WorldWideScience

Sample records for aging aircraft ndi

  1. Recent and Future Enhancements in NDI for Aircraft Structures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    found that different capabilities were being used to determine inspection intervals for different aircraft [7]. This led to an internal effort...capability of the NDI technique determines the inspection intervals and the Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution...damage and that the aircraft structure had to be inspectable . The results of the damage tolerance assessments were incorporated into USAF Technical

  2. Recent and Future Enhancement in NDI for Aircraft Structures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    found that different capabilities were being used to determine inspection intervals for different aircraft [7]. This led to an internal effort...capability of the NDI technique determines the inspection intervals and the Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution...damage and that the aircraft structure had to be inspectable . The results of the damage tolerance assessments were incorporated into USAF Technical

  3. Assessment of NDE needs for aging corporate and private aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Eugene R.

    1998-03-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the life extension of ageing military and commercial aircraft by the government and major aircraft fabricators. A vital, but often neglected segment of the aircraft industry is the are of inspecting ageing fleets of corporate and privately-owned aircraft. Many of these aircraft are inspected and maintained by the various FAA-approved repair stations located around the country. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods, equipment, and trained inspectors are a key aspect of maintaining these aircraft; however, there are currently several issues that need to be addressed by the private sector NDI community. Personnel training and certification to an accepted standard is critically needed in this industry since experience and capability in NDI can vary considerably between FAA stations and inspectors. Also, the updating of NDI methods are standards is needed. A review of these issues and suggestions for improvement are presented.

  4. Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they can develop in the fleet. Lastly, nondestructive inspection (NDI) plays a role in all these programs through the detection of cracks, corrosion, and disbonds. However, improved and more cost effective NDI methods are needed. Some methods such as magneto-optic imaging, electronic shearography, Diffractor-Sight, and multi-parameter eddy current testing appear viable for near-term improvements in NDI of aging aircraft.

  5. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  6. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  7. NDI (Nondestructive Inspection) Oriented Corrosion Control for Army Aircraft. Phase 1. Inspection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Appendices A and B and are provided as cover sheets from each item rather than completc packages. The Pamplet Series materials were furnished as camera-ready...34Stational Neutron Radiography System for Aircraft Reliability and Maintainability." G. A. Technologies Brochure , Triga Reactor Division, San Diego

  8. Development of a corrosion detection experiment to evaluate conventional and advanced NDI techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) was established by the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) at Sandia National Laboratories in August of 1991. The goal of the AANC is to provide independent validation of technologies intended to enhance the structural inspection of aging commuter and transport aircraft. The deliverables from the AANC`s validation activities are assessments of the reliability of existing and emerging inspection technologies as well as analyses of the cost benefits to be derived from their implementation. This paper describes the methodology developed by the AANC to assess the performance of NDI techniques. In particular, an experiment being developed to evaluate corrosion detection devices will be presented. The experiment uses engineered test specimens, as well as complete aircraft test beds to provide metrics for NDI validation.

  9. Non-Destructive Inspection Lab (NDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NDI specializes in applied research, development and performance of nondestructive inspection procedures (flourescent penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics,...

  10. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  11. Development of POD from in-service NDI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David S.; Fahr, Abbas; Leemans, Dirk V.; McRae, Ken I.

    2000-05-01

    The economic drive towards using aircraft beyond their initial design life has created a great interest in damage-tolerance (DT) based maintenance. The DT approach relies on routine nondestructive inspections (NDI), and requires that the NDI performance to be quantified in terms probability of detection (POD) to determine the safe inspection intervals. The most common approach for determining NDI POD is to perform inspections on representative components or specimens simulating the actual parts. This approach is practical but can be very expensive. A more economical approach may be to use actual field inspection data to obtain POD. This approach is particularly attractive for airframe inspection techniques, since most airframe structures cannot be easily simulated. There are a number of difficulties with this approach: Firstly, there is usually a very limited amount of field data. This may require special statistical treatment. Secondly, crack growth data must exist to allow the estimation of flaw sizes at the inspection sites at inspection times before the flaws were found. These factors and others affect the confidence in the calculated POD, and must be quantified before POD data of this type can be used. In this work, data from full scale fatigue tests were analyzed, and methods of overcoming the problems of small sample sizes and crack growth data requirements were investigated.

  12. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...

  13. NASGRO 3.0: A Software for Analyzing Aging Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettu, S. R.; Shivakumar, V.; Beek, J. M.; Yeh, F.; Williams, L. C.; Forman, R. G.; McMahon, J. J.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Structural integrity analysis of aging aircraft is a critical necessity in view of the increasing numbers of such aircraft in general aviation, the airlines and the military. Efforts are in progress by NASA, the FAA and the DoD to focus attention on aging aircraft safety. The present paper describes the NASGRO software which is well-suited for effectively analyzing the behavior of defects that may be found in aging aircraft. The newly revised Version 3.0 has many features specifically implemented to suit the needs of the aircraft community. The fatigue crack growth computer program NASA/FLAGRO 2.0 was originally developed to analyze space hardware such as the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station and the associated payloads. Due to popular demand, the software was enhanced to suit the needs of the aircraft industry. Major improvements in Version 3.0 are the incorporation of the ability to read aircraft spectra of unlimited size, generation of common aircraft fatigue load blocks, and the incorporation of crack-growth models which include load-interaction effects such as retardation due to overloads and acceleration due to underloads. Five new crack-growth models, viz., generalized Willenborg, modified generalized Willenborg, constant closure model, Walker-Chang model and the deKoning-Newman strip-yield model, have been implemented. To facilitate easier input of geometry, material properties and load spectra, a Windows-style graphical user interface has been developed. Features to quickly change the input and rerun the problem as well as examine the output are incorporated. NASGRO has been organized into three modules, the crack-growth module being the primary one. The other two modules are the boundary element module and the material properties module. The boundary-element module provides the ability to model and analyze complex two-dimensional problems to obtain stresses and stress-intensity factors. The material properties module allows users to store and

  14. Aging Military Aircraft Landscape : A Case for End-of-Life Fleet Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Military aircraft fleets are continuing to age despite increased structural integrity concerns and rising maintenance costs. Aircraft are not being replaced or retired in large numbers but are instead having their lives extended beyond their original design service lives. Because aging aircraft cost

  15. Activation Product Inverse Calculations with NDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-27

    NDI based forward calculations of activation product concentrations can be systematically used to infer structural element concentrations from measured activation product concentrations with an iterative algorithm. The algorithm converges exactly for the basic production-depletion chain with explicit activation product production and approximately, in the least-squares sense, for the full production-depletion chain with explicit activation product production and nosub production-depletion chain. The algorithm is suitable for automation.

  16. Recent and Future Enhancements in NDI for Aircraft Structures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense...and was also used to establish the safe-life of earlier designs that were subjected to a fatigue test. Losses of an F-111 in December 1969 and an F-5...Accidents / Incidents, March 2010. [2] Lincoln, J.W., “Damage Tolerance – USAF Experience,” Proceedings of the 13th Symposium of the International

  17. RECENT AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS IN NDI FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES POSTPRINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-10

    manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense...and was also used to establish the safe-life of earlier designs that were subjected to a fatigue test. Losses of an F-111 in December 1969 and an F-5...Accidents / Incidents, March 2010. [2] Lincoln, J.W., “Damage Tolerance – USAF Experience,” Proceedings of the 13th Symposium of the International

  18. Recent and Future Enhancements in NDI for Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense...and was also used to establish the safe-life of earlier designs that were subjected to a fatigue test. Losses of an F-111 in December 1969 and an F-5...Accidents / Incidents, March 2010. [2] Lincoln, J.W., “Damage Tolerance – USAF Experience,” Proceedings of the 13th Symposium of the International

  19. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Aerospace Material Specification Selectively (1997) Strippable Acrylic Finishing Schemes - Matt and Glossy - 23. K.R. Baldwin and C.J.E. Smith, Repair...corrosion through design, the selection of military and civil aircraft during the last thirty years. Research materials that are resistant to corrosion and...compliant coatings. initiation of corrosion. This paper first examines the general principles involved in 2.2 Materials selection the corrosion

  20. Cyclic hygrothermal aging of aircraft lightning protections: Phenomenological overview

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Saghir, Shahid; Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Askari, Abe H.

    2012-01-01

    The recent transition to full composite fuselages is a major breakthrough in aeronautical design. To ensure satisfactory lightning protection, the electrical properties of the primary composite structure need to be improved and a design solution lies on bonding a metallic fishnet to the fuselage. An important issue is the prediction of the aging behavior of this top layer when exposed to severe aging conditions representative of flight environment. Multiple aging mechanisms affect this top layer made of thermoset resin and metallic fishnet with complex geometry and a first modeling strategy is a necessary starting point to better understand its evolution. This paper describes the overall phenomenology and the different mechanisms that can be expected in such a structure.

  1. Cyclic hygrothermal aging of aircraft lightning protections: Phenomenological overview

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-04-23

    The recent transition to full composite fuselages is a major breakthrough in aeronautical design. To ensure satisfactory lightning protection, the electrical properties of the primary composite structure need to be improved and a design solution lies on bonding a metallic fishnet to the fuselage. An important issue is the prediction of the aging behavior of this top layer when exposed to severe aging conditions representative of flight environment. Multiple aging mechanisms affect this top layer made of thermoset resin and metallic fishnet with complex geometry and a first modeling strategy is a necessary starting point to better understand its evolution. This paper describes the overall phenomenology and the different mechanisms that can be expected in such a structure.

  2. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  3. The Second Joint NASA/FAA/DOD Conference on Aging Aircraft. Pt. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Conference was to bring together world leaders in aviation safety research, aircraft design and manufacturing, fleet operation and aviation maintenance to disseminate information on current practices and advanced technologies that will assure the continued airworthiness of the aging aircraft in the military and commercial fleets. The Conference included reviews of current industry practices, assessments of future technology requirements, and status of aviation safety research. The Conference provided an opportunity for interactions among the key personnel in the research and technology development community, the original equipment manufacturers, commercial airline operators, military fleet operators, aviation maintenance, and aircraft certification and regulatory authorities. Conference participation was unrestricted and open to the international aviation community.

  4. The Second Joint NASA/FAA/DoD Conference on Aging Aircraft. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Conference was to bring together world leaders in aviation safety research, aircraft design and manufacturing, fleet operation and aviation maintenance to disseminate information on current practices and advanced technologies that will assure the continued airworthiness of the aging aircraft in the military and commercial fleets. The Conference included reviews of current industry practices, assessments of future technology requirements, and status of aviation safety research. The Conference provided an opportunity for interactions among the key personnel in the research and technology development community, the original equipment manufacturers, commercial airline operators, military fleet operators, aviation maintenance, and aircraft certification and regulatory authorities. Conference participation was unrestricted and open to the international aviation community. Appendix B contains the name and addresses of the 623 participants in the Conference.

  5. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  6. Transition to high rate aerospace NDI processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Bert; Thomson, Clint; Ivakhnenko, Igor; Garner, Chuck

    2018-04-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of carbon fiber composite materials in military and commercial aircraft, processes to manufacture and inspect the structural components must evolve to ensure economic viability. Inspection techniques which were developed to inspect products produced at a rate of one or two structures a month are not fast or flexible enough to inspect more than 8500 parts per month. This presentation describes the evolution of phased array ultrasonic inspection systems to provide the increased rate capacity, the flexibility to accommodate multiple unique designs, and the ability to rapidly adjust to product design changes. The paper will describe how system developments were made in response to new programs resulting in a much less expensive, higher degree of accuracy, increased flexibility, and lower cycle time inspections.

  7. Aging Evaluation Programs for Jet Transport Aircraft Structural Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with criteria and procedures in evaluationof timely preventive maintenance recommendations that willsupport continued safe operation of aging jet transports untiltheir retirement from service. The active service life of commercialaircraft has increased in recent years as a result of low fuelcost, and increasing costs and delivery times for fleet replacements.Air transport industry consensus is that older jet transportswill continue in service despite anticipated substantial increasesin required maintenance. Design concepts, supportedby testing, have worked well due to the system that is used to ensureflying safety. Continuing structural integrity by inspectionand overhaul recommendation above the level contained inmaintenance and service bulletins is additional requirement, insuch cases. Airplane structural safety depends on the performanceof all participants in the system and the responsibility forsafety cannot be delegated to a single participant. This systemhas three major participants: the manufacturers who design,build and support airplanes in service, the airlines who operate,inspect and mantain airplanes and the airworthiness authoritieswho establish rules and regulations, approve the design andpromote airline maintenance performance.

  8. Sildenafil reduces polyuria in rats with lithium-induced NDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Talita Rojas; Volpini, Rildo Aparecido; Massola Shimizu, Maria H; Bragança, Ana Carolina de; Oshiro-Monreal, Fabíola; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Andrade, Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-treated patients often develop urinary concentrating defect and polyuria, a condition known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). In a rat model of Li-induced NDI, we studied the effect that sildenafil (Sil), a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, has on renal expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2), urea transporter UT-A1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2), epithelial Na channel (ENaC; α-, β-, and γ-subunits), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. We also evaluated cGMP levels in medullary collecting duct cells in suspension. For 4 wk, Wistar rats received Li (40 mmol/kg food) or no treatment (control), some receiving, in weeks 2-4, Sil (200 mg/kg food) or Li and Sil (Li+Sil). In Li+Sil rats, urine output and free water clearance were markedly lower, whereas urinary osmolality was higher, than in Li rats. The cGMP levels in the suspensions of medullary collecting duct cells were markedly higher in the Li+Sil and Sil groups than in the control and Li groups. Semiquantitative immunoblotting revealed the following: in Li+Sil rats, AQP2 expression was partially normalized, whereas that of UT-A1, γ-ENaC, and eNOS was completely normalized; and expression of NKCC2 and NHE3 was significantly higher in Li rats than in controls. Inulin clearance was normal in all groups. Mean arterial pressure and plasma arginine vasopressin did not differ among the groups. Sil completely reversed the Li-induced increase in renal vascular resistance. We conclude that, in experimental Li-induced NDI, Sil reduces polyuria, increases urinary osmolality, and decreases free water clearance via upregulation of renal AQP2 and UT-A1.

  9. Secondary aerosol formation from photochemical aging of aircraft exhaust in a smog chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Miracolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were performed to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on fine particle emissions from an in-use CFM56-2B gas turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber from a rake inlet installed one-meter downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft. The chamber was then exposed to sunlight and/or UV lights to initiate photo-oxidation. Separate tests were performed at different engine loads (4, 7, 30, 85 %. Photo-oxidation created substantial secondary particulate matter (PM, greatly exceeding the direct PM emissions at each engine load after an hour or less of aging at typical summertime conditions. After several hours of photo-oxidation, the ratio of secondary-to-primary PM mass was on average 35 ± 4.1, 17 ± 2.5, 60 ± 2.2, and 2.7 ± 1.1 for the 4, 7, 30, and 85 % load experiments, respectively. The composition of secondary PM formed strongly depended on load. At 4 % load, secondary PM was dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA. At higher loads, the secondary PM was mainly secondary sulfate. A traditional SOA model that accounts for SOA formation from single-ring aromatics and other volatile organic compounds underpredicts the measured SOA formation by ~60 % at 4 % load and ~40 % at 85 % load. Large amounts of lower-volatiliy organic vapors were measured in the exhaust; they represent a significant pool of SOA precursors that are not included in traditional SOA models. These results underscore the importance of accounting for atmospheric processing when assessing the influence of aircraft emissions on ambient PM levels. Models that do not account for this processing will likely underpredict the contribution of aircraft emissions to local and regional air pollution.

  10. Lithium-induced NDI: acetazolamide reduces polyuria but does not improve urine concentrating ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T. de; Doornebal, J.; Christensen, B.M.; Cockx, S.; Sinke, A.P.; Baumgarten, R.; Bedford, J.J.; Walker, R.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but it generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and

  11. Nonlinear Multivariate Spline-Based Control Allocation for High-Performance Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.P.

    2014-01-01

    High performance flight control systems based on the nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) principle require highly accurate models of aircraft aerodynamics. In general, the accuracy of the internal model determines to what degree the system nonlinearities can be canceled; the more accurate the model, the better the cancellation, and with that, the higher the performance of the controller. In this paper a new control system is presented that combines NDI with multivariate simplex spline based con...

  12. Creep-age forming of AA7475 aluminum panels for aircraft lower wing skin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego José Inforzato

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Creep-age forming (CAF is an interesting process for the airframe industry, as it is able to form or shape panels into smooth, but complex, curvatures. In the CAF process, the ageing cycle of the alloy is used to relax external loads imposed to the part, through creep mechanisms. Those relaxed stresses impose a new curvature to the part. At the end of the process, significant spring back (sometimes about 70% is observed and the success in achieving the desired form depends on how the spring back can be predicted in order to compensate it by tooling changes. Most of the applications relate to simple (non stiffened panels. The present work deals with the CAF of aluminum panels for aircraft wing skin application. CAF was performed using vacuum-bagging autoclave technique in small scale complex shape stiffened panels, machined from an AA7475 alloy plate. An analytical reference model from the literature was employed estimate the spring back effect in such panel geometry. This model that deals with simple plates was adapted to stiffened panels using a geometric simplification, resulting in a semi-empirical model. The results demonstrate that CAF is a promising process to form stiffened panels, and the spring back can be roughly estimated through a simple model and few experiments.

  13. Annual International Conference on Aging Aircraft (2nd) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on 3-5 October 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Industrial Inspection Colin G. Drury , Ph.D., The Center for Industrial Effectiveness, State U niversity of N ew York, Buffalo...671 (.0172) TOTAL 780 (.0200) 38,220 (.9800) 39,000 (1.0) Figure 7 212 Industrial Inspection COLIN G. DRURY , PH.D. The Center for Industrial...could well be procedural as However, if the item is in fact faulty, then to when you are searching lower rivets with an 214 Colin G. Drury NDI device to

  14. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  15. Nonlinear Multivariate Spline-Based Control Allocation for High-Performance Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.P.

    2014-01-01

    High performance flight control systems based on the nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) principle require highly accurate models of aircraft aerodynamics. In general, the accuracy of the internal model determines to what degree the system nonlinearities can be canceled; the more accurate the model,

  16. Lithium-induced NDI: acetazolamide reduces polyuria but does not improve urine concentrating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Theun; Doornebal, Joan; Christensen, Birgitte M; Cockx, Simone; Sinke, Anne P; Baumgarten, Ruben; Bedford, Jennifer J; Walker, Robert J; Wetzels, Jack F M; Deen, Peter M T

    2017-09-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but it generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, which are essential for water uptake from tubular urine. Recently, we found that the prophylactic administration of acetazolamide to mice effectively attenuated Li-NDI. To evaluate whether acetazolamide might benefit lithium-treated patients, we administered acetazolamide to mice with established Li-NDI and six patients with a lithium-induced urinary concentrating defect. In mice, acetazolamide partially reversed lithium-induced polyuria and increased urine osmolality, which, however, did not coincide with increased AQP2 abundances. In patients, acetazolamide led to the withdrawal of two patients from the study due to side effects. In the four remaining patients acetazolamide did not lead to clinically relevant changes in maximal urine osmolality. Urine output was also not affected, although none of these patients demonstrated overt lithium-induced polyuria. In three out of four patients, acetazolamide treatment increased serum creatinine levels, indicating a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Strikingly, these three patients also showed a decrease in systemic blood pressure. All together, our data reveal that acetazolamide does not improve the urinary concentrating defect caused by lithium, but it lowers the GFR, likely explaining the reduced urine output in our mice and in a recently reported patient with lithium-induced polyuria. The reduced GFR in patients prone to chronic kidney disease development, however, warrants against application of acetazolamide in Li-NDI patients without long-term (pre)clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. The Neck Disability Index-Russian Language Version (NDI-RU): A Study of Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtadze, Maxim A; Vernon, Howard; Zakharova, Olga B; Kuzminov, Kirill O; Bolotov, Dmitry A

    2015-07-15

    Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing. To perform a validated Russian translation and then to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Russian language version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI-RU). Neck pain is highly prevalent and can greatly affect daily activity. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is the most frequently used scale for self-rating of disability due to neck pain. Its translated versions are applied in many countries. However, the Russian language version of the NDI has not been developed yet. Cross-cultural adaptation of the NDI-RU was performed according to established guidelines. Then, the NDI-RU was evaluated for content validity, concurrent criterion validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, and minimum detectable change. Two hundred thirty-two patients took part in the study in total: 109 in validity (39.5 ± 10 yr), 123 in reliability (38.4 ± 11 yr; 80 in the test-retest phase). A culturally valid translation was achieved. NDI-RU total scores were distributed normally. Floor/ceiling effects were absent. Good values of Cronbach α were obtained for each item (from 0.80 to 0.84) and for the total NDI-RU (0.83). A 2-factor solution was found for the NDI-RU. The average interitem correlation coefficient was 0.53. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.92 for different items and 0.91 for the total NDI-RU. Moderate correlation (Spearman rs = 0.62; P Russian language version of the Neck Disability Index resulted in a valid, reliable instrument that can be used both in clinical practice and scientific investigations. 1.

  18. Broadband polarized emission from P(NDI2OD-T2) polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Steve; Sutch, Tabitha; Szulczewski, Greg; Schweizer, Matthias; Barbosa, Newton; Araujo, Paulo

    2018-05-18

    We investigate the P(NDI2OD-T2) photophysical properties via absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, in association with the experimental approach baptized Stokes Spectroscopy, which provides valuable material information through the acquisition and analysis of the fluorescence polarization degree. By changing solvents and using different samples such as solutions, thick, and thin films, it is possible to control the polarization degree spectrum associated to the fluorescence emitted by the polymer's isolated chains and aggregates. We show that the polarization degree could become a powerful tool to obtain information related to the samples morphology, which is connected to their microscopic structure. Moreover, the polarization degree spectra suggest that depolarization effects linked to energy and charge transfer mechanisms are likely taking place. Our findings indicate that P(NDI2OD-T2) polymers are excellent candidates for the advancement of organic technologies that rely on the emission and detection of polarized lights. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally.

  20. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  1. PROMIS Physical Function Correlation With NDI and mJOA in the Surgical Cervical Myelopathy Patient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert J; Zebala, Lukas P; Peters, Colleen; McAnany, Steven

    2018-04-15

    Retrospective review. To determine the correlation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function with Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores in the surgical cervical myelopathy patient population. Outcome measures such as NDI and mJOA are essential for analyzing treatments for cervical myelopathy. Administrative burdens impose limits on completion of these measures. The PROMIS group developed an outcome measure to improve reporting of patient symptoms and function and to reduce administrative burden. Despite early success, NDI and mJOA have not been compared with PROMIS in patients with cervical myelopathy. This study determines the correlation of NDI and mJOA with PROMIS in surgical patients with cervical myelopathy. A total of 60 patients with cervical myelopathy undergoing surgery were included. PROMIS, NDI, and mJOA were collected preoperatively, and in the first 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between NDI, mJOA, and PROMIS were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Students t tests were used to test significance. All 60 (100%) of patients completed preoperative questionnaires. Fifty-five (92%) of patients completed initial follow-up questionnaires within the first 6 months. PROMIS physical function and NDI demonstrated a strong negative correlation at baseline and in initial follow-up (R = -0.69, -0.76). PROMIS and mJOA demonstrated a strong positive correlation at baseline and in initial follow-up (R = 0.61, 0.72). PROMIS physical function has a strong negative correlation with NDI and a strong positive correlation with mJOA at baseline and in the early postoperative course in patients undergoing surgery for cervical myelopathy. Surgeons may factor these outcomes into the delivery and interpretation of patient-reported outcome measures in this population. Use of PROMIS may improve completion of outcome measures in the office and reduce

  2. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Munck, Petriina; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  3. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2011-08-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.

  4. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  5. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 2. november tähistas Eesti ekstreem-metal-skene jaoks kahe äärmiselt olulise üllitise taassündi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Nailboard Records üllitas pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ning minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  7. Uudised : Vanemuise Sümfoonikute kontsert. Kaks õhtut TMMis. Esimene puhkpilli- ja bigbändiõhtu / Jaanika Juhanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juhanson, Jaanika, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Eelinfo 11. märtsil toimuva Vanemuise Sümfoonikute kontserdi kohta Vanemuise kontserdimajas. M. Korjuse vitriini avamisest 23. veebr. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, D. Kokkeri mälestusõhtust 29. veebr. TMMi Assauwe tornis. 4. märtsil EMA saalis toimunud puhkpilliorkestri ja bigbändi kontserdist

  8. Brändi näkyy musiikkivideossa : Esimerkkitapaus Michael Jackson

    OpenAIRE

    Kontinen, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Tutkin opinnäytetyössäni brändin ja musiikkivideon suhdetta toisiinsa. Työssä käsitellään lyhyesti myös tähteyttä. Esittelen ensin vähän historiaa ja peruskäsitteitä, minkä jälkeen käytän Michael Jacksonin Billie Jean -musiikkivideota esimerkkinä tutkiessani Michael Jacksonin brändiä. Teoksessa käytetään lähdeaineistoa sekä omaa analyysia. Keskityn tarkastelemaan musiikkivideoita, ja niihin liittyviä sisältöjä yleisesti, ei niinkään teknisesti. Toivon, että työstäni on apua jollekin,...

  9. Successful amelioration of mitochondrial optic neuropathy using the yeast NDI1 gene in a rat animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Marella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited disorder with point mutations in mitochondrial DNA which result in loss of vision in young adults. The majority of mutations reported to date are within the genes encoding the subunits of the mitochondrial NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, complex I. Establishment of animal models of LHON should help elucidate mechanism of the disease and could be utilized for possible development of therapeutic strategies.We established a rat model which involves injection of rotenone-loaded microspheres into the optic layer of the rat superior colliculus. The animals exhibited the most common features of LHON. Visual loss was observed within 2 weeks of rotenone administration with no apparent effect on retinal ganglion cells. Death of retinal ganglion cells occurred at a later stage. Using our rat model, we investigated the effect of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase, Ndi1. We were able to achieve efficient expression of the Ndi1 protein in the mitochondria of all regions of retinal ganglion cells and axons by delivering the NDI1 gene into the optical layer of the superior colliculus. Remarkably, even after the vision of the rats was severely impaired, treatment of the animals with the NDI1 gene led to a complete restoration of the vision to the normal level. Control groups that received either empty vector or the GFP gene had no effects.The present study reports successful manifestation of LHON-like symptoms in rats and demonstrates the potential of the NDI1 gene therapy on mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Our results indicate a window of opportunity for the gene therapy to be applied successfully after the onset of the disease symptoms.

  10. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: ngtthuy02@yahoo.com [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morita, Kouichi [Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  11. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  12. Economic aspects of hydro geological risk mitigation measures management in Italy: the ReNDiS project experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, D.; Campobasso, C.; Gallozzi, P. L.; Dessi', B.; Traversa, F.

    2009-04-01

    ReNDiS project is a useful tool for monitoring, analysis and management of information data on mitigation measures and restoration works of soil protection at national scale. The main scope of the project, and related monitoring activities, is to improve the knowledge about the use of national funds and efforts against floods and landslides risk and, as a consequence, to better address the preventive policies in future. Since 1999 after the disastrous mudflow event occurred in Sarno in 1998, which caused the loss of 160 human lives, an extraordinary effort was conducted by the Italian Government in order to promote preventive measures against the hydro geological risk over the entire Italian territory. The Italian Ministry for the Environment promoted several and annual soil protection programmes. The ReNDiS project (Repertory of mitigation measures for National Soil Protection) is carried out by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental protection and Research, with the aim of improving the knowledge about the results of preventive policies against floods and landslides in order to better address national funds as requested by the Minister itself. The repertory is composed by a main archive and two secondary interface, the first for direct data management (ReNDiS-ist) and the latter (ReNDiS-web) for the on-line access and public consultation. At present, ReNDiS database contains about 3000 records concerning those programmes, focused on restoration works but including also information on landslide typologies and processes. The monitoring project is developed taking into account all the information about each step of every mitigation measure from the initial funding phase until the end of the work. During present work, we have statistically analyzed the ReNDiS database in order to highlight the conformity between the characteristic and type of the hazard (identified in a specific area) and the corresponding mitigation measures adopted for risk reduction. Through specific

  13. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    repair using a substandard design and a flawed installation. In addition, the new Sol-Gel surface preparation technique was evaluated. Fatigue coupon tests produced Sol-Gel results that could be compared with a large performance database from conventional, riveted repairs. It was demonstrated that not only can composite doublers perform well in severe off-design conditions (low doubler stiffness and presence of defects in doubler installation) but that the Sol-Gel surface preparation technique is easier and quicker to carry out while still producing optimum bonding properties. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods were developed so that the potential for disbond and delamination growth could be monitored and crack growth mitigation could be quantified. The NDI methods were validated using full-scale test articles and the FedEx aircraft installations. It was demonstrated that specialized NDI techniques can detect flaws in composite doubler installations before they reach critical size. Probability of Detection studies were integrated into the FedEx training in order to quantify the ability of aircraft maintenance depots to properly monitor these repairs. In addition, Boeing Structural Repair and Nondestructive Testing Manuals were modified to include composite doubler repair and inspection procedures. This report presents the results from the FedEx Pilot Program that involved installation and surveillance of numerous repairs on operating aircraft. Results from critical NDI evaluations are reported in light of damage tolerance assessments for bonded composite doublers. This work has produced significant interest from airlines and aircraft manufacturers. The successful Pilot Program produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. This report discusses both the laboratory data and Pilot Program results from repair installations on operating aircraft to introduce composite

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH alternative dehydrogenase Ndi1p, as a tool to identify new genes involved in complex I related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynald eCossard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complex I deficiencies are one of the most commonly observed biochemical features in patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders. In the majority of these clinical cases the molecular bases of the diseases remain unknown suggesting the involvement of unidentified factors that are critical for complex I function.The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDI1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial internal NADH dehydrogenase was previously shown to complement a complex I deficient strain in Caenorhabitis elegans with notable improvements in reproduction, whole organism respiration. These features indicate that Ndi1p can functionally integrate the respiratory chain, allowing complex I deficiency complementation. Taking into account the Ndi1p ability to bypass complex I, we evaluate the possibility to extend the range of defects/mutations causing complex I deficiencies that can be alleviated by NDI1 expression.We report here that NDI1 expressing animals unexpectedly exhibit a slightly shortened lifespan, a reduction in the progeny and a depletion of the mitochondrial genome. However, Ndi1p is expressed and targeted to the mitochondria as a functional protein that confers rotenone resistance to those animals and without affecting their respiration rate and ATP content.We show that the severe embryonic lethality level caused by the RNAi knockdowns of complex I structural subunit encoding genes (e.g. NDUFV1, NDUFS1, NDUFS6, NDUFS8 or GRIM-19 human orthologs in wild type animals is significantly reduced in the Ndi1p expressing worm.All together these results open up the perspective to identify new genes involved in complex I function, assembly or regulation by screening an RNAi library of genes leading to embryonic lethality that should be rescued by NDI1 expression.

  15. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  16. Creep age forming of Al-Cu-Li alloy: Application to thick sheet forming of double curvature aircraft panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Wael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep-age-forming of a thick Al-Cu-Li sheet is studied. An industrial stamping press is used to form a double curvature panel at a reduced scale. This forming, which includes several relaxation steps, is modelled using ABAQUS. A material model describing an elasto-viscoplastic behaviour with anisotropy effect has been identified and implemented in ABAQUS using Fortran subroutine. The numerical model is validated by comparing experiments and numerical results in terms of deformed shapes and an improved forming cycle is suggested.

  17. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  18. Development of a NDI system using the magneto-optical method. 2. Remote sensing using the novel magneto-optical inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinyi; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    A new remote sensing system using the magneto-optical method is developed for inspection of flaws introduced during service operation where routine inspection is difficult because of difficult inaccessibility to the components. Among the advantages of non-destructive inspection (NDI) based on the magneto-optical sensor are: real time inspection, elimination of electrical noise and high spatial resolution. Remote sensing of flaws is achieved using the basic principles of Faraday effect, optical permeability, and diffraction of a laser by the domain walls. This paper describes a novel remote NDI system using the principles of optics and LMF. The main characteristic of the system is that image data and LMF information can be obtained simultaneously. It is possible to carry out remote and high speed inspection of cracks from the intensity of reflected light, and to estimate the size of a crack effectively with their diverse data. The advantages of this NDI system are demonstrated using two specimens. (author)

  19. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  20. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  1. Fatigue damage assessment of high-usage in-service aircraft fuselage structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosinyi, Bao Rasebolai

    As the commercial and military aircraft fleets continue to age, there is a growing concern that multiple-site damage (MSD) can compromise structural integrity. Multiple site damage is the simultaneous occurrence of many small cracks at independent structural locations, and is the natural result of fatigue, corrosion, fretting and other possible damage mechanisms. These MSD cracks may linkup and form a fatigue lead crack of critical length. The presence of MSD also reduces the structure's ability to withstand longer cracks. The objective of the current study is to assess, both experimentally and analytically, MSD formation and growth in the lap joint of curved panels removed from a retired aircraft. A Boeing 727-232 airplane owned and operated by Delta Air Lines, and retired at its design service goal, was selected for the study. Two panels removed from the left-hand side of the fuselage crown, near stringer 4L, were subjected to extended fatigue testing using the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center. The state of MSD was continuously assessed using several nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. Damage to the load attachment points of the first panel resulted in termination of the fatigue test at 43,500 fatigue cycles, before cracks had developed in the lap joint. The fatigue test for the second panel was initially conducted under simulated in-service loading conditions for 120,000 cycles, and no cracks were detected in the skin of the panel test section. Artificial damage was then introduced into the panel at selected rivets in the critical (lower) rivet row, and the fatigue loads were increased. Visually detectable crack growth from the artificial notches was first seen after 133,000 cycles. The resulting lead crack grew along the lower rivet row, eventually forming an 11.8" long unstable crack after 141,771 cycles, at which point the

  2. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  3. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  4. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  5. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  6. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  7. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI: clinical, laboratory and genetic characterization of five Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Vaisbich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a lack of response in the distal nephron to the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin. Manifestations include polyuria, polydipsia, hyposthenuria, recurrent episodes of dehydration and fever and growth failure. Most cases are caused by mutations in the AVPR2 gene. The mutant receptors are trapped intracellularly. METHOD: We studied five boys using clinical, laboratory and molecular data. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.6 months (range 6 to 24 and 12.2 years (7.8 to 19 after the follow-up period. The mean period of follow-up was 132.2 ± 50.9 months. RESULTS: The geometric means of the z-scores of weight and stature were -4.5 and -3.6, respectively, at diagnosis. At the last medical appointment, the z-scores of weight and stature were -0.3 and -0.9, respectively. Three patients were diagnosed with ureterohydronephrosis and exhibited increased post-void urine volume. Mutations in the AVPR2 gene were found in all patients, and the carrier status was confirmed in four of five cases. Two unrelated children presented identical mutations (S167L in arginine vasopressin R2. Two of the patients had a mutation that has already been described in other Brazilian families (R337X, and one patient showed a de novo mutation (Y128D in arginine vasopressin R2, since his mother's molecular analysis was normal. The recurrence risk for this family was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: This study reports the clinical and laboratory characterization of Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and reiterates the importance of the genetic basis that underlies the disease diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  8. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Celeste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. Methods We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks,

  9. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Céleste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on

  10. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  11. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  12. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  13. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  14. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  15. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  16. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  17. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  18. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  19. Development of an ultrasonic nondestructive inspection method for impact damage detection in composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, M.; Kim, H. E.; Lanza di Scalea, F.; Kim, H.

    2017-04-01

    High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact (HEWABI) due to ground service equipment can often occur in aircraft structures causing major damages. These Wide Area Impact Damages (WAID) can affect the internal components of the structure, hence are usually not visible nor detectable by typical one-sided NDE techniques and can easily compromise the structural safety of the aircraft. In this study, the development of an NDI method is presented together with its application to impacted aircraft frames. The HEWABI from a typical ground service scenario has been previously tested and the desired type of damages have been generated, so that the aircraft panels could become representative study cases. The need of the aircraft industry for a rapid, ramp-friendly system to detect such WAID is here approached with guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) and a scanning tool that accesses the whole structure from the exterior side only. The wide coverage of the specimen provided by GUW has been coupled to a differential detection approach and is aided by an outlier statistical analysis to be able to inspect and detect faults in the challenging composite material and complex structure. The results will be presented and discussed with respect to the detection capability of the system and its response to the different damage types. Receiving Operating Characteristics curves (ROC) are also produced to quantify and assess the performance of the proposed method. Ongoing work is currently aimed at the penetration of the inner components of the structure, such as shear ties and C-frames, exploiting different frequency ranges and signal processing techniques. From the hardware and tool development side, different transducers and coupling methods, such as air-coupled transducers, are under investigation together with the design of a more suitable scanning technique.

  20. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  1. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  2. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  3. The Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  4. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  5. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  6. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  7. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  8. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  9. 2002 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national

  10. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  11. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  12. Quantitative Inspection Technologies for Aging Military Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Bowler, J. R., Theodoulidis, T. and Polakis, N. 2012, IEEE Trans. Mag.- IEEE Xplore . 45. Xie, H., Ji, Y. and Bowler, J. R. Eddy Current Pancake Coil...March 2012, IEEE Trans. Mag, Vol. 48, pp. 1159-1170. 38. Impedance of a Horizontal Coil in a Borehole: A Model for Eddy-Current Borehole Probes...40. Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media. Chew, W. C. New York: s.n., 1995, IEEE Press. 41. Thin-Skin Eddy-Current Interaction with Semi

  13. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  15. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  16. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  17. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  18. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  19. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  20. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  1. p - n junction diodes fabricated from isolated electrospun fibers of (P(NDI2ODT2)) and an inorganic p-doped semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Alexander; Pinto, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    A simple method to fabricate, under ambient conditions and within seconds, p - n diodes using an individual electrospun poly{[N, N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)}-(P(NDI2ODT2)) fiber and a commercially available p-doped Si/SiO2 substrate is presented. Band bending at the fiber/Si+ interface leads to asymmetric I-V characteristic curves resembling that of a diode. The diode turn-on voltage was in the range 1V and was unaffected via UV light irradiation. The rectification ratio however could be tuned reversibly thereby making this device multifunctional. In addition to being a rectifier, the advantage of our design is the complete exposure of the rectifying junction to the surrounding environment. This has the advantage of making them attractive candidates in the potential fabrication of low power, sensitive and rapid response photo-sensors. NSF

  2. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  3. Aircraft Capability Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  4. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  5. Aircraft parameter estimation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...

  6. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Impact of Emerging NDE-NDI Methods on Aircraft Design, Manufacture and Maintenance (L’Impact des Nouvelles Methodes d’Examen Non Destructif et de Controle Non Destructif (NDE-NDI) sur la Conception, la Fabrication et la Maintenance des Aeronefs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    canique et refroidissenent A eau p1Ilot6 par l’autanate de la crmande nun~rIque. - Le banc est tout A fait compatible avec un syst~me d’analyse...SAPIR est un syst~me de traitement et de restitution d’irnages, i1 assure la nun~risation sur 12 bits (512 points par ligne) des signaux requs des...avant ou aprbs le traitement . Lc SAPIR est cmnand6 et configurA par l’utilisateur au moyen d’un terminal de dialogue, et est pourvu d’une liaison rapide

  8. Aircraft engines. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  9. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  10. Aircraft Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  11. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    rodynamique, propulsion, rdsistance den structures, etc ... - lea m~thodes d’essaia an soufflerie, aur banca au aol, sur simulateurs. A un niveau de synthbse...Dunstan Graham, "Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control," Princeton University Press , Princeton, N.J., 1973. 9. Hoh, Roger H., Thomas T. Myers...discussion of the roll coupling problem" Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol 15, Pergamon Press , Oxford 1974 17-8 (6] R.W. KLOPPENSTEIN "Zeroes of

  12. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  13. Aircraft Impact Assessment of APR1400 Reactor Containment Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Hwan; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Jae Hee; Kim, Sang Yun

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of a protection to withstand aircraft impact on safety-related structures and systems is basically based on a probabilistic evaluation for each site, if the licensing body doesn't require a deterministic approach. Existing nuclear power plants in Korea were designed based on the probabilistic approach, and the aircraft impact hazard remained less than a probability of 10 -7 . However, a man-made aircraft impact have been considered as a possible external accident for the nuclear power plant. New plant designs that are to be constructed in the U.S. after July 2009 must consider the effect of impact from a large commercial aircraft according to the requirements of 10 CFR 50.150. Especially, Reactor Containment Building (RCB) housing the safety-related equipment and fuels should be protected safely against aircraft crash without perforation and scabbing failure of external wall. APR1400 RCB is constructed as a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) which is surrounded by the auxiliary building housing additional safety-related equipment and other systems. In this study, the aircraft impact analyses for the RCB are carried out using Riera forcing function and aircraft model. Considered external wall thickness is 4 ft 6 in. for the cylindrical wall and 4 ft for the dome. Actual strengths of concrete and steel are considered as the material properties. For these analyses, the dynamic increment factor and concrete aging effect are considered in accordance with NEI 07-13(2011)

  14. Principles for Aircraft Energy Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Frederick T N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  16. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  17. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  19. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  20. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  1. Design for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  2. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  3. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  4. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  5. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  6. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardio-Cerebrovascular Risk Disparities Between Pilots and Aircraft Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Bo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Park, Won-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Korea Air Force, the health of pilots is strictly supervised, but there is comparatively not enough interest in aircraft mechanics' health. Among mechanics, who are heavily involved in military aircraft maintenance, the occurrence of sudden cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) is a possible risk factor during the maintenance process, which should be performed perfectly. We performed health examinations on 2123 male aircraft pilots and 1271 aircraft mechanics over 30 yr of age and determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), an important risk factor for CCVDs. The prevalence of MetS in the aircraft mechanics (21.3%) was significantly higher than in the pilots (12.6%), and the gap in prevalence tended to grow as age increased. Among aircraft mechanics in their 30s and 40s, the prevalence of MetS was lower than in the general population. However, the prevalence of MetS among aircraft mechanics in their 50s (36.0%) was similar to that in the general population (35.7%). Systematic health management is needed for aircraft mechanics for aviation safety and for the maintenance of military strength via the prevention of CCVDs.Kim M-B, Kim H-J, Kim S-H, Lee S-H, Lee S-H, Park W-J. Metabolic syndrome and cardio-cerebrovascular risk disparities between pilots and aircraft mechanics. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):866-870.

  7. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  8. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  9. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  10. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  11. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  12. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for

  13. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  14. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  15. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  16. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  17. Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Aircraft Aluminum Alloys Damaged by Prior Corrosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, J

    2002-01-01

    At the time of the initiation of this project, there was no comprehensive data describing corrosion's effect on the fatigue and fracture behavior of aluminum alloys typically found in aging aircraft...

  18. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  19. Airsickness and aircraft motion during short-haul flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J; Holland, I

    2000-12-01

    There is little quantitative information that can be used to predict the incidence of airsickness from the motions experienced in military or civil aviation. This study examines the relationship between low-frequency aircraft motion and passenger sickness in short-haul turboprop flights within the United Kingdom. A questionnaire survey of 923 fare-paying passengers was conducted on 38 commercial airline flights. Concurrent measurements of aircraft motion were made on all journeys, yielding approximately 30 h of aircraft motion data. Overall, 0.5% of passengers reported vomiting, 8.4% reported nausea (range 0% to 34.8%) and 16.2% reported illness (range 0% to 47.8%) during flight. Positive correlations were found between the percentage of passengers who experienced nausea or felt ill and the magnitude of low-frequency lateral and vertical motion, although neither motion uniquely predicted airsickness. The incidence of motion sickness also varied with passenger age, gender, food consumption and activity during air travel. No differences in sickness were found between passengers located in different seating sections of the aircraft, or as a function of moderate levels of alcohol consumption. The passenger responses suggest that a useful prediction of airsickness can be obtained from magnitudes of low frequency aircraft motion. However, some variations in airsickness may also be explained by individual differences between passengers and their psychological perception of flying.

  20. Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Howoong

    Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

  1. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.

    1997-01-01

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  2. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  3. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  4. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  5. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  6. 2001 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    improving the quality of products and the speed of bringing products to market . However, substantial issues remain concerning information security... information technology professionals, managers, technicians, and mechanics are being lost. Competition from other industries, aging of the work force...observing the high demand and salaries for information technology professionals and the decline of long-term technologically challenging prospects for

  7. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    neck Access door toprille capm enrFuel tank Figue 3. Fangblefiler eckinsalgbelati n. A-j L)n wal Aircraft skin Frangible filler neck Failure plane...This is because a number of major assumptions must be made in the extrapolation: the smoke generated is uniformly distri- buted and is independent

  8. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  9. NASA Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.

  10. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  11. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  12. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy; Stanislav Stanislavovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is ...

  13. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...

  14. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  15. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  16. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  17. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  18. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    a vestigial blind speed at 121 knots. Aircraft radial velocity compon- ents for the flights discussed here varied between zero and 125 knots. Typi.cal...the contributions of Mr. D.M. Selwyn who designed the digital recording equipment and organized the flight tests, and Dr. A.W.R. Gilchrist who edited

  19. CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.

  20. Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongchul

    This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From

  1. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  2. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...

  3. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  4. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  5. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  6. THE PROBLEMS OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING TO TAKLE THE TASKS OF THE AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving of the aircraft continued airworthiness system is currently becoming of particular importance applied both to aircraft of domestic and foreign production, used in civil aviation of Russia. This article discusses the background and content of the tasks for long-haul aircraft continued airworthiness, which presents a challenge directly related to the provision of intensive, regular, economically viable, and safe operation of assigned airline fleet. A special place among the problems of continued airworthiness is held by the creation and organization of mechanisms and methods of resource status and age of the assigned airline fleet monitoring to manage its forecasting and timely updates. Not least important among the issues of resource and age structure monitoring to be considered is the need to improve the design of aircraft, taking into account preliminary technical and economic feasibility assessment of its modifications in the interests of the operator. A deep study of the contents of the monitoring allows to develop up-to-date methodological and scientific basis for building an integrated system of aircraft resource management and timing services. This system is developed based on the integrated approach that allows to provide a solution to the entire set of problems presented in this article and faced by professionals and scientists involved in the aircraft maintenance programs development on the stages of their design and manufacturing and long operation of aircraft continued airworthiness.

  7. Aircraft noise, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Röösli, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Myocardial infarction has been associated with both transportation noise and air pollution. We examined residential exposure to aircraft noise and mortality from myocardial infarction, taking air pollution into account. We analyzed the Swiss National Cohort, which includes geocoded information on residence. Exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution was determined based on geospatial noise and air-pollution (PM10) models and distance to major roads. We used Cox proportional hazard models, with age as the timescale. We compared the risk of death across categories of A-weighted sound pressure levels (dB(A)) and by duration of living in exposed corridors, adjusting for PM10 levels, distance to major roads, sex, education, and socioeconomic position of the municipality. We analyzed 4.6 million persons older than 30 years who were followed from near the end of 2000 through December 2005, including 15,532 deaths from myocardial infarction (ICD-10 codes I 21, I 22). Mortality increased with increasing level and duration of aircraft noise. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing ≥60 dB(A) with noise. Aircraft noise was associated with mortality from myocardial infarction, with a dose-response relationship for level and duration of exposure. The association does not appear to be explained by exposure to particulate matter air pollution, education, or socioeconomic status of the municipality.

  8. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  9. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  10. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  11. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  12. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  13. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants treated with early hydrocortisone: treatment effect according to gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Olivier; Trousson, Clémence; Biran, Valérie; Leroy, Emilie; Mohamed, Damir; Alberti, Corinne

    2018-01-10

    To determine whether early hydrocortisone treatment in extremely preterm infants affects neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age according to gestational age at birth. This is an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes by gestational age strata from the PREMILOC trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or low-dose hydrocortisone and randomisation was stratified by gestational age groups (24-25 and 26-27 weeks of gestation). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was assessed using a standardised neurological examination and the revised Brunet-Lézine scale at 22 months of corrected age. A total of 379 of 406 survivors were evaluated, 96/98 in the gestational age group of 24-25 weeks and 283/308 in the gestational age group of 26-27 weeks. Among surviving infants born at 24-25 weeks, significant improvement in global neurological assessment was observed in the hydrocortisone group compared with the placebo group (P=0.02) with a risk of moderate-to-severe NDI of 2% and 18%, respectively (risk difference 16 (95% CI -28% to -5%)). In contrast, no statistically significant difference between treatment groups was observed in infants born at 26-27 weeks (P=0.95) with a similar risk of moderate-to-severe NDI of 9% in both groups. The incidence of cerebral palsy or other major neurological impairments were found similar between treatment groups in each gestational group. In an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes from the PREMILOC trial, early low-dose hydrocortisone was associated with a statistically significant improvement in neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants born at 24 and 25 weeks of gestation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  15. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  16. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  17. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  18. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  19. Fettered aircraft for using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.

    1980-08-28

    The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.

  20. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  2. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  3. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  4. Retooling CFD for hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kutler, Paul; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1987-01-01

    The CFD facility requirements of hypersonic aircraft configuration design development are different from those thus far employed for reentry vehicle design, because (1) the airframe and the propulsion system must be fully integrated to achieve the desired performance; (2) the vehicle must be reusable, with minimum refurbishment requirements between flights; and (3) vehicle performance must be optimized for a wide range of Mach numbers. An evaluation is presently made of flow resolution within shock waves, transition and turbulence phenomenon tractability, chemical reaction modeling, and hypersonic boundary layer transition, with state-of-the-art CFD.

  5. Aircraft Icing Handbook. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Maryland - . . . Kohiman Aviation, Lawrence , Kansas Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio .I --- t-r 1-- - -t I.Q,,- t ../e . Pratt and Whitney...lower; about six percent at -22 ’F (-30 *C). 1.2.3 Variations with Season The summer or warm season months create large warm air masses which can...on Aircraft Surfaces," NASA TM 87184, May 1986. 2-54 Hausman , R.J. and Turnock, S.R., "Investigation of Surface Water Behavior During Glaze Ice

  6. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  7. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  8. New entrants and overcapacity: lessons from regional aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial aircraft manufacturing industry has been largely dominated by the advanced economies in North America and Western Europe. During recent decades, several emerging economies have invested heavily in the commercial aircraft industry, notably in regional aircraft manufacturing. This paper

  9. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  10. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  11. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  12. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 62 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 64 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...what several executives referred to as the “perfect storm” now blowing through the aviation market . With this information many questions remain: Will

  13. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  14. Some consideration for evaluation of structural integrity of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Hiroyuki; Asada, Hiroo

    The objective of this paper is to examine the achievement and the limitation of state-of-the-art of the methodology of damage tolerant design and the subjects to be solved for further improvement. The topics discussed are: the basic concept of full-scale fatigue testing, fracture mechanics applications, repair of detected damages, inspection technology, and determination of inspection intervals, reliability assessment for practical application, and the importance of various kinds of data acquisition.

  15. Sustaining Air Force Aging Aircraft into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Predictive analytics has found application in fields such as actuarial science, financial services, insurance, telecommunications, retail, travel...prioritization based on mathematical analysis of fleets in greatest need of FVB’s in-depth assessment • AF/A8 adjusts priorities based on recapitalization or...depth analysis by the 146 USAF Fleet Viability Board. It provides rough-order-of-magnitude prioritization based on mathematical analysis of USAF

  16. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  17. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter...

  18. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. [67 FR 8350, Feb. 22, 2002] ...

  19. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  20. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... business of the Federal Government or used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the...

  1. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  2. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. C.; Bentley, R. D.; Horwood, N. A.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H.; Jones, J. B. L.; Powell, D.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  3. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors' expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm -2 is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm -2 . The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO x emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from -0.67 to 0.25 Wm -2 in summer a/nd from -0.36 to 0.21 Wm -2 in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO x and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months

  4. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  5. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  6. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  7. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  8. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11... AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for recording, a conveyance must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of Transportation, Post Office...

  9. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...

  10. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach...

  11. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and..., contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772) 567-4361...

  12. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the... that its value is less than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for...

  13. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of... than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for violation of section...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve... residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access to...

  15. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John; Dedecker, Craig; Doerer, Robert; Dols, Jonathan; Ekwall, Bengt; Heck, Mark; Jungco, Rolando; Koch, David; Lolley, James; Matyi, Kyle; McCaffrey, Terrance; Provost, Carla; Snyder, Daniel; Szucs, Jozsef; Truhn, Harry; Tyler, J. R

    2008-01-01

    .... With the exception of the relatively less mature unmanned aircraft systems sector, significant changes to the number and identity of competing firms are not likely in the next few years, although...

  16. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  17. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  18. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  19. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  20. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10 -6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  1. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  2. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  3. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or waters...

  4. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Govinda Raju. Aircraft of various types are necessary for meeting the ... configuration is thoroughly evaluated for performance, stabil- ity and controllability .... Specialised tests, like those for measuring various stability de- rivatives involve ...

  5. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  6. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  7. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  8. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  9. Aircraft 4D trajectories planning under uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Chaimatanan , Supatcha; Delahaye , Daniel; Mongeau , Marcel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To sustain the rapidly increasing air traffic demand, the future air traffic management system will rely on a concept, called Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO), that will require aircraft to follow an assigned 4D trajectory (time-constrained trajectory) with high precision. TBO involves separating aircraft via strategic (long-term) trajectory deconfliction rather than the currently-practicing tactical (short-term) conflict resolution. In this context, this paper presen...

  10. Pathfinder-Plus aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Pathfinder-Plus solar-powered aircraft is shown taking off from a runway, then flying at low altitude over the ocean. The vehicle, which looks like a flying ruler, operates at low airspeed. Among the missions proposed for a solar-powered aircraft are communications relay, atmospheric studies, pipeline monitoring and gas leak detection, environmental monitoring using thermal and radar images, and disaster relief and monitoring.

  11. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič

    2017-01-01

    In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...

  12. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-01-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories – policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop sever...

  13. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  14. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  15. The influence of ozone on self-evaluation of symptoms in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Weschler, Charles J.; Wargocki, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Simulated 4-h flights were carried out in a realistic model of a three-row, 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin that was reconstructed inside a climate chamber. Twenty-nine female subjects, age 19-27 years, were split into two groups; each group was exposed to four conditions: two levels of ozone (...

  16. Hearing status among aircraft maintenance personnel in a commercial airline company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Smedje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study subjective and objective hearing loss in a population of aircraft maintenance workers and identify predictors. A total of 327 aircraft maintenance personnel answered a self-administered work environment questionnaire (response rate 76% and underwent audiometric test. The mean values for the hearing threshold at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for the ear with the most hearing loss were compared with a Swedish population database of persons not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise exposure during a working day was measured. Relationships between subjective and objective hearing loss and possible predictors (age, years of employment, self-reported exposure to solvents, blood pressure, and psycho-social factors were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. At younger ages (<40 years, aircraft maintenance workers had higher hearing thresholds (1-3 dB compared to the reference group, but such a difference was not found in older employees. Relationships were found between age and objective hearing loss, and between exposure to solvents and reported subjective hearing loss. Equivalent noise exposure during working days were 70-91 dB(A with a maximal noise level of 119 dB(A. Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to equivalent noise levels above the Swedish occupational standard, including some very high peak exposures. Younger employees have a higher age-matched hearing threshold level compared with a reference group. Thus, there is a need for further preventive measures.

  17. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    The jet era or age began at 1930 and 40's in aviation sector, with the production of first jet engine for the aircrafts. Since 1950's, the commercial aviation with regular flights were established. Civil aviation and air-transport drastically increased due to intensive demand, and declared at least 10 fold since 1970 by IATA report. Parallelly to technological and economical developpement, the commercial jets became more comfortable, secure and rapid, bringing the world smaller, the countries closer. On the other hand, according to Global Volcanism Program Catalogues of Smithsonian Institute, about 1,500 volcanoes have erupted in the Holocene, 550 of them have had historical eruptions and considered as active. Besides an average of 55-60 volcanoes erupt each year, and about 8-10 of these eruptions produce ash clouds that reach aircraft flight altitudes (Salinas and Watt, 2004). Volcanic ash can be expected to be in air routes at altitudes greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) for roughly 20 days per year worldwide (Miller &Casadeval, 2000). A precious compilation of incidents due to encounters of aircrafts with volcanic ash clouds covering the years between 1953 and 2009 was used in this work (Guffanti et al., 2010-USGS Report) with an additional information on Eyfjallajökull-2010 eruption. According to this compilation,129 incidents happened within the concerned time interval. The damages, in general, fall in second and third class of Severity index, indicating the damages are limited on airframe of the planes, or some abrasions in jet engine, windblast etc.. We focused on fourth class of severity index involving the damages on jet engine of aircraft (engine fail) due to ingestion of volcanic ash and investigate eruption style and caused damage relationships. During the eruptive sequences of Mts Saint Helen (USA), Galunggung (Indonesia, 2 incidents), Redoubt (USA), Pinatubo (Philipinnes), Unzen (Japan), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Soufriere Hills (Lesser Antilles), Chaiten

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.210 - How do we account for the use of our Government aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting...., the Governmental function that the aircraft was dispatched to perform); (d) Departure and destination...

  19. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  20. Evolution of Flying Qualities Analysis: Problems for a New Generation of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    speed. . . Inability to balance and steer still confronts students of the flying problem . . .When this one feature has been worked out, the age of...30 −20 −10 0 10 20 M ag ni tu de ( dB ) 10 −1 10 0 10 1 10 2 −180 −135 −90 −45 0 P ha se ( de g) Bode Diagram, ω n =4, ζ = 0.65 Frequency (rad/sec... Unicorn Silverfox Vertex SPAARO C 152 R ey no ld s N um be r Gross Takeoff Weight (lbs) Comparison of Aircraft Figure 5.4: Aircraft operational

  1. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the

  2. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as...

  3. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  4. Risk Management of an Aging KC-130 Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    .... For the aging USMC KC-130 F/R fleet, a damage-tolerant approach ensured that safety would be maintained but it presented a problem in forecasting readiness, aircraft remaining in the inventory...

  5. Structural Load Alleviation Applied to Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Environmental impact of aviation is being addressed by novel aircraft configurations and materials that reduce aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. NASA is developing tools to address the challenges of increased airframe flexibility created by wings constructed with reduced structural material and novel light-weight materials. This talk will present a framework and demonstration of a flight control system using optimal control allocation with structural load feedback and constraints to achieve safe aircraft operation. As wind turbines age, they become susceptible to many forms of blade degradation. Results will be presented on work in progress that uses adaptive contingency control for load mitigation in a wind turbine simulation with blade damage progression modeled.

  6. Aircraft control surface failure detection and isolation using the OSGLR test. [orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnice, W. F.; Motyka, P.; Wagner, E.; Hall, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the orthogonal series generalized likelihood ratio (OSGLR) test in detecting and isolating commercial aircraft control surface and actuator failures is evaluated. A modification to incorporate age-weighting which significantly reduces the sensitivity of the algorithm to modeling errors is presented. The steady-state implementation of the algorithm based on a single linear model valid for a cruise flight condition is tested using a nonlinear aircraft simulation. A number of off-nominal no-failure flight conditions including maneuvers, nonzero flap deflections, different turbulence levels and steady winds were tested. Based on the no-failure decision functions produced by off-nominal flight conditions, the failure detection and isolation performance at the nominal flight condition was determined. The extension of the algorithm to a wider flight envelope by scheduling on dynamic pressure and flap deflection is examined. Based on this testing, the OSGLR algorithm should be capable of detecting control surface failures that would affect the safe operation of a commercial aircraft. Isolation may be difficult if there are several surfaces which produce similar effects on the aircraft. Extending the algorithm over the entire operating envelope of a commercial aircraft appears feasible.

  7. Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rachelle Lea

    2005-12-01

    Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from

  8. Back pain and its consequences among Polish Air Force pilots flying high performance aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Truszczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Back pain in Air Force fast jet pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and degree of the pain intensity in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, subjective risk factors and their effect on the pilots' performance while flying high maneuver aircrafts and the consequences for cognitive deficiencies. Material and Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on the age, aircraft type, flying hours, pain characteristics, physical activity, etc. The study was participated by 94 pilots aged 28-45 years (mean age: 35.9±3.3 years, actively flying fast jet aircrafts Su-22, Mig-29 and F-16. The estimates regarding the level of the subjective back pain were established using visual analogue scales (VAS. Results: The values of the Cochran and Cox T-test for heterogeneous variances are as follows: for the total number of flying hours: F = 2.53, p = 0.0145, for the pilot's age: F = 3.15, p = 0.003, and for the BMI factor F = 2.73, p = 0.008. Conclusions: Our questionnaire survey showed a significant problem regarding spinal conditions in high performance aircraft pilots. The determination of the risk factors may lead to solving this problem and help eliminate the effect of the unfavorable environment on piloting jet aircrafts. Experiencing back pain during the flight might influence the mission performance and flight safety. The costs of pilots education are enormous and inability to fly, or even disability, leads to considerable economic loss. More research on specific prevention strategies is warranted in order to improve the in-flight working environment of fighter pilots.

  9. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  10. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  11. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  12. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  13. Impact of Age and Duration of Symptoms on Surgical Outcome of Single-Level Microscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF. We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male with a mean age of 41.2±4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25±4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months. Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits. Functional outcome was eventually evaluated by Odom’s criteria. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability from preoperative 6.2±1.4 and 22.2±6.2 to 3.5±2.0 and 8.7±5.2 (1–21 at the last follow-up visit, respectively. Satisfactory outcomes were observed in 89.7%. Symptom duration of more and less than six months had no effect on surgical outcome, but the results showed a statistically significant difference in NDI improvement in favor of the patients aged more than 45 years (P=0.032, although pain improvement was similar in the two groups.

  14. Impact of Age and Duration of Symptoms on Surgical Outcome of Single-Level Microscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Ghayem Hasankhani, Ebrahim; Ghandehari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male) with a mean age of 41.2 ± 4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old) in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25 ± 4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months). Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits. Functional outcome was eventually evaluated by Odom's criteria. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability from preoperative 6.2 ± 1.4 and 22.2 ± 6.2 to 3.5 ± 2.0 and 8.7 ± 5.2 (1-21) at the last follow-up visit, respectively. Satisfactory outcomes were observed in 89.7%. Symptom duration of more and less than six months had no effect on surgical outcome, but the results showed a statistically significant difference in NDI improvement in favor of the patients aged more than 45 years (P = 0.032), although pain improvement was similar in the two groups.

  15. The Power for Flight: NASA's Contributions to Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Jeremy R.

    2017-01-01

    The New York Times announced America's entry into the 'long awaited' Jet Age when a Pan American (Pan Am) World Airways Boeing 707 airliner left New York for Paris on October 26, 1958. Powered by four turbojet engines, the 707 offered speed, more nonstop flights, and a smoother and quieter travel experience compared to newly antiquated propeller airliners. With the Champs-Elysees only 6 hours away, humankind had entered into a new and exciting age in which the shrinking of the world for good was no longer a daydream. Fifty years later, the New York Times declared the second coming of a 'cleaner, leaner' Jet Age. Decades-old concerns over fuel efficiency, noise, and emissions shaped this new age as the aviation industry had the world poised for 'a revolution in jet engines'. Refined turbofans incorporating the latest innovations would ensure that aviation would continue to enable a worldwide transportation network. At the root of many of the advances over the preceding 50 years was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). On October 1, 1958, just a few weeks before the flight of that Pan Am 707, NASA came into existence. Tasked with establishing a national space program as part of a Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, NASA is often remembered in popular memory first for putting the first human beings on the Moon in July 1969, followed by running the successful 30-year Space Shuttle Program and by landing the Rover Curiosity on Mars in August 2012. What many people do not recognize is the crucial role the first 'A' in NASA played in the development of aircraft since the Agency's inception. Innovations shaping the aerodynamic design, efficient operation, and overall safety of aircraft made NASA a vital element of the American aviation industry even though they remained unknown to the public. This is the story of one facet of NASA's many contributions to commercial, military, and general aviation: the development of

  16. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  17. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  18. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  19. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  20. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  1. Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Fábry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.

  2. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  3. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  4. Robust Aircraft Squadron Scheduling in the Face of Absenteeism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gokcen, Osman B

    2008-01-01

    Air Force fighter aircraft squadrons the world over share a unique problem. Each requires complex training schedules coupling aircraft to pilots, the duo to missions and airspaces, and then the entire combination to a feasible time slot...

  5. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  6. Visit to China's ARJ21 Aircraft Manufacturing Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balut, Stephen J; McNicol, David L; Nelson, J. R; Harmon, Bruce R; Holder, Stephen G

    2008-01-01

    During a December 2007 visit to China to share information about civilian aircraft costs, a delegation from IDA visited the Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Facility where the commercial chinese ARJ21...

  7. Smart Patches for Monitoring Fatigue Crack Growth in Aircraft Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ihn, Jeong-Beom

    2001-01-01

    A built-in cost-effective diagnostic system for monitoring crack growth in aircraft structures was developed, particularly for riveted fuselage joints and cracked aircraft parts with composite bonded patches...

  8. System for indicating fuel-efficient aircraft altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude at which an aircraft should fly so the W/d ratio (weight of the aircraft divided by the density of air) more closely approaches the optimum W/d for the aircraft. A passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft is directed at different angles with respect to the horizon to determine the air temperature, and therefore the density of the air, at different altitudes. The weight of the aircraft is known. The altitude of the aircraft is changed to fly the aircraft at an altitude at which is W/d ratio more closely approaches the optimum W/d ratio for that aircraft.

  9. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  10. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...

  11. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    ...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...

  13. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  14. Cost Valuation: A Model for Comparing Dissimilar Aircraft Platforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    .... A demonstration of the model's validity using aircraft and cost data from the Predator UAV and the F-16 was then performed to illustrate how it can be used to aid comparisons of dissimilar aircraft...

  15. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...

  16. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  17. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  18. Aircraft noise: effects on macro- and microstructure of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Glatz, Christian; Griefahn, Barbara; Penzel, Thomas; Samel, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    The effects of aircraft noise on sleep macrostructure (Rechtschaffen and Kales) and microstructure (American Sleep Disorders Association [ASDA] arousal criteria) were investigated. For each of 10 subjects (mean age 35.3 years, 5 males), a baseline night without aircraft noise (control), and two nights with exposure to 64 noise events with a maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of either 45 or 65 dBA were chosen. Spontaneous and noise-induced alterations during sleep classified as arousals (ARS), changes to lighter sleep stages (CSS), awakenings including changes to sleep stage 1 (AS1), and awakenings (AWR) were analyzed. The number of events per night increased in the order AWR, AS1, CSS, and ARS under control conditions as well as under the two noise conditions. Furthermore, probabilities for sleep disruptions increased with increasing noise level. ARS were observed about fourfold compared to AWR, irrespective of control or noise condition. Under the conditions investigated, different sleep parameters show different sensitivities, but also different specificities for noise-induced sleep disturbances. We conclude that most information on sleep disturbances can be achieved by investigating robust classic parameters like AWR or AS1, although ASDA electroencephalographic (EEG) arousals might add relevant information in situations with low maximum SPLs, chronic sleep deprivation or chronic exposure.

  19. 77 FR 45480 - Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... business aircraft for entertainment. These final regulations affect taxpayers that deduct expenses for... section 274 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) of deductions for the use of business aircraft for...

  20. 14 CFR 47.19 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19... REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or other communication sent to the FAA under this Part must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of...

  1. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  2. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  3. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of chafing of a new... flight, reinstall the fuel return line assembly (Cessna P/N 0516031-1) following Cessna Aircraft Company...

  4. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...

  5. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition... Fuel Return System Modification Do not install Cessna Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB 04- 28-03...

  6. 31 CFR 538.519 - Aircraft and maritime safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters. ...

  7. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  8. 78 FR 25363 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A... Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 20, 2012. The... Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 26, 2012. (2) If chafing...

  9. Future V/STOL Aircraft For The Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1992-01-01

    Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.

  10. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...

  11. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  12. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...

  13. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. AD 2013-13-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P... nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T...

  14. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a... ``Public Aircraft Oversight Forum: Ensuring Safety for Critical Missions'', are to (1) raise awareness of...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract (particularly...

  16. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2007-09-27

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)

  17. 77 FR 67561 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models... throughout the AD for Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and...

  18. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...

  19. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  20. 78 FR 60656 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  1. 77 FR 52205 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and F-1A... inspection results. This new AD was prompted by a report of a Univair Aircraft Corporation Model ERCO 415-D...

  2. 77 FR 21402 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  3. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.

  4. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  5. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  6. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  7. Shimmy of Aircraft Main Landing Gears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The landing gear is an important aircraft system, which has to meet many different design requirements. It is a highly loaded structure, which is designed for minimum weight. Shimmy is a dynamic instability of the landing gear, which is caused by the interaction of the dynamic behaviour of the

  8. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  9. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  10. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines that an emission standard cannot be met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. (b...

  11. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  13. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  14. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  15. Commercial Aircraft Pricing: Application of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Given this, and the 45 Sean Broderick , “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business...web.stanford.edu/~lanierb/research/Dynamic_Aircraft_RES.pdf. Broderick , Sean. “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business.” Inside MRO, MRO

  16. Aircraft Performance for Open Air Traffic Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Ellerbroek, J.; Kugler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The BlueSky Open Air Tra_c Simulator developed by the Control & Simulation section of TU Delft aims at supporting research for analysing Air Tra_c Management concepts by providing an open source simulation platform. The goal of this study was to complement BlueSky with aircraft performance

  17. Atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueschel, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), water vapor (H 2 O), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet

  18. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  19. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  20. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  1. A Flight Dynamic Model of Aircraft Spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    r Zaw rate about body axes S Aircraft wing area V Flight path velocity 3 a Angle of attack Sideslip angle 6, Aileron deflection, positive when right...Tests, May/June 1983 PartI. Unpublished data report. 6. MARTIN, C.A. and SECOMB, D.A. ; RAAF BPTA Phase II Wind Tun - nel Tests: Rotary Balance Tests

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Logistics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    supply stock levels at acceptable risk by employing a mix of “ jingle air” (Mi-8 helicopters and small, fixed-wing aircraft flown by contractor air...crews), “ jingle trucks” (locally contracted trucks), and “green air” (U.S. Army aviation, typically CH-47s, though not exclu- sively) to move materiel

  3. Demonstrative Maneuvers for Aircraft Agility Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    AIAA Paper 1996-3741. 19. Raymer , Daniel P. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 3rd...Shaw, Robert L. Fighter Combat: Tactics and Maneuvering. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1985. 25. Smith, Steven W. The Scientist and

  4. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  5. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  6. Aircraft impact design for SGHWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, R.; Davies, I.Ll.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the influence on the design of the containment structure to meet the recent safety requirements in the UK of specified external hazards. Methods of preliminary design for the case of aircraft impact are described to enable structural sizes to be determined. (author)

  7. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias

    2012-05-01

    Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  9. Parallel Aircraft Trajectory Optimization with Analytic Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret

    2016-01-01

    Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.

  10. 75 FR 41986 - Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ...- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... rule; OMB approval of information collection. SUMMARY: This document announces the Office of Management... rule, ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications...

  11. Aircraft crash upon outer containment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Paul, D.K.; Godbole, P.N.; Nayak, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of an aircraft crash upon an outer containment of a nuclear power plant is presented. The effect of target yielding is considered simultaneously by calculating the reaction time in a time marching scheme. The concrete model employed is capable of predicting the cracking and yielding. The response for different cracking strains and different locations of aircraft strike for different aircraft has been studied. Critical location of aircraft strike for the containment has been investigated. The analytical procedure and the material model used are found to be capable of representing the aircraft impact response of the containment structure. (orig.)

  12. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  13. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  14. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  15. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  16. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  17. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  18. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children′s episodic memory: The RANCH Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Matheson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children′s performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children′s episodic memory.

  19. FAA-NASA Sixth International Conference on the Continued Airworthiness of Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Administration, and Colin G. Drury , State University of New York at Buffalo The Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center - A R esource for...William T. Shepherd FAA-Office of Aviation Medicine Washington, DC and Colin G. Drury State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, NY INTRODUCTION FAA’s...improvement, changing the task, the operator (inspector), machine, or environment as appropriate, e.g., review in Drury , 1992 (Ref. 1). 2. From the

  20. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.

  1. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  2. Study on afterburner of aircraft engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-07-01

    Study on the afterburner for aircraft engines was reported which is used as an optimum means to produce the supersonic capability of military aircrafts. The basic principle and types of the afterburner were outlined, and as the major problem concerning turbofan afterburners, a combustion capacity at low temperature in fan air flow was discussed, in particular, flame stabilization and combustion efficiency. Basic studies were conducted by fuel spray test, combustion stability test, sector model combustion test and numerical analysis of afterburner internal flow. As a result, a mixing spray fuel injection system with injection of a small amount of fuel into flameholder wake resulted in broadening of a combustible region, and an original flameholder combined with a scoop and double gutters caused a high combustion efficiency. The prototype afterburner was developed for F3 turbofan engines in association with Japan Defence Agency, and a combustion efficiency of 74% was obtained in on-engine running test. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  3. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  4. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  5. Greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft during CARVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Daube, B.; Pittman, J. V.; Miller, J. B.; Budney, J. W.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Santoni, G. W.; Kort, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost in the Arctic contain large carbon pools that are currently non-labile. As the polar regions warm, these carbon reserves can be released into the atmosphere and impact the greenhouse gas budget. In order to predict future climate scenarios, we need to understand the emissions of these greenhouse gases under varying environmental conditions. This study presents aircraft measurements made as a part of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) which flew over Alaska from May to September 2012 and captured seasonal and spatial variations. Results from in situ cavity ring down spectroscopy measurements of CO2, CH4 and CO will be discussed and compared with aircraft measurements made during the summer of 1988 as a part of the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition as well as relevant measurements from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations experiments (2009-2011).

  6. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  7. Support Resources Demand Parameters - Aircraft. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-15

    Maintenance Squadron A- ST Advance Medium STOL Transport APU Auxillary Power Unit ASSY Assembly ATC Air Training Command AVG Average BAC Boeing Aerospace...entire study that will result in an organized and prioritized body of decision criteria and parameters that may be used by logistics managers, supervisors...technicians, and other decision makers in the process of predicting resource demand rates for operational and new emerging aircraft weapon systems

  8. Collaborative Systems Driven Aircraft Configuration Design Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Prakasha, Prajwal; Ciampa, Pier Davide; Nagel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    A Collaborative, Inside-Out Aircraft Design approach is presented in this paper. An approach using physics based analysis to evaluate the correlations between the airframe design, as well as sub-systems integration from the early design process, and to exploit the synergies within a simultaneous optimization process. Further, the disciplinary analysis modules involved in the optimization task are located in different organization. Hence, the Airframe and Subsystem design tools are integrated ...

  9. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The typical approach on recent projects has been the hardening of safety-related buildings and/or protection of redundant safety-related equipment through separation. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. Conservatively calculated loads resulting from these are in some cases quite severe. The reactor auxiliary system building (Soft Shell Hardcore design) allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioactivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. This investigation determines the feasibility of two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model. (Auth.)

  10. The Demand for Single Engine Piston Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    flying markets. The wing incorporates the drooped leading edge technology developed by NASA for more stability and spin resistance and its aerodynamic ...composites more quickly because of the absence of certi- ficatjcr: requirements. Less conventional configurations such as carar( wings and winglets are...smooth contours and surfaces. Composites offer much promise and are already in use in winos of a number of aircraft. Winglets reduce vortex drag by

  11. Topology Optimization of an Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    which selected as the most prevalent independent structure in the wing. The tank location and shape was interpreted from the high material volume...Engineering Inc., 1820 E. Big Beaver Rd, Troy, MI 48083, Optistruct 12.0 User’s Guide, 2013. 126 10. T. Megson and H. Gordon, Aircraft structures for...software enhances the design of transportation,” Forbes Online, 2013. 13. Altair Engineering Inc., 1820 E. Big Beaver Rd, Troy, MI 48083, Hypermesh

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap, 2005-2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    UCAV Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle ISS Integrated Sensor Suite UCS Unmanned Control System ITU International Telecommunications Union UFO UHF...RDC) at Groton, CT. These have included alien and drug interdiction along the Texas coast and in the Caribbean, UA launch and recovery systems...altitude aircraft and UA; and narrowband services to support mobile and handheld services as a replacement or follow-on for the UHF Follow-On ( UFO

  13. Human Factors Aspects of Aircraft Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    invaatiaaamanta traa important« : chainaa da grand entratian avion, revision daa motaura at banca d’aaaala, reviaion daa Equipements nEceaaitant daa...defectueux. Sur le plan des accidents d’apparells militaires, qui sort quelque peu de ma specia- lite, les renseignements disponibles dans la presse ...Undoubtedly, a compelling reason for staying with the aircraft was to try to regain pitch attitude control in view of a large audience of press and

  14. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  15. Decentralized flight trajectory planning of multiple aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Nobuhiro; 横山 信宏

    2008-01-01

    Conventional decentralized algorithms for optimal trajectory planning tend to require prohibitive computational time as the number of aircraft increases. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel decentralized trajectory planning algorithm adopting a constraints decoupling approach for parallel optimization. The constraints decoupling approach is formulated as the path constraints of the real-time trajectory optimization problem based on nonlinear programming. Due to the parallel...

  16. Applications for Navy Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    comunication intelligence (COMINT) collection, and airborne electronic attack applications. If the UCAS-D program is successful in addressing many of the...position navigation and timing RF radio frequency RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition SAB Scientific Advisory Board SAR synthetic...Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005–2030 and Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007–2032, and the 2003 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) UAS study

  17. Automation of the aircraft design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The increasing use of the computer to automate the aerospace product development and engineering process is examined with emphasis on structural analysis and design. Examples of systems of computer programs in aerospace and other industries are reviewed and related to the characteristics of aircraft design in its conceptual, preliminary, and detailed phases. Problems with current procedures are identified, and potential improvements from optimum utilization of integrated disciplinary computer programs by a man/computer team are indicated.

  18. Cosmic radiation dose in the aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Varga, M.; Planinic, J.; Vekic, B.

    2006-01-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A 320 and ATR 42 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb - Paris - Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 μSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the total dose of 75 μSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to the Japan (24 hours-flight: Zagreb - Frankfurt - Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 μSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude the neutron component curried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data. (author)

  19. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  20. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  1. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  3. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  4. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  5. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  6. NASA's Zero-g aircraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Zero-g aircraft, operated by the Johnson Space Center, provides the unique weightless or zero-g environment of space flight for hardware development and test and astronaut training purposes. The program, which began in 1959, uses a slightly modified Boeing KC-135A aircraft, flying a parabolic trajectory, to produce weightless periods of 20 to 25 seconds. The program has supported the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz and Shuttle programs as well as a number of unmanned space operations. Typical experiments for flight in the aircraft have included materials processing experiments, welding, fluid manipulation, cryogenics, propellant tankage, satellite deployment dynamics, planetary sciences research, crew training with weightless indoctrination, space suits, tethers, etc., and medical studies including vestibular research. The facility is available to microgravity research organizations on a cost-reimbursable basis, providing a large, hands-on test area for diagnostic and support equipment for the Principal Investigators and providing an iterative-type design approach to microgravity experiment development. The facility allows concepts to be proven and baseline experimentation to be accomplished relatively inexpensively prior to committing to the large expense of a space flight.

  7. Personality Test Scores that Distinguish U.S. Air Force Remotely Piloted Aircraft Drone Pilot Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    advancement of aviation drone technology has led to significant developments and improvements in the capabilities of military remotely piloted aircraft...stress; less excitement seeking and action oriented; less assertive; more socially introverted and withdrawn; more socially compliant and...to age and educational differences. Fifth, evaluations that involve selection and assessment of pilot applicants should include collateral sources of

  8. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  9. Robustness of mission plans for unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Moritz

    This thesis studies the robustness of optimal mission plans for unmanned aircraft. Mission planning typically involves tactical planning and path planning. Tactical planning refers to task scheduling and in multi aircraft scenarios also includes establishing a communication topology. Path planning refers to computing a feasible and collision-free trajectory. For a prototypical mission planning problem, the traveling salesman problem on a weighted graph, the robustness of an optimal tour is analyzed with respect to changes to the edge costs. Specifically, the stability region of an optimal tour is obtained, i.e., the set of all edge cost perturbations for which that tour is optimal. The exact stability region of solutions to variants of the traveling salesman problems is obtained from a linear programming relaxation of an auxiliary problem. Edge cost tolerances and edge criticalities are derived from the stability region. For Euclidean traveling salesman problems, robustness with respect to perturbations to vertex locations is considered and safe radii and vertex criticalities are introduced. For weighted-sum multi-objective problems, stability regions with respect to changes in the objectives, weights, and simultaneous changes are given. Most critical weight perturbations are derived. Computing exact stability regions is intractable for large instances. Therefore, tractable approximations are desirable. The stability region of solutions to relaxations of the traveling salesman problem give under approximations and sets of tours give over approximations. The application of these results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1-tree relaxation are discussed. Bounds on edge cost tolerances and approximate criticalities are obtainable likewise. A minimum spanning tree is an optimal communication topology for minimizing the cumulative transmission power in multi aircraft missions. The stability region of a minimum spanning tree is given and tolerances, stability balls

  10. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  11. THE FUTURE OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT – VERY LARGE AIRCRAFT AND OUT KEY HUMAN FACTORS AFFECTING THE OPERATION AND SAFETY OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Skolilova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines some human factors affecting the operation and safety of passenger air transport given the massive increase in the use of the VLA. Decrease of the impact of the CO2 world emissions is one of the key goals for the new aircraft design. The main wave is going to reduce the burned fuel. Therefore, the eco-efficiency engines combined with reasonable economic operation of the aircraft are very important from an aviation perspective. The prediction for the year 2030 says that about 90% of people, which will use long-haul flights to fly between big cities. So, the A380 was designed exactly for this time period, with a focus on the right capacity, right operating cost and right fuel burn per seat. There is no aircraft today with better fuel burn combined with eco-efficiency per seat, than the A380. The very large aircrafts (VLAs are the future of the commercial passenger aviation. Operating cost versus safety or CO2 emissions versus increasing automation inside the new generation aircraft. Almost 80% of the world aircraft accidents are caused by human error based on wrong action, reaction or final decision of pilots, the catastrophic failures of aircraft systems, or air traffic control errors are not so frequent. So, we are at the beginning of a new age in passenger aviation and the role of the human factor is more important than ever.

  12. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  13. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  14. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  15. Fast Aircraft Turnaround Enabled by Reliable Passenger Boarding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Schultz

    2018-01-01

    Future 4D aircraft trajectories demand comprehensive consideration of environmental, economic, and operational constraints, as well as reliable prediction of all aircraft-related processes. Mutual interdependencies between airports result in system-wide, far-reaching effects in the air traffic network (reactionary delays). To comply with airline/airport challenges over the day of operations, a change to an air-to-air perspective is necessary, with a specific focus on the aircraft ground opera...

  16. An overview of major aspects of the aircraft impact problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamil, H.; Kost, G.; Sharpe, R.

    1978-01-01

    The major aspects of the aircraft impact problem are identified and the most relevant topics for future investigations are discussed. The emphasis is on three main topics: modeling techniques, influence of non-linear behavior, and importance of damping in the dynamic structural response analyses for aircraft loading. Results are presented from brief studies involving response of linear and nonlinear simple systems to short-duration impulsive loadings of the aircraft impact type. (Auth.)

  17. Aircraft dynamic loads generated in wake vortex encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Suñer Perucho, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The study illustrated in these pages was developed in the Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity Department of the Military Aircraft division of Airbus Defence and Space in Getafe, Madrid (Spain). That department is a multidisciplinary one involving several categories. Some of its competences are the analysis of impacts, acoustics and vibrations for the aircraft and all their systems. Also, the dynamic response of the aircraft to different events is part of the tasks for that department. It i...

  18. F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) Simulation Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) simulation was used from 1990 to 1993. It was used for the development of propulsion algorithms and piloting techniques (using throttles only) to be used for emergency flight control in the advent of a major flight control system failure on a multi-engine aircraft. Following this program with the Dryden F-15, similiar capabilities were developed for other aircraft, such as the B-720, Lear 24, B-727, C-402, and B-747.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF AIRCRAFT PILOTING PROSSESS UNDER SPECIFIED FLIGHT PATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Кузнецов

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests mathematical model of pilot’s activity as follow up system and mathematical methods of pilot’s activity description. The main idea of the model is flight path forming and aircraft stabilization on it during instrument flight. Input of given follow up system is offered to be aircraft deflection from given path observed by pilot by means of sight and output is offered to be pilot’s regulating actions for aircraft stabilization on flight path.

  20. An aircraft noise pollution model for trajectory optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, A.; Cook, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the generation of aircraft noise is developed with the ultimate purpose of reducing noise (noise-optimizing landing trajectories) in terminal areas. While the model is for a specific aircraft (Boeing 737), the methodology would be applicable to a wide variety of aircraft. The model is used to obtain a footprint on the ground inside of which the noise level is at or above 70 dB.

  1. Adaptive and Online Health Monitoring System for Autonomous Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar, Maizura; Zapatel-Bayo, Sergio Z.; Hussein, Saed; Howe, Joe M.

    2012-01-01

    Good situation awareness is one of the key attributes required to maintain safe flight, especially for an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). Good situation awareness can be achieved by incorporating an Adaptive Health Monitoring System (AHMS) to the aircraft. The AHMS monitors the flight outcome or flight behaviours of the aircraft based on its external environmental conditions and the behaviour of its internal systems. The AHMS does this by associating a health value to the aircraft's behaviour b...

  2. Wide Body Aircraft Demand Potential at Washington National Airport,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    the city-pair markets. Probably the most important feature of FA-7 is the fact that it allows for investigation of the behavior of airlines to changes...FINANCIAL INFORMfATION YLIGHTS BY AIRCRAFT TPE ~.4/J \\ FUEL COSUMED PASSENGERS UARRIED BY TOA IR F FLIGHITS TOTAL AIRCRAFT USAGE coded data. Sample...the various levels of operations. Similar behavior can be identified in the simultaneous increase of both types of aircraft at Dulles. Tables lAthrough

  3. Fast Aircraft Turnaround Enabled by Reliable Passenger Boarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Future 4D aircraft trajectories demand comprehensive consideration of environmental, economic, and operational constraints, as well as reliable prediction of all aircraft-related processes. Mutual interdependencies between airports result in system-wide, far-reaching effects in the air traffic network (reactionary delays. To comply with airline/airport challenges over the day of operations, a change to an air-to-air perspective is necessary, with a specific focus on the aircraft ground operations as major driver for airline punctuality. Aircraft ground trajectories primarily consists of handling processes at the stand (deboarding, catering, fueling, cleaning, boarding, unloading, loading, which are defined as the aircraft turnaround. Turnaround processes are mainly controlled by ground handling, airport, or airline staff, except the aircraft boarding, which is driven by passengers’ experience and willingness/ability to follow the proposed boarding procedures. This paper provides an overview of the research done in the field of aircraft boarding and introduces a reliable, calibrated, and stochastic aircraft boarding model. The stochastic boarding model is implemented in a simulation environment to evaluate specific boarding scenarios using different boarding strategies and innovative technologies. Furthermore, the potential of a connected aircraft cabin as sensor network is emphasized, which could provide information on the current and future status of the boarding process.

  4. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  5. 78 FR 4092 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... aircraft's hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation, and if needed, correct the installation... hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation, and if needed, correct the installation. Since...

  6. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  7. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1998-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  8. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  9. Fractographic Analysis of High-Cycle Fatgue in Aircraft Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Fracture surfaces produced under systematically varied cydic load conditions in laboratory specimens of titanium turbine blade alloy were provided to the program by an aircraft engine manufacturer...

  10. Fractographic Analysis of High-Cycle Fatigue in Aircraft Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Fracture surfaces produced under systematically varied cyclic load conditions in laboratory specimens of titanium turbine blade alloy were provided to the program by an aircraft engine manufacturer...

  11. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  12. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  13. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  14. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through...... a series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article...

  15. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  16. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies into...

  17. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  18. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  19. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  20. Optimal trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on algorithms for the numerical solutions of optimal control problems and their application to the computation of optimal flight trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. General considerations on calculus of variations, optimal control, numerical algorithms, and applications of these algorithms to real-world problems are presented. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is examined for the numerical solution of optimal control problems of the Bolza type. Both the primal formulation and the dual formulation are discussed. Aircraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the dual sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (DSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories in the presence of windshear are described. Both take-off trajectories and abort landing trajectories are discussed. Take-off trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak deviation of the absolute path inclination from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. The survival capability of an aircraft in a severe windshear is discussed, and the optimal trajectories are found to be superior to both constant pitch trajectories and maximum angle of attack trajectories. Spacecraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the primal sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (PSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer are examined. Both the coplanar case and the noncoplanar case are discussed within the frame of three problems: minimization of the total characteristic velocity; minimization of the time integral of the square of the path inclination; and minimization of the peak heating rate. The solution of the second problem is called nearly-grazing solution, and its merits are pointed out as a useful

  1. Response of equipment to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Bucher, K.M.; Skrikerud, P.E.

    1977-01-01

    The loading case of an aircraft crashing onto certain safety-relevant buildings of a nuclear-power plant has recently become, in certain countries, as important as that of the safe-shutdown earthquake. Although its probability of occurrence is substantially smaller than that of the SSE, the analysis is justified as an aircraft can also be regarded as representative of other shock loading cases. For the purpose of design it is convenient to distinguish between the response of the actual structure and that of the equipment. The former, which consists of global stress resultants and of local effects such as spalling, scabbing, penetration and perforation of the concrete of the structure, is quite well understood and is not examined in this paper. The latter, caused by propagating shock waves, has, rather surprisingly, received little attention, although, for earthquake excitation, the analysis of equipment is routinely performed. The high accelerations experienced by the equipment are calculated and the corresponding floor-response spectra show that the airplane crash is dominant in the high-frequency range, when compared to the effect of earthquakes. As the aircraft impacts on a small area of the structure only, and the corresponding function of the load versus time exhibits a substantial content of high frequency, the modelling of the structure has to be rather detailed. Several thousand dynamic degrees of freedom in a finite-element idealization result, when analyzing e.g. a typical reactor auxiliary building, the familiar lumped-beam models used successfully for earthquake analysis can obviously not be chosen. (Auth.)

  2. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  3. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Aircraft Power Systems Repair Transformation Facility, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-16

    and silicon carbide; spent elastic abrasive media; rags and wipes from the NDI process ; and unused scraps of TIG welding wire. Dust from the thermal...used, which would not be expected to produce regulated air emissions. For this process , no air quality permit updates are anticipated. • Welding ...The electron beam welding equipment would not be expected to produce regulated air emissions. The tungsten inert gas ( TIG ) welding equipment would

  4. Commercial Aircraft Development and the Export Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, J.

    1972-01-01

    The various factors which endanger the future of commercial aircraft development are defined. The factors discussed are: (1) a decline in federally funded research and development programs, (2) a general decline in the economic health of the domestic airlines, (3) the increased cost of development which may be several times the net worth of the company, (4) the development overseas of common market and manufacturing consortia, and (5) foreign manufacturers receiving significant financial support from their national governments. It is stated that unless immediate and innovative solutions to combat these factors are found, the commercial aviation industry will be in serious difficulty.

  5. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R; Feneberg, B; Ponater, M [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  6. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  7. Aircraft, ships, spacecraft, nuclear plants and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, M.G.

    1984-05-01

    A few quality assurance programs outside the purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were studied to identify features or practices which the NRC could use to enhance its program for assuring quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The programs selected were: the manufacture of large commercial transport aircraft, regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration; US Navy shipbuilding; commercial shipbuilding regulated by the Maritime Administration and the US Coast Guard; Government-owned nuclear plants under the Department of Energy; spacecraft under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the construction of nuclear power plants in Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

  8. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  9. Energy conservation aircraft design and operational procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisson-Quinton, P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews studies associated with improved fuel efficiency. Several aircraft design concepts are described including: (1) increases in aerodynamic efficiency through decreased friction drag, parasitic drag, and drag due to lift, (2) structural efficiency and the implementation of composite materials, (3) active control technology, (4) the optimization of airframe-engine integration, and (5) VTOL and STOL concepts. Consideration is also given to operational procedures associated with flight management, terminal-area operations, and the influence of environmental noise constraints on fuel economy.

  10. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  11. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  12. COMMERCIAL SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT PROGRAM. PHASE II-C REPORT. HIGH STRENGTH STEEL EVALUATION FOR SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JET TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, *AIRFRAMES, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, STEEL , STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, FRACTURE(MECHANICS), FATIGUE(MECHANICS), STRESS CORROSION...MICROPHOTOGRAPHY, HIGH TEMPERATURE, NICKEL ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, CARBON, BAINITE , COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT.

  13. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  14. The Effects of Aging on the Costs of Operating and Maintaining Military Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiley, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    .... According to one interpretation, decisions in the 199Os to reduce purchases of new equipment left the military with aging fleets of ships, aircraft, and armored vehicles that are increasingly expensive to maintain...

  15. A new simulation model for assessing aircraft emergency evacuation considering passenger physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Weijie; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Li, Yanfeng; Yang, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Conducting a real aircraft evacuation trial is oftentimes unaffordable as it is extremely expensive and may cause severe injury to participants. Simulation models as an alternative have been used to overcome the aforementioned issues in recent years. This paper proposes a new simulation model for emergency evacuation of civil aircraft. Its unique features and advantages over the existing models are twofold: (1) passengers' critical physical characteristics, e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, which impact the movement and egress time of individual evacuee from a statistical viewpoint, are taken into account in the new model. (2) Improvements are made to enhance the accuracy of the simulation model from three aspects. First, the staggered mesh discretization method together with the agent-based approach is utilized to simulate movements of individual passengers in an emergency evacuation process. Second, each node discretized to represent cabin space in the new model can contain more than one passenger if they are moving in the same direction. Finally, each individual passenger is able to change his/her evacuation route in a real-time manner based upon the distance from the current position to the target exit and the queue length. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation model is demonstrated on Boeing 767-300 aircraft. - Highlights: • A new simulation model of aircraft emergency evacuation is developed. • Some critical physical characteristics of passengers', e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, are taken into account in the new model. • An agent-based approach along with a multi-level fine network representation is used. • Passengers are able to change their evacuation routes in a real-time manner based upon distance and length of queue

  16. Birds and Aircraft on Midway Islands, 1959-63 Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.

    1966-01-01

    At Midway Naval Station, 1.100 miles west-northwest of Honolulu, military aircraft collide with flying albatrosses at the rate of about 300 to 400 per year. One aircraft out of every five that hits an albatross on takeoff either aborts (stops before it is airborne), or dumps fuel and returns for appraisal of damage. About 70,000 pairs of Laysan albatrosses and 7,000 pairs of blackfooted albatrosses nest at Midway in any given year. The population is declining. Two-thirds or more of the birds of breeding age nest each year. The minimum breeding age recorded is 5 years (each species), but many individuals do not nest until at least 7 years of age. Young birds begin to return to Midway at 3 years of age and are found more frequently as breeding age approaches. They come ashore more frequently in March and April (the high bird strike months) than in midwinter. Even in midwinter the number of 'walkers' (birds not on nests) may comprise more than 40 percent of the albatrosses present on Sand Island, Midway. Maximum longevity of the Laysan albatross is believed to exceed 40 years; 6 out of 99 birds banded as breeding adults (7+ years old) were still alive 24 years after banding. Control methods tested experimentally include disturbance, gunfire, other sounds, radar beams, smoke, odors, destruction of nests, eggs, chicks, and adults, moving of birds, eggs, and chicks, erection of obstacles to flight, and habitat management. Habitat management (leveling and hardsurfacing of shoulders of runways) has been the most effective. Albatrosses were counted over the runways at 10 locations in 1957, 1958, and 1960 to determine the effects of wind direction, wind speed, and topography on the numbers of flying birds. Birds were most concentrated in areas where rising air currents were created as winds blew against dunes or tall trees. Soaring and strike rate both increased with greater wind speeds. There was a highly significant correlation between strike frequency and wind direction

  17. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  18. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Dugheri, S.; Salvini, A.; Matese, A.; Bonacchi, A.; Zaldei, A.; Cupelli, V.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: → Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. → SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO 2 . → Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. → Scan mode highlighted presence of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. → Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  19. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  20. Propeller installation effects on turboprop aircraft acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Giulia; Barakos, George N.; Bown, Nicholas

    2018-06-01

    Propeller installation options for a twin-engined turboprop aircraft are evaluated at cruise conditions, aiming to identify the quieter configuration. Computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the near-field acoustics and transfer functions are employed to estimate the interior cabin noise. Co-rotating and counter-rotating installation options are compared. The effect of propeller synchrophasing is also considered. The employed method captures the complexity of the acoustic field generated by the interactions of the propeller sound fields among each other and with the airframe, showing also the importance of simulating the whole problem to predict the actual noise on a flying aircraft. Marked differences among the various layouts are observed. The counter-rotating top-in option appears the best in terms of acoustics, the top-out propeller rotation leading to louder noise because of inflow conditions and the occurrence of constructive acoustic interferences. Synchrophasing is shown to be beneficial for co-rotating propellers, specially regarding the interior noise, because of favorable effects in the interaction between the propeller direct sound field and the noise due to the airframe. An angle closer to the maximum relative blade shift was found to be the best choice, yielding, however, higher sound levels than those provided by the counter-rotating top-in layout.

  1. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Steinar K.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  2. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  3. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Faj, D.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21 o to 58 o ; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H n =5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H f =1.4 μSv/h.

  4. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Faj, D. [Clinical Hospital Osijek (Croatia); Stanic, D. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J., E-mail: planinic@ffos.h [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21{sup o} to 58{sup o}; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H{sub n}=5.9 {mu}Sv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H{sub f}=1.4 {mu}Sv/h.

  5. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  6. Analysing the effects of rigid and flexible aircraft dynamics on the ejection of a large store

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available duration ? ERU forces + store weight release causes aircraft ?g-jump? ? Period of ERU force is short enough to excite wing vibration modes ? ERU force/time & front/back force balance important for determining store separation rates from aircraft... ? Constrained motion in other DOF ? Used mass, inertias, CG of aircraft without Katleho ? Used trimmed forces of aircraft with Katleho ? Assumes delay in pilot response to g-jump ? CSIR 2011 Slide 14 Aircraft rigid accelerations Aircraft mass...

  7. OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORIES FOR SPECIFIED RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.

    1994-01-01

    For an aircraft operating over a fixed range, the operating costs are basically a sum of fuel cost and time cost. While minimum fuel and minimum time trajectories are relatively easy to calculate, the determination of a minimum cost trajectory can be a complex undertaking. This computer program was developed to optimize trajectories with respect to a cost function based on a weighted sum of fuel cost and time cost. As a research tool, the program could be used to study various characteristics of optimum trajectories and their comparison to standard trajectories. It might also be used to generate a model for the development of an airborne trajectory optimization system. The program could be incorporated into an airline flight planning system, with optimum flight plans determined at takeoff time for the prevailing flight conditions. The use of trajectory optimization could significantly reduce the cost for a given aircraft mission. The algorithm incorporated in the program assumes that a trajectory consists of climb, cruise, and descent segments. The optimization of each segment is not done independently, as in classical procedures, but is performed in a manner which accounts for interaction between the segments. This is accomplished by the application of optimal control theory. The climb and descent profiles are generated by integrating a set of kinematic and dynamic equations, where the total energy of the aircraft is the independent variable. At each energy level of the climb and descent profiles, the air speed and power setting necessary for an optimal trajectory are determined. The variational Hamiltonian of the problem consists of the rate of change of cost with respect to total energy and a term dependent on the adjoint variable, which is identical to the optimum cruise cost at a specified altitude. This variable uniquely specifies the optimal cruise energy, cruise altitude, cruise Mach number, and, indirectly, the climb and descent profiles. If the optimum

  8. ABOUT THE FORMATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF THE AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Artemenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses approaches to the formation of the limit prices of aircraft with using of elements of economic-mathematical modeling. Theoretical and practical aspects of development of methods of solving economic problems in the implementation of the mechanism of formation of effective innovation-stimulating prices in the drafting and design of aircraft.

  9. ABOUT THE FORMATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT COSTS OF THE AIRCRAFT

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Artemenko; V. S. Oleshko; V. M. Samoylenko

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses approaches to the formation of the limit prices of aircraft with using of elements of economic-mathematical modeling. Theoretical and practical aspects of development of methods of solving economic problems in the implementation of the mechanism of formation of effective innovation-stimulating prices in the drafting and design of aircraft.

  10. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII...

  11. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  12. Decay or collapse: Aircraft wake vortices in grid turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, M.; Elsenaar, A.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2006-01-01

    Trailing vortices are naturally shed by airplanes and they typically evolve into a counter-rotating vortex pair. Downstream of the aircraft, these vortices can persist for a very long time and extend for several kilometers. This poses a potential hazard to following aircraft, particularly during

  13. Aircraft measurements of aerosol black carbon from a coastal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABL) and 1500m (above the ABL). During this, the aircraft covered a latitudinal span of ~3.6. ◦. , which was much higher than the spatial coverage in the earlier sorties at HYD and KNP. The limit of the latitudinal coverage was basically due to the endurance of the aircraft. The results are shown in figure 6. The flight originated ...

  14. 77 FR 55770 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... aircraft's hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation, and if needed, correct the installation... this AD, whichever occurs first, inspect the hydraulic power pack wiring for correct installation...) Correct the Installation of the Hydraulic Power Pack Wiring (1) Single engine aircraft: If you find...

  15. Measuring compliance during aircraft (Component) redeliveries at KLM engineering & maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burhani, Shahir; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft and aircraft components are redelivered to the next operator or owner during the phase-out process. During this process the operator is required by law and contract requirements to show compliance with maintenance procedures. At KLM E&M the phase-out documentation process is under

  16. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  17. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  18. Aircraft accident analysis for emergency planning and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Jordan, H.; Foti, D.; Mancuso, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potential aircraft accidents involving facilities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) are evaluated to assess their safety significance. This study addresses the probability and facility penetrability of aircraft accidents at the Site. The types of aircraft (large, small, etc.) that may credibly impact the Site determine the types of facilities that may be breached. The methodology used in this analysis follows elements of the draft Department of Energy Standard ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'' (July 1995). Key elements used are: the four-factor frequency equation for aircraft accidents; the distance criteria for consideration of airports, airways, and jet routes; the consideration of different types of aircraft; and the Modified National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) formula for projectile penetration, perforation, and minimum resistant thickness. The potential aircraft accident frequency for each type of aircraft applicable to the Site is estimated using a four-factor formula described in the draft Standard. The accident frequency is the product of the annual number of operations, probability of an accident, probability density function, and area. The annual number of operations is developed from site-specific and state-wide data

  19. Aircraft Landing and Attitude Control Using Dynamic Matrix Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Calugaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for an efficient control of the aircraft landing and attitude through Dynamic Matrix Control. The idea of MPC structures used in aircraft control has been well established during the last few years, but some aspects require further investigation. With this in mind, the paper proposes structures for aircraft landing and aircraft attitude control by using single DMC controllers for landing and respectively one DMC controller for each of the attitude axis (pitch attitude hold, bank angle hold and heading hold. The model used for analysis of the aircraft landing structure is based on the last phase of landing. Also, the model used to illustrate the attitude control is that of a pitch attitude hold system of a N250-100 aircraft. Simulations are performed for a variety of control and prediction horizons, taking into account the possibility of adding a weighting factor for the control actions. Apart from separate studies on step reference variations, for some use cases, a generic reference trajectory is provided as a control purpose of the system. Results show a better performance of the proposed method in terms of control surface transition and protection of the actuators involved and a better time response in stabilizing the aircraft attitude. Overall, the aspects shown ensure an improved aircraft attitude control and landing stabilization.

  20. General Models for Assessing Hazards Aircraft Pose to Surface Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper derives formulas for estimating the frequency of accidental aircraft crashes into surface facilities. Objects unintentionally dropped from aircraft are also considered. The approach allows the facility to be well within the flight area; inside the flight area, but close to the edge; or completely outside the flight area

  1. Resin transfer molding for advanced composite primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) has been identified by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) and industry to be one of the promising processes being developed today which can break the cost barrier of implementing composite primary structures into a commercial aircraft production environment. The RTM process developments and scale-up plans Douglas Aircrart will be conducting under the NASA ACT contract are discussed.

  2. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  3. 76 FR 48047 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Powered Sailplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this... Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Service Bulletin No. MSB 36-105/1, dated...-105, dated April 21, 2011, as specified in Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Service Bulletin No. MSB...

  4. 78 FR 57104 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this... AD docket. Relevant Service Information Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service... service information related to this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Str.5, A-2700...

  5. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46-500TP airplanes. This... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper...

  6. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-0742; Directorate Identifier 2013-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper... identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone...

  7. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper...). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive...

  8. Airport acoustics: Aircraft noise distribution and modelling of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Airport acoustics: Aircraft noise distribution and modelling of some aircraft parameters. MU Onuu, EO Obisung. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol. 17 (Supplement) 2005: pp. 177-186. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. The organization closed water battery plant Aircraft Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  The information on unrational water usage and losts is given in the article. The necessity of closed water cycle introduction is shown for the aircraft repairing plant. The principle scheme of closed cycle water usage is developed for the accumulator department of the aircraft repairing plant. Modern technological equipment is offered for implementation.

  10. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...

  11. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...

  12. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,

  13. 78 FR 37701 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC- 6/350-H1, PC-6/350-H2... components and the flap actuator could result in loss of control. We are issuing this proposed AD to require...

  14. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... officer, or a Federal Aviation Administration safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued...

  15. 77 FR 68057 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This AD requires installing an improved... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  16. 77 FR 68061 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  17. 77 FR 18969 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by a bird-strike to.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn...

  18. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2.17 Section 2.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 1002.17 Section 1002.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or...

  20. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  1. Thin-film Hybrid Coating for Ice Mitigation on Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current aircraft utilize electro-thermal/mechanical protection systems to actively remove ice from vital aircraft surfaces. These systems have high power...

  2. A New Cryocooler for MgB2 Superconducting Systems in Turboelectric Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design...

  3. A New Cryocooler for MgB2 Superconducting Systems in Turboelectric Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft design...

  4. The community response to aircraft noise around six Spanish airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Faus, L. J.; Garcia, A. M.

    1993-06-01

    The community response to aircraft noise has been studied through a social survey. A total of 1800 persons living in the vicinity of six major Spanish airports have been interviewed at their homes concerning the environmental quality of the area, dissatisfaction with road traffic noise and aircraft noise, activities interfered with by noise, most disturbing aircraft types, and subjective evaluation of airport impact. All the responses obtained in this survey have been compared with aircraft noise levels corresponding to the residence locations of the people interviewed (values of NEF levels were calculated with the INM model). The results obtained in this work allow one to evaluate the impact of aircraft noise under a wide range of different situations.

  5. Riveted Lap Joints in Aircraft Fuselage Design, Analysis and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Skorupa, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue of the pressurized fuselages of transport aircraft is a significant problem all builders and users of aircraft have to cope with for reasons associated with assuring a sufficient lifetime and safety, and formulating adequate inspection procedures. These aspects are all addressed in various formal protocols for creating and maintaining airworthiness, including damage tolerance considerations. In most transport aircraft, fatigue occurs in lap joints, sometimes leading to circumstances that threaten safety in critical ways. The problem of fatigue of lap joints has been considerably enlarged by the goal of extending aircraft lifetimes. Fatigue of riveted lap joints between aluminium alloy sheets, typical of the pressurized aircraft fuselage, is the major topic of the present book. The richly illustrated and well-structured chapters treat subjects such as: structural design solutions and loading conditions for fuselage skin joints; relevance of laboratory test results for simple lap joint specimens to rive...

  6. Investigation of incidents of terrorism involving commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Wagner, G N; Wright, D G; Ruehle, C J; McDonnell, E W

    1989-07-01

    Deaths resulting from terrorism involving aircraft have occurred incident to hijackings as well as bombings. Passengers or groups of passengers have been chosen by terrorists as the recipients of violence based on citizenship, religion, and political beliefs. They have usually been segregated from other passengers and subsequently mistreated and/or murdered. Thorough documentation of the injuries of victims is essential to the investigation of such atrocities; a medicolegal autopsy correlated with a scene investigation is of paramount importance. Aircraft bombings can create extremely sensitive political situations and public demands for quick resolution. The autopsy of victims in such circumstances, if properly conducted, can yield invaluable trace evidence leading to the identification of the explosive device. The examination of any surviving victims as well as the aircraft is also critical in reconstructing the event. Deaths occurring as the result of in-flight aircraft bombings can produce injuries by five different mechanisms, viz. blast, shrapnel, decompression, impact with the aircraft, and ground impact.

  7. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  8. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards

  9. Inductive sensor for lightning current measurement, fitted in aircraft windows, part II: Measurements on an A320 aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel sensor for the detection of the lightning current through the fuselage of an aircraft has been tested on an A320 aircraft. An accurate method-of-moment model of the window edge provided reliable calibration of the sensor for external fields. The data have been analyzed and the good

  10. Annoyance by aircraft noise and fear of overflying aircraft in relation to attitudes toward the environment and community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M.; Moran, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that expressions of annoyance attributable to aircraft noise may reflect in part fear of aircraft overflights and possible crashes. If this is true, then residents of areas where crashes have occurred should express more annoyance. To test this hypothesis, 50 residents of an Albany, New York area where an aircraft crash producing fatalities recently occurred and 50 residents of a comparable nearby area without such a history, were asked to respond to a 'Quality of Life Questionnaire.' Among the items were some designed to test annoyance by noise and fear of aircraft overflights. It was predicted that those in the crash area would express more fear and would more often identify aircraft as a noise source. These hypotheses were sustained. A near-replication was carried out in Louisville, Kentucky; results were much the same. Analyses indicated that for the crash-area groups, there was associating of aircraft fear and noise annoyance responses; this was true to an apparently lesser extent for non-crash groups. The greater annoyance of crash groups by aircraft community noise apparently does not carry over to situations in which aircraft noise is assessed in the laboratory.

  11. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  12. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 6: Preliminary design of a composite wing for tilt rotor research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, V. A.; Badri-Nath, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of the use of composite materials in the wing of a tilt rotor aircraft are presented. An all-metal tilt rotor aircraft was first defined to provide a basis for comparing composite with metal structure. A configuration study was then done in which the wing of the metal aircraft was replaced with composite wings of varying chord and thickness ratio. The results of this study defined the design and performance benefits obtainable with composite materials. Based on these results the aircraft was resized with a composite wing to extend the weight savings to other parts of the aircraft. A wing design was then selected for detailed structural analysis. A development plan including costs and schedules to develop this wing and incorporate it into a proposed flight research tilt rotor vehicle has been devised.

  13. Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    PMSG ). Report No.: JTCG/AS-99-D-003 Report Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Title: JTCG/AS Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports and...indicates those approved and not approved for funding by the Principal Members Steering Group ( PMSG ). Report No.: Report Classification: JTCG/AS-97-V-010...demonstrated by additional tests conducted at NWSC/Crane (up to Mach 0.8) and Rockwell International wind tunnel (up to Mach 1/9 and 30,000 feet altitude

  14. Active Structural Control for Aircraft Efficiency with the X-56A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed is an experimental aircraft designed to study active control of flexible structures. The vehicle is easily reconfigured to allow for testing of different configurations. The vehicle is being used to study new sensor, actuator, modeling and controls technologies. These new technologies will allow for lighter vehicles and new configurations that exceed the efficiency currently achievable. A description of the vehicle and the current research efforts that it enables are presented.

  15. Some trends in aircraft design: Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Trends and programs currently underway on the national scene to improve the structural interface in the aircraft design process are discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration shares a partnership with the educational and industrial community in the development of the tools, the criteria, and the data base essential to produce high-performance and cost-effective vehicles. Several thrusts to build the technology in materials, structural concepts, analytical programs, and integrated design procedures essential for performing the trade-offs required to fashion competitive vehicles are presented. The application of advanced fibrous composites, improved methods for structural analysis, and continued attention to important peripheral problems of aeroelastic and thermal stability are among the topics considered.

  16. National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Susan E.; Sloan, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office leads the implementation of UAS technology in the Department of the Interior (DOI). Our mission is to support the transition of UAS into DOI as a new cost-effective tool for collecting remote-sensing data to monitor environmental conditions, respond to natural hazards, recognize the consequences and benefits of land and climate change and conduct wildlife inventories. The USGS is teaming with all DOI agencies and academia as well as local, State, and Tribal governments with guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration and the DOI Office of Aviation Services (OAS) to lead the safe, efficient, costeffective and leading-edge adoption of UAS technology into the scientific research and operational activities of the DOI.

  17. Consideration of materials for aircraft brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.-L.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of the frictional behavior of several aircraft brake materials using a simple high-temperature Falex-type apparatus. Tests were run at velocities of seven ft/minute; loads to 600 pounds and temperatures to 700 C. The data for these brake materials sliding against a variety of steels and other materials indicate a large reduction in friction due to surface oxidation in the temperature range 250 to 300 C. It also was found that the retention of this oxide was a function of the temperature changes. With increasing temperature the oxide was removed, while with reducing temperature it was retained. Frictional behavior was more characteristic of the steel than the brake material.

  18. Composite Axial Flow Propulsor for Small Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design of an axial flow ducted fan driven by a reciprocating engine. The solution minimizes the turbulization of the flow around the aircraft. The fan has a rotor - stator configuration. Due to the need for low weight of the fan, a carbon/epoxy composite material was chosen for the blades and the driving shaft.The fan is designed for optimal isentropic efficiency and free vortex flow. A stress analysis of the rotor blade was performed using the Finite Element  Method. The skin of the blade is calculated as a laminate and the foam core as a solid. A static and dynamic analysis were made. The RTM technology is compared with other technologies and is described in detail. 

  19. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arros, Jorma; Doumbalski, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of aircraft impact to nuclear power plant structures is discussed utilizing a simplified model of a 'fictitious nuclear building' to perform analyses using LS-DYNA software, representing the loading: (i) by the Riera force history method and (ii) by modeling the crash by impacting a model of a plane similar to Boeing 747-400 to the structure (i.e., 'missile-target interaction method'). Points discussed include: (1) comparison of shock loading within the building as obtained from the Riera force history analysis versus from the missile-target interaction analysis, (2) sensitivity of the results on the assumed Riera force loading area, (3) linear versus nonlinear modeling and (4) on failure criteria

  20. A fuel cell driven aircraft baggage tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterkenburg, Stefan van [HAN Univ. of Applied Sciences (Netherlands); Rijs, Aart van; Hupkens, Huib [Silent Motor Company, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Silent Motor Company and the HAN University of Applied Science collaborate in the development of an aircraft baggage tractor. The baggage tractor is equipped with an 8kW fuel cell stack connected to a 26kWh battery-pack. The control system implemented minimizes the start-up time of the fuel cell system, protects the fuel cell against overload and underload and controls the State of Charge (SOC) of the battery to its optimum value. A practical SOC-determination method is implemented which does not need detailed knowledge about the batteries applied. This paper presents a description of the fuel cell system, its energy management system and SOC-determination method and the results of first test measurements. (orig.)

  1. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  2. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, Tolga; Soutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  3. Suicide and Murder-Suicide Involving Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Watson, Dougal; Preitner, Claude

    2016-04-01

    This is a systematic review of suicide and homicide-suicide events involving aircraft. In aeromedical literature and in the media, these very different events are both described as pilot suicide, but in psychiatry they are considered separate events with distinct risk factors. Medical databases, internet search engines, and aviation safety databases were searched in a systematic way to obtain relevant cases. Relevant articles were searched for additional references. There were 65 cases of pilot suicide and 6 cases of passengers who jumped from aircraft found. There were also 18 cases of homicide-suicide found involving 732 deaths. Pilots perpetrated 13 homicide-suicide events. Compared to non-aviation samples, a large percentage of pilot suicides in this study were homicide-suicides (17%). Homicide-suicide events occur extremely rarely. However, their impact in terms of the proportion of deaths is significant when compared to deaths from accidents. There is evidence of clustering where pilot suicides occur after by media reports of suicide or homicide-suicide. Five of six homicide-suicide events by pilots of commercial airliners occurred after they were left alone in the cockpit. This, along with a sixth incident in which active intervention by a Japan Air crew saved 147 lives, suggests that having two flight members in the cockpit is potentially protective. No single factor was associated with the risk for suicide or homicide-suicide. Factors associated with both events included legal and financial crises, occupational conflict, mental illness, and relationship stressors. Drugs and/or alcohol played a role in almost half of suicides, but not in homicide-suicides.

  4. Improving aircraft accident forecasting for an integrated plutonium storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, J.C.; Kiffe, J.; McNerney, M.T.; Turen, T.A.

    1998-06-01

    Aircraft accidents pose a quantifiable threat to facilities used to store and process surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently published its first aircraft accident analysis guidelines: Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. This document establishes a hierarchy of procedures for estimating the small annual frequency for aircraft accidents that impact Pantex facilities and the even smaller frequency of hazardous material released to the environment. The standard establishes a screening threshold of 10 -6 impacts per year; if the initial estimate of impact frequency for a facility is below this level, no further analysis is required. The Pantex Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) calculates the aircraft impact frequency to be above this screening level. The DOE Standard encourages more detailed analyses in such cases. This report presents three refinements, namely, removing retired small military aircraft from the accident rate database, correcting the conversion factor from military accident rates (accidents per 100,000 hours) to the rates used in the DOE model (accidents per flight phase), and adjusting the conditional probability of impact for general aviation to more accurately reflect pilot training and local conditions. This report documents a halving of the predicted frequency of an aircraft impact at Pantex and points toward further reductions

  5. The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  6. Live Aircraft Encounter Visualization at FutureFlight Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Chinn, Fay; Monheim, Spencer; Otto, Neil; Kato, Kenji; Archdeacon, John

    2018-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have developed an aircraft data streaming capability that can be used to visualize live aircraft in near real-time. During a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA Airborne Collision Avoidance System flight series, test sorties between unmanned aircraft and manned intruder aircraft were shown in real-time at NASA Ames' FutureFlight Central tower facility as a virtual representation of the encounter. This capability leveraged existing live surveillance, video, and audio data streams distributed through a Live, Virtual, Constructive test environment, then depicted the encounter from the point of view of any aircraft in the system showing the proximity of the other aircraft. For the demonstration, position report data were sent to the ground from on-board sensors on the unmanned aircraft. The point of view can be change dynamically, allowing encounters from all angles to be observed. Visualizing the encounters in real-time provides a safe and effective method for observation of live flight testing and a strong alternative to travel to the remote test range.

  7. Factors associated with pilot fatality in work-related aircraft crashes, Alaska, 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensyl, D M; Moran, K; Conway, G A

    2001-12-01

    Work-related aircraft crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatality in Alaska, with civilian pilots having the highest fatality rate (410/100,000/year). To identify factors affecting survivability, the authors examined work-related aircraft crashes that occurred in Alaska in the 1990s (1990-1999), comparing crashes with pilot fatalities to crashes in which the pilot survived. Using data from National Transportation Safety Board reports, the authors carried out logistic regression analysis with the following variables: age, flight experience, use of a shoulder restraint, weather conditions (visual flight vs. instrument flight), light conditions (daylight vs. darkness), type of aircraft (airplane vs. helicopter), postcrash fire, crash location (airport vs. elsewhere), and state of residence. In the main-effects model, significant associations were found between fatality and postcrash fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38, 17.37), poor weather (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.15, 7.87), and non-Alaska resident status (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.20). Protective effects were seen for shoulder restraint use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77) and daylight versus darkness (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.99). The finding that state of residence was associated with survivability offers new information on pilot survivability in work-related aircraft crashes in Alaska. These results may be useful in targeting safety interventions for pilots who fly occupationally in Alaska or in similar environments.

  8. Micro- and nano-NDE systems for aircraft: great things in small packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, James C.; Kropas-Hughes, Claudia V.; Blackshire, James L.; Moran, Thomas; Peeler, Deborah; Frazier, W. G.; Parker, Danny

    2003-07-01

    Recent advancements in small, microscopic NDE sensor technologies will revolutionize how aircraft maintenance is done, and will significantly improve the reliability and airworthiness of current and future aircraft systems. A variety of micro/nano systems and concepts are being developed that will enable whole new capabilities for detecting and tracking structural integrity damage. For aging aircraft systems, the impact of micro-NDE sensor technologies will be felt immediately, with dramatic reductions in labor for maintenance, and extended useable life of critical components being two of the primary benefits. For the fleet management of future aircraft systems, a comprehensive evaluation and tracking of vehicle health throughout its entire life cycle will be needed. Indeed, micro/nano NDE systems will be instrumental in realizing this futuristic vision. Several major challenges will need to be addressed, however, before micro- and nano-NDE systems can effectively be implemented, and this will require interdisciplinary research approaches, and a systematic engineering integration of the new technologies into real systems. Future research will need to emphasize systems engineering approaches for designing materials and structures with in-situ inspection and prognostic capabilities. Recent advances in 1) embedded / add-on micro-sensors, 2) computer modeling of nondestructive evaluation responses, and 3) wireless communications are important steps toward this goal, and will ultimately provide previously unimagined opportunities for realizing whole new integrated vehicle health monitoring capabilities. The future use of micro/nano NDE technologies as vehicle health monitoring tools will have profound implications, and will provide a revolutionary way of doing NDE in the near and distant future.

  9. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  10. Aircraft Engine Thrust Estimator Design Based on GSA-LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-08-01

    In view of the necessity of highly precise and reliable thrust estimator to achieve direct thrust control of aircraft engine, based on support vector regression (SVR), as well as least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and a new optimization algorithm - gravitational search algorithm (GSA), by performing integrated modelling and parameter optimization, a GSA-LSSVM-based thrust estimator design solution is proposed. The results show that compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, GSA can find unknown optimization parameter better and enables the model developed with better prediction and generalization ability. The model can better predict aircraft engine thrust and thus fulfills the need of direct thrust control of aircraft engine.

  11. Probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.; Roleder, A.J.; Arhipov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    Methodology of probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact is described below. The assessment is made taking into account not only the fact of aircraft fall onto the NPP building, but another casual parameters too, namely an aircraft class, velocity and mass, as well as point and angle of its impact with the building structure. This analysis can permit to justify the decrease of the required structure strength and dynamic loads on the NPP equipment. It can also be especially useful when assessing the safety of existing NPP. (author)

  12. Fuel-conservative guidance system for powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for automatic terminal area guidance, comprising two modes of operation, was developed and evaluated in flight tests. In the predictive mode, fuel efficient approach trajectories are synthesized in fast time. In the tracking mode, the synthesized trajectories are reconstructed and tracked automatically. An energy rate performance model derived from the lift, drag, and propulsion system characteristics of the aircraft is used in the synthesis algorithm. The method optimizes the trajectory for the initial aircraft position and wind and temperature profiles encountered during each landing approach. The design theory and the results of simulations and flight tests using the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft are described.

  13. Energy optimization analysis of the more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yitao; Deng, Junxiang; Liu, Chao; Li, Sen

    2018-02-01

    The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) underlines the utilization of the electrical power to drive the non-propulsive aircraft systems. The critical features of the MEA including no-bleed engine architecture and advanced electrical system are introduced. Energy and exergy analysis is conducted for the MEA, and comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of the energy usage between conventional aircraft and the MEA is conducted. The results indicate that one of the advantages of the MEA architecture is the greater efficiency gained in terms of reduced fuel consumption.

  14. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  15. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  16. Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

  17. Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert ANGI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.

  18. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  19. Improvement of Aircraft Crash Effective Areas for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoti, S.; Dongmo, G.B.; Combrink, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA): Tool for determining safe functioning of nuclear power plant to meet regulatory requirements; One of the inputs to the PSA are the frequency and consequences of an aircraft crash. Overview: Frequency of Aircraft Crash; Effective Area of an Aircraft Crashing into Koeberg - Aviation Categories, - Shielding of sensitive target buildings; Impact of refining the Effective AreaFrequency of Aircraft Crash

  20. Optimised Sound Absorbing Trim Panels for the Reduction of Aircraft Cabin Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Ivanov, N.I.; Crocker, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The EU project FACE (Friendly Aircraft Cabin Environment) aims to improve the environmental comfort in aircraft cabins. As part of this project, this paper focuses on the reduction of noise in aircraft cabins. For modern aircraft flying at cruise conditions, this cabin noise is known to be dominated