and are reducing the agricultural productivity and thus posing a threat to long term food security. To depict the effect of climate change, several control variables are introduced in a panel framework for intertemporal analysis. As a result, we should expect lower levels of productivity in the arid zones with greater climatic pressure and adverse effects on food security through lower agricultural yields.

  19. Analysis on construction of the Supply Chain and Brand of Guangxi Characteristic Economic Agricultural Products——A Case Study of Guilin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,it is briefly introduced that Guangxi characteristic economic agricultural products are currently characterized by typical regional features and strong competitiveness.Then,Guilin is taken as an example,the problems existing in constructing the supply chain and brand of Guilin characteristic economic agricultural products are pointed out after the analysis of its current situations,the problems include weak agricultural production infrastructure,weak deep products processing capacity,low modernization level of storage and transportation as well as short of fixed marketing channels;meanwhile,brand construction faces the problems of little top brands and few differentiated products.Finally,some measures are proposed to solve these problems from the perspectives of establishing the management idea of agricultural products supply chain and enhancing the awareness to protect agricultural products brand,it is also suggested that these measures be extended to the whole Guangxi autonomous region in order to explore the way of the development of Guangxi characteristic agriculture.

  20. Evaluating the impact of economic agricultural policies during the reform era for major crops and crop rotations in Egypt: a policy analysis matrix approach

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kholei, Ahmed Mohammed Salah

    2003-01-01

    In 1986, Egypt implemented a succession of comprehensive economic reforms both in the agriculture sector and more generally such as the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP) of 1991. Since then, the agricultural sector has been gradually transformed from one characterised by central planning and governmental controls to one that is more free market oriented. This study employs the Policy Analysis Matrix technique to evaluate the impacts of reform policies on eleven maj...

  1. Evaluation on the Sustainable Development of Agricultural Industrialization Based on DPSIR Model - A Case of North Bay Economic Zone in Guangxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Hu

    2009-01-01

    According to the connotation of agricultural industrialization, the DPSIR model based on agricultural industrialization is introduced from the five aspects of driving fore, pressure, state, impact and response. Taking the North Bay Economic Zone of Guangxi Province as an example, a total of 23 indices are selected to construct the evaluation index system of sustainable development for agricultural industrialization by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. And the sustainable development level...

  2. Economic analysis of Dutch agricultural land use in a changing policy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study empirically investigates farmers’ decision-making on agricultural land use change in the Netherlands. Five driving factors influencing decision making on both on-farm land adjustments and changes to the size of the farm are selected: increased price volatil

  3. Organizational-economic grounds for realization of agricultural products by individual subsidiary economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paska Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the problem of marketing of agricultural produce of private farmers. It is developed an evaluation priority for channel selection and reasonable approaches for improving the distribution infrastructure in terms of Ukraine's accession to the WTO.

  4. Bio-economic farm modelling to analyse agricultural land productivity in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Bidogeza, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: Rwanda; farm household typology; sustainable technology adoption; multivariate analysis; land degradation; food security; bioeconomic model; crop simulation models; organic fertiliser; inorganic fertiliser; policy incentives In Rwanda, land degradation contributes to the low and declining agricultural productivity and consequently to food insecurity. As a result of land degradation and increasing population pressure, there is urgent need to simultaneously enhance food security and a...

  5. Economic impacts of climatic variability and subsidies on European agriculture and observed adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ewert, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess agricultural adaptation to climate impacts, new methodologies are needed. The translog distance function allows assessing interactions between different factors, and hence the influence of management on climate impacts. The Farm Accountancy Data Network provides extensive data on

  6. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.G. van Wijnbergen

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  7. Ecological versus Economic Objectives: A Public Decision Making Problem in Agricultural Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zekri, Slim; Romero, Carlos

    1992-01-01

    The planning of a new in·igated area is a complex problem where a multiplicity of very different criteria (economic, ecological, social, etc.) have to be taken into account. A lexicographic goal programming model capable of handling this multiplicity is formulated. The methodology is applied to the planning of the irrigated lands of the village of Tauste in Arag6n (Spain). An important result generated by the model is the conflict between economic criteria and environmental effects such as "s...

  8. THE POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC-AGRICULTURAL ZONES INFLUENCED BY SUBSIDIES AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alion SARGO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period continued deepening regional disparities in development between different parts of the country, mechanisms and market relations by claiming their advantages and disadvantages. The impact of the existence of these gaps is the deterioration mechanisms of interaction and increased economic disparities between different areas. The existence of socio-economic disproportions territorial is determined by objective and subjective reasons, natural and cyclical factors. But it is indisputable need for disposal.

  9. Economic and Social Impacts of a Large Agricultural Processing Plant in a Rural County

    OpenAIRE

    Doeksen, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a large pork processing plant located in Texas County, Oklahoma. In addition, many ranchers built large pork confinement facilities. The county was sparsely populated with 16,320 residents. The largest community, Guymon, had a population of 8,350 residents. These activities have changed the community and the objective of this paper will be to (1) review the social and economic changes that have occurred since 1994, and (2) to project social and economic changes from 1998 to 2003. Man...

  10. Socio-economic and Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture: An Integrated Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M. M.; Tubiello, F.N.; H.T. van Velthuizen

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro- ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological- economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in...

  11. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conj...

  12. Economic Potential of Biomass from Unused Agriculture Land for Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, A.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice (SRC) on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia was examined. At present, SRC is not completely recognized in Croatian legislative and considerations in energy strategy and action plans. The paper aspires...... to contribute to better understanding of the role SRC can take in national and local energy planning. The methodology is provided for regional analysis of biomass energy potential on unused agricultural land and for assessing the cost of the biomass at the power plant (PP) location considering transport...... distance, transport costs and size of the power plants up to 15 MWe, which was applied on the case of Croatian counties. Case studies have been analysed for optimal locations of such power plants depending on energy potential of SRC in various counties. Operation costs are also calculated for such power...

  13. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  14. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  15. Economics of Information in Developing Country Agriculture: Evidence from South India

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Suresh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Public agricultural extension systems often fail due to inadequate consultation of farmers about their information needs and poor understanding of their information search strategies. In discussing and implementing extension programs and advisory services, the following questions need to be addressed: What information do the farmers need? How and where do they search for information? What factors determine their search behavior? How much are they willing to pay for their information? While th...

  16. Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal links between per capita combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for the case of Brazil, spanning the period 1980-2011. The Fisher statistic of the Wald test confirms the existence of long-run cointegration between the considered variables. Short-run emp...

  17. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE ON U.S. AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Araji, A.A.; White, Fred C.

    1991-01-01

    Several quantitative methods have been developed to evaluate the Impacts of technological change on U.S. agriculture. The major weakness of prevailing models is that they consider the impact of technology on supply alone and are based on partial equilibrium analysis in one market. The use of partial equilibrium analysis ignores cross-market effect. For most goods, a supply shift directly affects quantity demanded by reducing the price of the commodity along a given demand curve. The resulting...

  18. The Agricultural Economics of Fremont Irrigation: A Case Study From South-Central Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Chimalis R.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis compares hypotheses about Fremont agricultural investment to evaluate the relationship between dry or rainfall farming and irrigation farming. Recent identification of a Fremont irrigation feature at Pleasant Creek provides an opportunity to study farming commitment through labor investment. A comparison of relative efficiencies of irrigated and dry-farmed maize using experimental digging exercises and cross-cultural comparisons generate data about the range of investment, carryin...

  19. Understanding Temperature and Moisture Interactions in the Economics of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation on Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-­Bobea, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Growing econometric and statistical evidence points to high temperature as the main driver of large negative effects of climate change on US agriculture. This literature also suggests a limited role for precipitation in overall impacts. This paper shows this finding stems from the widespread use of calendar precipitation variables, which poorly represent water availability for rainfed crops. I rely on a state-of-the art dataset with very high spatial (14km) and temporal (1h) resolution to dev...

  20. Goats Rearing Under Islamic Teachings and its Profitable Impact on Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Abad-ur-Rahman; Syed Naeem Badshah; Janas Khan; Muhammad Ayaz

    2012-01-01

    This article is written on goat rearing animal based agricultural economy, Goats rearing has been given preferences and admitted as source of to end poverty and assorted blessing as mentioned in Hadith. Because blessing Barakat means increase. Therefore goat has got such characteristic to give enhance breeding. For example, goat has the potential to give birth one to three offspring twice a year. It has been examined that goat breeds one to three offsprings twice a year; in this way a goat br...

  1. HOW to Facilitate or Stifle Economic Development: The Role of Agriculture in Indonesia and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    James, William; Roumasset, James

    1992-01-01

    Strikingly different patterns of agricultural growth and widely divergent results in terlnsof rural income. poverty. and employment have cmcrged in Southeast Asia. In the Philippiies, with someregional variations, a patterns of declining red farm wages,increasing landlessness in worsening poverty and diminishing employmctlt relative to demand for jobs has emerged despite some brief periods of improvcment since 1960. Sincc 1980, the employment and poverty situation has deteriorated sharply,...

  2. The Inverted Agricultural Economics Classroom: A new way to teach? A new way to learn?

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Justin G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an emerging teaching method, the inverted classroom, to agricultural economists. The reader will learn the pros and cons of this method and the tools needed to create an inverted course. Data on student perceptions of the inverted classroom is presented, as well as an estimate of the relationship between student perceptions and student performance in an inverted classroom. The surveyed students responded positively to the inverted classroom concept; h...

  3. Reforming Land-Tenure Systems in South Africa: Routes to Socio-Economic and Agricultural Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeks, Celine; Azadi, Hossein; Khachak, Parisa Rafiaani; Troyo-Dieguez, Enrique; Van Passel, Steven; Witlox, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Given the historical development of land tenure in South Africa, the aim of this article is to examine the best routes to alleviate poverty and retain sustainable agriculture in the country. First, a theoretical framework is presented that relates land tenure to sustainability, and three historical periods (pre-colonial, colonial, and apartheid) are then considered to explain the changes in land tenure and their consequences. The progress and main limitations of post-apartheid land reform to ...

  4. Economic Impact of Climate Change on Irrigated Rice Agriculture in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Olusegun AJETOMOBI; Abidun, Ajiboye; Hassan, Rashid M.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the Ricardian approach to test the relative importance of climate normals (average long-term temperature and precipitation) in explaining net revenue from Nigerian rice agriculture under irrigation and dry land conditions. A survey was done by interviewing 1200 rice farmers from 20 rice producing states in Nigeria. The states covered all the six geopolitical zones in the country. The results showed that increase in temperature will reduce net revenue for dry land rice farm...

  5. Economic Efficiency, Allen / Uzama and Morishima Elasticities of Smallholder Agriculture In Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa MAGANGA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to measure the economic efficiency of Dedza smallholder Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum farmers in Malawi using a translog cost frontier, inefficiency effect model and input Elasticities from Seeming Unrelated Regression Model for asystem of cost share equations for labour, fertilizer, seed and land. A sample of 200 farmers has been considered from Dedza district in Malawi. Results indicate that the mean economic efficiency of Irish potato production in Dedza District is 0.61 with scores ranging between 0.12 and 0.94. The economic efficiency differences are significantly explained by non-farm employment, education, credit access, farm experience, degree of specialization, household size and frequency of weeding. The highest input substitution existed between labour and fertilizer, followed by seedfertilizer.

  6. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  7. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  8. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, A.; Marchi, G.; Koeble, R.; Kempen, M.; Britz, W.; Li, C.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment) with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition) to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions), air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i) definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii) downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii) designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv) aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  9. 海南省农业结构调整对农业经济发展的实证分析%An Empirical Study on Effects of Agricultural Structure Readjustment in Hainan on Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙

    2011-01-01

    By dint of pearson relevant coefficient values and a regression model, their relationship to agricultural economic growth were expounded. Research showed that there were no distinct relevance between Hainan (planetary industry) agriculture growth and agricultural economic growth; Forestry proportion had significant negative relation to the agricultural economic growth; Ranching and Fishing industries proportion had significant positive correlation to the agricultural economy growth. Hainan Province agricultural Industrial Structure in 2008 and agricultural industrial structure in 1990 similarity coefficient was 0.93, indicating that Hainan Province agricultural restructuring contributed greatly to its agricultural economic development in 1991 ~ 2008 period.%通过Pearson相关系数值以及建立回归模型2种方式分别对农业经济增长的关系进行分析.结果表明,海南省农业(种植业)与农业经济增长并无明显的相关性;林业比重与农业经济增长有显著的负相关关系;牧业、渔业比重与农业经济增长有显著的正相关关系.2008年海南省的农业产业结构与1990年农业产业结构相似系数为0.93,说明在1991~2008年期间的海南省农业结构调整对其农业经济发展有很大的贡献.

  10. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  11. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt : A Ricardian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in...

  12. The U.S. Oats Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 573.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Linwood A.; Livezey, Janet

    This report describes the United States oats industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on oats. Background information on oats is provided first. The report then examines the basic factors of supply, demand, and price to determine what caused the decline in the importance of oats and…

  13. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING SUMMARY OF THE GREEK AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1950-2010: CENTRAL GREECE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Th. PAPAILIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the analysis of the economic and social development of a country or a region can be achieved either by using macroeconomic theories, or through a microeconomic approach (Sakellaropoulos, 1993. The innovation of this paper lies in the use of accounting techniques for capturing the relevant developments and in the fact that there are no similar studies in the Greek bibliography, except some fragmentary approaches of the 1950’s (Euelpides, 1953. Specifically, the objective of this article is the presentation of the social and economic development in a major region in Greece with the use of accounting statements. For this purpose the balance sheets and the income statements of the specific region were estimated per decade throughout the postwar period and the social-economic facts are tried to associate with the figures.The article is structured in three parts. The first refers to the methodology of the research. In the second, balance sheets and profit/loss accounts are presented in detail with the use of financial statement analysis methods and are attempted to correlate with the social-economic incidents. In the third the findings are evaluated.

  14. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  15. Environmental and economic evaluations of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Sobek, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    Agricultural and forestry residues have been converted to energy for centuries. The technologies employed range from straightforward approaches such as combustion to produce heat to more involved approaches such as pyrolysis of the residues to produce medium-Btu synthetic gas, charcoal, and oil. Thus there is no one technology that can be characterized as the best or most promising for conversion of agricultural and forestry residues into energy. Therefore, to accurately assess the potential of agricultural and forestry residues as energy resources, an array of current conversion options should be addressed. Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems ae examined. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  16. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan;

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in regulating the global carbon cycle and its feedbacks within the Earth system. Compelling evidence exists that soil carbon stocks have reduced in many regions of the world, with these reductions often associated with agriculture. In a Danish context......, research also suggests that soil carbon stocks are declining. The scope of Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) approaches to effectively and efficiently address climate regulation will depend on the spatial distribution of the carbon assimilation capacity, current land use, the value of avoided emissions...

  17. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI: methodology and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulatewicz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI. This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  18. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poeplau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988–1997 (Inventory I, 2001–2007 (Inventory II and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III, and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0–20 cm SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr−1 over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  19. Economic appraisal and agro-biodiversity development of urban agriculture in Hue city, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hankeová, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    Home gardens play an important role in household strategies as they contribute to their livelihood sustainability. They are a typical example of farming systems documented in urban or peri-urban areas. Vietnam has been witnessing fast economic development during the last twenty years and its cities now experience huge migration of population at rural-urban gradient. Together with personal income growth and increasing number of tourists, there is a growing demand for food, both in terms of qua...

  20. SOME AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ENERGY SAVING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K TAKÁCS-GYÖRGY

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance parameters, energetic characteristics and cost factors of direct drilling were evaluated by longterm trials carried out in Osztopán and Gödöllő regions. The effect of direct drilling, disking, ploughing, and soil loosening combined with disking and ploughing on the soil conditions, yields and cost factors was evaluated and based on the examination results. The economic comparisons were done by gross margin analyses of various technologies. Reducing the number of field applications is limited by the risk of soil compactions and weed infestations. From an economic part of view cost saving aspects of the various cultivation methods mentioned above cannot be justified in comparison with the ploughing methods. The lowest gross margin value was 61.79 EUR t-1, direct drilling and the highest was 67.34 EUR t-1, with ploughing but it was due to the great difference between the yield as well (6.89 and 4.03 t.ha-1. The results we achieved during our research are valid only in the given conditions, they could be recalculated and complemented under other soil and agro-ecological conditions. Our purpose was to emphasise the necessity of economical calculations before making decisions on changing technology. Our suggestion is: combined application of the traditional and energy saving methods, regarding the local conditions as well.

  1. The Efficacy of the Legal Framework of Agricultural Charge as Secured Credit Transaction in the Economic Development of Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwunze, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the background of an underdeveloped agricultural sector and the huge amount of money government at all levels have at various times committed to the development of the sector in the form of agricultural loans to farmers, this article assesses the efficacy of agricultural charge as secured credit transaction in Nigeria. It shows that due to legal, institutional and attitudinal deficiencies, agricultural charge as secured credit transaction has failed to engender needed development of the agricultural sector particularly and the Nigerian economy generally. It concludes that if the present effort of government at diversifying the Nigerian economy, mainly in the direction of agriculture must yield results, a legal, social and economic environment that facilitates the use of farms as security for advances must prevail.

  2. 农业产业结构调整对农业经济增长的作用探析%The Agricultural Industrial Structure Adjustment of Agricultural Economic Growth Effect Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兰江

    2012-01-01

      Agriculture as ancient and modern industry, the national economic development has an important position. This paper from the definition of the industrial structure of agriculture industry structure in analysis of rural economic growth effect was presented, based on the agricultural industrial structure adjustment in promoting agricultural economic growth the application of strategy. To our country agricultural economic development have a certain significance.%  农业作为古老且现代的产业,其在国民经济发展中有着重要的地位。本文从产业结构的定义入手,在分析农业产业结构对农村经济增长作用的基础上,提出了农业产业结构调整在促进农业经济增长方面的应用策略。对我国农业经济的发展有一定的借鉴意义。

  3. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE EXPLOATATION IN SOUTH OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara CHIHAIA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity, as variation of life form on Earth is the base of agriculture, in each of its fields, from the food to the services provided by ecosystems, the main streams and links of production. Standards or requirements that farmers must meet to be eligible for subsidies contribute to maintain biodiversity. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the costs needed to implement environmental standards and their implications for farm rentability. This study was made in farms with different size in the south part of Romania. Even if it can be seen a increase of production expenses which lead to a light decrease of farms profitability, the long-term benefit of biodiversity conservation is considerably.

  4. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    of using hybrid systems. Interestingly enough, optimization results show that hybrid systems are less costly than diesel generation from a net present cost perspective even with the high diesel fuel price subsidies. Since hybrids are also more environmentally friendly, they represent a strong step towards......Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...... priority. This heavy reliance on diesel generation has negative effects on the surrounding environment including soil, groundwater, and air pollution. Although good solar and wind resource prospects exist for the use of cleaner hybrid power systems in certain desert locations, little research has been done...

  5. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Cereal Production: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem Bawayelaazaa Nyuor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic impacts of climate change on cereal crop production in Northern Ghana using 240 households comprising maize and sorghum farmers. The Ricardian regression approach was used to examine the economic impacts of climate change based on data generated from a survey conducted in the 2013/2014 farming seasons. Forty-year time-series data of rainfall and temperature from 1974 to 2013, together with cross-sectional data, were used for the empirical analysis. The Ricardian regression estimates for both maize and sorghum showed varying degrees of climate change impacts on net revenues. The results indicated that early season precipitation was beneficial for sorghum, but harmful for maize. However, mid-season precipitation tended to promote maize production. Temperature levels for all seasons impacted negatively on net revenue for both crops, except during the mid-season, when temperature exerted a positive effect on net revenue for sorghum. Our findings suggest that appropriate adaptation strategies should be promoted to reduce the negative impacts of prevailing climate change on cereal crop production.

  6. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS

  7. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  8. 农村合作经济组织推动农业保险发展研究%Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芬; 李茂松

    2011-01-01

    分析了合作经济组织作为农业保险发展有效载体的有利条件:合作经济组织推动了规模化经营,破解了小户分散经营难题;合作经济组织可以解决农民组织化程度低的问题;合作经济组织可以大大缩减农业保险运营成本;合作组织能在一定程度上降低道德风险和逆向选择;合作组织在一定程度上降低了农业生产风险,提高了农业风险的可保性.同时,指出了农业合作经济组织作为农业保险经营载体的局限性:合作经济组织的覆盖范围小,组织规模小,不利于农业风险的分散;合作经济组织资金缺乏,本身发展还不够规范,不利于载体功能的发挥;专业合作组织成员文化素质低,不利于农业保险的推行.提出了推进农业保险发展的农民合作经济组织模式,如农业保险合作社(相互会社)模式、“龙头企业(公司)+专业合作组织(种养大户)+保险”的模式、专业合作社代理农业保险模式.最后,简要说明了农业保险对农业合作经济组织的促进作用.%The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organizations promote quantitative management and solve the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants' low systemization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance management are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative

  9. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  10. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  11. Responses of agricultural bioenergy sectors in Brandenburg (Germany) to climate, economic and legal changes: An application of Holling's adaptive cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural bioenergy production is subject to dynamics such as yield fluctuations, volatile prices, resource competition, new regulation and policy, innovation and climate change. This raises questions, to what extent bioenergy production is able to adapt to changes and overcome critical events. These dynamics have important implications for effective policy development. Using a case study method, which draws on various data sources, we investigate in detail how agricultural bioenergy sectors in the German State of Brandenburg adapted to diverse past events. The case analysis rests on the adaptive-cycle concept and the system properties potential, connectedness and resilience as defined by . Our case study concludes that Brandenburg's biogas sector has a low potential and connectedness within the system, and a low resilience against crop failures. The biofuels sector displays similar properties in the short term. In the medium term the potential could increase in both sectors. The properties imply risks and opportunities for biogas production and the possibility to develop towards a stage with a higher potential and a higher connectedness. But adaptive capacity is limited and there are certain barriers for the agricultural bioenergy sectors to overcome potentially critical states. Policy needs to be tailored accordingly. - Highlights: ► Bioenergy sectors respond to climatic, economic and legal changes in different ways. ► Responses to changes expose critical features and bottlenecks of bioenergy sectors. ► Resilience, potential and connectedness are critical features for bioenergy sectors. ► Stages of development of the biogas and biofuel production sectors are identified. ► Effective policy design needs to match the sectors' features and development stages.

  12. Economic feasibility of using gamma radiation for the preservation of some agricultural commodities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onions irradiated with an average dose of 8.7 krad and stored under refrigeration for 5 months had 20 to 31% less loss than non-irradiated onions. Garlic irradiated with an average dose of 9.3 krad and stored under refrigeration for up to 7 months had 7.5% less loss at 5 months and 14.6% less loss at 7 months than non-irradiated garlic. Irradiation with 50 krad delayed yellowing of mangoes, but the effect varied with variety. The emergence of adult fruit flies was prevented by irradiation. Economic analyses of the irradiation of onions, garlic and mangoes indicated that irradiation can provide advantageous savings. (author). 2 refs, 12 tabs

  13. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  14. Soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventory and Ecological-Economic Zoning as a basis for agricultural suitability of lands in Minas Gerais elaborated in GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Antonio Silva; Nilton Curi; João José Granate Marques; Luis Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho; Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities) of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geograph...

  15. Threats to agriculture at the extensive and intensive margins : economic analyses of selected land-use issues in the U.S. West and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key Words Agriculture-environment interactions, economic modelling, sage grouse, yellow starthistle, urban-rural fringe, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), farmland conservation, direct marketing Agricultural land uses are frequently challenged by competing land demands for urban uses and for nature. Decisions made by private operators at the natural (extensive) and urban (intensive) margins of land use may not be socially desirable due to the externalities and public goods associated with...

  16. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  17. Feasibility, operability, and economic studies for energy sources from renewable agricultural waste and other biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Heijden, S.; Barabas, M.F.; Szladow, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Power Corporation initiated a feasibility study on production of electricity from wood in small isolated northern communities in Saskatchewan. The principal conclusions of that program indicated that wood gasification followed by combustion of low-energy produced gas in a modified diesel engine can be an alternative to electricity generation from diesel fuel. The Corporation decided to conduct field trials using a commercially available wood gasifier. A model gasifier-motor-generator was acquired and assembled on a mobile platform first for testing and then field trials in Saskatchewan. The system performed satisfactorily. The gasification efficiency was between 75 and 80 percent. The efficiency for conversion of wood to usable electricity was dependent upon the load and varied from 4 to 14 percent for 20 to 80 percent of the generating capacity. Analysis of electricity cost over a ten year period using wood gasification-motor-generator vs. diesel generator indicated a levelized electricity cost (1981 dollars) equal to 0.204 $/kWh for wood and 0.130 $/kWh for diesel system. High labor charges for wood gasification made it less attractive. Analysis of key economic parameters showed that a significant reduction of electricity cost can be obtained for wood systems if additional automation is introduced at a moderate increase of capital cost.

  18. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  19. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  20. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  1. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M. Lourdes, E-mail: mlima@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Romanelli, Asunción, E-mail: aromanel@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Massone, Héctor E., E-mail: hmassone@mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Geología de Costas y del Cuaternario, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, Nivel 1, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+ 20%; high–very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high–very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status

  2. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to

  3. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. PMID:27471980

  4. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system.

  5. Rethinking the Role of Agriculture and Agro-Industry in the Economic Development of Thailand: Input-Output and CGE Analyses (Ph.D. Dissertation)

    OpenAIRE

    Thaiprasert, Nalitra

    2006-01-01

    Thailand’s economic development has been quite successful in terms of achieving high growth rate and reasonable per capita income. The country’s economic performance in terms of the transformation of production and exports are tending toward the normal pattern of increasing share of manufactured products. However, the major problems Thailand is still facing are the late reduction of its agricultural labor force, inequality that has occurred as a result of the development process, and problems...

  6. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an agen

  7. Economics of fossil fuel substitution and wood product sinks when trees are planted to sequester carbon on agricultural lands in western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Krcmar-Nozic, E.; Stennes, B.; Gorkom, van R.

    1999-01-01

    To meet its international commitment to reduce CO2 output by 7% from the 1990 level by 2012, Canada will rely to some extent on terrestrial carbon uptake, particularly afforestation of marginal agricultural land. The economics of afforestation is examined for northeastern British Columbia and all of

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Agricultural Energy Consumption and Agricultural Economic Growth in Different Regions of China%中国区域农业生产用能与农业经济增长关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉莉; 牛叔文; 李怡涵; 张馨

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output show obvious regional differences in China.Based on data of agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output value during the period 1990 to 2008,the authors used cluster analysis methods to conceptually partition the entire country into four regions,i.e.,high growth to high consumption(I),low growth to high consumption(II),low growth to low consumption(III),and high growth to low consumption(IV).Then a panel data model was built to unravel the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output in different regions.Results show that the integrated characteristics between energy consumption and agricultural economic growth in different areas can generally be reflected by the four regions that high energy consumption areas are located mainly in the eastern region,but these areas are not necessarily high agricultural growth.Low energy consumption areas are located mainly in the western region,but these areas are not necessarily low agricultural growth.There exist co-integration relationships between agricultural energy consumption and agricultural output in each region.Differences in the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth for the four regions and different provinces in each region were revealed quantitatively by model analysis.From the model test results,it was found that the correlation coefficient is positive between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth in region I and region IV,whereas the correlation coefficient is negative in region II and region III.This demonstrates that energy consumption plays an important role in promoting agricultural economic growth in high growth to high consumption(I) and high growth to low consumption(IV);however,this rule cannot be applied to other regions.At the same time,the close degree of the relationship between agricultural energy consumption and economic growth was

  9. Sustainability Assessment in Wine-Grape Growing in the New World: Economic, Environmental, and Social Indicators for Agricultural Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Santiago-Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators have been used in many sustainability assessment methods, however, disagreements over a common definition and scope for the sustainability concept have led to many distinct assessment methods, which are not often directly comparable. Before developing a sustainability assessment, it is essential to: define sustainability and specify the viewpoint of the assessor, the purpose of the assessment, and the context and time frame of the assessment. This article presents a short list of indicators and a method that can be readily adopted by any agricultural business or region to assess sustainability, making any organization, region or crop qualitatively comparable. These indicators were proposed by 83 top-level executives in 14 group interviews conducted using our adapted nominal group technique (ANGT. Executives were sourced from wine-grape growing organisations from New World wine-producing countries that also owned vineyards, and they considered everyday management practices of farms. These indicators, grouped within three categories (economic, environmental, and social were ranked by their importance. The method defines qualitative indicators that, in the context of distinct wine regions or crops should be quantified to maintain their relevance and usefulness.

  10. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  11. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  12. Investigation on the Regional Branding Mode of Modern Agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone——From the Perspective of Country-of-origin Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The theory of the country-of-origin image is discussed and the natural relations between county-of-origin image and the regional brand are explored.The paper points out that the dispersion of agriculture has intensified the natural relations to a large extent.The paper probes into the branding status of agriculture in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic zone and points out the problems of it.In the first place,the agricultural industrial system is complete but there is no unified agricultural regional brand;in the second place,the weak awareness on protecting brand leads to the irrational behaviors on damaging brand.From the perspective of the image of the country of origin,the branding mode of agriculture is established and the countermeasures on improving the competitiveness of agricultural products are put forward.Firstly,the leading role of the government should be fully displayed;secondly,the image protection of original production place and regional brand promotion of the agricultural region should be intensified;thirdly,the functions of local pillar industries in protecting image and regional branding should be fully made use of.

  13. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  14. Agrarian-Economic Structure of Agricultural Holdings in Poland and East Germany: Selected Elements of Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierska-Thöle Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine differences in the development of farms in Poland against the agriculture of East Germany, and to show areas with similar conditions for development. The time range of the research covered the years 2002-2010, i.e. the stage of preparation of Polish agriculture for accession to the European Union, the implementation of pre-accession aid programmes, and the establishment and implementation of the tools of the Common Agricultural Policy. To assess the level of agricultural development, natural, productive and social characteristics were adopted. Spatial variations in the analysed features were based on the variation coefficient (Vz, and the level of agricultural development, on Perkal’s index (Wi. In the analysed period the range of variation and the degree of the spatial dispersion of sub-indices changed, indicating a deepening of the polarisation processes in agriculture. The implementation of CAP intensified the process of specialisation and modernisation in agriculture, an example of which is the increase in the average farm size and in agricultural productivity. On the other hand, agricultural production intensified, as exemplified by a decrease in the minimum value in six of the analysed characteristics, which indicates growing disparities.

  15. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  16. Investment in Agricultural Water for Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The report analyses the contribution to date of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the in sub-Saharan Africa region, the reasons for its slow expansion and apparently poor track record, as well as the ways in which increased investment in agricultural water management could make a sustainable contribution to further poverty reduction and growth. The first chap...

  17. Co-integration Analysis of the Relationship between Logistics Transportation and Economic Growth of Agriculture in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis selects freight volume and passenger capacity from 1978 to 2008 in Zhejiang Province and the total output value of the primary industry as the object of research, uses quantitative method of co-integration analysis to analyze the freight volume and passenger capacity, and the total output value of the primary industry in Zhejiang Province. After the stationary test of the time sequence, I conduct the regression analysis of the relationship between freight volume and the total output value of agriculture, and the relationship between passenger capacity and the total output value of agriculture. In addition, I conduct Granger causality test of the relationship between freight volume and passenger capacity, and the total output value of agriculture. The results show that the transportation of Zhejiang Province has promoted the development of agricultural economy prominently, and the development of agricultural economy plays indistinctive role in promoting the transportation volume in Zhejiang Province.

  18. Innovative approaches to investment decisions substantiation in the sphere of agricultural land use on the base оf ecological and economic assessment of investment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Marekha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to elaborate innovative theoretical and methodological issues and practical recommendations concerning formation of ecological and economic assessment of investment quality, substantiation of investment decisions in the sphere of agricultural land use. The results of the analysis. The analysis of investment quality is undertaken in frames of the analysis of a category «investment». The author finds out that the category of «investment quality» can be investigated from economic and financial sides. From economic point of view, investments are regarded as expenditures on economic reproduction. From financial side, investments are considered as actives that are invested to the business activity in order to receive a profit. The author emphases that such twofold innovative approach can be taken as a principle for determining the category «investment quality». By the meaning of investment quality in agricultural land use one should understand a holistic characteristic of resource attributes that enable to satisfy investment demands in agriculture on the whole and to meet the interests of individual investors in particular. The author distinguishes investment strategies by the features of agricultural ecological and economic system and outlines the following ones: government strategy, banking strategy, self-investment strategy and foreign strategy. A set of ecological and economic indicators of investment quality is formed in the article. In authors’ opinion, the system of ecological and economic indicators of investment quality must include: optimal investment structure adjusted to the influence of ecological factor; the risk of investment portfolio adjusted to the influence of ecological factor; index of profitability of the investment portfolio adjusted to the influence of ecological factor. For identification of the investment quality the researcher proposes to use additional indicator

  19. Agrarian-Economic Structure of Agricultural Holdings in Poland and East Germany: Selected Elements of Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jezierska-Thöle Aleksandra; Janzen Jörg; Rudnicki Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the development of farms in Poland against the agriculture of East Germany, and to show areas with similar conditions for development. The time range of the research covered the years 2002-2010, i.e. the stage of preparation of Polish agriculture for accession to the European Union, the implementation of pre-accession aid programmes, and the establishment and implementation of the tools of the Common Agricultural Policy. To assess the leve...

  20. Impact of the relationship between managers and the board of directors on economic performance of agricultural cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Sanja; Hudson, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Cooperatives operate under a business model that creates unique challenges in financial management, governance, strategy, and communication. There have been a number of efforts to identify challenges, critical issues and success factors for agricultural cooperatives. One of the issues agricultural cooperatives are facing is the relationship between managers and the board of directors. Directors in a cooperative occupy a crucial position between members and hired management. Acting as a group,...

  1. Socio-economic characterization of integrated cropping systems in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Ur Rehman; Martina Predotova; Iqar Ahmad Khan; Eva Schlecht; Andreas Buerkert

    2013-01-01

    Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA) systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the househol...

  2. Tradeoffs Between Water Quality and the Economic Impacts of Low-Input Agriculture in the Coastal Plain of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Diebel, Penelope L.; Taylor, Daniel B.; Batie, Sandra S.; Heatwole, Conrad D.

    1992-01-01

    Agricultural activities have been identified as major contributors to the non-point pollution of the Chesapeake Bay. Low-input agricultural practices are being considered to reduce pollution in areas adjoining the Chesapeake Bay. A multiperiod mathematical programming model was used to examine the potential adoption of low-input practices and to assess the environmental consequences of these activities under different policies. The results of these analyses indicate that tradeoffs exist among...

  3. 农业用水权有偿转让经济技术措施研究%Economic Technology of Agricultural Water Right Compensable Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣四海

    2009-01-01

    从经济学角度出发,探讨了农业用水权转让的经济管理集成技术,研究内容包括农业初始水权的界定与水权分配、国家政策环境对农业用水权有偿转让的影响、农业用水权有偿转让主要内容、程序步骤等,最后结合河南省群库灌区调查,计算分析了灌区用水量转让、农业用水转移的供水价格与供水年限以及农业用水量转让后对当地工农业经济和农民收入的影响等.研究成果对我国农业用水权有偿转让以及工农业经济发展具有一定的参考价值.%Starting from economic viewpoints, the systematic economic management technology of agricul-tural water right transfer were studied, which include water right initial allocaltion, national policy influ-ence, water right trading, water right trading system, etc. Finally, based on investigation for Qunku Irri-gaiton District, calculation and analysis were carried out for water transfer, water price, water supply pe-riod, industrial and agricultural economic influence. The present fingdings should be an important refer-ence value for agricultural water right compensable transfer and related economic development.

  4. Agro-Ecological Assessment for the Transition of the Agricultural Sector in Ukraine. Part I: Socio-Economic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, N.; Gumeniuk, K.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, Ukraine has been undergoing a transformation of its economic and social system to enable the transition to a market economy. There are a number of positive developments that have already resulted from the changes in the socio-economic environment. However the transformation of farming systems into new forms did not greatly improve the sustainable use of natural resources or strengthen the economic performance, so that the influence of this intervention on sustainability of ...

  5. Economic efficiency assessment of greenhouse gases mitigation for agriculture; Analyse af omkostningseffektiviteten ved drivhusgasreducerende tiltag i relation til landbruget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubgaard, A.; Moeller Laugesen, F.; Staehl, E.E.; Bang, J.R.; Schou, E.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Oerum, J.E.; Dejgaerd Jensen, J.

    2013-08-15

    The report contains the contributions by the Institute of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO) to a Danish Government appraisal of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction measures. The policy goal is a 40 per cent reduction in total Danish GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. The GHGs analysed in the present study include emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide and methane plus soil carbon sequestration. The purpose of the study is to identify GHG mitigation measures related to agriculture which can deliver cost-effective contributions to the targeted reduction in GHG emissions in Denmark. A total of 21 GHG mitigation measures are included in the assessment. The stipulated implementation period is 2013 to 2020. The cost calculations have a time horizon equal to 30 years, i.e. from 2013 to 2042. The GHG reduction potential, expressed in CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}-eq), is calculated as the sum of the effect on the emission of CO{sub 2} (with and without changes in soil carbon), methane and nitrous oxide. The 21 mitigation measures are listed below (figures in brackets show the assumed implementation potential): 1. Biogas from livestock manure/slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 2. Biogas from slurry and maize (10 % of total slurry production) 3. Biogas from organic clover 4. Additional fat in diet for dairy cows (80% of conventional dairy cow stock and 20 % of organic dairy cow stock) 5. Additional concentrated feed in diet for other cattle (25 % of cattle stock under 2 years of age) 6. Prolonged lactation period for dairy cows (10 % of dairy cow stock) 7. Acidification of slurry (10 % of total slurry production) 8. Covers on slurry containers (40 % of total slurry production) 9. Cooling of pig slurry (10 % of pig slurry) 10. Nitrification inhibitors in nitrate fertilisers (100 % of chemical fertilisers with nitrogen) 11. Increased nitrogen utilization requirement for degassed slurry in nitrogen quota system (50 % of total slurry production) 12. Increased nitrogen

  6. Social, environmental and economic aspects of the organic agriculture –case study in Verê, State Of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Aní Caovilla Follador

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic agriculture consist in a holistic system of production management which foment and improvement the agroecosystem health and, in specific the biodiversity, the cycles and biological activities, reason because this work had as objective analyze the economic environmental, social and political factors, that conditioning the organic production systems evolution, limiting their diffusion in function of the existent potential. For that, were employed the bibliographic and field research methodology applied in 10 agricultural proprieties located in Verê county, at Paraná State, with the organic food cultivation. The results demonstrated that detaching the vegetables which united with other products are totally commercialized in the municipal district and region. Was possible to verify that the production and commercialization of organic food comes obtaining force and achieving each time more space and, for a greater expansion is necessary that the consumer acquire conscience about the importance of the acquisition of products that are derived of the organic agriculture. Also, is necessary establishing specific public politeness, in the federal, state and municipal extents, which promotes the organic agricultural diffusion. With relation to the certification, the utilization of the life cycle assessment of the organic product showing adequate because consider the production conditions.

  7. Economical efficiency of bio energy as the level of prices in the agricultural sector rises; Wirtschaftlichkeit der Bioenergie bei steigendem Agrarpreisniveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    The food versus fuel debate is still of high social relevance. Changes to the framework conditions can have serious consequences for the profitability and the raw material supply of bioenergy plants. With the German Renewable Energy Act (EEG) economic incentives were created in the past to expand the growing of renewable raw materials on arable land for the production of biogas as well as for combined heat and power generation. In the meantime, agricultural prices have developed very dynamically; there can currently hardly be any talk of excessive promotion by the EEG. Taking into account the opportunity cost of agricultural/and use, from the perspective of the grower raw material prices which call into question the profitable supply of biogas plants are sometimes necessary - even for maize, the most important and efficient field fodder. The expiration of long-term supply agreements can lead to supply shortages, especially for biogas plants that do not belong to farms. (orig.)

  8. Soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventory and Ecological-Economic Zoning as a basis for agricultural suitability of lands in Minas Gerais elaborated in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Antonio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geographic information treatment techniques and GIS allows to evaluate geographic phenomena and their interrelationships using digital maps. To evaluate the agricultural suitability of state lands, we used soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventories and databases related to Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ of Minas Gerais, to develop a map of land suitability in GIS. To do this, we have combined the maps of soil fertility, water stress, oxygen deficiency, vulnerability to erosion and impediments to mechanization. In terms of geographical expression, the main limiting factor of lands is soil fertility, followed by lack of water, impediments to mechanization and vulnerability to erosion. Regarding agricultural suitability, the group 2 (regular suitability for crops is the most comprehensive, representing 45.13% of the state. For management levels A and B, low and moderate technological level, respectively, the most expressive suitability class is the regular, followed by the restricted class and last, the adequate class, while for the management level C (high technological level the predominant class is the restricted. The predominant most intensive use type is for crops, whose area increases substantially with capital investment and technology (management levels B and C.

  9. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  10. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  11. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  12. Agricultural residues and energy crops as potentially economical and novel substrates for microbial production of butanol (a biofuel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes production of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) from a variety of agricultural residues and energy crops employing biochemical or fermentation processes. A number of organisms are available for this bioconversion including Clostridium beijerinckii P260, C. beijerinckii BA101, C. a...

  13. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  14. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE EPIGEAL FAUNA IN THE CORN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM IN OCNA SIBIU (SIBIU COUNTY IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The arthropods have the role of biologic indicators, of diagnosis instruments regarding the negative effects of the human intervention in the structure and functioning of the agricultural ecosystems. Their presence or absence, the growth or lowering of their populations in the agricultural ecosystems can indicate the state of health of these systems and their good functioning. The aim of our researches is establishing the fauna structure of the community of arthropods at the soil level in the corn agricultural ecosystem in Ocna Sibiu, (Sibiu County; the characterization of the communities of invertebrates under the aspect of numerical abundance and of that of relative one; framing the entomologic fauna into a beneficial or pest one, the identification of the culture technology for the researched area. Regarding the applied researched methods, they were as follows: the using of pitfall traps (Barber traps that were at the level of the soil as well as the method of direct collecting of the fauna from the plants. As a result of our researches there was established the taxonomic and quantitative structure of the collected fauna through the methods of pitfall traps (Barber traps in Ocna Sibiu during 2012; there were identified 13 taxonomic groups. From the total of the collected agricultural fauna gathered by the help of pitfall traps in Ocna Sibiu locality there were identified 51 species of insects from which 30 were beneficial ones and 21 pest ones, the dominating order being Coleopteron with 35 species. The establishment of the group of arthropods, especially of the entomologic fauna, beneficial or pest indicates the equilibrium or the disequilibrium state from the researched corn three field systems. The ratio between the two types of fauna permits choosing the optimum method of maintaining the equilibrium between the species of the system and applying those measures of management in order to affect less the system in its assembly and to

  15. Applying a bio-economic optimal control model to charcoal production: The case of slash and burn agriculture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Fernando; Mauricio G. Villena

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural poverty and forestland management in the context of charcoal production under slash and burn. An optimal control model determines how a representative household makes decisions on the allocation of labor and forest areas to exploit, which in turn affects the renewable resource base available to the community. The proposed optimal control model for charcoal production is built upon the agricultural model of slash and burn of Pascual and Barbie...

  16. Applying a bio-economic optimal control model to charcoal production: The case of slash and burn agriculture in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Fernando; Mauricio G. Villena

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between rural poverty and forest land management in the context of charcoal production under slash and burn. An optimal control model determines how a representative household makes decisions on the allocation of forest areas to work and use them to affect the renewable resource base on which it depends. The proposed optimal control model for charcoal production is built upon the agricultural model of slash and burn by Pascual and Barbier (2007). This theo...

  17. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  18. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  19. CRITICAL ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR SUCCESS OF A BIOMASS CONVERSION PLANT FOR AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE, YARD RESIDUE AND WOOD WASTE IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Granja, Ivan R.; VanSickle, John J.; Ingram, Lonnie; Weldon, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    This model evaluates the potential success of a cellulosic ethanol plant in Florida. Critical Economic factors of the plant were simulated to assess the ability of this project. These critical factors include the feedstock to be used, the cost of the facility, transportation costs and the discount rate for the net present value (NPV). Results and observations are presented in this paper.

  20. Socio-economic characterization of integrated cropping systems in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ur Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisalabad city is surrounded by agricultural lands, where farmers are growing vegetables, grain crops, and fodder for auto-consumption and local marketing. To study the socioeconomic impact and resource use in these urban and peri-urban agricultural production (UPA systems, a baseline survey was conducted during 2009–2010. A total of 140 households were selected using a stratified sampling method and interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The results revealed that 96 % of the households rely on agriculture as their main occupation. Thirty percent of the households were owners of the land and the rest cultivated either rented or sharecropped land. Most of the families (70 % were headed by a member with primary education, and only 10 % of the household head had a secondary school certificate. Irrigationwater was obtained from waste water (37 %, canals (27 %, and mixed alternative sources (36 %. A total of 35 species were cultivated in the UPA systems of which were 65% vegetables, 15% grain and fodder crops, and 5% medicinal plants. Fifty-nine percent of the households cultivated wheat, mostly for auto-consumption. The 51 % of the respondents grew cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. and gourds (Cucurbitaceae in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. Group marketing was uncommon and most of the farmers sold their produce at the farm gate (45 % and on local markets (43 %. Seeds and fertilizers were available from commission agents and dealers on a credit basis with the obligation to pay by harvested produce. A major problem reported by the UPA farmers of Faisalabad was the scarcity of high quality irrigation water, especially during the hot dry summer months, in addition to lacking adequate quantities of mineral fertilizers and other inputs during sowing time. Half of the respondents estimated their daily income to be less than 1.25 US$ and spent almost half of it on food. Monthly average household income and expenses were 334 and 237 US

  1. The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets. The role of macro-economic linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world prices of some food and energy products have followed similar large swings in recent years. We investigate the long-run relationship between these prices using a world Computable General Equilibrium model with detailed representations of food and energy markets. Particular attention is paid to specifying macro-economic linkages which have often been overlooked in recent analysis and debate. We find that the omission of these macro-economic linkages has a substantial bearing on this relationship. A positive relationship due to the cost push effect has been identified in most analysis, but we find that the introduction of the real income effect may indeed imply a negative relationship between world food and energy prices. (author)

  2. The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets: The role of macro-economic linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world prices of some food and energy products have followed similar large swings in recent years. We investigate the long-run relationship between these prices using a world Computable General Equilibrium model with detailed representations of food and energy markets. Particular attention is paid to specifying macro-economic linkages which have often been overlooked in recent analysis and debate. We find that the omission of these macro-economic linkages has a substantial bearing on this relationship. A positive relationship due to the cost push effect has been identified in most analysis, but we find that the introduction of the real income effect may indeed imply a negative relationship between world food and energy prices.

  3. Evaluating the Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Activities in Developing Countries: Domestic Resource Costs and the Social Cost-Benefit Ration

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, William A.; Winter-Nelson, Alex

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the conventional Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) indicator is biased against factor-intensive, low-input techniques, and that a simple Social Cost-Benefit (SCB) ratio is generally a more appropriate measure of economic efficiency. The potential policy significance of improved measurement is shown with data from Zimbabwe and Kenya. In Zimbabwe, the DRC is shown to incorrectly rank high-input large-scale farming systems above more Jabour-intensive smallholder systems; ...

  4. Dynamics in land use patterns : socio-economic and environmental aspects of the second agricultural land use revolution

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nijkamp; Soeteman, F.

    1988-01-01

    Many attempts have been made in the past decade to model or to replicate the complexity of dynamic economic-environmental systems, but the strategic components (e.g., key forces, surprises and boundaries) were not adequately included, so that these models failed to provide effective and preventive environmental policies. Consequently, mega-trend analysis at a meso level focusing on the qualitative changes and major directions of influence is -- from a strategic policy viewpoint -- more import...

  5. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  6. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. PMID:26974574

  7. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  8. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological

  9. Agricultural activities of the malayali tribal for subsistence and economic needs in the mid elevation forest of pachamalai hills, eastern ghats, Tamil nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to study the Agricultural activities of the Malayali Tribal for Subsistence and Economic needs in the mid elevation forest of Pachamalai Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil nadu. About 8 percent of the Indian population belongs to a category listed as “Scheduled Tribes” enumerated in the Schedule to Article 342 of the Constitution of India. Tribal people has been seen to be strongly associated with the forests, hills and remote areas, practicing a unique life style, having a unique set of cultural and religious beliefs. For millennia, tribal communities have lived in forests and survived on hunting and gathering. However, with growing population and resource pressure, it is now witnessing that a rise in livelihoods based on settled farming. In the study area, cereals are the major crop cultivated for their edible grains. The tribal people living in the hills tops of the study area were cultivated 11 major agricultural crops. They are, Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliare, Oryza sativa (verity I (Mara Nellu, Oryza sativa (verity II, Manihot esculenta, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Vigna mungo, Sesamum orientale, Paspalum sp, Pennisetum americanum and Setaria italica. Among them, Paspalum sp gives the maximum yield with 655 kg acre-1.

  10. Economic gains fromtargeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1 ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N......-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32 €/ha...

  11. Economic production and processing of agricultural fibre plants for high quality applications in automotive, building and furniture industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecenka, R.; Furll, C.; Gusovius, H.J. [Leibniz Inst. for Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for high-quality fibres and shives from hemp and flax as an alternative raw material for the automotive and building industry is increasing. Fibres are used primarily for composite reinforcement instead of synthetic fibres. Shives are used for animal bedding, but processing trials in wood industry for the production of low weight particle boards from shives are also very promising. Fibre producers require experience in cultivation and harvesting as well as modern processing technologies in order to supply flax fibres or shives at competitive prices under the changing conditions of international raw material markets. A complete processing line has been developed, installed and tested at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB) to study all the processing stages of fibre production. The new ATB line can produce high quality fibres and shives from retted and unretted hemp, flax and oilseed flax straw without technical changes of the machine line. The ATB pilot plant has been operated by a cooperation of farmers since 2008. Experience from industrial operation has been used to develop a modern fibre processing line with a throughput of up to 5 t per h hemp straw in only one short line.

  12. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  13. THE FUNCTION DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION OF SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT%丝绸之路经济带农业经济协作功能分区规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓华

    2015-01-01

    ,it put forward three recommendations for the country's agricultural economic cooperation,namely (1) to enhance the in-dustry'stop design of the cooperation zone,especially on the layout of agricultural production base,and to realize the win-win development of the cooperation zone by the integration of agriculture with city and industrial develop-ment;(2) to actively adjust and optimize the industrial structurebased on the characteristics of agricultural re-sources and the advantages of the agricultural industry development mode in the cooperation zone;(3) to establish and improve the division of labor and cooperation mechanism realizing the economic integration in the countries a-long the silk road economic belt.

  14. On the Development of Circular Agriculture in Ecological Economic Zone of Poyang Lake%论鄱阳湖生态经济区循环农业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国勤

    2015-01-01

    在调查研究的基础上,对鄱阳湖生态经济区发展循环农业的意义、优势、模式,以及存在的问题和应采取的对策等进行了深入分析,认为:(1)鄱阳湖生态经济区发展循环农业具有节约资源、保护环境、提高农产品质量、增加农民经济收入、提升干部群众素质和助推建设“美丽湖区”等多方面的意义;(2)鄱阳湖生态经济区发展循环农业具有气候适宜、土壤肥沃、生物多样、资源丰富、环境优美、交通便利、区位优越、基础良好和政策扶持等诸多有利条件和优势;(3)当前,鄱阳湖生态经济区循环农业主要有立体型、共生型、再生型、循环型、减灾型、休闲型、低碳型和复合型等类型与模式;(4)根据调查,目前鄱阳湖生态经济区循环农业发展尚存在认识不深、重视不够、资金不足、技术不新、模式不优、推广不力、素质不高、规模不大、链接不紧、交流不多、奖惩不力和效益不佳等各种问题;(5)针对存在的问题,应采取如下对策和措施:加强学习,加深认识;科学规划,有序发展;增加投入,改善条件;优化模式,创新技术;扩大规模,提高效益;培训人才,提升素质;开展交流,扩大合作;健全制度,规范管理;重视科技,加强研发;强化推广,服务“三农”。%On the basis of investigation and research, the significances, advantages, modes, problems, and countermeasures of the development of circular agriculture in the ecological economic zone of Poyang Lake were analyzed deeply. (1) There are a lot of significances in the developing circular agriculture in ecological economic zone of Poyang Lake, for example, saving resources, protecting environment, improving the quality of agricultural products, increasing the economic income of farmers, enhancing the sense of quality of the cadres and the masses, and

  15. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  16. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman; M. SELVARAJ; M. Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally...

  17. SWOT Analysis on Modern Agriculture Characteristic Competitive Industry of the Economic Zone Along the Yellow River%宁夏沿黄经济区农业特色优势产业分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国华

    2011-01-01

    The development of the modern agricultural industry is critical for the improvement of the comprehensive production capacity of agriculture. In the past few years, the agricultural structure has been optimized along the way, and the regional characteristics takes into initial shape, which accelerating the pace of modern agriculture characteristic competitive industry' s construction. By stating the resource endowment of the agriculture characteristic competitive industry of the economic zone along the Yellow River, this paper based on the current situation, takes SWOT analysis to evaluate its strengths, the weaknesses, the opportunities and the threats, and provides a development strategy as the theory evidence for the agricultural characteristic competitive industry of the economic zone along the Yellow River.%为研究宁夏沿黄经济区农业结构,发展区域特色农业,优化现代农业产业体系,论述了宁夏沿黄经济区农业特色优势产业资源,用SWOT分析方法对其优势、劣势、机遇和挑战进行分析,并在此基础上提出发展思路.可为沿黄经济区农业特色优势产业发展研究提供参考.

  18. 生态农业投入产出的经济利益诱导机制研究%Study of the Economic Benefits Induction Mechanism of Ecological Agriculture Based on Input and Output Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎振强; 杨新荣

    2014-01-01

    Economic benefits of ecological agriculture are the foundation of the ecological benefits and social benefits.Construction of economic benefits induction mechanism of ecological agriculture helps to encourage farm -ers to actively develop ecological agriculture .Ecological agriculture has its specific input and output characteristics . Firstly, this article analyzes the status quo of inputs and outputs in ecological agricultural and related problems . Then, the economic basis of benefits induction on ecological agricultural is discussed , and the benefits induction mechanisms of inputs and outputs are analyzed .Therefore, those problems are the important research topics of the current development of ecological agriculture .%生态农业的经济利益是生态利益和社会利益的基础。构建生态农业的经济利益诱导机制有利于激励农户发展生态农业的积极性。生态农业有其特定的投入产出特性,因此,在分析我国生态农业投入和产出的现状及存在的相关问题的基础上,探讨生态农业利益诱导机制的经济基础,进而分析投入和产出的经济利益诱导机制是当前发展生态农业急需研究的重要课题。

  19. 芜湖市农业龙头企业经济运行情况分析%On Economic Operation of Agriculturally Industrialized Bibcock Enterprises in Wuhu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,agricultural industrialization in Wuhu has developed in a full swing with prominent effects,and contributed to better local economic development.Due to global financial storm,exportation of many enterprises has been reduced.Such problems as price waving,operation risk increase,lack of investment and scale shrinking are what corporations have to face.Hence,relevant departments are responsible for supporting business development by means of financial and technological measures.%近几年芜湖市农业产业化发展速度快、势头强、成效显著,总体运行质量良好,为芜湖市经济又好又快发展作出了重要贡献。但受全球金融风暴影响,企业产品出口创汇受挫,企业面临着价格波动、经营风险加大、资金紧张以及规模偏小等问题。所以,有关部门应加大培育力度,通过金融、技术等方面予以支持,促进芜湖农业经济又好又快发展。

  20. Research on Supplying Mechanisms of Rural Economic Able-person in Construction of New Countryside——Based on the Phenomenon of Intelligence Returning in Under-developed Agricultural Plain Area of Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of the discussions on researches of economic able-person by researchers at home,it can be concluded that economic able-person has become the important mode promoting rural development.The research makes a discussion on the rural intelligence returning theory and points out that as a marketing action,rural intelligence returning functions directly and effectively on the supplying to rural economic able-person.The research also makes an analysis of the supplying mechanisms of rural able-person intelligence returning of the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province.And results show that transferring of rural surplus labors takes place among provinces;farmers accelerate in returning to hometowns to make money and returning phenomena would tend to be normal.With more and more popular the intelligence returning phenomenon in rural areas,the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province would make enough profits.

  1. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  2. 鄱阳湖生态经济区农业循环经济发展综合评价%COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN POYANG LAKE ECO-ECONOMIC ZONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林永钦; 熊雪; 傅春

    2011-01-01

    发展农业循环经济是鄱阳湖生态经济区建设的关键,农业循环经济发展的目标是实现农业生产经济效率和生态环境效率的双赢。应用DEA方法以评价循环农业发展的经济效率,采用农业生产的生态足迹以反映农业循环经济发展的生态效率。在此基础上,为同时体现农业循环经济发展的经济效率和生态效率,构造了区域农业循环经济发展评价的综合指数,并对鄱阳湖生态经济区的农业循环经济发展进行评价分析。结果表明,大部分地区存在农药化肥投入冗余、粮食单产不足以及农业生产的耕地足迹和牧草地足迹所占比重偏大等问题,为此必须在推广猪-沼-粮的同时,调整农业产业结构,着力发展猪(牛)-沼-果(渔)等循环农业模式,进而提高鄱阳湖生态经济区农业生产的投入产出效率,降低农业生产的生态占用。%Development of agricultural circular economy is vital for construction of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone.It aims at achieving the double-win of economic efficiency and ecological efficiency of agricultural production.This article applied Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) to evaluate the economic efficiency of agricultural circular economy,and adoptd ecological footprint of agricultural production to reflect the ecological efficiency of agricultural circular economy.For the purpose of evaluating simultaneously the economic efficiency and ecological efficiency of agricultural circular economy,a comprehensive index was introduced for evaluation of regional development of agricultural circular economy,and applied to Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone.The result showed that the most areas faced the problems of pesticide and fertilizer input redundancy,low grain yield per hectare and high proportion of arable land and grassland footprints.It indicates that,in addition to spread the circular agricultural pattern of 'Pig-raising,Methane-generating and Grain

  3. Las empresas del sector agropecuario: racionalidad económica y gestión Companies of the Agricultural Sector: Economic Rationality and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Bibiana Mora Rendón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación desarrollada en algunas asociaciones de pequeños y medianos productores agropecuarios en la región del Suroeste antioqueño, y propone un análisis sobre la gestión en estas organizaciones empresariales del sector agropecuario, vinculadas a la economía solidaria. La importancia de estas asociaciones radica en que trabajan con el objetivo de satisfacer las necesidades, las aspiraciones y los deseos de las personas, las familias y las comunidades donde se encuentran establecidas. La metodología utilizada parte del enfoque cualitativo, que permite comprender la dinámica en la toma de decisiones y las relaciones que entablan los directivos entre sí y con los demás asociados; la información se obtuvo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a las personas encargadas de la gestión. Los resultados muestran cómo uno de los problemas de estas organizaciones es el subdesarrollo en que se encuentra el factor gestión.This article is the result of a research carried out by some associations of small and medium agricultural producers in the southwestern Antioquia region, proposes a reflection on the management in these enterprise organizations of the agricultural sector, linked to the solidarity-based economy. The importance of these partnerships is that they work with the aim of satisfying the needs, aspirations and desires of the individuals, families and communities where are inserted. The methodology used here obeys to the qualitative approach that allows to understand the dynamics in the decision making and relationships that take place among themselves and with other partners the information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were applied to persons entrusted with the management. The results show that one of the problems of these organizations, is the underdevelopment of the management factor.

  4. 中原经济区现代都市农业发展研究%Research on the Development of Modern Urban Agriculture in Central Plains Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦普

    2015-01-01

    都市现代农业作为现代农业体系的重要组成部分,对于提升河南农业的战略性基础地位,推进中原经济区建设具有重要作用。为解决中原经济区现代都市农业发展缺乏整体布局和科学规划,存在功能定位单一,经营主体组织化程度偏低等主要问题。政府应充分发挥其宏观调控功能,提升规划水平,积极探索都市农业的发展模式,提高龙头企业和农民专业合作组织等经营主体的组织化水平,着力于中原经济区都市农业的内涵提升和整体联动发展。%As an important part of modern agricultural system ,urban modern agriculture played an important role to promote Henan agricultural strategic foundation and the construction of the central plains economic zone .In order to solve the problems such as lacking of overall layout and scientific planning ,function orienta‐tion of the single ,and low degree of organization ,in the development of modern urban agriculture in central plains economic zone ,the government should make full use of the functions of macroeconomic regulation and control ,enhance the level of planning and explore the development mode of urban agriculture ,improve organiza‐tional level of leading enterprises ,farmers'professional cooperative organizations and other operators ,focusing on the central plains economic zone the connotation of urban agriculture and the overall linkage development .

  5. The economic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Students in Technical and Agricultural faculties spend only a limited amount of time on general economics, environmental economics and resource economics. However, while their knowledge of economics may be limited, they often have adequate mathematical skills. The objective of The Economic Metabolis

  6. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  7. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

  8. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabo Chen

    Full Text Available Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Principal component analysis (PCA, Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA and Redundancy analysis (RDA were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

  9. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  10. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  11. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  12. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  13. An Thinkingon Building the Path to Developing the Low Carbon Agriculture in the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone%构建鄱阳湖生态经济区低碳农业发展的路径思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦琦

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of the Global climate is getting warming, uae tow caroon agnculture has become an irreversible trend. In the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, the agricultural resources is abundant and has the great development potential, the development space of the low carbon agricultural is large. Govern- ments at all levels should be based on local resource advantages, to fully tap the development of local agricultural carbon resources. Through the development of organic agriculture and circular agriculture, to increase forestation strength, strengthen the protection of wetland; urge agriculture to change effectively from high-carbon to low car- bon within the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone.%在全球气候变暖的条件下,发展低碳农业已成为不可逆转的趋势。鄱阳湖生态经济区内农业碳资源比较丰富,且极具开发潜力,因此,低碳农业发展空间巨大。鄱阳湖生态经济区内各地政府要立足当地资源优势,充分挖掘当地农业碳资源,通过发展有机农业和循环农业,加大植树造林力度,加强湿地保护,促使农业由高碳向低碳有效转变。

  14. 农林经济管理专业人才培养质量评价体系研究%Research on Quality Evaluation System for Talent Culti-vation of Agricultural and Forestry Economic Manage-ment Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆维研; 储诚炜

    2013-01-01

      本文在分析研究国内关于农林经济管理人才培养和本科教学质量评估的基础上,论述了农林经济管理专业质量评价体系的重点内容,并构建了质量评价体系的模型;在此基础上提出农林经济管理专业人才培养质量评价体系的构建目标。%Based on the analysis of domestic research about agri-cultural and forestry economic management personnel training and the quality evaluation of undergraduate teaching, this paper discusses the key content of quality evaluation system for agri-cultural and forestry economic management major, and constructs a quality evaluation system model. Based on this, it proposes the objective of constructing quality evaluation system for agricultural and forestry economic major.

  15. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector; Spatialisation des impacts de la regulation economique de l'effet de serre d'origine agricole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2004-02-15

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  16. Tropical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang, Solomon M.; Meng, Kyle C.

    2015-01-01

    Why wealth is systematically lower in the tropics remains a puzzle. We point out that latitude may have fundamental economic consequence because it plays a key role in how countries experience geophysical processes that have economic implications. We demonstrate that annual fluctuations in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) leads to hotter and dryer local weather across tropical countries and subsequently to substantial losses in agricultural yields, output, and value-added. If volatilit...

  17. 农林经济管理专业开放实验室管理与创新%Agricultural Economics Management Laboratory Management and Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝国

    2014-01-01

    实验室开放对于全面提高农林经济管理专业教学质量意义重大,本文在分析开放实验室和综合性、设计性实验现状的基础上,提出了开放实验室与开展综合设计性、设计性实验相结合的实验形式。这种形式由教师实施监管,学院学习社团部成立实验创新协会负责实施,组织自主学习实验设计,完成课堂及课后实验作业。实践证明,这种模式具有较强的可操作性,不仅能使学生积极主动学习获取知识、综合分析能力得到培养和提高,而且还能有效地提高实验室利用率和实验教学质量,促进教学水平的提高。%The open laboratory to improve the agricultural economic management professional teaching quality of great sig-nificance, based on the analysis of the open laboratory and comprehensiveness, design experiment on the current situation, put forward to open the laboratory and developing comprehensive design, design of experiments combined with experimental form. This form of regulation by teachers, school community Ministry set up the experimental innovation association is re-sponsible for the implementation of autonomous learning organization, experimental design, complete the classroom and after-school experiment operation. Practice has proved, this mode has a strong operational, can not only make students activ-ely learn knowledge, comprehensive analysis ability training and improving, but also can effectively improve the efficiency and quality of experimental teaching by using laboratory, improve the teaching level.

  18. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...

  19. ICTs for Agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...

  20. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  1. Analysis of Economic Benefits of Agricultural Biomass Briquette Machine Production Line%农用生物质成型机生产线经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄恩仓; 王振成; 郑路; 杨海鹏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the test data, this paper analyzes the economic benefits of agricultural biomass briquette machine production line. The results show that this project has a good capacity to resist risks. The evaluation indi- cators suggest that hydraulic biomass briquette machine has significant economic benefits and meet the economic re quirements for industrial production.%根据试验数据,对农用生物质成型机生产线经济效益进行分析,结果表明:该项目具有良好的抗风险能力,各项评价指标均表明液压生物质成型机具有显著的经济效益,具备产业化生产的经济条件。

  2. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  3. Economic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China bounces back from several setbacks during the first half of this year to maintain its double-digit economic growth China’s economy withstood dis- ruptions to its agricultural sector caused by snow storms at the beginning of this year and the Sichuan earthquake in May and posted eco-

  4. Economic Analysis on Backwardness of China' s Agricultural Insurance Development%我国农业保险发展滞后的经济学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 曹文

    2009-01-01

    The essay pointed out that the establishment of the agricultural social insurance system is an essential requirement for sustainable development. However, due to the quasi-public product attrib-utes and double externality of agricultural insurance, and in the absence of government subsidies, the emergence of a market failure, and lack of supply and demand, resulting in slow development of agri-cultural insurance in China or even a decline. The development of agricultural insurance in China is not only far behind the developed countries, even has a larger gap with India, Brazil and other devel-oping countries. We should take the following measures to improve the agricultural insurance system in China: to quicken the relevant legislation of the agricultural insurance; to increase financial sup-port of agricultural insurance; to accelerate the pace of structural reform of agricultural insurance bus-iness; to establish a sound system of agricultural insurance services; to establish an effective mecha-nism for risk diversification in agriculture.%指出建立农业保险制度是社会可持续发展的必然要求.但由于农业保险的准公共产品属性和双重外部性,在没有政府补贴的情况下,出现了市场失灵,供给和需求均不足,导致我国农业保险发展缓慢甚至萎缩.我国农业保险的发展不仅远远落后于发达国家,甚至同印度、巴西等发展中国家也有较大的差距.认为应采取以下措施完善我国农业保险制度:加快农业保险的相关立法;加大对农业保险的财政支持力度;加快农业保险经营体制改革步伐;建立健全农业保险服务体系;建立有效的农业风险分散机制.

  5. Campaign Contributions and Agricultural Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the influence of campaign contributions on agricultural subsidies. Empirical results revealed that rent seeking works, i.e., campaign contributions of agricultural-related industries influence agricultural subsidies in the manner they best serve contributors' economic interests. Eliminating campaign contributions would significantly decrease agricultural subsidies, hurt farm groups, benefit consumers and taxpayers, and increase social welfare by approximately $5.5 billio...

  6. 我国农业基础设施建设对农业经济增长的影响分析%An Impact Analysis of Chinese Agricultural Infrastructure to the Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 田国双

    2011-01-01

    From the empirical analysis impact of China's agricuhural infrastructure to the economic growth, the article investigates various types of agricultural infrastructure to improve the contribution of agricultural production, according to weak links of agricultural infrastructure putting forward by farmland water conservancy, rural road construction, protection and use of Cultivated land, support to agriculture mechanization and rural power construction.%从实证的角度分析我国农业基础设施建设对农业经济增长的影响,考察各种类型的农业基础设施建设对提高农业总产值的贡献大小,针对农业基础设施建设的薄弱环节提出加强农田水利、农村公路建设,保护和合理利用耕地,支持农业机械化和农村供电设施建设的对策措施。

  7. A Consideration of Agriculture and Agricultural Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the importance of agricultulture in line with development of society. It uses examples of high productivity achieved in grain and cotton crops in lnner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas to show that the fundamental objective of agricultural science is to maximize crops through the most effective use of soil, fertilizer and water in gaining the greatest benefit from power of the sun. Agricultural science should take up relevant theories and methodologies from other sciences, such as biological science, earth science and economics. The use of information technology will have great benefits for agricultural science. It hopes the scientific communities of China can make a significant contribution to solving the problems facing our rural areas, farmers and agriculture itself.

  8. Analyzing the Current Situation of the Economic Support Network for the Elderly Permanent Residence of Agricultural and Non-agricultural Registered in Beijing Communities%北京社区农业和非农业户口老年人经济支持网络现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    塔娜; 郝晓宁; 刘志; 刘建春; 徐龙彪

    2014-01-01

    目的:以社会网络与社会支持为视角,通过研究农业与非农业户口老年人经济支持模式,为完善不同户口老年人经济支持政策体系提供建议。方法:利用北京市社区老年人社会支持与社会网络现状调查数据,从经济支持影响因素及支持水平角度,运用描述性分析、χ2检验与Logistic回归分析进行了研究。结果:χ2检验显示,非农业户口老年人文化程度、月可支配收入、正式经济支持比例均高于农业户口老年人(P<0.01); Logistic 回归显示,老年人经济支持网络与水平受户口(P<0.01)、婚姻状况(P<0.01)、现有文化程度(P<0.05)等因素的影响。结论:城市社区农业与非农业户口老年人经济支持存在不平衡现象,二者之间仍有差距。研究结果对改善农业与非农业户口老年人经济支持网络政策体系具有一定借鉴意义。%Objective: Through the viewing of social network and social support, based on the study of the agricultural and non-agricultural household financial support model of the elderly, to provide recommendations for implementing the economic support policy system for the elderly with different registered permanent residences. Methods: Using the social support of the elderly in Beijing communities and the survey data of social network’s current status, from the influencing factors and supporting level of the economic support, descriptive analysis, χ2 examination and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results: χ2 examination showed that the education level, monthly disposable income, formal financial support of the elderly with non-agricultural registerd permanent residences is higher than that of the elderly with non-agricultural registerd permanent residences(P<0.01); the logistic regression showed that the financial support network and its level were effected by the registered permanent residence(P<0.01), marriage status

  9. Profitability Analysis for Agricultural Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture production is based on a process both economically as well as the biological one, the work results are influenced, more than any branch of economic, natural and climatic conditions are subject to higher risk and permanently. Due to the features of production in agriculture, we believe that it is necessary such as performance agricultural units to be assessed under a system of specific indicators. The correct assessment units are closely related agricultural economic-financial investment in agriculture. In the following we present and analyze a complex system of specific performance indicators of the extremely for assessing agricultural units.

  10. The Economic Growth Effect of Labor Input in China's Agricultural Sector%我国农业部门劳动力投入的经济增长效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 夏海勇

    2012-01-01

    Under the frame of effect of agricultural labor input To avoid the omitted-variable agricultural production function, this paper looks into the growth using the Chinese provincial panel data between 1995 and 2009. bias resulted from ecological fallacy, the changes of natural conditions are accommodated into the production function in accordance with the features of primary industry. It is shown in the empirical result that the agricultural labor input is not significantly related to economic growth as a whole. However, some new trend could be seen from the relationship between agricultural labor input and growth in recent years. Since the Lewis Turning Point is looming upon, the scarcity and marginal product value of labor appears, thus showing its economic growth effect.%本文在农业生产函数的框架下,利用1995~2009年间中国省际面板数据研究了我国农业部门劳动力投入的经济增长效应。为避免生态学谬误导致的忽略变量偏误,本文根据第一产业的特征把自然条件纳入了生产函数分析框架中。研究结果表明,整体而言,我国农业劳动力对经济增长的贡献率并不显著;近年来,农业劳动力投入与经济增长的关系呈现新的趋势,由于"刘易斯拐点"的逐步呈现,劳动力逐渐体现出生产要素所固有的稀缺性和边际产出价值,农业劳动力对经济增长的贡献开始凸显。

  11. A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)

  12. Study on Agricultural Economics Integration between Fujian and Taiwan in the post-ECFA Era%后ECFA时代闽台农业经济一体化战略的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翊; 周江梅; 蔡紫燕

    2012-01-01

    在当今区域经济一体化加速发展的新形势下,促进闽台农业经济一体化的实现,具有十分重要的意义。ECFA实施催化区域经济整合,促使两岸农业深入合作,其中闽台农业合作加速明显。福建现代农业转型和台湾农业经济纾困,将后ECFA时代闽台农业经济一体化的构想提上了战略高度。闽台农业经济一体化的战略规划根源于闽台农业间存在的要素互补性、产业梯度性、共同市场溢出效应,以及制度对共同利益的诉求,因此战略规划具体集中体现于资源配置一体化、产业发展一体化、产品市场一体化及政策制度一体化。%Nowadays,promoting economic integration between Fujian and Taiwan has fundamental significance in the new situation of regional economy integration.Under the implementation of ECFA,regional economic had integrated,the cooperation of agriculture on both sides was enhanced,especially the agriculture cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan was accelerated obviously.The idea on agricultural economics integration between Fujian and Taiwan in the post-ECFA Era was put on the strategic height.The strategic planning of agricultural economics integration between Fujian and Taiwan was rooted in the elements complementarity,the industry gradient,the spillover effects of Common Market and the demand of the system for common interest,so the strategic planning was specifically reflected in the allocation of resources integration,industry development integration,product marketing integration and policy system integration.

  13. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构与绩效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开红

    2012-01-01

    基于对三峡库区100家农业合作经济组织的问卷调查结果,以结构方程模型为分析工具,对农业合作经济组织的治理结构与绩效进行了实证分析.结果表明,股权结构对于合作组织的绩效有着最关键的影响,系数高达0.92;监督机制和理事套结构对于合作组织来说重要程度相当,影响系数分别为0.87和0.86,仅次于股权结构;成员的退出能力大小对于组织的绩效也有相当重要的影响,系数为0.74.由此指出了当前三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构中存在的影响其组织绩效的问题,并提出了相应的解决对策.%On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area .this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organisations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations.and the impact coefficient is 0. 87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members' quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations, with impact coefficient of 0. 74. Thus, the problems influencing the performance of organizations, in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Are, are pointed out. Finally, corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Thus pointed out that the current governance structure of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of agricultural cooperative economic organizations affect the organizational performance issues and .

  14. Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Agricultural Economic Growth and Agricultural Production Factors in Hunan%湖南省农业经济增长与主要农业生产要素的相关性实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明灿; 陈军

    2015-01-01

    该文以湖南农业经济增长及其影响要素为研究对象,采用1978—2012年的相关统计数据,通过构建计量模型,对湖南农业经济增长与农业生产要素的相互关系进行了深入分析,通过协整检验和误差修正模型研究他们长期的均衡关系与短期的波动关系。研究表明:土地、劳动力、资本对农业经济增长均有正向的拉动作用,其中土地弹性最大;短期内,资本是农业经济增长的主要影响因素;提出通过加大农业资金和技术的投入,合理开发和利用土地资源,改善湖南农村劳动力质量和就业结构能够促进湖南农业经济的增长。%This article takes the agricultural economic growth in Hunan Province ,and its influen‐cing factors as the research object by using the relevant statistic data from 1978 to 2012 ,and by build‐ing the econometric models to analyze the mutual relationship between the agricultural economic grow th and agricultural production factors ,by co‐integration test and error correlation model to verify the long term stable equilibrium and short term volatility between them .Research shows that land , labor ,fund investment all positively influence agricultural economic grow th among w hich land has the biggest influence ,but in short term ,the biggest influencing factor is fund investment .Therefore ,the article suggests that we should improve the investment of funds and technology in agriculture ,develop land resource properly .Moreover ,we should improve the labor quality and employment structure to boost agricultural grow th in Hunan .

  15. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  16. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  17. Study on agricultural economic losses by agriculture water pollution in small watershed---take example for Jinhua river midstream%小流域农业水污染引起的农业经济损失研究--以金华江中游为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义加

    2015-01-01

    从水环境污染经济损失研究现状出发,结合金华江中游流域的现状,提出流域水环境污染的经济损失核算模型,并最终测算水污染引起的流域农业经济损失。最后对该流域因农业水环境污染造成损失结果进行了总结,对农业水污染的控制提出了建议。%Starting from the present research situation of econ omic losses caused by water environmental pollution, taking Jinhua river midstream situation for example, this article puts forward the model of evaluating watershed water pollution losses, and then calculates the agricultural economic losses, finally summarizes result of economic losses caused by agricul-tural water environmental pollution and puts forward the proposal of agricultural water pollution contral.

  18. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  19. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROMOTING THE POVERTY ALLEVIATIONOF AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL AREAS OF TIBET%西藏农牧区经济增长对扶贫开发的带动性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阿维; 图登克珠

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is a serious challenge in China's current social and economic development which hampered agri-cultural resource development and affected the social and economic sustainable development in western region,espe-cially in agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet. Poverty of local areas is still very serious mainly due to three rea-sons:the natural environment, social factors and cultural environment. The natural environment of agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet is unique, cultural environment is relatively closed, and economic situation is relatively backward. Poverty alleviation in agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet is lack of direct channels, investment funds and high quality of human resources. This paper suggested that it should coordinate planning, analyze the economic growth and poverty alleviation in the process of mutual interaction from the perspective of economic growth,and pay attention to the promotion of the economic development of agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet to the poverty alle-viation. Meanwhile, it should take the science and technology as the leading force to improve the infrastructure nec-essary condition, raise the educational level of local people to seize market opportunities,and build the concept of modern market.%贫困是困扰我国西藏农牧地区发展的一个长久以来的问题,虽然多年来我国西藏地区的扶贫工作已经取得了很大成效,但是目前贫困人口率仍远远高于国家平均数.西藏农牧区是我国贫困面积最大的区域,且各地区之间发展状况相差较大,也给扶贫工作带来了许多难度.从发展经济学角度分析,经济增长与脱贫工作息息相关,经济增长对于脱贫工作的带动不仅仅在于增长速率,还在于经济发展过程中各项要素的组合利用状况,后者需要立足于当地的社会结构与区域特色,选择适合当地的产业发展模式与经济增长方式.因此,国家提出精准扶贫的概念,要求

  1. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  2. Agriculture Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Gordon

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational agriculture cluster programs in Oregon. The agriculture cluster program includes instruction in six areas: animal science, soil science, plant science, agricultural economics, agriculture mechanics, and leadership development. The information in the guide is intended for use by…

  3. Facing the globalization of China's agricultural development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; LIU Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article discussed what economic globalization had brought to China's agricultural development and how to deal with the globalization of China's agricultural development after China's entry into WTO. This study expounded our opportunities and challenges under the new circumstance of China's accession to WTO on the agriculture and gave some measures to reduce the unfavorable impacts on the agriculture.

  4. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  5. A Guide to Teaching Agricultural Economics in Nonspecialist Courses in a Developing Economy: Experience of Teaching for Rural Change in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D. A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Bunda College of the University of Malawi provides all university level agricultural education in Malawi. Currently there are around 240 students, with a planned expansion to about 420. College entrants are largely from rural backgrounds. On qualifying, a wide range of occupations is open to students: after three years of training, diplomates find employment in both public and private sectors; after five years, graduates are employed predominantly in the public sector. There are 40 staff memb...

  6. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-10S, "FARM-LEVEL ANALYSES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, John H; Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.

    1998-01-01

    Micro and farm level data are used to analyze issues of pesticide use, declining fertilized grass-legume pastures, land resource degradation, and intensification and specialization. Health Costs and Externalities of Pesticide Use in Locust and Grasshopper Control in the Sahel Victorin Houndekon, Universite National de Benin; Hugo De Groote, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Investment Effects of Endogenous and Exogenous Depreciation: Improved Pastures in Uruguay Javier Ekboir, ...

  7. 农地融资的法律经济学分析%An Analysis of Agricultural Land Financing from the Perspective of Economics of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祖林

    2011-01-01

    In China,there are serious institutional obstacles and transaction restraints in agricultural land financing.The key to removing these obstacles is to expand the circulation field of rights and interests of agricultural land and open up new financing channels of securitization and mortgage markets.Effective methods of market cultivation include innovating the rural financial system,establishing an agricultural risk dispersive mechanism combing commercial insurance,policy insurance and risk protection,and intensifying the financial and tax policy support.%农地融资在中国存在严重的制度障碍和交易抑制。拓展农地权益流转领域、开创农地权益证券化融资和质押市场,是破解其制度障碍的关键。创新农村金融体制,建立商业保险、政策保险和风险保障三位一体的农业风险分散机制,并加大对农地融资的财政与税收政策扶持,则是农地融资市场培育的有效方法。

  8. Optimization and Ecological & Economic Effects of Complex Agricultural Modes in Hunan Purple Soil Hill Areas%湖南紫色土山丘区农业复合模式的优化与生态经济效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓; 谢树春; 赵玲; 王芳; 李红; 刘代平

    2012-01-01

    Hunan has the purple soil hills of 1.467 million hectares which has a population of over 8 millions. Purple soil hilly is conducive to the development of agricultural production, because its terrain mainly to the hills, more phosphorus, potassium, calcium and other mineral nutrients, texture partial soil. But its agricultural production is onefold, and agricultural economic benefits is not high, because of its easy drought, soil organic matter and nitrogen content of less, soil erosion severe. On the foundation of scientific test, this article select the three indexes of total output value, net income, internal rate of return through a comprehensive survey and summary of the existing agricultural complex mode in the purple soil hill areas of Hunan Province, as well as comprehensive analysis 16 composite model planting between forestry and agriculture of applications larger area, using analytic hierarchy process from 30 second class composite mode under 8 first class composite model, It also select a number of complex mode, which its economic effects and ecological effects are remarkable combining agricultural products of comparative advantage and ecological benefits. Finally, it improved and optimized four composite model of agricultural, animal husbandry and fisheries and made significant economic and ecological benefits through implementation and application.%湖南有紫色土山丘146.7万hm2,区内人口达800多万人.紫色土山丘地形以丘岗地为主,土壤含磷、钾、钙等矿质养分较多,质地偏壤,有利于发展农业生产,但紫色土山丘易旱,土壤有机质和氮素含量较少,水土流失严重,农业生产单一,农业经济效益不高.本文通过对湖南省紫色山丘区现有的农业复合模式进行全面调查和总结,在科学试验的基础上,选取总产值、纯收入、内部收益率三项指标,采用层次分析法,从8个一级复合模式下的30个二级复合模式中,对其中16个应用面积较大的林

  9. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...... are particularly compelling when combined with marketing system improvements. Moreover, technological change in cassava appears to be a particularly strong lever for increasing female and overall household welfare, especially when risk is considered....

  10. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  11. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities ... Promise Zones StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and ...

  12. Faculty member receives American Agricultural Law Association highest honor

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    L. Leon Geyer of Blacksburg, Va., professor of agricultural and applied economics in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, has received the 2008 American Agricultural Law Association (AALA) Distinguished Service Award.

  13. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-2N, "FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR FOOD ITEMS"

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Brian W.

    1998-01-01

    This session investigates the impact of economic, social, and demographic factors as well as the food stamp program on the demand for food items. Papers include: Dairy Expenditures and the Changing Racial Composition of the United States, Donald McDowell, North Carolina A&T State University; Joyce Allen-Smith, University of Illinois; Raphael Okafor, North Carolina A&T State University. The Effect of Changes in Tastes, Availability, Demographics, and Prices on Consumption of Fast Foods, Mark J...

  14. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  15. Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  16. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  17. Assessing environmental management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2012-01-01

    This paper incorporates interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and suggests a holistic framework for assessing the forms and efficiency of environmental management in agriculture. First, it defines environmental management as a specific system of social order regulating behaviour and relations of various agents related to natural environment, and environmental management in agriculture as eco-management associated with agricultural production. Second, it specifies spectrum of modes and...

  18. Photovoltaic application in modern agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaxin; Muñoz Garcia, Miguel Angel; Moreda Cantero, Guillermo P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity in modern agriculture has shown its advantages since the 1970s when it was possible to obtain a substantial green energy without the pollution by burning fossil fuels (coal, oil or natural gas) or the threaten of nuclear accident. Due to the price descent of the PV system, some new applications are becoming economically attractive, like the combination of PV and agriculture. Meanwhile, the use of agricultural soils contributes to making photovoltaic a ...

  19. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  20. Exploring Alternative Solutions Regarding Conservation Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Movahedi; Hadi Fathi; Mousa Aazami; Somaye Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Studies show that no effective measures have been taken towards conservative agriculture in Iran. Social, economical and technical agricultural factors and conditions need to be provided to meet conservation agriculture at the farm, regional and national level. Accordingly, this research aimed at exploring some solutions to protect and conserve agriculture. Approach: To achieve this, of all 100 populations, included both 80 faculty members of college of agriculture at Bu-Al...

  1. Development of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations: A New Review under New Classical Frameworks%农业合作经济组织发展:新兴古典框架下的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉凯; 张柏杨

    2011-01-01

    在新兴古典框架下,刻画农业合作经济组织的专业化分工经济模型,运用超边际分析方法,探讨了农业合作经济组织的内在演化机制.以湖北宜昌柑橘业合作经济组织实际发展为例,运用数据进行了相关检验.数理分析结果表明:农业合作经济组织所在区域的交易条件、生产专业化程度、交易效率与农民收入程度成正相关,着手改善经济环境,才能为合作经济组的继续发展提供动力.%Under new classical frameworks, the text has portrayed the division of economy originating in specialization of cooperative organization, and inframarginal analysis method was used to discuss the internal evolution mechanism of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. Taking the case of the actual development of Yichang citriculture cooperative economic organization, correlation test was carried out by using data. Mathematical analysis results indicated that the trading conditions, the specialization of production and trading efficiency are in positive correlation with farmers' income. Therefore, the improvement of the economic environment can provide powder for the further development of cooperative economic organization.

  2. 76 FR 68126 - Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics; Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural...

  3. 鄱阳湖生态经济区农业优势产业布局研究%Distribution of Agricultural Advantage Industries in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧一智; 张飞

    2011-01-01

    Poyang lake ecological economic zone (PLEEZ) is the most important agricultural production area in Jiangxi province. Analyzing the advantages of regional agriculture will provide reference for policy making in developing effective ecological agriculture in this area, An analysis of agriculture, crop production, animal production and fishing industries in PLEEZ by using LQ reveals that its crop production, animal husbandry and fishery enjoy comparative advantages in the whole province; except in Nanchang, Jiujiang, and Yingtan, the agriculture of most counties boasts comparative advantage in the whole province. Moreover, within PLEEZ, the advantage industries in the counties are also revealed in the analysis. Based on the result of LQ and combining the agricultural industry basis and development situation of this area, we come up with a distribution of agricultural advantage industries in PLEEZ, namely, crop production ( including high - quality crop, oil-bearing crop, cotton and vegetable production base ), forestry ( including fruit and tea leaf production base), animal production (swine, beef cattle and water fowl production base), and fishery. Finally, some countermeasures are given.%鄱阳湖生态经济区是江西省最重要的农产品产区,分析区域农业产业优势可为鄱阳湖生态经济区区域农业产业结构调整和相关政策制定提供参考。利用区位法(LQ)对鄱阳湖生态经济区农业及内部各行业(种植业、牧业、林业和渔业)进行分析,结果表明,鄱阳湖生态经济区种植业、牧业、渔业在全省范围内具有比较优势,除南昌、九江、鹰潭3个市区外,大部分县(市、区)的农业在全省范围内具有比较优势;以鄱阳湖生态经济区为背景区域,通过区位商比较阐明了鄱阳湖生态经济区各个县(市、区)农业优势所在。根据农业区位商的结果,结合鄱阳湖生态经济区区域农业产业基

  4. Resilience and adaptations of rural communities and agricultural land use in the tropical Andes: Coping with environmental and socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadel, Ch.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a long settlement history of the tropical Andes, rural farming communities have always been exposed to conditions of ecological and economic vulnerability, risks, and even disasters. This has resulted, at certain times and in some regions, to a destabilization of livelihoods and to a manifestation of various forms of marginalization, to poverty or outmigration. However, Andean communities , over a long time, have given admirable testimonies of resilience and adaptations in the face of adverse conditions or new challenges. This paper examines the potentials and different facets of resilience and adaptation strategies of the rural campesinado in the tropical Andes. It emphasizes the proven traditional concepts of verticality, complementarity, reciprocity, and mutual community support, which to date support the feasibility and sustainability of Andean farming and community survival. In spite of this recognition, it is argued that Andean rural livelihoods always had to adapt to new developments, to threats and challenges, as well as to opportunities and alternative potentials. In the face of an almost ubiquitous penetration of modernization, new technologies, and economic and cultural globalization, the fundamental question arises, whether this can be considered as a path to progress and development, or as a threat to the survival of small-scale farming and rural community living. The paper concludes by formulating, albeit in a tentative form, some general suggestions for ‘development’ approaches and for research priorities in the rural Andes.

    A pesar de una tradición muy extensa del asentamiento humano en los Andes tropicales, las comunidades campesinas siempre enfrentaron condiciones de vulnerabilidad ecológica y económica, con varios riesgos, y aun desastres. Eso ha resultado, en diversos tiempos y en algunas regiones, en una estabilización de la superviviencia humana y en varias manifestaciones de marginalización, de

  5. Reliability of Recall in Agricultural Data

    OpenAIRE

    Beegle, Kathleen; Carletto, Calogero; Himelein, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of agriculture to economic development, and a vast accompanying literature on the subject, little research has been done on the quality of the underlying data. Due to survey logistics, agricultural data are usually collected by asking respondents to recall the details of events occurring during past agricultural seasons that took place a number of months prior to the ...

  6. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  7. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  8. Clever farmers give gas: model solutions for agricultural biogas systems. Results from the BMVEL (Federal Ministry for Consumers' Protection, Nutrition and Agriculture) model project 2004/2005: Moel solutions for environment-friendly and economical energy utilization with agricultural biogas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the examples of biogas system concepts from practical agriculture, farmers, consultants, representatives of authorities and all those interested in biogas are shown successful and proved solutions concepts of generating energy from biogas. The project included agricultural enterprises with biogas systems who have implemented a biologically and technically efficient biomass utilization, who have optimized their operations by means of the biogas system, who have integrated their biogas system in their operational concept and who were able to harmonize the objectives of using a biogas system with the environment and the regional specificities

  9. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author)

  10. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  11. Lithuania - Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Lithuania during 1993–96. Economic growth resumed in 1994 and gained further momentum in 1995; real GDP increased by an estimated 3 percent in 1995. Growth in 1995 was driven by the industrial sector, while agriculture performed poorly. The immediate effects of the banking problems on economic activity, and on other macroeconomic developments, have been limited. Data on industrial production and retail trade indicate continued growth in the first ...

  12. 新疆农业经济增长方式转变实现度变化与可持续发展%Transformation Degree of Agricultural Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊黑钢; 李新萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper selected productivity, modernization, and material input, structure configuration, management, ecological environment and water level as stair indexes, together with 14 secondary indexes constituted index system for evaluating transformation mode of agricultural economic growth in Xinjiang. Achieving degrees were obtained through the calculation of the achieving degree's equation. Based on the average annual growth rate (from 1991 to 2001) in achieving degree,prefectures were divided into five categories of fast-growth,faster- growth,steady-growth, slower growth and slow growth. As a whole, the transformation of agricultural economic growth mode is quite slow in Xinjiang. Aimed at achieving different types of each prefecture, we came up with their corresponding strategy and countermeasures for the sustainable development.%选取了生产率、现代化程度、物质投入、结构配置、经营方式、生态环境和水资源利用7个一级指标14个二级子指标构成了新疆农业经济增长方式转变实现度评价的指标体系.通过实现度方程计算出各地州市的实现度.依据各地州的1991到2001年10a实现度的年均增长率将其分为5种类型:增长极快型、增长较快型、增长平稳型、增长较慢型、增长极慢型.总体上新疆农业经济增长方式转变较慢.针对各地州市实现度增长的不同类型,提出了其各自可持续发展的农业经济增长方式转变策略、时策.图2,表4,参21.

  13. Data compilation project for rural electrification systems evolution measurement and social-economical impacts of network electrification in agriculture areas; Proyeto de recopilacion de datos para medir la evolucion de sistemas de electrificacion rural y el impacto socio-economico de la electrificacion por redes, en explotaciones agropecuarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luro, C.E.; Rodriguez, O.C. [Banco de la Nacion Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1986-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology for planning the implementation of electricity systems networks in rural and isolated areas, mainly across agriculture areas. The main objective of this paper is propose a way to reliable data acquisition in order to measure the evolution of the system, at technological and economical levels. 23 refs.

  14. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted;

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  15. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Anh, Dao The; Thinh, Le Duc; Bihn, Vu Trong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the socio-economic impacts of recent developments in the regional and global economic environment, including trade liberalization on upland agriculture at a village level and identifying constraints to the sustainable development of diversified agriculture, in particular upland agriculture based on CGPRT crops in Viet Nam.

  16. AGRICULTURE: ESSENTIAL TO MINNESOTA'S ECONOMY AND ITS REGIONS AND COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Wilbur R.; Stenberg, Peter L.; del Ninno, Carlo

    1981-01-01

    This report presents local data and related discussion on the economic importance of agriculture and agriculture-related industries in Minnesota. Statistical findings show the contribution of agriculture to Minnesota's economic base and to changes in employment, income, and population in the state and its substate regions and counties.

  17. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource and.... Transportation of Food and Agricultural Products to domestic and foreign markets; Category R. Food Retailing...

  18. 对农业科研单位经济实体利润考核的探讨%DISCUSSION ON THE PROFIT ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC ENTITY IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金妍萍; 蔡鹭茵; 夏海英

    2011-01-01

    该文针对部分农业科研单位经济实体业绩考核中仅以净利润作为业绩考核指标的方式作了一些探讨,提出综合考虑利润质量、利润来源等因素,对净利润作适当调整,以考核利润作为业绩考核的依据,引导经营者重长远、重质量、重现金流。%This paper discussed the net profit as the only index for the performance evaluation of economic entity in part of agricultural scientific research institute,and put forward the needs for adjusting the net profit with comprehensively consideration profit quality,profit source and other factors,to guide operators to pay attention to long-term,quality,and cash flow.

  19. Ethiopian Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ethiopia is the third populous country in Africa. The 17 years of military government (Derg) period 1974-1991 witnessed a centralized economic system and the post-Derg reform has taken the way of market-oriented system for 10 years. Economic and social achievements are observed in Ethiopia during the reform period.

  20. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  1. 农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济微观经济组织评价指标体系构建%Constructing Evaluation Index System of the Supply Chain of Agricultural Products in Production Stage to Develop Agricultural Cycle of Economic Microeconomic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 冷志杰

    2011-01-01

    通过对农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济评价因素的综合分析,建立了包括财务、附产品的增值效益、环境管理绩效、物流服务水平、学习与发展能力等5个一级指标、16个二级指标的评价指标体系。通过对评价指标确立原则和影响因素的分析,建立了生产阶段发展循环经济微观组织评价指标体系,该体系适用于对农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济能力综合评价,得到的评价结果可以为政府找到合适的投资主体,也可以为政府投资或推进循环经济项目提供依据和指导。%Through comprehensive analysis of the factors about the supply chain of agricultural products in production stage to develop agricultural cycle of economic,we established an evaluation index system which includes 5 level indicators and 16 secondary indicators.The level indicators include finance,value added product benefits,environmental performance management,logistics service level,and learning and development ability.Based on the analysis of the evaluation indexes and affecting factors for establishing principles,the production stages of developing circular economy microstructure evaluation index system is established,which is the key members develop circular economy,and we used this method to evaluate the agricultural products supply chain in production stage developing circular economy.The evaluation results can help for the government to find suitable investors,and it can also provide evidence and guidance for the government investment or to promote circular economy project.

  2. Precision agriculture '09 : papers presented at the 7th European conference on precision agriculture, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Goense, D.; Lokhorst, C.

    2009-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is becoming ever more relevant as the agricultural industry struggles to come to terms with the environment, economics, traceability, vehicle guidance and crop management. Whilst some benefits have proved elusive, others contribute positively to today's agriculture. Research co

  3. A View from Agricultural and Applied Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Is regional science too focused on abstract models, theorizing, and methodology with weak links to policy and practice? Not from the perspective of the land grant university, where many applied economists with a regional science interest reside. The job of these applied economists is, in part, to translate the models and methods into tools for the use in understanding regional development processes and for undertaking policy analysis at the regional level.

  4. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry: Economic Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kooten, van, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Economists are rarely brought into the interdisciplinary research until the biophysical scientists have developed their models, made their measurements or completed their research task. The research economist is then brought in to do what amounts to a consulting task – provide some numbers that indicate impacts on the economy and employment. In this paper, I begin by illustrating cases from forestry where this leads to erroneous and costly policy outcomes. However, the main objective of this ...

  5. Agricultural water reforms versus climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MH (Karim Koshteh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water reform policy in many countries, which their economy mostly based on agricultural sector, is main preconditions for sustainable agricultural economic development. Since water is an important input in all economic sectors and particularly in agriculture, climate changes and water scarcity are more important to be considered in this millennium. Providing sufficient water for various uses is one of the main problems that most Developing Countries involved. Agricultural Water-reforms are vital while the multi-oriented issue of sustainability is of interest as well. The pros and cons of climate changes due to global warming and water-reform policy are discussed in this project.

  6. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

  7. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NUTRITION Child Nutrition Programs Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Food Security National Organic Program SNAP WIC ... People's Garden Promise Zones StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research ...

  8. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  9. Emergy Evaluations of Denmark and Danish Agriculture Assessing the Limits of Agricultural Systems to Power Society

    OpenAIRE

    Haden, Andrew C.

    2003-01-01

    As the process of industrialization has run its course over the twentieth century, the relative importance of agriculture as an economic activity and a means of cultural sustenance for nations has declined dramatically. In this thesis, a historical ecological-economic perspective offers insights into both the causes and effects of Danish agriculture's decline in economic importance relative to the economy of Denmark as a whole. Emergy evaluations were made of the national economy and agricult...

  10. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Meysam Solouki

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and ...

  11. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  12. 鄱阳湖生态经济区农业龙头企业带动农户能力分析——基于105家农业龙头企业的调研%Analysis of Farmer-driving Ability of Leading Agricultural Enterprises in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Region——Based on A Survey of 105 Leading Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 翁贞林; 张月水

    2012-01-01

    以鄱阳湖生态经济区南昌县等7县(市)的农业龙头企业调研数据为依据,在分析农业龙头企业带动农户情况的基础上,运用SPSS软件对农业龙头企业带动农户能力进行了主成分分析.研究结果表明影响鄱阳湖生态经济区农业龙头企业带动农户能力的主要因素是:资金扶持、社会保障、优惠服务(种苗、技术、信息)方面、价格扶持、农户月薪.根据这一研究结论提出了相应的政策建议.%Based on the questionnaire investigation data from the leading agricultural enterprises in seven counties (cities) in the Poyang Lake Eco -economic Region, and on the basis of the farmer -driving situation of leading agricultural enterprises, this study analyzed the farmer - driving ability of leading agricultural enterprises by principal component factor analysis with SPSS software. The results were obtained as follows: capital support, social security, preferential service (seed and seedling, technology, and information) , price support, and farmers salary were the main factors affecting the farmer -driving ability of leading agricultural enterprises in the Poyang Lake Eco - economic Region. According to the above results, the corresponding policy recommendations were put forward.

  13. Consultancy Services in Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Žimbrek

    1997-12-01

    Meetings, lectures, practical demonstration of technology, mass media and introduction of computer technology are important aids which should be further developed as well as bigger financial aid for these purposes. Those depend on better future economic position of the agriculture and the economy in a whole.

  14. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  15. International Experience Comparison and Reference on College Service to Agricultural Development and Rural Economic Construction%高校服务农业发展和农村经济建设的国际经验比较与借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鸿雁; 郭翔宇

    2012-01-01

    针对处于农业发展和农村经济建设不同阶段和水平的美国和日本,结合自身发展特点,找出不同国家高校为农业发展提供服务的共同特征,从中得到我国农业高校服务新农村建设的启示。%According to agriculture development and rural economic development of the different stages and levels in American and Japanese,combined with its own features,the common features of service that the different university provided for agricultural development were found out,the solution to agricultural university service to the construction of new countryside was obtained.

  16. Sri Lanka; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Sri Lanka during 1995–97. After slowing to 4 percent in 1996, economic growth recovered to 6½ percent in 1997. The slowdown in 1996 had been mainly owing to a severe drought that affected the agricultural sector and disrupted the power supply. The recovery in 1997 was strongest in agriculture and manufacturing, supplemented by continued good performance in the services sector, including a rebound in tourism. In addition, significant accomplishmen...

  17. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  18. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the introduction Chapter 2 presents details of the ecological-economic analysis based on the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zones (AEZ) approach for evaluation of biophysical limitations and agricultural production potentials, and IIASA's Basic Linked System (BLS) for analyzing the world's food economy and trade system. The BLS is a global general equilibrium model system for analyzing agricultural policies and food system prospects in an international setting. BLS views national agricultural systems as embedded in national economies, which interact with each other through trade at the international level. The combination of AEZ and BLS provides an integrated ecological-economic framework for the assessment of the impact of climate change. We consider climate scenarios based on experiments with four General Circulation Models (GCM), and we assess the four basic socioeconomic development pathways and emission scenarios as formulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report. Chapter 3 presents the main AEZ results of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Results comprise environmental constraints to crop agriculture; climate variability and the variability of rain-fed cereal production; changes in potential agricultural land; changes in crop-production patterns; and the impact of climate change on cereal-production potential. Chapter 4 discusses the AEZ-BLS integrated ecological-economic analysis of climate change on the world food system. This includes quantification of scale and location of hunger, international agricultural trade, prices, production, land use, etc. It assesses trends in food production, trade, and consumption, and the impact on poverty and hunger of alternative development pathways and varying levels of climate change. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions and policy implications of this study

  19. Agricultural Land Use and Conservation Options

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, P.

    2003-01-01

    The thesis presents the modeling system MODAM (Multi-Objective Decision support tool for Agroecosystem Management) which was developed at the Centre for Agricultural Landscape and Land Use Research (ZALF) Müncheberg. The aim of the development of MODAM is to foster sustainable development of agricultural landscapes by decision support at farm and at policy level. Therefore, indicators assessing the environmental performance of agricultural activities are included in an economic farm decision ...

  20. Polish Agriculture and Problems of Environment Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Karaczun; Anna Klisowska; Jerzy Śleszyński

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture is a specific economic sector which is influenced by the environmental degradation but at the same time it has negative impact on the environment. Agriculture is mainly threatened by pollution. At the same time agriculture is a source of damage appearing in environment if developed without control, it can became that of environment degradation. Importance of the agrosystems is consequence of the fact they create the largest proportion of area in the country and are an element that...

  1. Global climate change and US agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  2. On the Value of Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Falco, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Crop biodiversity is very important for both the functioning of ecological systems and the generation of a vast array of ecosystem services. More agricultural biodiversity is associated with higher agriculture production and lower risk exposure. This article explores the recent contributions on the economics of agrobiodiversity. The focus is (mostly) on the empirical literature. Future issues are also highlighted.

  3. Agriculture and growth nexus in Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Sillah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a major engine for the economic well-being of the Gambia. The successive governments from the colonial periods to the present have all recognized this importance of the agricultural sector but failed to do something that bear any fruit since government encouraged slash and burn technology and putting increasingly more people onto the land instead of increasing the yields per acre. More people than before do remain still on the land, but they are now poorer than their forefathers. Using autoregressive and vector error correction techniques to examine the growth-agriculture relation in the Gambia for the period from 1966 to 2009, it is found that the capital per worker is a significant and relevant factor input for the economic growth. The agricultural labor per acre is found to be irrelevant in both the short run and the long run analyses. The agricultural productivity measured as crop yields per acre is the most important variable for the economic growth in the Gambia. It boosts both the economic growth and the capital formation in the country. The agricultural policies should be focused on increasing the crop yields per acre not having more people back to the land. The processing, services and small manufacturing sectors should be developed and built into the agricultural policies in order to create redeployments for the agricultural labor surpluses.

  4. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong; JIN

    2013-01-01

    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.

  5. Exploring Alternative Solutions Regarding Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Studies show that no effective measures have been taken towards conservative agriculture in Iran. Social, economical and technical agricultural factors and conditions need to be provided to meet conservation agriculture at the farm, regional and national level. Accordingly, this research aimed at exploring some solutions to protect and conserve agriculture. Approach: To achieve this, of all 100 populations, included both 80 faculty members of college of agriculture at Bu-Ali-Sina University and 20 subject matter specialists in Hamedan's State Agricultural Organization, 35 people were selected based on the criterion type of purposeful sampling. Data were gathered through interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze textual data. Results: Results of this study showed that the building awareness and culture along with factors such as proper conservation agriculture practices, effective planning and management and attention to agro-ecological issues are basic factors to promote conservation agriculture in the surveyed area. Conclusions/Recommendations: Lack of awareness and knowledge of farmers and people towards conservation agriculture, no adoption of conservation agriculture by farmers and lack of education and training services for conservation agriculture were the most important issues that found in this research about conservation agriculture. Therefore, support the creating of cooperatives to provide necessary services for implementing conservation agriculture practices is definitely recommended.

  6. MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE, PROTECTIONISM, AND PROSPECT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Wanki

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multifunctional agriculture has been suspected of 'disguised' or 'veiled' protectionism by proponents of market-oriented reforms since the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture(URAA). In this article, I review the history and nature of agricultural protectionism and probe the concept of multifunctional agriculture from economics and broader social science perspectives. Then, I contend that agricultural protectionism in the second half of the 20th century was, in fact, a revela...

  7. 鄱阳湖生态经济区农业系统的干旱脆弱性评价%Evaluating drought vulnerability of agricultural system in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍; 陈晓玲

    2011-01-01

    Drought is one of the principal pertubations in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone (PLEEZ) . It is important to investigate the mechanism of droughts in order to evaluate potential losses of droughts and provide a scientific basis for policymaking. We selected fourteen indicators representing exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to droughts respectively. The weights of the indicators were calculated by analytic hierarchy process. Then using the composite index approach these indicators were combined into a drought vulnerability index of agricultural system by a linear aggregation. Maps of drought vulnerability and its elements in PLEEZ were drawn by applying the software of ArcGIS9.3. The results showed that the drought vulnerability of the agricultural system in PLEEZ were mainly at middle rank. Spatial differentiation of the drought vulnerablity existed that the rank of the drought vulnerability in the northern areas of PLEEZ were higher than that in the south. On the basis of the relationship between the drought vulnerability and exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capability, some suggestions for the drought hazard management in the future were proposed.%干旱是鄱阳湖生态经济区面临的主要的生态问题之一.建立旱灾预警机制,需要深入理解旱灾发生的机理,评价干旱可能造成的损失,以便为政策的制定提供科学依据.选择代表干旱暴露度、敏感性与适应能力的14个因子,通过层次分析法确定了各因子的权重,运用综合指数法生成了研究区农业生态系统的干旱脆弱性指数.应用ArcGIS9.3软件绘制了研究区的干旱脆弱性空间分布图,结果表明该区域的对干旱以中度脆弱性为主;在空间分布上具有明显的南北分异规律,北部县市农业系统的干旱脆弱性总体上比南部县市的高.结合暴露度、敏感性与适应能力的空间分布深入分析了干旱脆弱性形成的机理,在此基础上对未来该区域的干旱

  8. Tendencies in financing the agricultural and food sector under the common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brzozowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland, having joined the EU, became subject to regulations that significantly changed the conditions under which its food industry functioned. As markets opened up to each other, the possibilities of sale increased and competitiveness of economic entities improved. Mobilised public funds contributed, among other things, to modernisation of agricultural holdings and food industry enterprises, improvement of their competitiveness, construction of the infrastructure and multifunctional development of rural areas. The paper discusses tendencies in financing agriculture under the Common Agricultural Policy in Poland against the production and economic situation of the agricultural and food sector.

  9. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  10. Climate change and drought risks for agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.; Put, M.; Zaal, F.; Keulen, van H.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in rainfall patterns and risk of crop failure are discussed in this chapter. Agriculture is by far the most important economic activity in the region. The success of this economic activity relies heavily on water availability during the growing season. For rainfed production systems timing a

  11. Review of Malaysian Agricultural Policies with Regards to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md W. Murad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new scientific knowledge coupled with concerns for the environmental, economic and social aspects of agriculture brought Malaysian agriculture into a state of transition. The need for reviewing Malaysian agricultural policies has arisen due to that fact that current agricultural practices in the country are found to be related to environmental, economic and social problems. This study is an effort to review the current Malaysian agricultural policies with regards to sustainability. The Third National Agricultural Policy (3NAP, which is the latest one and relevant secondary materials have primarily been reviewed to substantiate our arguments in this paper. The study, however, argues that the latest Malaysian agricultural policies are compatible with the standards of sustainable agriculture, but the current agricultural practices in the country differ, to some extent, from sustainability principles. The study ends up with some concluding remarks.

  12. Sustainable agriculture: a challenge in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Faroque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals. Government is pursuing efforts to promote sustainable agriculture with emphasis on better use of on-farm resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper presents four dimensions of agricultural sustainability as productivity, environmental stability, economical profitability, and social and economic equity. Six characters were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems (conventional and sustainable agriculture in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, use of agro-chemicals and environmental issues. However, no significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the conventional system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land did not show any difference. It can be suggested that sustainable agriculture has a tendency towards becoming environmental, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably less agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of sustainable agriculture.

  13. International Comparison and Implications of Agricultural Development in Foreign Low Latitude Plateau Regions for Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yan; Yan YANG; Chen, Rui; Wu, Wei; PENG, Ziyun; Chen, Liangzheng; Li, Xuelin

    2013-01-01

    Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced. Then, experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed, including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development, application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil, trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico, and Argentina, Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to...

  14. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  15. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  16. Cognitive Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  17. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  18. Agricultural Targeted,Land Tenure Change and Tools of Using Right Transfer——Review on the Development of Modern Agriculture by Land Transfer under the New Economic Normal Status%农业发展的目标性、制度变迁的规范性与农地流转的工具性 ——对经济新常态下农地流转与现代农业发展的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良悦

    2016-01-01

    中国的农地流转经历了一个逐步探索和认识的过程,先后经历了政策外的允许,到农业生产经营过程中的困惑与探索,再到对土地流转的规范与引导,直至形成现代农业发展与生产方式转变的基本路径这样一个过程.与此相对应,农地制度也发生了家庭承包责任制、土地承包经营权(平分地权)、新型农业经营体系构建三次质的变迁.所以,对土地流转的认识必须与农地制度的变迁结合起来,才能准确理解其内涵和把握其实质.农地流转是一个政策工具,现代农业发展是其根本目标,农地制度的变迁是一种规范化的要求.经济新常态是我国经济发展过程中的战略性调整,为现代农业发展提供了机遇与环境.现代农业发展的基本内容是新型农业经营体系的构建,以及在此基础上的新产业、新业态和新模式,这一目标的实现需要在农地制度变迁规范约束下的土地流转.%China''s agricultural land using transfer has gone through a gradual process of exploring, which it has been permited by policy, puzzled in running and guided by regulated, and now was as a basic path of modern agriculture development. Correspondingly, the agricultural land tenure has also undergone three reform, that is a household contract responsibility system, land contract and management rights, building new agricultural management system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the meaning accurately and essentially that makes the land using right transfer combined with the changes of farmland system. The paper argued that the agricultural land using right transfer is a policy tool, modern agriculture development is the fundamental goal,and changes in agricultural land system is a standardized requirements. The new economy normal status is a course of our country''s economic development strategic adjustment, which provide opportunities for the development of modern agriculture and the

  19. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  20. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel ... Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA ... Newsline and Features TV Feature Stories Results RSS Feeds Transcripts and ...

  1. Brazil’s Booming Agriculture Faces Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes, Constanza

    2006-01-01

    Brazil has emerged as an agricultural superpower in global food and agricultural markets thanks to economic and trade stability and regulatory reforms that encourage investment in agriculture. Brazil is an important producer and the largest exporter of sugar, ethanol, beef, poultry meat, coffee, orange juice, and tobacco.

  2. Agricultural Education and Training; Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This annual review of selected developments in agricultural education and training of the United Nations family presents economic and social progress reports of countries dependent upon agriculture. Topics covered are education and training in Africa, deep sea fishing training in Korea, correspondence courses in agriculture, national marketing…

  3. 基于电子商务背景下农产品经济发展研究%Research on Economic Development of Agricultural Pro-jects Based on the Background of E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张权; 吴海燕

    2014-01-01

    农产品行业与我们日常生活息息相关,随着电子商务网上购买的模式广泛应用,农产品行业的发展也有了更大的机遇。本文主要通过对农产品的特点与电子商务的应用现状等进行分析研究,提出农产品电子商务运作存在的一些问题,希望提出的这些问题能对农产品电子商务市场有更多的参考价值。%Agricultural industry is closely related to our daily lives, and with the online purchase model of e-commerce being widely used, the development of agricultural industry has greater opportunities. In order to propose much more reference value of e-commerce market for agricultural products, the characteristics of agricultural products and the application status of e-commerce are analyzed and the problems of agricultural e-commerce oper-ation are raised in this paper.

  4. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  5. Role of Women in Agriculture: A Micro Level Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. Krishna Rao

    2006-01-01

    India has a predominantly agrarian economy. 70% of her population is rural; of those households, 60% engage in agriculture as their main source of income. It has always been India's most important economic sector. In this important agricultural sector woman plays a vital role, because it is largely a household enterprise. Women in India are major producers of food in terms of value, volume and number of hours worked. Nearly 63 percent of all economically active men are engaged in agriculture ...

  6. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M. M.; H.T. van Velthuizen

    2002-01-01

    The challenge of agriculture in the 21st century requires a systemic integration of the environmental, social and economic pillars of development to meet the needs of present generations without sacrificing the livelihoods of future generations. Over the next 50 years, the world population is projected to increase by some 3 billion, primarily in the developing countries. Yet, even today, some 800 million people go hungry daily, and more than a billion live on less than a dollar a day. This fo...

  7. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  8. Quantum economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  9. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  10. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  11. Economic analysis of agricultural enterprises in Turkey according to their level of success Análise econômica de empresas agrícolas na Turquia de acordo com seu nível de sucesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kizilaslan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, agricultural enterprises in Turhal, Tokat were grouped based on their degree of success, their structural characteristics have been identified and their outcomes of activities discussed. The objective of the study was to determine the aspects that render successful agricultural enterprises different from other agricultural enterprises. The point to be achieved through the study is to assist agricultural enterprises with a more effective utilization of existing means in order to help them to develop. Data has been collected from 71 agricultural enterprises, which have been determined by Neyman's Method that is a stratified sampling method, via questionnaires. The Criterion of Agricultural Income Per Enterprise Land Decar has been applied for the classification of the enterprises according to their level of success. When the agricultural income was sufficiently examined in the enterprises, moderate successful and unsuccessful enterprises cannot obtain agricultural income to meet family labor force cost. Their agricultural level is quite below the sum of the family labour wage equivalent and the real interest of the equivalent capital. Therefore, the agricultural income of the examined enterprises is considered insufficient. The rate of the net product to the active capital is 3.45% in successful enterprises, 0.57% in those with moderate success, and for the unsuccessful ones, it has a negative value of -2.22%. This ratio for successful enterprises is close to 5%. Accordingly, the successful enterprises work more efficiently in comparison to the other enterprise groups.Neste estudo, empresas agrícolas de Turhal, Tokat foram agrupadas com base em seu grau de sucesso, suas características foram identificadas e seus resultados de atividades discutidos. O objetivo do estudo é determinar os aspectos que diferenciam empresas agrícolas de sucesso das demais. O ponto a ser alcançado pelo estudo é assistir as empresas agrícolas com um

  12. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  13. The Role of Agriculture in the Social and Economic Development of the Lower Mississippi River Delta Region. Proceedings of a Regional Conference (Memphis, Tennessee, February 26-28, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Ames, IA.

    The lower Mississippi River delta region comprises 214 counties in Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois. The region is heavily dependent on agriculture and contains unusually high proportions of small farms, poor farmers, and black farmers. A conference planned by the region's 13 land-grant institutions and…

  14. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  15. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  16. Agricultural capacity and economic aspects of the main oleaginous with potential for biodiesel production for use in Brazilian transportation sector; Capacidade agricola e aspectos economicos das principais oleaginosas com potencial para producao de biodiesel para uso no setor de transporte brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabieri, Rodrigo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: galbieri@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Law n. 11.097, of January 13th, 2005, stabilised as mandatory the addition of 2% of biodiesel in the diesel beginning in 2008, increasing this amount to 5% in 2013. Many economics, environmental and social benefits can be reached through this new law. The diversity of raw material that could be used to produce biodiesel is large, mainly to the vegetables oil producer ones. Does the following cultures: palm oil, soy, babacu, peanut, mamona, and sunflower have enough stabilised agriculture areas to supply the goal of B2 and B5? What regarding to future fuel of type B10, B15 and B20? (author)

  17. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  18. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  19. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  20. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Franić

    2005-01-01

    After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in ...