WorldWideScience

Sample records for aging aircraft ndi

  1. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  2. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  3. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  4. Aging aircraft wiring: a proactive management methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Tambouratzis, Vasileios.

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, military budgets have been dramatically reduced and the services have been unable to acquire sufficient new systems. Military aviation is one of the areas that have been severely impacted. The result is that the current fleet faces significant aging aircraft problems. Aircraft wiring is one of the areas that have severely affected by the aging process. Recent accidents involving aging wiring problems and reduced operational readiness due to aging wiring have made clear ...

  5. Nondestructive testing of aging aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft fleet in the US military is getting old, averaging over 40 years. These old planes are planned to be used for additional 20-30 years. Some commercial fleets are getting older as well, though not on the same level. Many NDT methods are in practice and new ones being developed. Corrosion and fatigue are the two main sources of damage to aircraft structures and require cost-effective NDT methods to detect and characterize the damage. Current approaches to this difficult task reviewed.

  6. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  7. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  8. TRIGA's and NDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base is planning the installation of advanced state-of-the-art nondestructive testing equipment. This equipment will allow maintenance specialists to detect corrosion at its earliest stages, before the corrosion affects the structural integrity of the aircraft. Present inspection by X-ray techniques cannot detect the early stages of corrosion, but neutron radiography can detect the presence of very small amounts of moisture that lead to corrosion in aluminum and degradation of bond in composite structures. The new inspection equipment will consist of three major items,.the Maneuverable X-Ray Radiography System (MXRS), the Maneuverable Neutron Radiography System (MNRS), and the Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS). The foremost benefit of the MNRS and MXRS is the fact that the inspections will be performed on the entire aircraft. Presently, the aircraft is disassembled, then inspected and repaired. This involves a large amount of unnecessary work to remove panels that do not require repair. The MXRS and MNRS systems are quite similar. The building walls are designed to support the robot structure. Each system will consist of the runway rails installed on the wall ledges, a bridge beam spanning the bay, a carriage that traverses the inspection bay, a mast that moves the inspection device in the Z-axis, three rotational movements of a U-shaped yoke at the bottom of the mast. Each system is controlled from a dedicated control room on a mezzanine level. The MXRS source includes a microfocus X-Ray where as the MNRS source consists of 50mg of Californium-252. Both systems have state-of-the-art Real-Time Imaging and digital image processing of images. The third system is the Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS). The SNRS consists of a small TRIGA-type research reactor, shielded radiography bays capable of inspecting aircraft panels, parts manipulation facilities, components preparation

  9. Non-Destructive Inspection Lab (NDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NDI specializes in applied research, development and performance of nondestructive inspection procedures (flourescent penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics,...

  10. Laattabrändi 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Vottonen, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksellisen kehittämishankkeen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, onko laattamyynnissä etua jos tuotteella on tunnettu brändi. Lähtökohtana olivat muut merkittävät laattamaahantuojat ja niiden brändituotteet. Työn teoreettinen viitekehys liittyy tuotteen brändäykseen ja lanseeraamiseen sekä niihin periaatteisiin, joilla yritys pyrkii parantamaan kilpailukykyään. Työn teoreettisen osan lähdeaineistona käytettiin pääosin markkinointi- sekä lanseerausmarkkinoinnin kirjallisuutta. Keskei...

  11. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Rafia Mumtaz; Mustafa Mumtaz; Atif Bin Mansoor; Hassan Masood

    2012-01-01

    Non Destructive Inspections (NDI) plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel meth...

  12. Ravintola Teerenpelin brändi

    OpenAIRE

    Malaste, Paavo-Sakari

    2007-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään brändiä ja sen luomista palveluyrityksissä. Tässä työssä tutkitaan myös millaisena asiakkaat kokevat Teerenpeli-ravintolan brändin. Teoriaosassa selvitetään brändin luomista ja asemointia palveluyrityksissä. Brändin luomiseen palveluyrityksissä liittyy samoja piirteitä kuin tavaroidenkin kohdalla, mutta palvelut eroavat tavaroista siinä, että ne ovat aineettomia. Brändillä tarkoitetaan sekä brändin luojan näkemystä eli brändi-identiteettiä että asiakkaiden nä...

  13. FAA Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) operated by Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Hartman, Roger D.

    2010-09-01

    Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) objectives are: (1) Enhance aircraft safety and reliability; (2) Aid developing advanced aircraft designs and maintenance techniques; (3) Provide our customers with comprehensive, independent, and quantitative/qualitative evaluations of new and enhanced inspection, maintenance, and repair techniques; (4) Facilitate transferring effective technologies into the aviation industry; (5) Support FAA rulemaking process by providing guidance on content & necessary tools to meet requirements or recommendations of FARs, ADs, ACs, SBs, SSIDs, CPCP, and WFD; and (6) Coordinate with and respond to Airworthiness Assurance Working Group (AAWG) in support of FAA Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC).

  14. Yrityksen brändi-imago ja -identiteetti

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Jaakko

    2008-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändiä, brändi-imagoa ja -identiteettiä. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin Viikko-Häme Oy:n toimeksiantona. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusongelma oli selvittää, millaisia sanomalehti Viikko-Hämeen tämänhetkiset brändi-imago ja brändi-identiteetti ovat ja miten niitä voisi kehittää. Brändi on yritys, tuote tai palvelu, jolla on jonkinlaista lisäarvoa kuluttajalle, minkä vuoksi se erottuu edukseen markkinoilla. Vahva ja tunnettu brändi herättää kuluttajassa luottamusta ja on näin lupau...

  15. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  16. Ravintola Tallin brändi-identiteetti ja -imago

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvikoski, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on brändi. Brändit ovat nykyaikana oleellinen osa liiketoimintaa ja parhaimmil-laan jopa yritystensä kallisarvoisinta omaisuutta. Brändi-identiteetti on tulevaisuuden tavoite, johon yritys pyrkii. Se kertoo, millaisena yritys toivoisi ulkopuolisten tahojen, kuten asiakkaiden, näkevän sen brändin. Brändi-imago taas kuvaa sitä, millaisena yrityksen ulkopuoliset tahot näkevät sen brändin juuri tällä het-kellä. Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten Ravintola T...

  17. Helimagnetic structures in epitaxial Nd/Y superlattices and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everitt, B.A.; Salamon, M.B.; Borchers, J.A.; Erwin, R.W.; Rhyne, J.J.; Park, B.J.; O'Donovan, K.V.; McMorrow, D.F.; Flynn, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The complex magnetic structure of Nd exhibits a new magnetic phase when grown epitaxially, either as a stabilized double hexagonal close-packed alloy, or as part of a Nd/Y superlattice. In the alloy and in those superlattices with small Nd/Y ratios, the incommensurate b axis modulated structure......-rich superlattices. As the Nd:Y ratio in the superlattices is increased, the b axis modulated phases reappear and coexist with the helical phase. Thick epitaxial Nd films, nevertheless, exhibit only bulklike magnetic structure. We discuss these observations in terms of band structure modifications....

  18. Brändi mielikuvien luojana : Case:IKU

    OpenAIRE

    Perkiö, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Brändi terminä on yleistynyt puhekielessä viimeisten vuosikymmenien aikana. Brändiä käytetään kuvaamaan esineitä, asioita, yrityksiä, ihmisiä tai ideologiaa. Tässä opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin brändiin ilmiönä, brändin luomiseen sekä sen erottumiseen kilpailijoistaan. Opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändiä työkaluna uuden artistin esille tuomisessa kohderyhmälleen sekä suurelle yleisölle. Vaikka brändi termiä käytetään hyvin laajasti puhekielessä, se usein liitetään virheellisesti johonkin...

  19. Cyclic hygrothermal aging of aircraft lightning protections: Phenomenological overview

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2012-04-23

    The recent transition to full composite fuselages is a major breakthrough in aeronautical design. To ensure satisfactory lightning protection, the electrical properties of the primary composite structure need to be improved and a design solution lies on bonding a metallic fishnet to the fuselage. An important issue is the prediction of the aging behavior of this top layer when exposed to severe aging conditions representative of flight environment. Multiple aging mechanisms affect this top layer made of thermoset resin and metallic fishnet with complex geometry and a first modeling strategy is a necessary starting point to better understand its evolution. This paper describes the overall phenomenology and the different mechanisms that can be expected in such a structure.

  20. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  1. Accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work provides a quantitative assessment of the positional tracking accuracy of the NDI Wave Speech Research System. Method: Three experiments were completed: (a) static rigid-body tracking across different locations in the electromagnetic field volume, (b) dynamic rigid-body tracking across different locations within the…

  2. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  3. Computer Aided Visual Inspection of Aircraft Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Mumtaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Inspections (NDI plays a vital role in aircraft industry as it determines the structural integrity of aircraft surface and material characterization. The existing NDI methods are time consuming, we propose a new NDI approach using Digital Image Processing that has the potential to substantially decrease the inspection time. Automatic Marking of cracks have been achieved through application of Thresholding, Gabor Filter and Non Subsampled Contourlet transform. For a novel method of NDI, the aircraft imagery is analyzed by three methods i.e Neural Networks, Contourlet Transform (CT and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. With the help of Contourlet Transform the two dimensional (2-D spectrum is divided into fine slices, using iterated directional filterbanks. Next, directional energy components for each block of the decomposed subband outputs are computed. These energy values are used to distinguish between the crack and scratch images using the Dot Product classifier. In next approach, the aircraft imagery is decomposed into high and low frequency components using DCT and the first order moment is determined to form feature vectors.A correlation based approach is then used for distinction between crack and scratch surfaces. A comparative examination between the two techniques on a database of crack and scratch images revealed that texture analysis using the combined transform based approach gave the best results by giving an accuracy of 96.6% for the identification of crack surfaces and 98.3% for scratch surfaces.

  4. Helsingin matkailullisen brändi-identiteetin vahvistuminen Helsinki-oppaan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Riehunkangas, Juha; Oikarinen, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Helsingin tavoittelemaa matkailubrändiä ja brändi-identiteetin vahvistumista Helsinki-oppaan työssä. Helsingin matkailustrategian 2009–2012 mukaan Helsinki tavoittelee vahvaa matkailubrändiä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, ovatko Helsinki-oppaiden tärkeinä pitämät ja korostamat vetovoimatekijät linjassa strategiassa määriteltyjen brändi-elementtien kanssa. Toisena tavoitteena oli selvittää Helsinki-oppaiden kiinnostus lisäkoulutukseen ja koulutusaiheisiin....

  5. KAJAANIN NISSENIN BRÄNDI ASIAKKAAN NÄKÖKULMASTA

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki, Eija

    2007-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli Kajaanin Nissenin brändi asiakkaan näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli tutkia, vastaako Kajaanin Nissen ketjun asettamaa brändimielikuvaa? Jos mielikuvat eivät joltain osin vastaa ketjun asettamaa brändimielikuvaa, on niitä asioita kehitettävä ja parannettava Kajaanin Nissenillä. Ketjun asettamaa brändikuvaa ei ollut tarkoitus muuttaa. Teoriaosuudessa tarkasteltiin imagoa; siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä ja sen rakentamista. Yrityksen kannalta käsiteltiin bränd...

  6. Aircraft Measurements of Aerosol Partitioning and Aging during EUCAARI-LONGREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Bower, K. N.; Coe, H.; Highwood, E. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Northway, M. J.; Osborne, S. R.; Trembath, J.; Williams, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol burden has significant implications for its climate impacts. Specifically, it determines the scattering or absorbing nature of the aerosol and its affinity for water uptake. Measurements of aerosol chemical composition are presented here from the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft from May 2008. The BAe-146 operated out of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany during the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) LONG Range EXperiment (LONGREX). A primary goal of the study was to examine the effects of atmospheric aging on aerosol chemical, physical and optical properties. Science flights were conducted across Northern Europe, during a period of anticyclonic circulation in clear sky conditions. The aircraft employs a suite of aerosol instruments, which measure the chemical composition, microphysical, optical and hygroscopic properties of the in-situ aerosol population. An Aerodyne compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (cToF-AMS) measured the mass of volatile and semi-volatile particulate chemical constituents, as a function of size. These components included organic matter, nitrate, sulphate and ammonium. The spatial distribution and chemical evolution of these components will be presented. The chemical nature of the organic aerosol component is examined via Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). The factor analysis of the organic aerosol component revealed the dominance of Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) over Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA). OOA is analogous to Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), whilst HOA is strongly associated with Primary Organic Aerosol (POA) derived from fossil fuel combustion. Two components were commonly resolved for the OOA component; an aged, more oxidised factor (reflecting the regional organic aerosol background) and a fresher (less aged) component, which exhibited less oxidation than the

  7. Miten brändi säilyttää brändiarvonsa?

    OpenAIRE

    Sara, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tarkasteltiin brändiä ja sen ylläpitämistä. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten brändi voi säilyttää jo saavuttamansa brändiarvon. Brändillä tarkoitetaan tavaramerkin ympärille muodostunutta positiivista mielikuvaa. Yrityksen kannalta brändi on kilpailukeino. Vahvan brändin etuja yritykselle ovat esimerkiksi uskolliset asiakkaat, haluttavuus yhteistyökumppanina ja kiinnostavuus työnantajana. Aihe valittiin työn tekijän oman kiinnostuksen perusteella. Aihetta tarkastelti...

  8. Development and utilization of composite honeycomb and solid laminate reference standards for aircraft inspections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2004-06-01

    The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee, developed a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, was inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a set of minimum honeycomb NDI reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the full range of honeycomb construction scenarios found on commercial aircraft. In the solid composite laminate arena, G11 Phenolic was identified as a good generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative to carbon laminates. Furthermore, comparisons of resonance testing response curves from the G11 Phenolic NDI reference standard was very similar to the resonance response curves measured on the existing carbon and fiberglass laminates. NDI data shows that this material should work for both pulse-echo (velocity-based) and resonance (acoustic impedance-based) inspections.

  9. Vahva ja erottuva brändi yrityksen kilpailuetuna : VihreäKeiju-brändin kuluttaja-asiakastutkimus

    OpenAIRE

    Merta, Helinä

    2011-01-01

    Brändi on kaikkien niiden mielikuvien ja tietojen summa, joita ihmisellä on jostain asiasta. Brändi syntyi 1700-luvun Amerikassa, jossa karja merkittiin polttomerkein (engl. brand), jotta jokainen erottaisi oman karjansa. Brändi tarkoittikin aluksi erilaistavaa tunnistetta tai symbolia. Nykyisin brändillä viitataan konkreettisiin ja mielikuvallisiin ominaisuuksiin, joiden avulla tuotteet erottuvat toisistaan. Brändiä rakentamalla pyritään kirkastamaan brändiin liitettyjä mielikuvia sekä er...

  10. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  11. Poroid Fungi of Hungary in the Collection of Zoltán Igmándy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABÓ, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoltán Igmándy (1925–2000, prominent Hungarian mycologist, worked as professor of forest protection at the University of West-Hungary Sopron. His main research area was the investigation of wood-inhabiting poroid fungi of Hungary, their occurrence and importance in forest pathology and wood protection. During his 40 years of scientific activity Igmándy created a rich fungal collection (herbarium Z. Igmándy which includes the complete polypore mycota known to occur in Hungary until 1990. The paper provides a brief compendium of the collection, a list of species characterised by the number of specimens, number of sampling locations and enumeration of the hosts and substrata of the specimens.

  12. Legal regulation of aircraft engine emissions in the age of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J

    2011-01-01

    Although the contribution of international civil aviation to climate change seems small (with a global share of just 3.5 percent of emissions of CO2), the projected growth in air traffic means that it is highly significant. There is thus an urgent need to explore legal regulations for limiting and/or reducing the adverse impacts of aircraft emissions on the environment. This thesis examines the progress which has been made on international aviation emissions abatement and provi...

  13. Synthesis of Nd:Y2O3 nanopowders leading to transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The addition of alcohol in the reaction system had an effect on the morphology of the obtained precursor and then influenced the final shape of the obtained powders after calcination. → The break-up mechanism and combination-grow-up mechanism were found to be universal coexistence during the calcination process. → The as-prepared nanopowders showed better sinterability and Nd:Y2O3 transparent ceramics were fabricated under vacuum sintering. - Abstract: Neodymium doped yttrium precipitate precursor was synthesized employing ammonium hydrogen carbonate as precipitant and alcohol-water mixture as solvent via a normal strike co-precipitation route. Nd:Y2O3 powders were obtained after calcination. Several analytic techniques such as DTA-TG, FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM and BET were used to make characterizations of the precursors, Nd:Y2O3 powders and sintered ceramics samples. The addition of alcohol in the co-precipitation process had an effect on the morphology of the as-synthesized precursor. The precursor was amorphous displaying messy needle-like shape while in the presence of alcohol, or else, displaying heavy agglomeration. The precursor was decomposed into cubic phase Y2O3 at about 700 deg. C without any other phase. Weakly agglomerated Nd:Y2O3 nanopowders were obtained from the precursor synthesized by addition of alcohol calcined at 1000 or 1100 deg. C for 3 h. The obtained Nd:Y2O3 nanopowders had mean particle size of 70 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared Nd:Y2O3 nanopowders had high sinterability and the corresponding ceramics exhibited nice optical transparency after vacuum sintering.

  14. Brändi-imagon kirkastaminen sosiaalisen median avulla : Case Helin Matkat

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmi, Henna; Kärkkäinen, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön avulla selvitettiin, miten Helin Matkatoimisto Oy voi sosiaalisen median käytön kehityksellä kirkastaa brändi-imagoa, joka syntyy asiakkaiden mielissä. Tavoitteena oli tutkia yrityksen häämatkasegmentin sosiaalisen median käyt-tötottumuksia ja mieltymyksiä, segmentin mielikuvia Helin Matkojen brändistä ja näiden mielikuvien yhdenmukaisuutta yrityksen brändi-identiteetin kanssa. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvantitatiivisena verkkokyselynä Webropolin kautta, ja sitä jaettiin sähköpo...

  15. Brändi-imagon kartoitus ja kehitys : case R/H

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä toteutettiin suomalaisen naistenvaatemerkki R/H:n kanssa yhteistyössä brändi-imagon kartoitus ja kehityssuunnitelma. Työn tavoitteena oli muodostaa selkeä kuva R/H:n brändi-identiteetistä ja sen toteutuneesta imagosta kuluttajien keskuudessa, sekä laatia tutkimustuloksiin perustuva suunnitelma tulevaisuuden imagollisista kehitysmahdollisuuksista. Työ jakautuu kahteen osaan, joista ensimmäisen, teoreettisen osuuden tavoitteena on tukea toisen osion empiiristä tutkimusta. En...

  16. Comparative self-assembly studies and self-sorting of two structurally isomeric naphthalene-diimide (NDI)-gelators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindita Das; Mijanur Rahaman Molla; Suhrit Ghosh

    2011-11-01

    We have reported here a comparative self-assembly and gelation studies of two isomeric bis-amide functionalized NDI-derivatives. In one case (NDI-1) the two amide groups were placed symmetrically on either side of the chromophore while for the other system (NDI-2) they were located on same side. In non-polar solvent both isomers formed self-assembled structures by synergistic effect of -stacking and hydrogen-bonding. The propensity for self-assembly of NDI-1 was greater due to symmetrical placement of two amide groups on either arms of this chromophore which allowed -stacking in tandem with hydrogen-bonding, while NDI-2 formed thermally more stable self-assembled fibres possibly due to location of two amide groups in close proximity along single arm of this chromophore. The structural difference in these two isomers lead to distinctly different morphology of their respective self-assembled structures which was further reflected on their gelation properties. Morphology of the self-assembled array of NDI-1 showed organized and regular entangled bundles of nanorods which imparted better gelation ability to this chromophore while the self-assembled fibres of NDI-2 showed less ordered and irregular fibres. We also probed self- assembly of these two chromophores in their mixture which revealed orthogonal assembly of the individual chromophores and no molecular mixing was noticed.

  17. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  18. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  19. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and lab studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Cubison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA. This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ±0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass =−0.01 to ~0.07, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~25%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~9 Tg OA yr−1 is estimated, of the order of 5% of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a

  20. Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Cubison

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA. This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ± 0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass = −0.01 to ~0.05, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~19%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~8 ± 7 Tg OA yr−1 is estimated, of the order of 5 % of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data

  1. Brändi-identiteetti bändin tunnuksen suunnittelun perustana : Case: Skulduggery

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Riina

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin käsitteeseen brändi ja brändi-identiteetin määrittelyn merkitykseen brändin rakennusprosessissa osana kuopiolaisen, progressiivista rockia soittavan bändin tunnuksen suunnittelua. Työssä pohdittiin legendaarisen rock-bändin esimerkin kautta sitä, mitä brändiksi muodostuminen bändiltä vaatii sekä sitä, millaisia ominaispiirteitä progressiivista rockia soittavien bändien tunnuksissa on. Teoriaosuudessa ei käsitelty brändin tunnetuksi tekemiseen tähtäävää strategi...

  2. Development and validation of nondestructive inspection techniques for composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1998-05-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single boron-epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. In order for the use of composite doublers to achieve widespread use in the civil aviation industry, it is imperative that methods be developed which can quickly and reliably assess the integrity of the doubler. In this study, a specific composite application was chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Primary among inspection requirements for these doublers is the identification of disbonds, between the composite laminate and aluminum parent material, and delaminations in the composite laminate. Surveillance of cracks or corrosion in the parent aluminum material beneath the doubler is also a concern. No single nondestructive inspection (NDI) method can inspect for every flaw type, therefore it is important to be aware of available NDI techniques and to properly address their capabilities and limitations. A series of NDI tests were conducted on laboratory test structures and on full-scale aircraft fuselage sections. Specific challenges, unique to bonded composite doubler applications, were highlighted. An array of conventional and advanced NDI techniques were evaluated. Flaw detection sensitivity studies were conducted on applicable eddy current, ultrasonic, X-ray and thermography based devices. The application of these NDI techniques to composite doublers and the results from test specimens, which were loaded to provide a changing flaw profile, are presented in this report. It was found that a team of these techniques can identify flaws in composite doubler installations well before they reach critical size.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Neck OutcOme Score (NOOS), Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Short form-36 (SF-36) were evaluated in patients with neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina Juul; Søgaard, Karen; Davis, Aileen M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and interpretability for Neck OutcOme Score (NOOS), Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Short-form-36 (SF-36) in neck pain patients. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Test...... correlating subscale scores from NOOS and SF-36 and NDI items. RESULTS: At baseline 196 neck pain patients were included. Cronbach's α was adequate for most NOOS subscales, NDI and SF-36 with few exceptions. Good to excellent reliability was found for NOOS subscales (ICC 0.88-0.95), for NDI and for SF-36 with...

  4. Synthesis, conformational and theoretical studies of 1,n-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, R.; Manimekalai, A.

    2016-01-01

    1,n-di(2-Formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes 1 and 2 and 1,3-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxymethyl)benzene 3 were synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The stable conformations of 1-3 were predicted theoretically and selected geometrical parameters were derived from optimized structures. The molecular parameters of HOMO-LUMO energies, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, natural bond orbital (NBO), atom in molecule (AIM) analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces were determined by the density functional theory (DFT) method and analysed.

  5. Sosiaalisen median hyödyntäminen bändi-markkinoinnissa : Case: Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Nevasto, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Työn tilaaja oli helsinkiläinen Hard Rock -yhtye Santa Cruz. Toimeksiantaja toivoi, että työssä pystyttäisiin luomaan ratkaisuja ja ideoita siitä, kuinka bändi voisi paremmin hyödyntää sosiaalista mediaa markkinoinnissaan. Tämän pohjalta muodostui työn tutkimustehtävä. Työssä lähdettiin liikkeelle tutkimusongelman hahmottamisesta, jonka pohjalta luotiin edellä esitetty tutkimustehtävä. Tämän rajauksen jälkeen tutustuttiin aiheen teoriapohjaan, suunniteltiin ja toteutettiin faneille suunna...

  6. J-aggregation of a sulfur-substituted naphthalenediimide (NDI) with remarkably bright fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Haridas; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2016-07-01

    This communication reveals the H-bonding driven supramolecular assembly of a sulfur-substituted naphthalenediimide leading to the formation of very strong (Tg > 90 °C) organogel in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Mechanistic investigation reveals nucleation-elongation pathway for self-assembly. Photophysical studies show explicit features of classical J-aggregation which reduces the non-radiative fluorescence rate constant considerably and thus results in a remarkable fluorescence enhancement (ΦPL increases from 1% to 30%) which is unprecedented in the entire NDI literature. PMID:27346798

  7. Asiakaslähtöinen palvelubrändi : Esimerkkinä Lontoon suomalainen Merimieskirkko

    OpenAIRE

    Roviomaa, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön toteutus tapahtui ulkomailla. Opinnäytetyön aihe muotoutui käsittelemään kotimaisia tuotteita. Tutkimuskysymyksenä oli, mitä kotimaisia tuotteita suomalaiset kaipaavat ulkomailla? Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää Lontoon suomalaisen Merimieskirkon palvelubrändiä asiakkaan näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli selvittää suomalaisille tarpeelliset tuotteet ja sen lisäksi selvittää ulkomaalaisten kiinnostus kyseisiä tuotteita kohtaan. Teoria muotoutui brändeistä, palve...

  8. Brändi-identiteetin kehittäminen b-to-b yritykselle : Case: Suppilog Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Jäppinen, Saara

    2014-01-01

    Kehittämisongelmana tässä opinnäytetyössä on kehittää Suppilog Oy:n brändi-identiteettiä. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tehdä työelämää kehittävää tutkimusta. Tutkimustulosten avulla oli tarkoitus määrittää Suppilogin brändi-identiteetin nykytila sekä tavoitetila ja saada aikaan selkeitä kehittämisehdotuksia tutkimuksesta saatujen tietojen perusteella. Työn teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä käsitellään brändi-identiteettiin ja sen kehittämiseen liittyviä käsitteitä sekä teorioita. Lisäksi t...

  9. 2. november tähistas Eesti ekstreem-metal-skene jaoks kahe äärmiselt olulise üllitise taassündi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Nailboard Records üllitas pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ning minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  10. Uudised : Vanemuise Sümfoonikute kontsert. Kaks õhtut TMMis. Esimene puhkpilli- ja bigbändiõhtu / Jaanika Juhanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juhanson, Jaanika, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Eelinfo 11. märtsil toimuva Vanemuise Sümfoonikute kontserdi kohta Vanemuise kontserdimajas. M. Korjuse vitriini avamisest 23. veebr. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, D. Kokkeri mälestusõhtust 29. veebr. TMMi Assauwe tornis. 4. märtsil EMA saalis toimunud puhkpilliorkestri ja bigbändi kontserdist

  11. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter

  12. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: ngtthuy02@yahoo.com [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morita, Kouichi [Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  13. A fluorescent Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-naphthalenediimide (NDI) conjugate for imaging integrin α(v)β(3) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyuan; Arrowsmith, Rory L; Tyson, James A; Mirabello, Vincenzo; Ge, Haobo; Eggleston, Ian M; Botchway, Stanley W; Pantos, G Dan; Pascu, Sofia I

    2015-04-25

    We have developed a fluorescent peptide conjugate (TrpNDIRGDfK) based on the coupling of cyclo(RGDfK) to a new tryptophan-tagged amino acid naphthalenediimide (TrpNDI). Confocal fluorescence microscopy coupled with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) mapping, single and two-photon fluorescence excitation, lifetime components and corresponding decay profiles were used as parameters able to investigate qualitatively the cellular behavior regarding the molecular environment and biolocalisation of TrpNDI and TrpNDI-RGDfK in cancer cells. PMID:25647279

  14. Economic aspects of hydro geological risk mitigation measures management in Italy: the ReNDiS project experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, D.; Campobasso, C.; Gallozzi, P. L.; Dessi', B.; Traversa, F.

    2009-04-01

    ReNDiS project is a useful tool for monitoring, analysis and management of information data on mitigation measures and restoration works of soil protection at national scale. The main scope of the project, and related monitoring activities, is to improve the knowledge about the use of national funds and efforts against floods and landslides risk and, as a consequence, to better address the preventive policies in future. Since 1999 after the disastrous mudflow event occurred in Sarno in 1998, which caused the loss of 160 human lives, an extraordinary effort was conducted by the Italian Government in order to promote preventive measures against the hydro geological risk over the entire Italian territory. The Italian Ministry for the Environment promoted several and annual soil protection programmes. The ReNDiS project (Repertory of mitigation measures for National Soil Protection) is carried out by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental protection and Research, with the aim of improving the knowledge about the results of preventive policies against floods and landslides in order to better address national funds as requested by the Minister itself. The repertory is composed by a main archive and two secondary interface, the first for direct data management (ReNDiS-ist) and the latter (ReNDiS-web) for the on-line access and public consultation. At present, ReNDiS database contains about 3000 records concerning those programmes, focused on restoration works but including also information on landslide typologies and processes. The monitoring project is developed taking into account all the information about each step of every mitigation measure from the initial funding phase until the end of the work. During present work, we have statistically analyzed the ReNDiS database in order to highlight the conformity between the characteristic and type of the hazard (identified in a specific area) and the corresponding mitigation measures adopted for risk reduction. Through specific

  15. Markkinointiviestinnän suunnittelu ja toteutus Turun AMK:n osuuskuntaverkostolle : case Osuuskuntahub-brändi

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on suunnitella ja toteuttaa Turun ammattikorkeakoulun osuuskuntaverkostolle yhteinen markkinointiviestinnällinen brändi ja markkintointiviestintäkonsepti, joka mahdollistaisi niin yritysverkoston yhteisen markkinoinnin ulospäin kuin brändin markkinoinnin sisäisille sidosryhmille. Projektityössä keskitytään yritysverkoston markkinoitavuuteen ja eritysesti osuuskuntaverkoston sisäisen markkinoinnin parantamiseen. Markkinointiviestinnän suunnittelu ja toteutus p...

  16. H-bonding directed programmed supramolecular assembly of naphthalene-diimide (NDI) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindita; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2016-05-25

    In this review we have collated various supramolecular designs, all surrounding H-bonding among well-known functional groups (peptides, nucleic acids, amides, ureas, carboxylic acids, pyridine-hydroxyls, urethanes, imides and others), to dictate self-assembly of naphthalenediimide (NDI) π-systems (both small molecules and polymeric building blocks) that exhibit several exciting features including strong propensity for π-π interactions, π-acidity, excellent n-type semiconductivity, CT-complexation, ion-π interactions, ring-substitution dependent redox properties and photophysical properties. This article reveals that H-bonding can indeed serve as a very powerful and versatile tool to programmed self-assembly of a single or multiple dye system producing a wide range of tailored soft materials, including fibrillar gels, chromonic mesophases, foldamers, nanotubes, vesicles, reverse micelles and polymersomes, both in water and organic medium with distinct photophysical properties, charge transport properties, conductivity properties and functional group displays that are highly relevant in the fields of biology and organic electronics. PMID:27100059

  17. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and...

  18. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    repair using a substandard design and a flawed installation. In addition, the new Sol-Gel surface preparation technique was evaluated. Fatigue coupon tests produced Sol-Gel results that could be compared with a large performance database from conventional, riveted repairs. It was demonstrated that not only can composite doublers perform well in severe off-design conditions (low doubler stiffness and presence of defects in doubler installation) but that the Sol-Gel surface preparation technique is easier and quicker to carry out while still producing optimum bonding properties. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods were developed so that the potential for disbond and delamination growth could be monitored and crack growth mitigation could be quantified. The NDI methods were validated using full-scale test articles and the FedEx aircraft installations. It was demonstrated that specialized NDI techniques can detect flaws in composite doubler installations before they reach critical size. Probability of Detection studies were integrated into the FedEx training in order to quantify the ability of aircraft maintenance depots to properly monitor these repairs. In addition, Boeing Structural Repair and Nondestructive Testing Manuals were modified to include composite doubler repair and inspection procedures. This report presents the results from the FedEx Pilot Program that involved installation and surveillance of numerous repairs on operating aircraft. Results from critical NDI evaluations are reported in light of damage tolerance assessments for bonded composite doublers. This work has produced significant interest from airlines and aircraft manufacturers. The successful Pilot Program produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. This report discusses both the laboratory data and Pilot Program results from repair installations on operating aircraft to introduce composite

  19. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  20. Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  1. 设计与资源驱动的产品 NDI 设想产生过程研究%Research on process of generating NDI ideas for products driven by design and resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 檀润华; 孙建广; 曹国忠

    2015-01-01

    Product innovation includes three stages ,fuzzy‐front end ,new product development and com‐mercialization .The generation of innovative idea is a key step in the fuzzy‐front end stage .In order to provide technical support for enterprises to develop products of new‐market disruptive innovation (NDI) , a process model of generating NDI ideas for fuzzy‐front end was proposed according to the creating of new customers and their needs ,and it transformed the passive design state into an active state .From the perspective of design‐driven innovation ,a method of classifying and analyzing the TRIZ resources in su‐per system was provided ,and the characteristics of the super‐system resources were extracted and trans‐formed ,so as that a group of hypothetical customers or a certain hypothetical environment was created and three modes of generating NDI ideas were provided ,and then the process model of generating inno‐vative ideas was established .Finally ,the generation of NDI ideas of automatic teller machine verified the efficiency of this approach .%产品创新包括模糊前端、新产品开发、商业化三个阶段,而创新设想产生是模糊前端阶段的关键步骤。为向企业开发新市场破坏性创新(new‐market disruptive innovation ,NDI)产品提供技术支持,通过对新市场用户及其需求的创造,将产品设计由被动状态转变为主动状态,提供了面向模糊前端的NDI设想产生过程模型。由设计驱动创新方式的视角,给出了对T RIZ超系统资源的分类及分析方法;通过提取超系统资源的属性特征并对其进行变换,为NDI产品开发创造“设定用户”或“设定环境”,提供了3种NDI设想产生驱动模式;建立了设想产生过程模型。自动取款机的NDI设想产生验证了该方法的有效性。

  2. Diode pumped neodymium doped ASL (Sr1-xLax-yNdyMgxAl12-xO19) laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lihe; Loiseau, Pascal; Aka, Gérard

    2013-07-01

    Blue laser based on Neodymium doped strontium lanthanum magnesium aluminoxide (Sr1-xLax-yNdyMgxAl12-xO19) single crystal were constructed by second harmonic generation. Output power of 1.72 W at 900nm was obtained under 792nm laser diode pump. Intra cavity second harmonic generation were performed with non linear crystal LBO leading to output power of 76.6 mW at 450nm with absorbed power of 13.7 W and average absorption efficiency of 61% in Nd:ASL crystal.

  3. Chaos and localization in the wavefunctions of complex atoms NdI, PmI and SmI

    OpenAIRE

    Angom, Dilip; Kota, V. K. B.

    2004-01-01

    Wavefunctions of complex lanthanide atoms NdI, PmI and SmI, obtained via multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method, are analyzed for density of states in terms of partial densities, strength functions ($F_k(E)$), number of principal components ($\\xi_2(E)$) and occupancies ($\\lan n_\\alpha \\ran^E$) of single particle orbits using embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of one plus two-body random matrix ensembles [EGOE(1+2)]. It is seen that density of states are in general multi-modal, $F_k(E)$'s ex...

  4. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  5. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  6. Broadband visible light-harvesting naphthalenediimide (NDI) triad: study of the intra-/intermolecular energy/electron transfer and the triplet excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fangfang; Zhao, Jianzhang; Guo, Song; Yang, Wenbo; Fyles, Tom

    2015-05-21

    A triad based on naphthalenediimides (NDI) was prepared to study the intersystem crossing (ISC), the fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET), as well as the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes. In the triad, the 2-bromo-6-alkylaminoNDI moiety was used as singlet energy donor and the spin converter, whereas 2,6-dialkylaminoNDI was used as the singlet/triplet energy acceptor. This unique structural protocol and thus alignment of the energy levels ensures the competing ISC and FRET in the triad. The photophysical properties of the triad and the reference compounds were studied with steady-state UV-vis absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, nanosecond transient absorption spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and DFT/TDDFT calculations. FRET was confirmed with steady-state UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Intramolecular electron transfer was observed in polar solvents, demonstrated by the quenching of both the fluorescence and triplet state of the energy acceptor. Nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy shows that the T1 state of the triad is exclusively localized on the 2,6-dialkylaminoNDI moiety in the triad upon selective photoexcitation into the energy donor, which indicates the intramolecular triplet state energy transfer. The intermolecular triplet state energy transfer between the two reference compounds was investigated with nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The photophysical properties were rationalized by TDDFT calculations. PMID:25919420

  7. Pressure Dependence of Nernst Effect for La2−x−yNdySrxCuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of stripe strength on Nernst effect for La2−x−yNdySrxCuO4 single crystal under hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure is known to quite effectively control the stripe strength without changing hole concentration and chemical disorder (Nd concentrations). In the pressure, we found a drastic enhancement of Nernst signal below superconducting fluctuation temperature (Tsfl ∼ 50K), where field dependence of Nernst signal become non-linear. This result indicates the suppression of the stripe strength by applying pressure lead to the enhancement of the superconducting fluctuation. As reported previously, we have clearly observed the upturn of the Nernst signal below structural transition temperature (Tch∼75K for y=0.4), indicating that the stabilization of the stripe order makes the Nernst signal large. On the other hand, upturn of Nernst signal around 150K would consider to the temperature where fluctuation of the stripe order (dynamic stripe) develops.

  8. Audiobrändäys : äänimaailman merkitys osana yritysten brändi-identiteettien rakentamista

    OpenAIRE

    Turpeinen, Emmi

    2016-01-01

    Audiobrändäys on brändin rakentamiseen liittyvä elementti, joka tarkoittaa brändilähtöistä ja strategista, yksilöllisen ääni-identiteetin suunnittelua ja toteuttamista. Opinnäytetyössä käsitellään audiobrändäystä yritysten tai organisaatioiden brändien sekä kuluttajien välisen suhteen vahvistamisen näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena on mahdollisimman kattavan, mutta helposti ymmärrettävissä olevan kokonaisuuden luominen, jossa osoitetaan audiobrändäyksen tarpeellisuus osana brändi-identiteettien raken...

  9. Experimental flight test vibration measurements and nondestructive inspection on a USCG HC-130H aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Jones, C.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). FAA Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center; Mihelic, J.E.; Barnes, J.D. [Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center, Elizabeth City, NC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents results of experimental flight test vibration measurements and structural inspections performed by the Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (ARSC). Structural and aerodynamic changes induced by mounting a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system on a USCG HC-130H aircraft are described. The FLIR adversely affected the air flow characteristics and structural vibration on the external skin of the aircraft`s right main wheel well fairing. Upon initial discovery of skin cracking and visual observation of skin vibration in flight by the FLIR, a baseline flight without the FLIR was conducted and compared to other measurements with the FLIR installed. Nondestructive inspection procedures were developed to detect cracks in the skin and supporting structural elements and document the initial structural condition of the aircraft. Inspection results and flight test vibration data revealed that the FLIR created higher than expected flight loading and was the possible source of the skin cracking. The Coast Guard performed significant structural repair and enhancement on this aircraft, and additional in-flight vibration measurements were collected on the strengthened area both with and without the FLIR installed. After three months of further operational FLIR usage, the new aircraft skin with the enhanced structural modification was reinspected and found to be free of flaws. Additional US Coast Guard HC-130H aircraft are now being similarly modified to accommodate this FLIR system. Measurements of in-flight vibration levels with and without the FLIR installed, and both before and after the structural enhancement and repair were conducted on the skin and supporting structure in the aircraft`s right main wheel fairing. Inspection results and techniques developed to verify the aircraft`s structural integrity are discussed.

  10. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  11. Fatigue damage assessment of high-usage in-service aircraft fuselage structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosinyi, Bao Rasebolai

    As the commercial and military aircraft fleets continue to age, there is a growing concern that multiple-site damage (MSD) can compromise structural integrity. Multiple site damage is the simultaneous occurrence of many small cracks at independent structural locations, and is the natural result of fatigue, corrosion, fretting and other possible damage mechanisms. These MSD cracks may linkup and form a fatigue lead crack of critical length. The presence of MSD also reduces the structure's ability to withstand longer cracks. The objective of the current study is to assess, both experimentally and analytically, MSD formation and growth in the lap joint of curved panels removed from a retired aircraft. A Boeing 727-232 airplane owned and operated by Delta Air Lines, and retired at its design service goal, was selected for the study. Two panels removed from the left-hand side of the fuselage crown, near stringer 4L, were subjected to extended fatigue testing using the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center. The state of MSD was continuously assessed using several nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. Damage to the load attachment points of the first panel resulted in termination of the fatigue test at 43,500 fatigue cycles, before cracks had developed in the lap joint. The fatigue test for the second panel was initially conducted under simulated in-service loading conditions for 120,000 cycles, and no cracks were detected in the skin of the panel test section. Artificial damage was then introduced into the panel at selected rivets in the critical (lower) rivet row, and the fatigue loads were increased. Visually detectable crack growth from the artificial notches was first seen after 133,000 cycles. The resulting lead crack grew along the lower rivet row, eventually forming an 11.8" long unstable crack after 141,771 cycles, at which point the

  12. Expression of Yeast NDI1 Rescues a Drosophila Complex I Assembly Defect

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaehyoung; Hur, Jae H.; Graniel, Jacqueline; Benzer, Seymour; Walker, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and aging. Mitochondrial complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) is the largest and most complicated enzyme of the ETC with 45 subunits originating from two separate genomes. The biogenesis of complex I is an intricate process that requires multiple steps, subassemblies, and assembly factors. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a Drosophila model ...

  13. Morphology dependent optical anisotropies in the n-type polymer P(NDI2OD-T2)

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Steven J; Chabinyc, Michael L; Schuller, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors tend to self-assemble into highly ordered and oriented morphologies with anisotropic optical properties. Studying these optical anisotropies provides insight into processing-dependent structural properties and informs the photonic design of organic photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Here, we measure the anisotropic optical properties of spin-cast films of the n-type polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) using momentum-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. We quantify differences in the optical anisotropies of films deposited with distinct face-on and edge-on morphologies. In particular, we infer a substantially larger out-of-plane tilt angle of the optical transition dipole moment in high temperature annealed, edge-on films. Measurements of spectral differences between in-plane and out-of-plane dipoles, further indicate regions of disordered polymers in low temperature annealed face-on films that are otherwise obscured in traditional X-ray and optical characterization techniques. The me...

  14. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  15. Light shaping diffusers{trademark} improve aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shie, R.; Lerner, J. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Physical Optical Corporation has introduced a Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) for the specialized illumination requirements of aircraft inspection. Attached to a handheld, battery-powered flashlight, this light-weight, holographic diffuser element provides bright, even illumination as aircraft inspectors perform the important task of visually examining aircraft for possible structural defects. Field trials conducted by the Aging Aircraft Program at Sandia National Laboratories confirm that the LSD-equipped flashlights are preferred by visual inspectors over stock flashlights.

  16. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  17. Sisällöllä someen : sisältötoimisto Media Content Newsin sosiaalisen median strategia ja verkkobrändi

    OpenAIRE

    Harmanen, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    Miten rakennetaan yrityksen sosiaalisen median ohjeet ja verkkobrändi? Tämä opinnäytetyö pyrkii vastaamaan siihen kysymykseen. Sen lisäksi pyrin kertomaan, miksi sosiaalisen median käyttöön ylipäätään tarvitaan suunnitelma, minkälaisia välineitä ja strategioita viestimiseen voidaan käyttää, miten eri sosiaalisen median kanavat toimivat, milloin ja kuinka usein sosiaalisessa mediassa kannattaa julkaista. Opinnäytetyön tuoteosana on sosiaalisen median ohjeistus Media Content News -sisä...

  18. Anisotropic electron mobility studies on Cl2-NDI single crystals and the role of static and dynamic lattice deformations upon temperature variation

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nis Hauke; May, Falk; Kälblein, Daniel; Schmeiler, Teresa; Lennartz, Christian; Sanchez-Carrera, Roel; Steeger, Alexander; Burschka, Christian; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank; Brill, Jochen; Pflaum, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropic electron transport in the (001) plane of sublimation-grown Cl$_{2}$-NDI (naphthalene diimide) single crystals is analysed over a temperature range between 175 K and 300 K. Upon cooling from room temperature to 175 K the electron mobility along the direction of preferred transport monotonously increases from 1.5 cm$^{2}$/Vs to 2.8 cm$^{2}$/Vs according to a distinct temperature relation of $~T^{-1.3}$. At first glance, these characteristics allude to a coherent, i.e. band-like ...

  19. Brändi yhdistyksen toiminnan kehittämisen näkökulmana : Case M.A.D. Tanssimaisterit ry ja Loikka-tanssielokuvafestivaali

    OpenAIRE

    Leino, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön päätutkimuskysymys on, mitkä ovat Loikka-brändin vahvuudet ja brändin ylläpitämisen asettamat vaatimukset yhdistyksen toiminnalle. Tapaustutkimuksen kohteena on M.A.D. Tanssimaisterit ry (MAD) ja Loikka-tanssielokuvafestivaali. Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan, kuinka Loikka-brändin vahvuudet voidaan hyödyntää monipuolisemmin osana MAD:n toimintaa ja minkälaisia vaatimuksia brändi asettaa yhdistyksen perustoiminnalle. Tulosten pohjalta johdetaan joukko käytännön kehittämisideoita yhdis...

  20. Älä mainosta brändiä - elä sitä : Kuinka LumiWAU kesyttää kohderyhmän

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Lumi-Maaria

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli löytää ne toimintatavat ja keinot, joilla menestyä tekstiili- ja vaatetusalan pienyrittäjänä Suomessa 2010-luvulla. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millainen on toi-miva konsepti, miten luoda toimiva brändi luovan alan yrityksessä ja miten markkinoida onnistu-neesti. Lisäksi perehdyttiin myös kohderyhmän tavoittamiseen. Opinnäytetyöllä ei ollut ulkopuolista toimeksiantajaa, vaan se tehtiin pohjatyönä kirjoittajan aloit-televalle yritykselle. Tutkimuksen p...

  1. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  2. Processing infrared images of aircraft lapjoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hazari; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for processing IR images of aging aircraft lapjoint data are discussed. Attention is given to a technique for detecting disbonds in aircraft lapjoints which clearly delineates the disbonded region from the bonded regions. The technique is weak on unpainted aircraft skin surfaces, but can be overridden by using a self-adhering contact sheet. Neural network analysis on raw temperature data has been shown to be an effective tool for visualization of images. Numerical simulation results show the above processing technique to be an effective tool in delineating the disbonds.

  3. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  5. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  6. Designing A Conventional Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sonei, Arash

    2014-01-01

    This paper is explaining the important design phases of dimensioning an unmanned conventional aircraft from scratch and will also design one according to a few chosen requirements. The design phases discussed will be all from wing dimensioning to stability and spin recovery, aircraft performance requirements and how to select a motor which overcomes these. As well as the optimal rate of climb for improved efficiency is discussed. In the end an aircraft which manages the set requirements and i...

  7. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  8. Brändi ja sen kehittäminen : Bränditutkimus ja brändinkehittämisehdotuksia kauppakeskus Elolle

    OpenAIRE

    Kumanto, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Tämä työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia kauppakeskus Elon asiakkaiden brändimielikuvaa Elosta ja vastauksien perusteella koota brändinkehittämisehdotuksia. Tavoitteena on käyttää näitä tuloksia lisäämään kauppakeskus Elon johdon tietoa Elon brändistä heidän asiakkaiden näkökulmasta. Lisäksi tavoitteena on auttaa tämän tiedon ja työn sisältämien brändikehittämisehdotuksien pohjalta kehittämään Elon brändiä ja näin saada houkuteltua lisää asiakkaita kauppakeskukseen. Johdannossa esitellään kaup...

  9. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  10. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  11. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  12. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  13. Solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  15. Aircraft noise: Changes of biochemical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, E.; Moese, J.R.; Gallasch, E.; Fueger, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of stress caused by aircraft noise was studied on 14 female and 11 male volunteers, who were of a age ranging from 21 to 42 years and of a mean age of 25 years. The volunteers were exposed to an aircraft simulator the simulated the lowlevel flight of an airforce plane and produced a maximum noise level of 105 dB(A) for 3 sec. in a short time. Before and immediately after the exposure, the concentration of ACTH was measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. The ACTH is a hormone, responsible for initiating a chain-reaction that is characteristic for a stress reaction. In 100% of the cases the concentration of this hormone increased. It reached a pathological level in 28% of the cases. The effect on the lipid metabolism was expressed by an increase of total cholesterol and a decrease of the triglycerides in the serum. A slight increase in blood sugar which, together with the free fatty acids, is relatively quickly reduced to energy, could determined. The aircraft noise did not influence the activity of the liver transaminases in any way. A short-term exposure to aircraft noise is able to stimulate a stress reaction, whereby, the determination of the ACTH offers valuable informations.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  18. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  19. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  20. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  1. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  2. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  3. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  4. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  5. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  6. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  7. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  8. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  9. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  10. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  11. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  12. Altus aircraft on runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  13. Radial cylinder aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Šimíček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Práce je zaměřena na konstrukční řešení letadlových hvězdicových motorů. Úvod je pojednáním o historii letadlových hvězdicových motorů a jejich vývoji v historickém kontextu. Druhá část je zaměřena na konstrukci letadlových hvězdicových motorů, následně jsou uvedena některá zajímavá konstrukční řešení a porovnání s motorem jiného druhu konstrukce. The bachelor's thesis is focused on design of aircraft radial engines. Home is a treatise on the history of aircraft radial engines and their de...

  14. Aviation industry-research in aircraft finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenthal, Joachim C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft values are key to aircraft financing decisions: Aircraft values act as a source of security for providers of debt capital and lessors failing to re-place aircraft, and as a source of upside potential to equity investors. Yet, aircraft values cannot be precisely and continuously monitored. This is because neither actual primary nor secondary aircraft transaction prices are disclosed. Various types of third party valuation estimates exist, but relying solely on third party appraisa...

  15. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  16. Optimized procurement and retirement planning of Navy Ships and Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Ruben M.

    2001-01-01

    three categories of money. CIPA APU tracks average aircraft age, expected attrition, and allows planners to specify a platformαs mission suitability. It also provides expeditious feedback to requests for alternate scenario feasibility and budget impact. We demonstrate CIPA APU capabilities using a few realistic scenarios. US Navy (USN) author

  17. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  18. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  19. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  20. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  1. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  2. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  4. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  5. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  6. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  7. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  8. Challenges in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone A

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of aircraft noise prediction using theoretical methods. The problem is set in context with the needs at several levels to produce noise characterisation from commercial aircraft powered by gas turbine engines. We describe very briefly the computational model (whilst referring the reader to the appropriate literature), and provide examples of noise predictions and comparisons with measured data, where possible. We focus on the issue of stochastic analysi...

  9. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  10. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  11. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  12. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  13. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  14. Analysis of aircraft maintenance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed several organizational models of aircraft maintenance. All models presented so far have been in use in Air Forces, so that the advantages and disadvantages of different models are known. First it shows the current model of aircraft maintenance as well as its basic characteristics. Then the paper discusses two organizational models of aircraft maintenance with their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of different models are analyzed based on the criteria of operational capabilities of military units. In addition to operational capabilities, the paper presents some other criteria which should be taken into account in the evaluation and selection of an optimal model of aircraft maintenance. Performing a qualitative analysis of some models may not be sufficient for evaluating the optimum choice for models of maintenance referring to the selected set of criteria from the scope of operational capabilities. In order to choose the optimum model, it is necessary to conduct a detailed economic and technical analysis of individual tactical model maintenance. A high-quality aircraft maintenance organization requires the highest state and army authorities to be involved. It is necessary to set clear objectives for all the elements of modern air force technical support programs based on the given evaluation criteria.

  15. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  16. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje;

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...... cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the...

  17. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m3 LH2. This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  18. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  19. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  20. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  1. The relationship between civil aircraft noise and community annoyance in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Changwoo; Kim, Jaehwan; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab; Lee, Soojoo

    2007-01-01

    Studies of community annoyance caused by civil aircraft noise exposure were carried out in 18 areas around Gimpo and Gimhae international airports in order to accumulate social survey data and assess the relationship between aircraft noise levels and annoyance responses in Korea. WECPNL, adopted as the aircraft noise index in Korea, and the percentage of respondents who felt highly annoyed (%HA) have been used to assess the dose-response of aircraft noise. Aircraft noise levels were measured automatically by airport noise monitoring system, B&K type 3597. Social surveys were carried out to people living within 100 m of noise measurement points. The Questionnaire used in the survey contained demographic factors, noise annoyance, interference with daily activities and health-related symptoms. The question relating to the aircraft noise annoyance was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents who were aged between 18 and 70 years completed the questionnaire by themselves. In total, 705 respondents participated in the questionnaire. The results show that WECPNL, noise metric considering characteristics of event and intrusive noise, is more reasonable than L dn, noise metric considering total sound, to assess the effects of aircraft noise on health. It is also shown that the annoyance responses caused by aircraft noise in Korea seems higher than those reported in other countries.

  2. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  3. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  4. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  5. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  6. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  7. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  8. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  9. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  10. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  11. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  12. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  14. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  16. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  17. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  18. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  19. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  20. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  1. Multilevel modelling of aircraft noise on performance tests in schools around Heathrow Airport London

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, M; Stansfeld, S; Head, J.; Job, R

    2002-01-01

    Design: This is a cross sectional study using the National Standardised Scores (SATs) in mathematics, science, and English (11 000 scores from children aged 11 years). The analyses used multilevel modelling to determine the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on childrens' school performance adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and school factors in 123 primary schools around Heathrow Airport. Schools were assigned aircraft noise exposure level from the 1994 Civil Aviation Authorit...

  2. Increased prevalence of hypertension in a population exposed to aircraft noise

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenlund, M.; Berglind, N; Pershagen, G.; Jarup, L.; Bluhm, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate whether there is a relation between residential exposure to aircraft noise and hypertension.
METHODS—The study population comprised two random samples of subjects aged 19-80 years, one including 266 residents in the vicinity of Stockholm Arlanda airport, and another comprising 2693 inhabitants in other parts of Stockholm county. The subjects were classified according to the time weighted equal energy and maximum aircraft noise levels at their residence. A questionnai...

  3. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  4. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  5. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  6. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  7. Analysis of NTSB Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides: 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, P Michael; Walton, Robert O

    2016-04-01

    On March 24, 2015, a Germanwings aircraft crashed in the Alps. The suicidal copilot killed himself and 150 others. Pilot suicide is rare, but does happen. This research analyzed the National Transportation Safety Board's accident database (eADMS) looking for pilots who died by suicide in flight. Fifty-one suicides were identified. Gender, age, and other characteristics were examined. Average age of suicidal pilots was 38, significantly different from the average age of 45 for all male pilots involved in aircraft accidents. A discriminant function accurately identified suicidal incidents at 96%. There was a high false-positive rate limiting the usefulness of the discriminant function. PMID:27094027

  8. Aircraft noise and incidence of hypertension--gender specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bluhm, Gösta; Hilding, Agneta; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies show associations between aircraft noise and cardiovascular outcomes such as hypertension. However, these studies were mostly cross-sectional and there are uncertainties regarding potential gender differences as well as sensitive subgroups. In this study, we investigated the cumulative incidence of hypertension in relation to aircraft noise exposure among Swedish men and women living in Stockholm County. A total of 4721 subjects, aged 35-56 at baseline, were followed for 8-10 years. The population was selected according to family history of diabetes, which was present for half of the subjects. The exposure assessment was performed by geographical information systems and based on residential history during the period of follow-up. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Additional information regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension as well as various lifestyle factors was provided by questionnaires. In the overall population, no increased risk for hypertension was found among subjects exposed to aircraft noise ≥ 50 dB(A) L(den); relative risk (RR) 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15). When restricting the cohort to those not using tobacco at the blood pressure measurements, a significant risk increase per 5 dB(A) of aircraft noise exposure was found in men; RR 1.21 (1.05-1.39), but not in women; RR 0.97 (0.83-1.13). In both sexes combined, an increased risk of hypertension related to aircraft noise exposure was indicated primarily among those reporting annoyance to aircraft noise; RR 1.42 (1.11-1.82). No consistent effect modification was detected for any of the cardiovascular risk factors under investigation although a family history of diabetes appeared to modify the risk in women. In conclusion, the results suggest an increased risk of hypertension following long-term aircraft noise exposure in men, and that subjects annoyed by aircraft noise may be particularly sensitive to noise related hypertension. PMID:20880521

  9. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  10. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting

  11. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  12. Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with estimating aircraft landing and take-off (LTO) emissions (HC, CO, NOx, SO2) at 40 Turkish airports including the biggest airports, i.e. Ataturk International Airport (AIA) in Istanbul, Antalya Airport in Antalya and Esenboga Airport in Ankara in 2001. The calculation model is based on flight data recorded by the State Airports Authority. The flight data include the type and number of aircraft, number of passengers, amount of cargo etc., which depend on day-time and date. For the emission calculations the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-Engine emission data bank, which includes minimum and maximum values for both fuel flow rates and emissions factors, is used. By using first the minimum and then the maximum values from the data bank, two estimations of aircraft LTO emissions at Turkish airports are calculated: i.e. minimum and maximum estimations. Total LTO emissions from aircraft at Turkish airports are estimated to be between 7614.34 and 8338.79 t/year. These results are comparable with those from USA airports. Approximately half of these amounts are produced at AIA. To predict future emissions, it is estimated that an increase of 25% in LTO cycles might cause a rise of between 31 and 33% in emissions. The estimations show that a decrease of 2 min in taxiing time results in a decrease of 6% in LTO emissions. The estimation model used in this study can be used for expansions and planning of airports from an environmental point of view. (author)

  13. Challenges of aircraft design integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kafyeke, F.; Abdo, M.; Pepin, F; Piperni, P.; Laurendeau, E.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics, controls, systems, propulsion with complex interdependencies and many variables. Recent aircraft programs, such as Bombardier's Continental Jet program use participants located around the world and selected for their cost, quality and delivery capability. These participants share the risk on the program and must therefore be fully implicated in the design. A big challenge is to provide information on c...

  14. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  15. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  16. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  17. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  18. A unified model for ultrafine aircraft particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, B.; Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.; Danilin, M. Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Busen, R.

    2000-12-01

    To predict the environmental impacts of commercial aviation, intensive studies have been launched to measure the properties and effects of aircraft emissions. These observations have revealed an extremely wide variance with respect to the number and sizes of the particles produced in the exhaust plumes. An analytic parameterization is presented that explains most of the observational variance. It is shown that the observed scatter in emission indices of volatile particles is due mainly to variations of plume age, the detection threshold size of the particle counters, and condensable organic emissions. The principle trend of the volatile particle concentrations with fuel sulfur content can be explained with conversion fractions of sulfur into particulate sulfuric acid at emission within the range 0.5 to 5%. A novel assessment of the perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer by a future supersonic aircraft fleet confirms previous estimates and puts these simulations on a sounder physical basis.

  19. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  20. Choice of Aircraft Size - Explanations and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Givoni, Moshe; Rietveld, Piet

    2006-01-01

    To keep load factors high while offering high frequency service, airlines tend to reduce the size of the aircraft they use. At many of the world’s largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand for air transport is predicted to continue growing but aircraft size is not. This paper aims to investigate and explain this phenomenon, the choice of relatively small aircraft. It seems that this choice i...

  1. Neural Networks Based Aircraft Fault Tolerant Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to deal with the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform guidance maneuvers. The problem considered deals with the reallocation of redundant actuators to perform the required maneuvers and maintain the structural integrity of the aircraft. A Nonlinear Inverse Control technique is used to generate online nominal moment along the three axis of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structu...

  2. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  3. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  4. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  5. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  6. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the distribution of the frames in the population is dependent on structural variables related to the individual. To reveal subjects’ frames of aircraft noise a latent class model is estimated based on ...

  8. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  9. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  10. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  11. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... applicability of these regulations to unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The proposed definition stated... unmanned aircraft system that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the purpose of... notification and reporting of aircraft accidents or incidents by adding a definition of ``unmanned......

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  13. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  14. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  15. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  16. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  17. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  18. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  20. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  1. Noise control mechanisms of inside aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, A. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    World trends in the development of methods and approaches to noise reduction in aircraft cabins are reviewed. The paper discusses the mechanisms of passive and active noise and vibration control, application of "smart" and innovative materials, new approaches to creating all fuselage-design elements, and other promising directions of noise control inside aircraft.

  2. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  3. Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, John H.; Youssef, Mennatoallah; Vahala, Linda

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared with previously collected experimental data. It was concluded that the software could qualitatively predict electromagnetic propagation inside the aircraft cabin environment.

  4. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  5. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  6. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  7. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  8. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  9. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  10. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  11. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  12. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  13. The influence of ozone on self-evaluation of symptoms in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Weschler, Charles J.; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2008-01-01

    Simulated 4-h flights were carried out in a realistic model of a three-row, 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin that was reconstructed inside a climate chamber. Twenty-nine female subjects, age 19-27 years, were split into two groups; each group was exposed to four conditions: two levels of ozone (...

  14. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  15. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  16. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  17. Further Evolution of Composite Doubler Aircraft Repairs Through a Focus on Niche Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROACH,DENNIS P.

    2000-07-15

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safety extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC) is conducting a program with Boeing and Federal Express to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the US commercial aircraft industry. This project focuses on repair of DC-10 structure and builds on the foundation of the successful L-1011 door corner repair that was completed by the AANC, Lockheed-Martin, and Delta Air Lines. The L-1011 composite doubler repair was installed in 1997 and has not developed any flaws in over three years of service, As a follow-on effort, this DC-1O repair program investigated design, analysis, performance (durability, flaw containment, reliability), installation, and nondestructive inspection issues. Current activities are demonstrating regular use of composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft. The primary goal of this program is to move the technology into niche applications and to streamline the design-to-installation process. Using the data accumulated to date, the team has designed, analyzed, and developed inspection techniques for an array of composite doubler

  18. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  19. Aircraft impact on a spherical shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plants located in the immediate vicinity of cities and airports safeguarding against an accidental aircraft strike is important. Because of the complexity of such an aircraft crash the building is ordinarily designed for loading by an idealized dynamical load F(t), which follows from measurements (aircraft striking a rigid wall). The extent to which the elastic displacements of a structure influence the impact load F(t) is investigatd in this paper. The aircraft is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination which can easily be treated in computations and which can suffer elastic as well as plastic deformations. This 'aircraft' normally strikes a spherical shell at the apex. The time-dependent reactions of the shell as a function of the unknown impact load F(t) are expanded in terms of the normal modes, which are Legendre functions. The continuity condition at the impact point leads to an integral equation for F(t) which may be solved by Laplace transformation. F(t) is computed for hemispheres with several ratios of thickness to radius, several edge conditions and several 'aircraft' parameters. In all cases F(t) differs very little from that function obtained for the case of the aircraft striking a rigid wall. (Auth.)

  20. Impact of Age and Duration of Symptoms on Surgical Outcome of Single-Level Microscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF. We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male with a mean age of 41.2±4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25±4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months. Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits. Functional outcome was eventually evaluated by Odom’s criteria. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability from preoperative 6.2±1.4 and 22.2±6.2 to 3.5±2.0 and 8.7±5.2 (1–21 at the last follow-up visit, respectively. Satisfactory outcomes were observed in 89.7%. Symptom duration of more and less than six months had no effect on surgical outcome, but the results showed a statistically significant difference in NDI improvement in favor of the patients aged more than 45 years (P=0.032, although pain improvement was similar in the two groups.

  1. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagam, R.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lerner, J.; Shie, R. [Physical Optics Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  2. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagam, Richard N.; Lerner, Jeremy M.; Shie, Rick

    1995-07-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser TM (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  3. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  4. Hydrogen fueled subsonic aircraft - A prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance characteristics of hydrogen-fueled subsonic transport aircraft are compared with those of aircraft using conventional aviation kerosene. Results of the Cryogenically Fueled Aircraft Technology Program sponsored by NASA indicate that liquid hydrogen may be particularly efficient for subsonic transport craft when ranges of 4000 km or more are involved; however, development of advanced cryogenic tanks for liquid hydrogen fuel is required. The NASA-sponsored program also found no major technical obstacles for international airports converting the liquid hydrogen fueling systems. Resource utilization efficiency and fuel production costs for hydrogen produced by coal gasification or for liquid methane or synthetic aviation kerosene are also assessed.

  5. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  6. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an...

  7. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of...

  8. 9 CFR 91.41 - Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft... INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Cleaning and Disinfecting of Aircraft § 91.41 Cleaning and disinfecting of aircraft. Prior to loading of animals, the stowage area of aircraft to be used...

  9. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  10. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...

  11. 14 CFR 399.43 - Treatment of leased aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of leased aircraft. 399.43... Treatment of leased aircraft. In determining the appropriate treatment of leased aircraft for ratemaking... leased aircraft value (determined on a constructive depreciated basis) in relation to net book value...

  12. Aircraft noise in Berlin affects quality of life even outside the airport grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Eibich, Peter; Kholodilin, Konstantin; Krekel, Christian; Wagner, Gert G.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft noise is a particularly problematic source of noise as many airports are located in or near major cities and, as a result, densely populated areas are affected. Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (Berliner Altersstudie II, BASE-II), whose socio-economic module is based on the longitudinal Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study which has been conducted since 1984, allows us to examine the effect of different levels of aircraft noise on the subjective wellbeing and health of the older resi...

  13. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  14. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  15. Smart structure application for the Challenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Blaha, Franz A.

    1994-09-01

    The Challenger aircraft fleet of the Canadian Forces will fly demanding missions, requiring the implementation of a fatigue management program based on the monitoring of in-flight aircraft load conditions. Conventional sensing techniques experience problems arising from severe electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper describes the development of an EMI- insensitive smart-structure sensing concept for loads monitoring. Fiber-optic strain sensors, incorporated at critical structural locations, are used to monitor the fatigue life of the aircraft wing, fuselage, and empennage. A fiber-optic accelerometer is also incorporated in the system. A long-term plan is presented for the development of an advanced smart-structure concept which can support the continuous monitoring of fatigue-prone components, and provide the aircraft with near real-time damage location and assessment.

  16. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  17. Directional monitoring terminal for aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genescà, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a concept of an aircraft noise monitoring terminal (NMT) that reduces background noise and the influence of ground reflection, in comparison with a single microphone. Also, it automatically identifies aircraft sound events based on the direction of arrival of the sound rather than on the sound pressure level (or radar data). And moreover, it provides an indicator of the quality of the sound pressure level measurement, i.e. if it is possibly disturbed by extraneous sources. The performance of this NMT is experimentally tested under real conditions in a measurement site close to Zurich airport. The results show that the NMT unambiguously identifies the noise events generated by the target aircraft, correctly detects those aircraft noise events that may be disturbed by the presence of other sources, and offers a substantial reduction in background and ground reflected sound.

  18. The drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program, which began in 1976, has mounted a development effort in four major transport aircraft technology fields: laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, flight controls, and composite structures. ACEE has explored two basic methods for achieving drag-reducing boundary layer laminarization: the use of suction through the wing structure (via slots or perforations) to remove boundary layer turbulence, and the encouragement of natural laminar flow maintenance through refined design practices. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted for wide bodied aircraft equipped with high aspect ratio supercritical wings and winglets. Maneuver load control and pitch-active stability augmentation control systems reduce fuel consumption by reducing the drag associated with high aircraft stability margins. Composite structures yield lighter airframes that in turn call for smaller wing and empennage areas, reducing induced drag for a given payload. In combination, all four areas of development are expected to yield a fuel consumption reduction of 40 percent.

  19. Engineering students win NASA aircraft design competition

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Centuria," a single-engine jet aircraft designed by undergraduate engineering students from Virginia Tech and their counterparts at Loughborough University in the U.K., has won the Best Overall Award in NASA's 2004 Revolutionary Vehicles and Concepts Competition.

  20. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  1. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  2. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  3. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  4. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10-6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  5. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of...

  6. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered...

  7. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  8. Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knowledge and support Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight Category: FAQ's Tags: Risks Archives Breast Cancer Survivors ... limb carefully) and apply pressure as needed. DURING FLIGHT Keep your seat belt loosely fastened so that ...

  9. Cooling system for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

  10. Incidence of Fungal attack on Aircraft Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of fungal attack on the fuselage of a few Vampire aircraft has been observed. The fungus isolated from the infected regions has been tentatively indentified as TorulaSp. Laboratory experiments have revealed that within four weeks this fungus causes about 44 percent loss in the tensile strength of the brich plywood used in the manufacture of the fuselage of the aircraft.

  11. Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

  12. Aircraft Noise: Annoyance, House Prices and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2006-01-01

    “Nobody wants to buy your house. It’s the aircraft noise. You’ll have to reduce the price a lot.” Aircraft noise around airports causes annoyance, and tends to reduce the price of affected properties. Can annoyance be ‘costed’ by examining house price reductions? Are there other ways of valuing annoyance in monetary terms? This short paper summarises key research results and poses some questions.

  13. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė; Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2013-01-01

    Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.T...

  14. An Optimization Model for Aircraft Service Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus; Cheung; W; H; Ip; Angel; Lai; Eva; Cheung

    2002-01-01

    Scheduling is one of the most difficult issues in t he planning and operations of the aircraft services industry. In this paper, t he various scheduling problems in ground support operation of an aircraft mainte nance service company are addressed. The authors developed a set of vehicle rout ings to cover each schedule flights; the objectives pursued are the maximization of vehicle and manpower utilization and minimization of operation time. To obta in the goals, an integer-programming model with geneti...

  15. Anti-aircraft Missiles and Gun Control

    OpenAIRE

    BLOCK, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Gun control is a highly debatable topic both in the popular and scholarly media. But what about anti-aircraft missiles? Should they be banned? On the one hand, there are fewer of them around, so their challenge is more tractable. On the other hand, they can do far more damage than handguns. The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this challenge.Keywords. Gun control, Second amendment, Libertarianism, Anti-aircraft missiles.JEL. K15.

  16. Aircraft Wake Vortex Evolution and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Holzäpfel, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices constitute both a kaleidoscope of instructive fluid dynamics phenomena and a challenge for the sustained development of safety and capacity of the air-transportation industry. The current manuscript gives an overview on the wake vortex issue which commences at its historical roots and concludes with the current status of knowledge regarding the nature and characteristics, and the modeling of aircraft wakes. The incentive of today's wake vortex research still re...

  17. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  18. Maintenance program developmentandImport /Export of Aircraft in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Takele, Teklu

    2009-01-01

    AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...

  19. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  20. Predictive Health Monitoring for Aircraft Systems using Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Unscheduled aircraft maintenance causes a lot problems and costs for aircraft operators. This is due to the fact that aircraft cause significant costs if flights have to be delayed or canceled and because spares are not always available at any place and sometimes have to be shipped across the world. Reducing the number of unscheduled maintenance is thus a great costs factor for aircraft operators. This thesis describes three methods for aircraft health monitoring and prediction; one method fo...

  1. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  2. Intelligent control of agile aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, R.R.; Zakrzewski, R.R. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A brief overview of adaptive and computer-aided flight control is presented as background for the evolution of recent research on nonlinear intelligent control. Here, several nonlinear control algorithms are investigated but emphasis is given to nearly time-optimal, neural-net generated feedback control which is trained on ideal minimum-time, open-loop trajectories. The minimum-time policies are computed by a new version of the switching-line-variational method (gradient algorithm). Critical control constraints and a benchmark for performance as well as a basis for training are obtained for the system design. This further demonstrates the need for an integrated controls and aircraft system design for full utilization of nonlinear control capability. Complex nonlinear simulations show the effectiveness of the derived nonlinear feedback controller for the high-angle-of-attack research vehicle (HARV) with stabilator and thrust-vector control. For example, angle of attack is controlled from near zero to sixty degrees in about two seconds with appropriate trim conditions at both ends. Such control greatly enhances maneuverability and general flight envelope admissibility.

  3. Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.

    2003-10-01

    Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage in access to major facilities and hundreds of measurement microphones, but universities and even consulting companies can perform tests with electret microphones and PC data acquisition systems. The type of testing remains a blend of science and art. A complex noise source is approximated by a mathematical model, and the microphones are deployed to evaluate the parameters of the model. For example, the simplest, but often the best, approach is to assume a distribution of mutually incoherent monopoles. This leads to an imaging process analogous to photography. Other models include coherent distributions of multipoles or duct modes. It is sometimes important to simulate the results that would have been obtained from single microphone measurements of part of the airplane in an ideal environment, had such measurements been feasible.

  4. Structural Load Alleviation Applied to Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a goal of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Environmental impact of aviation is being addressed by novel aircraft configurations and materials that reduce aircraft weight and increase aerodynamic efficiency. NASA is developing tools to address the challenges of increased airframe flexibility created by wings constructed with reduced structural material and novel light-weight materials. This talk will present a framework and demonstration of a flight control system using optimal control allocation with structural load feedback and constraints to achieve safe aircraft operation. As wind turbines age, they become susceptible to many forms of blade degradation. Results will be presented on work in progress that uses adaptive contingency control for load mitigation in a wind turbine simulation with blade damage progression modeled.

  5. Back pain and its consequences among Polish Air Force pilots flying high performance aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Truszczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Back pain in Air Force fast jet pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and degree of the pain intensity in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, subjective risk factors and their effect on the pilots' performance while flying high maneuver aircrafts and the consequences for cognitive deficiencies. Material and Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on the age, aircraft type, flying hours, pain characteristics, physical activity, etc. The study was participated by 94 pilots aged 28-45 years (mean age: 35.9±3.3 years, actively flying fast jet aircrafts Su-22, Mig-29 and F-16. The estimates regarding the level of the subjective back pain were established using visual analogue scales (VAS. Results: The values of the Cochran and Cox T-test for heterogeneous variances are as follows: for the total number of flying hours: F = 2.53, p = 0.0145, for the pilot's age: F = 3.15, p = 0.003, and for the BMI factor F = 2.73, p = 0.008. Conclusions: Our questionnaire survey showed a significant problem regarding spinal conditions in high performance aircraft pilots. The determination of the risk factors may lead to solving this problem and help eliminate the effect of the unfavorable environment on piloting jet aircrafts. Experiencing back pain during the flight might influence the mission performance and flight safety. The costs of pilots education are enormous and inability to fly, or even disability, leads to considerable economic loss. More research on specific prevention strategies is warranted in order to improve the in-flight working environment of fighter pilots.

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive agency)? (a) The process for budgeting to acquire a...

  7. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the in

  8. Conceptual design of high speed supersonic aircraft: A brief review on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.

  9. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document...

  10. Improving Aircraft Design Robustness with Scenario Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strohmayer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other industries, the aerospace sector is characterized by long product cycles in a very complex environment. The aircraft manufacturer has to base his product strategy on a long-term view of risks and opportunities in the transport industry but he cannot predict the development of relevant factors in this market environment with any certainty. In this situation, scenario methods offer a pragmatic way to limit the uncertainties and to work them up methodically, in order to derive recommendations for cost-intensive strategic decisions like for example the go-ahead for a new aircraft concept. By including scenario methods in the aircraft design cycle, the ‘design robustness’ can be improved, i.e. the design is not optimised for a prognosticated operating environment, but can cope with various possible future developments. The paper will explain the three fundamental aspects in applying scenario planning to the aircraft design process: requirement definition, design evaluation and technology identification. For each aspect, methods will be shown, which connect the rather qualitative results of a scenario process with aircraft design, which typically demands a qualitative input.

  11. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  12. Aircraft impact analysis for the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis performed to determine the annual frequency at which aircraft are expected to strike the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) complex, located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since the HFBR is not hardened against light aircraft, this report considers the impact of military, commercial, twin engine and single engine aircraft operating in the vicinity of the HFBR. The large volume of light aircraft operating in this area contributes heavily to the estimated annual impact frequency of 3.54E-05 impacts per year. There are two chapters and seven appendices in this report. The first chapter describes the airspace in the vicinity of the HFBR. This includes five airports, two major airways, one standard arrival route, as well as a significant volume of radar vectored and air-taxi traffic. The second chapter of this report presents the calculations by which the expected impact frequency was derived, and an assessment of the uncertainty in those calculations. The calculations were performed using the method outlined in the NRC Standard Review Plan. A separate set of calculations is presented for each of three sources of aircraft: airway traffic, Brookhaven Airport, and Calverton Airport. The appendices contain discussions and side calculations ancillary to the presentation in the second section. This includes a discussion of the data used to estimate traffic counts, information on accident rates, and several other points which would have only been distracting if included in the main discussion

  13. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  14. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  15. Naval aviation aging wiring: prognostic and diagnostic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy and Marine Corps provide key forward-presence, crisis response and war-fighting capabilities to our nation's leaders and joint commanders. Naval Aviation plays a central role in every naval mission. Unfortunately, the tools of naval aviation's power, its aircraft, are becoming alarmingly old. The average age of the naval aviation inventory is in excess of eighteen years old. The nerve center of today's sophisticated aircraft, ...

  16. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  17. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  18. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  19. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  20. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  1. Requirements for the protection against aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, H; Ortscheid, J

    2004-01-01

    In preparation of the revised edition of the Air Traffic Noise Act the Federal Environmental Agency formulated targets for aircraft noise control. They were prepared oriented to the Federal Immission Control Act. The assessment periods were chosen analogously to the regulations on other traffic noise sources (rail traffic, road traffic). The control targets cover the following affected areas * aural, extra-aural health * night's sleep * annoyance * communication * recreation Considerable nuisance can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise(outside) to equivalent levels below 55 dB(A) by day and 45 dB(A) at night, and impairment of health can be avoided by limiting the exposure to aircraft noise (outside) to equivalent levels below 60 dB(A) by day and 50 dB(A) at night. PMID:15703137

  2. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  3. Robotic aircraft scanner for neutron radiographic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic positioner and manipulator, a key component of a mobile neutron radiography system (MNRS) for aircraft inspection, is described. The MNRS is designed to inspect military aircraft for hidden corrosion in aluminum structures. The MNRS is comprised of an accelerator-based (Kaman A-711 sealed tube neutron generator using the deuterium-tritium reaction) thermal neutron source, electronic neutron imaging system, robotic positioner and manipulator for the source/imager, control trailer housing system control electronics and digital image processing system, mobile dark room for film processing, self-contained electrical power source, and radiation safety system. For in situ aircraft inspection, the robotic scanner is programmed (in a teach/learn mode) to scan a region of the components (e.g., wings, stabilizers, etc.) using a control pendant

  4. ANASE: measuring aircraft noise annoyance very unreliably.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Does anyone who lives under a flight-path like aircraft noise? It is a political hot potato as well as a peace-destroyer. Tens of thousands of people will hear the noise from any third runway at Heathrow. So, when a study commissioned by the government claimed that people are becoming less tolerant of aircraft noise, it made highly unpleasant reading for supporters of a third runway. But the Department for Transport rejected the report as unreliable. Peter Brooker senses the vibrations.

  5. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  6. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  7. Aircraft concepts for service to small communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Small communities are served by trunk, local-service, and commuter carriers having a wide variety in route structure, type of service, and economic character, operating over stage lengths less than 400 statute miles. NASA studies have investigated various aircraft concepts for short-haul that have potential in this market area. Aircraft concepts for this market require a careful balancing of performance, technology, and design-to-cost considerations. This paper summarizes some results of recent NASA sponsored air transportation system studies applicable to small community arenas.

  8. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  9. Modelling Lightning Initiation and Attachment to Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present initial calculations of the formation of streamers on an aircraft. A two-dimensional model has been used to determine electric field strengths and charge densities around solids of various geometries and electrical conductivities. The calculations take into account the distortion of the background electric fields by the solid material and the production and motion of charged species. Detailed time-dependent visualizations of the streamer initiation and propagation are presented. The effects of size and aspect ratio of the gross features of the aircraft on the development of the streamers is discussed

  10. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  11. Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sharleen

    With 4.9% of total anthropogenic radiative forcing attributed to aircraft emissions, jet engines combust copious amounts of fuel producing gases including: NOx (NO + NO2), SOx, VOC's and fine particles [IPCC (1999), IPCC (2007), Lee et al., 2009]. The tropospheric non-linear relationships between NOx, OH and O3 contribute uncertainties in the ozone budget amplified by poor understanding of the NOx cycle. In a polluted urban environment, interaction of gases and particles produce various new compounds that are difficult to measure with analytical tools available today [Thiemens, 2006]. Using oxygen triple isotopic measurement of NO3 to investigate gas to particle formation and chemical transformation in the ambient atmosphere, this study presents data obtained from aerosols sampled at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, CA during January and February, 2009 and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) during Fall 2009, Winter 2010, and Spring 2010. The aerosols collected from jet aircraft exhaust in Palmdale exhibit an oxygen isotope anomaly (Delta17O =delta 17O -0.52 delta18O) increase with photochemical age of particles (-0.22 to 26.41‰) while NO3 concentration decreases from 53.76 - 5.35ppm with a radial distance from the jet dependency. Bulk aerosol samples from LAX exhibit seasonal variation with Delta17 O and NO3 concentration peaking in winter suggesting multiple sources and increased fossil fuel burning. Using oxygen triple isotopes of NO3, we are able to distinguish primary and secondary nitrate by aircraft emissions allowing new insight into a portion of the global nitrogen cycle. This represents a new and potentially important means to uniquely identify aircraft emissions on the basis of the unique isotopic composition of jet aircraft emissions.

  12. The contribution of aircraft emissions to the atmospheric sulfur budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Sausen, R.; Hein, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model including the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been used to investigate the impact of aircraft sulfur emissions on the global sulfur budget of the atmosphere. The relative contribution from aircraft sulfur to the atmospheric sulfate burden is larger than the ratio between aircraft emissions and surface emissions due to the calculated long turn-over time of aircraft sulfate (about 12 days). However, in terms of the sulfate mass balance, aircraft emissions are small, contributing about 1% of the total sulfate mass north of 40 deg C where the aircraft emissions are largest. Despite this small contribution to sulfate mass, the aircraft emissions could potentially significantly enhance the background number concentration of aerosol particles. Based on the model calculations the increased stratospheric background aerosol mass observed during the last decades can not be explained by increased aircraft sulfur emissions 50 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  14. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  15. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  16. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  17. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  18. CAD SIMULATION & FEM ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh W. Nirwan; Dilip G. Gangwani,

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft landing gear supports the entire weight of an aircraft during landing and ground operations. They are attached to primary structural members of the aircraft. The type of gear depends on the aircraft design and its intended use. Most landing gear has wheels to facilitate operation to and from hard surfaces, such as airport runways. Other gear feature skids for this purpose, such as those found on helicopters, balloon gondolas, and in the tail area of some tail dragger airc...

  19. Flight Control Design for a Tailless Aircraft Using Eigenstructure Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Nieto-Wire; Kenneth Sobel

    2011-01-01

    We apply eigenstructure assignment to the design of a flight control system for a wind tunnel model of a tailless aircraft. The aircraft, known as the innovative control effectors (ICEs) aircraft, has unconventional control surfaces plus pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. We linearize the aircraft in straight and level flight at an altitude of 15,000 feet and Mach number 0.4. Then, we separately design flight control systems for the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. We use a control allocation ...

  20. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  1. Actuation technology for flight control system on civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the author’s Group Design Project (GDP) and Individual Research Project (IRP). The IRP is discussed primarily herein, presenting the actuation technology for the Flight Control System (FCS) on civil aircraft. Actuation technology is one of the key technologies for next generation More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and All Electric Aircraft (AEA); it is also an important input for the preliminary design of the Flying Crane, the aircraft designed in the author’s G...

  2. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  3. A measurement method to discriminate aircraft fly-over noise

    OpenAIRE

    Genesca Francitorra, Meritxell; Romeu Garbí, Jordi; Pàmies Gómez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Currently aircraft noise monitoring systems use a mesh of single microphones distributed around an airport to continuously sample the noise level. This fact requires a manual process of aircraft noise event detection and classification in order to distinguish aircraft events from the rest of noise events in the recording. In the present paper a 3-meter-long 12-microphone linear array is used to automatically obtain a background noise free aircraft noise recording. The beamforming process sepa...

  4. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gino Rinaldi; Trisha Huber; Heather McIntosh; Les Lebrun; Heping Ding; John Weber

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be p...

  5. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  6. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... of provisions pertaining to integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the...

  7. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... revision process. Background: Under the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule, 69 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004,...

  8. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft....

  9. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with Federal...

  10. 10 CFR 70.14 - Foreign military aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign military aircraft. 70.14 Section 70.14 Energy....14 Foreign military aircraft. The regulations in this part do not apply to persons who carry special nuclear material (other than plutonium) in aircraft of the armed forces of foreign nations subject to 49...

  11. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile,...

  12. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  13. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  14. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and revised standards with...

  15. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  16. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 RIN 2120-AJ31 Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations... operating rules to require U.S. operators flying outside the United States to carry aircraft noise..., Subpart III, Section 44715, Controlling aircraft noise and sonic boom. Under that section, the FAA...

  17. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  19. Commercial Aircraft Emission Scenario for 2020: Database Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.; Wey, Chowen C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel use and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the commercial aircraft fleet projected to 2020. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 2020 are compared to global totals from previous aircraft emission scenario calculations.

  20. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft...

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet deposition of Si-based coupling films as surface preparation for structural adhesive bonding in the aircraft industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bringmann, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Damages of metallic aircraft structures that occur during manufacturing, assembly and in service require local repair. Especially with current service-life extensions of ageing aircraft fleets, the importance of such repair methods is increasing. Typically, the repair of smaller damages on aluminium fuselage or wing skins is done by riveting a patch onto the flawed structure. However, the use of rivets reduces the strength of the structure and promotes fatigue. Joining the patch by adhesive b...

  2. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.....

  3. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  4. Mission management for unmanned aircraft systems

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Arroyo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and implement a mission manager for unmanned aircraft systems. The mission manager will work under the USAL architecture designed by the ICARUS UAV group at the EPSC. The student will be able to learn programming skills, working with a group, and research.

  5. Ultrawideband Electromagnetic Interference to Aircraft Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Shaver, Timothy W.

    2002-01-01

    A very recent FCC Final Rule now permits marketing and operation of new products that incorporate Ultrawideband (UWB) technology into handheld devices. Wireless product developers are working to rapidly bring this versatile, powerful and expectedly inexpensive technology into numerous consumer wireless devices. Past studies addressing the potential for passenger-carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to interfere with aircraft electronic systems suggest that UWB transmitters may pose a significant threat to aircraft communication and navigation radio receivers. NASA, United Airlines and Eagles Wings Incorporated have performed preliminary testing that clearly shows the potential for handheld UWB transmitters to cause cockpit failure indications for the air traffic control radio beacon system (ATCRBS), blanking of aircraft on the traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) displays, and cause erratic motion and failure of instrument landing system (ILS) localizer and glideslope pointers on the pilot horizontal situation and attitude director displays. This paper provides details of the preliminary testing and recommends further assessment of aircraft systems for susceptibility to UWB electromagnetic interference.

  6. Tactical aircraft optical cable plant program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.; Ide, James R.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to tactical aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits, including increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability from redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. The application of fiber optics to tactical aircraft presents challenges to physical components which can only be met by a methodical attention to what is required, what are the conditions of use, and how will the components be produced in the broad context of a fiber optics using economy. For this purpose, the FLASH program has outlined a plan, and developed a team to evaluate requirements, delineate environmental and use conditions, and design practical, low cost components for tactical aircraft fiber optic cable plants including cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, and test and maintenance methods.

  7. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  8. Emergency Landing Planning for Damaged Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last 15 years on building adaptive control systems to assist pilots in flying damaged aircraft. Once a pilot has regained control of a damaged aircraft, the next problem is to determine the best site for an emergency landing. In general, the decision depends on many factors including the actual control envelope of the aircraft, distance to the site, weather en route, characteristics of the approach path, characteristics of the runway or landing site, and emergency facilities at the site. All of these influence the risk to the aircraft, to the passengers and crew, and to people and property on the ground. We describe an ongoing project to build and demonstrate an emergency landing planner that takes these various factors into consideration and proposes possible routes and landing sites to the pilot, ordering them according to estimated risk. We give an overview of the system architecture and input data, describe our preliminary modeling of risk, and describe how we search the space of landing sites and routes.

  9. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  10. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  11. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  12. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  14. Recognition of aircraft using HRR features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossen, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) based on high resolution radar (HRR) features can be used to increase the confidence in aircraft class. Standard radar systems are not designed for performing classification and uses additional identification systems. It is shown that with the use of features the a

  15. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...), and (d) published at 78 FR 14920 on March 8, 2013, are effective on November 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...-161, published at 78 FR 14920, March 8, 2013. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1187. The Commission... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  16. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6... safety. (a) The provisions of this part will be revised if at any time the Administrator determines...

  17. Atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NOx), water vapor (H2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet

  18. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  19. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  20. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    OpenAIRE

    Наумов, А. В.

    1999-01-01

    Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  2. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children′s episodic memory: The RANCH Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Matheson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children′s performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children′s episodic memory.

  3. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designed to protect the occupant from serious head injury when the occupant experiences the ultimate..., approved flotation gear readily available to each occupant and, unless the aircraft is operating under part... latching device for each occupant 2 years of age or older. (14) For small civil airplanes...

  4. Aircraft engine performance and integration in a flying wing aircraft conceptual design

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Zhisong.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand of more economical and environmentally friendly aero engines leads to the proposal of a new concept – geared turbofan. In this thesis, the characteristics of this kind of engine and relevant considerations of integration on a flying wing aircraft were studied. The studies can be divided into four levels: GTF-11 engine modelling and performance simulation; aircraft performance calculation; nacelle design and aerodynamic performance evaluation; preliminar...

  5. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR 25356... Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 70 FR 2521, November 17, 2005. E....

  6. Review of the effect of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Stéphane; Tétreault, Louis-François; King, Norman; Plante, Céline; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Noise exposure generated by air traffic has been linked with sleep disturbances. The purpose of this systematic review is to clarify whether there is a causal link between aircraft noise exposure and sleep disturbances. Only complete, peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals were examined. Papers published until December 2010 were considered. To be included, articles had to focus on subjects aged 18 or over and include an objective evaluation of noise levels. Studies were classified according to quality. Given the paucity of studies with comparable outcome measures, we performed a narrative synthesis using a best-evidence synthesis approach. The primary study findings were tabulated. Similarities and differences between studies were investigated. Of the 12 studies surveyed that dealt with sleep disturbances, four were considered to be of high quality, five were considered to be of moderate quality and three were considered to be of low quality. All moderate- to high-quality studies showed a link between aircraft noise events and sleep disturbances such as awakenings, decreased slow wave sleep time or the use of sleep medication. This review suggests that there is a causal relation between exposure to aircraft noise and sleep disturbances. However, the evidence comes mostly from experimental studies focusing on healthy adults. Further studies are necessary to determine the impact of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance for individuals more than 65 years old and for those with chronic diseases. PMID:22517305

  7. Review of the effect of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise exposure generated by air traffic has been linked with sleep disturbances. The purpose of this systematic review is to clarify whether there is a causal link between aircraft noise exposure and sleep disturbances. Only complete, peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals were examined. Papers published until December 2010 were considered. To be included, articles had to focus on subjects aged 18 or over and include an objective evaluation of noise levels. Studies were classified according to quality. Given the paucity of studies with comparable outcome measures, we performed a narrative synthesis using a best-evidence synthesis approach. The primary study findings were tabulated. Similarities and differences between studies were investigated. Of the 12 studies surveyed that dealt with sleep disturbances, four were considered to be of high quality, five were considered to be of moderate quality and three were considered to be of low quality. All moderate- to high-quality studies showed a link between aircraft noise events and sleep disturbances such as awakenings, decreased slow wave sleep time or the use of sleep medication. This review suggests that there is a causal relation between exposure to aircraft noise and sleep disturbances. However, the evidence comes mostly from experimental studies focusing on healthy adults. Further studies are necessary to determine the impact of aircraft noise on sleep disturbance for individuals more than 65 years old and for those with chronic diseases.

  8. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  9. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  10. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  11. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  12. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  13. Aging mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Kuro-o, Makoto; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aging (senescence) has long been a difficult issue to be experimentally analyzed because of stochastic processes, which contrast with the programmed events during early development. However, we have recently started to learn the molecular mechanisms that control aging. Studies of the mutant mouse, klotho, showing premature aging, raise a possibility that mammals have an “anti-aging hormone.” A decrease of cell proliferation ability caused by the telomeres is also t...

  14. Happy Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秉中

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  15. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  16. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  17. Power Generation and Distribution System of Modern Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the aircraft industry is moving towards the all electric and More Electric Aircraft (MEA; is the future trend in adopting single power type for driving the non-propulsive aircraft systems; i.e. is the electrical power. The trend in the aircraft industry is to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems achieving more comfort and monitoring features. The structure of MEA distribution system improves aircraft maintainability, reliability, flight safety and efficiency. Moreover, MEA reduces the emissions of air pollutant gases from aircrafts, which can contribute in significantly solving some of the problems of climate change. However, the MEA puts some challenges on the aircraft electrical system, both in the amount of the required power and the processing and management of this power. MEA electrical distribution systems are mainly in the form of multi-converter power electronic system.

  18. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  19. Californium-based neutron radiography for corrosion detection in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of an overall program aimed at minimizing disassembly and reducing inspection time during aircraft maintenance, a series of projects has been carried out to determine the feasibility of applying neutron radiographic techniques to the nondestructive (NDT) inspection of aircraft and aircraft components. These investigations have clearly demonstrated the superiority of neutron radiography over all other NDT techniques in its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure. This capability is particularly significant where the corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in the wing tank of E-2C, C-130, and DC-9 aircraft; rear stabilators of F-4 and F-111 aircraft; aft spar, starboard and port wing, and rudder of the F-8; fuselage skin of the 727; rotary blades of AH-1 and SH-3 helicopters; rotary tail flaps of the UH-2 helicopter; and nose landing gear of A-7 aircraft

  20. Creative Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  1. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  2. Ageing Polulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    An ageing society is characterised by an increasing median age of the population. The purpose of this chapter is to document the existing knowledge about the association between population ageing and health care expenditure, and to supplement this overview by a summary of our original research. S...

  3. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  4. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k−5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft intertia at scales <3 km. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3 and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73 respectively (for the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H the latter are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75 in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero

  5. An Epidemiological Prospective Study of Children’s Health and Annoyance Reactions to Aircraft Noise Exposure in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Seabi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8–14 participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009, and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9–15 and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10–16 children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010 and Wave 3 (2011 after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children’s self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children’s annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport.

  6. An epidemiological prospective study of children's health and annoyance reactions to aircraft noise exposure in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabi, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate health and annoyance reactions to change in chronic exposure to aircraft noise on a sample of South African children. It was the intention of this study to examine if effects of noise on health and annoyance can be demonstrated. If so, whether such effects persist over time, or whether such effects are reversible after the cessation of exposure to noise. A cohort of 732 children with a mean age of 11.1 (range = 8-14) participated at baseline measurements in Wave 1 (2009), and 649 (mean age = 12.3; range = 9-15) and 174 (mean age = 13.3; range = 10-16) children were reassessed in Wave 2 (2010) and Wave 3 (2011) after the relocation of the airport, respectively. The findings revealed that the children who were exposed to chronic aircraft noise continued to experience significantly higher annoyance than their counterparts in all the waves at school, and only in Wave 1 and Wave 2 at home. Aircraft noise exposure did not have adverse effects on the children's self-reported health outcomes. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic exposure to aircraft noise may have a lasting impact on children's annoyance, but not on their subjective health rating. This is one of the first longitudinal studies of this nature in the African continent to make use of an opportunity resulting from the relocation of airport. PMID:23823713

  7. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  8. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  9. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  10. Effects of aircraft noise on human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Under controlled conditions in two test rooms, studies were made of the response of sleeping subjects to the stimuli of simulated sonic booms and subsonic jet aircraft noise. Children were relatively nonresponsive to the stimuli. In general, the older the subject, the more likely is behavioral awakening. The response rates to the two types of stimuli were essentially the same. The stimulus intensity had little, if any, effect on frequency of arousal, although other degrees of response did increase.

  11. Route optimization model for strike aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Steve H. K.

    1995-01-01

    A model is designed and implemented to construct a 'flyable,' least- risk route for strike aircraft from takeoff to target, through enemy radars, in a defined area of operations. A network is fust constructed by discretizing the airspace into a three-dimensional grid of nodes and then connecting adjacent nodes with arcs. A shortest-path model in this network is then constructed with arc lengths that are a function of the probability of detection by radars monitoring t...

  12. Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marie; Murray, Tom; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Ossbahr, Gilbert; Nilsson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be prog...

  13. Study of hydrogen as an aircraft fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaravino, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The conversion to hydrogen as a naval aviation fuel would allow for independence on fuel cost and supply, as hydrogen is globally accessible. The biggest obstacle to using hydrogen is its very low density, a property that even combined with hydrogen's high heat of combustion still results in very large fuel tanks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) with its higher density would still require a larger volume than kerosene for the aircraft to achieve...

  14. Speed stress and the aircraft pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.T.V. Adiseshiah

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available When the human component in a man-machine system of pushed beyond the limits of human capacity in grasping information presented to senses or in executing a series of actions correctly, a condition of "speed stress" may be said to occur. Conditions encountered by aircraft at high speeds, make a consideration of the forms of speed stress, and of the measures to alleviate them, extremely important.

  15. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  16. Trajectory management for aircraft noise mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2009-01-01

    Comunicació convidada This paper gives an overview of aircraft trajectory management aimed at producing noise abatementprocedures. Area Navigation (RNAV) concepts play an important role in the design of flexible and, therefore, noise friendly depart or approach procedures. In addition, the lowest dispersion of RNAV tracks help to contain noise footprints in a smaller area if compared with footprints that are produced when conventional procedures are flown. However, RNAV turns still produce...

  17. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  18. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  19. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  20. Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sven; Claesson, Ingvar

    2001-01-01

    A noisy environment dominated by low frequency noise can often be improved through the use of active noise control. This situation arises naturally in propeller aircraft where the propellers induce periodic low frequency noise inside the cabin. The cabin noise is typically rather high, and the passenger flight comfort could be improved considerably if this level were significantly reduced. This paper addresses same design aspects for multiple-reference active noise control systems based on th...

  1. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  2. Aircraft System Simulation for Preliminary Design

    OpenAIRE

    Krus, Petter; Braun, Robert; Nordin, Peter; Eriksson, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Developments in computational hardware and simulation software have come to a point where it is possible to use whole mission simulation in a framework for conceptual/preliminary design. This paper is about the implementation of full system simulation software for conceptual/preliminary aircraft design. It is based on the new Hopsan NG simulation package, developed at the Linköping University. The Hopsan NG software is implemented in C++. Hopsan NG is the first simulation software that has su...

  3. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. The reactor auxiliary system building allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioctivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. In order not to increase the construction cost, and yet to assure the safety of the plant, some dynamic tests of conventionally reinforced slabs have to be performed all the way to collapse. These calculations have assumptions of achieving the maximum velocity instantaneously after impact, and take into account the kinetic energy in the broken wall. Nonlinear equations of motion are also formulated and solved. The results indicate that the phantom jet would go through the first wall. The second wall would stop the jet, but would sustain some permanent deformation and damage

  4. Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...

  5. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. PMID:14978289

  6. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H *(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. (authors)

  7. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  8. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  9. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem. The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article. The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise. Of the three main areas of the noise problem, i.e. generation, propagation, and radiation, propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation. Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model. Of the various classes of propagation equations, linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain. The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques, bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations, e.g. acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed, with differing degrees of success.

  10. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H*(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  12. Aircraft measurement of organic aerosols over China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Takami, Akinori; Li, Hong; Wang, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Lower to middle (0.5-3.0 km altitude) tropospheric aerosols (PM2.5) collected by aircraft over inland and east coastal China were, for the first time, characterized for organic molecular compositions to understand anthropogenic, natural, and photochemical contribution to the air quality. n-Alkanes, fatty acids, sugars, polyacids are detected as major compound classes, whereas lignin and resin products, sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalic acids are minor species. Average concentrations of all the identified compounds excluding malic acid correspond to 40-50% of those reported on the ground sites. Relative abundances of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components such as malic acid are much higher in the aircraft samples, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production over China. Organic carbon (OC) concentrations in summer (average, 24.3 microg m(-3)) were equivalent to those reported on the ground sites. Higher OC/EC (elemental carbon) ratios in the summer aircraft samples also support a significant production of SOA over China. High loadings of organic aerosols in the Chinese troposphere may be responsible to an intercontinental transport of the pollutants and potential impact on the regional and global climate changes. PMID:17539513

  13. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.

  14. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  15. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  16. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  17. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G M; Tellier, Siri;

    2016-01-01

    curvilinear pattern with the lowest point at middle age but increases thereafter up to very old age. OBJECTIVE: To shed further light on this paradox, we reviewed the existing literature on how scholars define successful ageing and how they weigh the contribution of health and functioning to define success....... METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns. The......BACKGROUND: Ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of disease and a loss of functioning on several bodily and mental domains and some argue that maintaining health and functioning is essential for a successful old age. Paradoxically, studies have shown that overall wellbeing follows a...

  18. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  19. Measurements of Nucleation-Mode Particle Size Distributions in Aircraft Plumes during SULFUR 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Charles A.; Bradford, Deborah G.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the participation of the University of Denver in an airborne measurement program, SULFUR 6, which was undertaken in late September and early October of 1998 by the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR). Scientific findings from two papers that have been published or accepted and from one manuscript that is in preparation are presented. The SULFUR 6 experiment was designed to investigate the emissions from subsonic aircraft to constrain calculations of possible atmospheric chemical and climatic effects. The University of Denver effort contributed toward the following SULFUR 6 goals: (1) To investigate the relationship between fuel sulfur content (FSC--mass of sulfur per mass of fuel) and particle number and mass emission index (El--quantity emitted per kg of fuel burned); (2) To provide upper and lower limits for the mass conversion efficiency (nu) of fuel sulfur to gaseous and particulate sulfuric acid; (3) To constrain models of volatile particle nucleation and growth by measuring the particle size distribution between 3 and 100 nm at aircraft plume ages ranging from 10(exp -1) to 10(exp 3) s; (4) To determine microphysical and optical properties and bulk chemical composition of soot particles in aircraft exhaust; and (5) To investigate the differences in particle properties between aircraft plumes in contrail and non-contrail situations. The experiment focused on emissions from the ATTAS research aircraft (a well characterized, but older technology turbojet) and from an in-service Boeing 737-300 aircraft provided by Lufthansa, with modem, high-bypass turbofan engines. Measurements were made from the DLR Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft, a modified business jet. The Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Program (AEAP) provided funding to operate an instrument, the nucleation-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), during the SULFUR 6 campaign and to analyze the data. The N-MASS was developed at the University of Denver with the support of

  20. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  1. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  2. Ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing management is generally defined in a broad sense covering not only ageing management of hardware (structures, systems and components), but also management issues such as keeping up with developments in state-of-the-art technology and the latest management practices. The importance assigned to traditional ageing management, in terms of issues related to hardware degradation problems, is clearly very high. The other aspects, for example developments in engineering or management, are considered important as well, but are less emphasized. Plant ageing management is composed of the following necessary elements, which are all linked together: understanding and knowledge of ageing-related damage mechanisms, including benchmarking of the consequences of damage mechanisms into macroscopic behaviour of materials and structures under applicable conditions; predictive models to extrapolate behaviour of systems, structures or components up to a defined time; qualified methods for detection and surveillance of ageing degradation; qualified mitigation, repair and replacements measures; reliable plant documentation, including optimisation of the ageing management programme based on current understanding and knowledge and periodic self-assessment; availability of a technical service and knowledge base. The subject of plant ageing management has gained increasing attention over the past years, notably as more nuclear power plants across the world are being considered for lifetime extension. In this context, the NEA has conducted numerous technical studies to assess the impact of ageing mechanisms on safe and reliable plant operation. International research activities have also been initiated or are under way to provide the technical basis for decision making. This article provides an overview of some of the activities and accomplishments of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Working Group on the Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures

  3. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  4. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  5. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  6. Antifreeze Polysaccharide Coating Study for De-icing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Katsuaki; Sakaue, Hirotaka; Ando, Azuma; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Kawahara, Hidehisa

    2015-11-01

    Anti-icing or deicing of an aircraft is necessary for a safe flight operation. Mechanical processes, such as heating and deicer boot, are widely used. Deicing fluids, such as propyrene glycol and ethylene glycol, are used to coat the aircraft. However, these should be coated every time before the take-off, since the fluids come off from the aircraft while cruising. We study an antifreeze polysaccharide (AFPS) coating as a deicer for an aircraft. It is designed to coat on the aircraft without removal. Since an AFPS coating removes ice by reducing the interfacial energy, it would be an alternative way to prevent ice on the aircraft. We provide a temperature-controlled room, which can control its temperature under icing conditions (-8 and -4 °C). Ice adhesion tests are performed for AFPS coating and compared with a fundamental specimen without the coating.

  7. Study on nuclear power plant aircraft accidents impacts PSA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) can be divided to internal events PSA and external events PSA. Because of the nature of aircraft accidents impacts, extreme in destroy degree and low frequency, analysts usually treat aircraft impacts as a special external event. There is not any mature method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA. The paper titled Accident For Aircraft Crash Into Analysis Hazardous Facilities is published by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE guide could be the main base for this paper, referring to the demand for aircraft impact in NUREG-0800, seeking to develop a particular method for NPP aircraft impacts PSA in China. The method and content in this paper can be applied in similar work and may provide some advices for the future work. (authors)

  8. A new simulation model for assessing aircraft emergency evacuation considering passenger physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conducting a real aircraft evacuation trial is oftentimes unaffordable as it is extremely expensive and may cause severe injury to participants. Simulation models as an alternative have been used to overcome the aforementioned issues in recent years. This paper proposes a new simulation model for emergency evacuation of civil aircraft. Its unique features and advantages over the existing models are twofold: (1) passengers' critical physical characteristics, e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, which impact the movement and egress time of individual evacuee from a statistical viewpoint, are taken into account in the new model. (2) Improvements are made to enhance the accuracy of the simulation model from three aspects. First, the staggered mesh discretization method together with the agent-based approach is utilized to simulate movements of individual passengers in an emergency evacuation process. Second, each node discretized to represent cabin space in the new model can contain more than one passenger if they are moving in the same direction. Finally, each individual passenger is able to change his/her evacuation route in a real-time manner based upon the distance from the current position to the target exit and the queue length. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation model is demonstrated on Boeing 767-300 aircraft. - Highlights: • A new simulation model of aircraft emergency evacuation is developed. • Some critical physical characteristics of passengers', e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, are taken into account in the new model. • An agent-based approach along with a multi-level fine network representation is used. • Passengers are able to change their evacuation routes in a real-time manner based upon distance and length of queue

  9. Dedicated Solutions for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pitropakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft structures, like any other mechanical structure, are subjected to various external factors that influence their lifetime. Mechanicalnbsp;and the environment are only some of the factors that can degrade the structure of aircraft components. Monitoring of these degradations by regular inspections or automated data recording is vital for the structural health of the critical components of an aircraft. This research proposes a number of dedicated solutions for structural health monitori...

  10. UNOLS now oversees research aircraft facilities for ocean science

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, John M.; Bluth, Robert; Flagg, Charles; Jonsson, Haflidi; Melville, W. Kendall; Prince, Mike; Riemer, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    In recognition of the increasing importance and value of aircraft as observational platforms in oceanographic research, the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) has established the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR).SCOAR aims to establish procedures for research aircraft that follow the present UNOLS practices for research vessel use, with the goal of making it understandable, and easy, and thus desirable, for...

  11. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  12. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and adva...

  13. Modelling and stability analysis of aircraft power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areerak, Kongpan

    2009-01-01

    The more-electric aircraft concept is a major trend in aircraft electrical power system engineering and results in an increase in electrical loads based on power electronic converters and motor drive systems. Unfortunately, power electronic driven loads often behave as constant power loads having the small-signal negative impedance that can significantly degrade the power system stability margin. Therefore, the stability issue of aircraft power systems is of great importance. The research of ...

  14. Investigation of cross flow fan propulsion for lightweight VTOL aircraft.

    OpenAIRE

    Gossett, Dean H.

    2000-01-01

    As world population increases, road and airport congestion will become increasingly prevalent. A small, cheap vTOL aircraft which can be flown from a driveway to the workplace parking lot would reduce traffic congestion and travel time. A lightweight, single seat commuter type VTOL aircraft is envisioned as the solution to this problem. To achieve a goal of minimum weight, the aircraft aerodynamic design should be optimized for forward flight. Vertical thrust augmentation from a propulsion un...

  15. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  16. Impact of Aircraft Performance Characteristics on Air Traffic Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Aydan CAVCAR; CAVCAR, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Air transportation has been suffering for decades from delays caused by air traffic congestion. This paper presents the effect of aircraft performance differences on air traffic delays. Rate of climb and cruising speeds of 70 different aircraft types are compared to demonstrate performance differences in the current transport aircraft fleet. The effect of these performance differences on air traffic delays is proved by a deterministic calculation of delays for a departure queue cons...

  17. Structural resource of the aircraft IAR-99 SOIM

    OpenAIRE

    Radu BISCA; Dorin LOZICI-BRINZEI

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft structure fatigue monitoring has been developed over decades presently reaching the stage where it became mandatory for all combat aircraft to be equipped with an airborne fatigue monitoring system. These systems usually collect operational data for calculating the safe fatigue life or inspection interval for the aircraft structure. This paper presents an analysis of the current state of fatigue monitoring systems on the IAR-99 SOIM based on the experience of international fatigue mo...

  18. Aircraft fault tolerant control based on active set method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lunlong; Mora-Camino, Félix

    2013-01-01

    This communication considers the case in which an aerodynamic actuator failure occurs to an aircraft while it has to perform a guidance manoeuver. The problem considered deals with the reassignment of the remaining actuators to continue to perform the maneuver while maintaining the structural integrity of the aircraft. A nonlinear inverse control technique is used to generate online nominal moments along the three main axes of the aircraft. Then, taking into account all material and structura...

  19. Considerations of Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. Classification is useful for ensuring that meaningful differences in design are accommodated by certification to different standards, and that aircraft with similar risk profiles are held to similar standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft, based on dimensions of aircraft class and operational aircraft categories, could apply to UAS. This report finds that existing aircraft classes are well aligned with the types of UAS that currently exist; however, the operational categories are more difficult to align to proposed UAS use in the NAS. Specifically, the factors used to group manned aircraft into similar risk profiles do not necessarily capture all relevant UAS risks. UAS classification is investigated through gathering approaches to classification from a broad spectrum of organizations, and then identifying and evaluating the classification factors from these approaches. This initial investigation concludes that factors in addition to those currently used today to group manned aircraft for the purpose of assigning airworthiness standards will be needed to adequately capture risks associated with UAS and their operations.

  20. Generalised Model for Aircraft Vulnerability by Different Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Singh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors earlier model for the vulnerability of aircraft where aircraft was considered as a combination of cylinder, cones and wedges has been extended to the case when structural data of aircraft as well as its vital parts are given in the form of three-dimensional curvilinear triangles. In the case of VT -fused ammunition, spherical normal distribution has been used to estimate the landing probability of the shell in a cylindrical vicinity region around the aircraft. Kill criteria of vital parts have been redefined.

  1. Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite...

  2. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  3. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis;

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article is...

  4. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies...

  5. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  6. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  7. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  8. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue,...

  9. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis; Clausen, Jens

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article is...

  10. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  11. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved...

  12. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  13. The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008 and western Canada (June–July 2008. The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1 transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2 boreal forest fires, (3 aerosol radiative forcing, and (4 chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1 validating the data, (2 improving constraints on retrievals, (3 making correlated observations, and (4 characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June–July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB. The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1 improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2 provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

  14. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  15. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... (75 FR 32315). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant... in any category: Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico...

  16. 75 FR 922 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), published in the Federal Register (FR), is available for inspection...'' in 73 FR 58520. This NPRM proposed and the final rule herein codifies the addition of five reportable... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and...

  17. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...) to an aircraft operating in class A airspace.'' 75 FR at 923. Although the NTSB believed the language... Federal Register (75 FR 922). The final rule implemented several changes to section 830.5, requiring... changes. (73 FR 58520; October 7, 2008). Several commenters stated they believed the language of...

  18. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records'' in 73 FR 58520, and, on January 7, 2010, the NTSB published a final rule under the same title in 75 FR 922. The final rule codified the addition of five... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) and the final rule, published in the Federal Register (FR), are available...

  19. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Shende

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity and multiplicity of variables. These are reviewed in this article to throw light on the considerations involved in the design of rotor-bearing-casing systems incorporating squeeze film dampers.

  20. Flying Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pioneering various Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) technologies and procedures which may enable routine access to the National Airspace System (NAS), with an aim for Next Gen NAS. These tools will aid in the development of technologies and integrated capabilities that will enable high value missions for science, security, and defense, and open the door to low-cost, extreme-duration, stratospheric flight. A century of aviation evolution has resulted in accepted standards and best practices in the design of human-machine interfaces, the displays and controls of which serve to optimize safe and efficient flight operations and situational awareness. The current proliferation of non-standard, aircraft-specific flight crew interfaces in UAS, coupled with the inherent limitations of operating UAS without in-situ sensory input and feedback (aural, visual, and vestibular cues), has increased the risk of mishaps associated with the design of the "cockpit." The examples of current non- or sub- standard design features range from "annoying" and "inefficient", to those that are difficult to manipulate or interpret in a timely manner, as well as to those that are "burdensome" and "unsafe." A concerted effort is required to establish best practices and standards for the human-machine interfaces, for the pilot as well as the air traffic controller. In addition, roles, responsibilities, knowledge, and skill sets are subject to redefining the terms, "pilot" and "air traffic controller", with respect to operating UAS, especially in the Next-Gen NAS. The knowledge, skill sets, training, and qualification standards for UAS operations must be established, and reflect the aircraft-specific human-machine interfaces and control methods. NASA s recent experiences flying its MQ-9 Ikhana in the NAS for extended duration, has enabled both NASA and the FAA to realize the full potential for UAS, as well as understand the implications of

  1. Sensor Technology and Futuristic Of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rugambage Ndayishimiye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation fighter Aircraft seeks a fighter with higher abilities in areas such as reach, persistence, survivability, net-centricity, situation awareness, human system integration and weapons effects. The future system will have to counter foe armed with next generation advanced electronic attack, sophisticated integrated air defense systems, directed energy weapons, passive detection, integrated self-protection and cyber-attack capabilities. It must be capable to operate in the anti-access area-denial (A2/AD environment that will exist in the next coming years.

  2. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  3. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  4. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  5. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  6. Analysis of cooling systems for hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program has been written to analyze cooling systems of hypersonic aircraft. This computer program called NASP/SINDA is written into the SINDA'85 command structure and uses the SINDA'85 finite difference subroutines. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer must be analyzed, because increased heating causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. Also local hot spots will cause a redistribution of the coolant in the system. Both steady state and transient analyses have been performed. Details of empirical correlations are presented. Results for two cooling system applications are given.

  7. Radiation exposure measurement onboard civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active dosemeter DOSTEL based on two silicon planar detectors was flown on civil aircraft flights to study the radiation exposure of air crew members. The altitude and latitude dependence of count and dose rates as well as long-term variations are measured. After calibration of the DOSTEL response against measurements of a TEPC instrument, total dose-equivalent values for various flights are compared with H*(10) calculations by EPCARD yielding a ratio of 1.02 ± 0.09 (standard variation). (authors)

  8. Aircraft Measurements of Saharan dust properties and impact of atmospheric transport during Fennec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Claire; Highwood, Ellie; Rosenberg, Phil; Trembath, Jamie; Brooke, Jennifer; Bart, Mark; Dean, Angela; Dorsey, James; Crosier, Jonny; McQuaid, Jim; Brindley, Helen; Banks, James; Marsham, John; Sodemann, Harald; Washington, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of Saharan dust from recent airborne campaigns have found variations in size distributions and optical properties across Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa. These variations have an impact on radiation and thus weather and climate, and are important to characterise and understand, in particular, to understand how they vary with time after dust uplift, transport, and height in the atmosphere. New in-situ aircraft measurements from the Fennec 2011 aircraft campaign over a remote part of the Sahara Desert and the Atlantic Ocean will be presented and compared to previous airborne measurements. Size distributions extending to 300 μm will be shown, representing measurements extending further into the coarse mode than previously published for Saharan dust. The dust sampled by the aircraft covered a wide variety of loadings, dust source regions (Mali, Mauritania and Algeria) and dust ages (from fresh uplift to several days old). A significant coarse mode was present in the size distribution measurements with effective diameter up to 23 μm, and the mean size distribution showed greater concentrations of coarse mode than previous aircraft measurements. Single scattering albedo (SSA) values at 550nm calculated from these size distributions revealed high absorption from 0.77 to 0.95, with a mean of 0.85. Directly measured SSA values were higher (0.91 to 0.99) but new instrumentation revealed that these direct measurements, behind Rosemount inlets, overestimate the SSA by 0.02 to 0.20 depending on the concentration of coarse particles present. This is caused by inlet inefficiencies and pipe losses. Previous measurements of SSA from aircraft measurements may also have been overestimates for this reason. This has a significant impact on atmospheric heating rates. The largest dust particles were encountered closest to the ground, and were most abundant in cases where dust was freshly uplifted. Number concentration, mass loading and extinction coefficient showed inverse

  9. Healthy Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, Cees van der

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  10. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  11. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future multimission aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jeffrey J.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed which compared three supersonic multimission tactical aircraft. The aircraft were evaluated in two technology timeframes and were sized with consistent methods and technology assumptions so that the aircraft could be compared in operational utility or cost analysis trends. The three aircraft are a carrier-based Fighter/Attack aircraft, a land-based Multirole Fighter, and a Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules used and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions and layout, design mission and maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The effect of changing technology and mission requirements on the STOVL aircraft and the impact of aircraft navalization are discussed. Also discussed are the effects on the STOVL aircraft of both Thrust/Weight required in hover and design mission radius.

  12. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  13. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrewe, Ulrich J.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed.

  14. Cryocooler for Air Liquefaction Onboard Large Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedlove, J. J.; Magari, P. J.; Miller, G. W.

    2008-03-01

    Creare has developed a turbo-Brayton cryocooler for the Air Force that is designed to produce approximately 1 kW of refrigeration at 95 K. The cryocooler is intended to provide cryogenic cooling for an air separation system being developed to produce and store liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen onboard large aircraft. The oxygen will be used for high-altitude breathing and medical evacuation operations, while the nitrogen will be used to inert the ullage space inside the fuel tanks. The cryocooler utilizes gas bearings in the turbomachines for long life without maintenance, which is a critical requirement for this application. The mass of a flight version of this cryocooler is expected to be around 270 kg, while the input power is expected to be 21 to 25 kW. This paper describes the design and testing of the technology demonstration cryocooler that was constructed to establish the feasibility of the approach. In the future, the cryocooler will be integrated and tested with a distillation column subsystem. Subsequent testing may also be performed in-flight on an Air Force transport aircraft.

  15. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  16. MULTI-CONTROLLER STRUCTURE OF SUPERMANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of using multi-controllers to control supermaneuverable aircraft. A nonlinear dynamic-inversion controller is used for supermaneuver. A gain-scheduled controller is used for routine maneuver. A switch algorithm is designed to switch the controllers. The flight envelopes of the controllers are different but have a common area in which the controllers are switched from one to the other. In the common area, some special boundaries are selected to decide switch conditions. The controllers all use vector-thrust for lower velocity maneuver control. Unlike the variation-structure theory to use a single boundary, this paper uses two boundaries for switching between the two controllers. One boundary is used for switching from dynamic-inversion to gain-scheduling, while the other is used for switching from gain-scheduling to dynamic-inversion. This can effectively avoid the system vibration caused by switching repeatedly at a single boundary. The method is very easy for engineering. It can reduce the risk of design of the supermaneuverable aircraft.

  17. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed

  18. Signal processing of aircraft flyover noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of signal processing concerns for measuring aircraft flyover noise is presented. Development of a de-Dopplerization scheme for both corrected time history and spectral data is discussed along with an analysis of motion effects on measured spectra. A computer code was written to implement the de-Dopplerization scheme. Input to the code is the aircraft position data and the pressure time histories. To facilitate ensemble averaging, a level uniform flyover is considered in the study, but the code can accept more general flight profiles. The effects of spectral smearing and its removal are discussed. Using test data acquired from an XV-15 tilt-rotor flyover, comparisons are made between the measured and corrected spectra. Frequency shifts are accurately accounted for by the de-Dopplerization procedure. It is shown that by correcting for spherical spreading and Doppler amplitude, along with frequency, can give some idea about noise source directivity. The analysis indicated that smearing increases with frequency and is more severe on approach than recession.

  19. Overview of Aircraft Noise Prediction Tools Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic assessment task for both the Subsonic Fixed Wing and the Supersonic projects under NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program was designed to assess the current state-of-the-art in noise prediction capability and to establish baselines for gauging future progress. The documentation of our current capabilities included quantifying the differences between predictions of noise from computer codes and measurements of noise from experimental tests. Quantifying the accuracy of both the computed and experimental results further enhanced the credibility of the assessment. This presentation gives sample results from codes representative of NASA s capabilities in aircraft noise prediction at the system level and at the component level. These include semi-empirical, statistical, analytical, and numerical codes. An example of system level results is shown for an aircraft. Component level results are shown for airframe flaps and landing gear, for jet noise from a variety of nozzles, and for broadband fan noise. Additional results are shown for modeling of the acoustic behavior of duct acoustic lining and the attenuation of sound in lined ducts with flow.

  20. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

  1. Design of a control configured tanker aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits that accrue from using control configured vehicle (CCV) concepts were examined along with the techniques for applying these concepts to an advanced tanker aircraft design. Reduced static stability (RSS) and flutter mode control (FMC) were the two primary CCV concepts used in the design. The CCV tanker was designed to the same mission requirements specified for a conventional tanker design. A seven degree of freedom mathematical model of the flexible aircraft was derived and used to synthesize a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS), a longitudinal control augmentation system (CAS), and a FMC system. Fatigue life and cost analyses followed the control system synthesis, after which a comparative evaluation of the CCV and conventional tankers was made. This comparison indicated that the CCV weight and cost were lower but that, for this design iteration, the CCV fatigue life was shorter. Also, the CCV crew station acceleration was lower, but the acceleration at the boom operator station was higher relative to the corresponding conventional tanker. Comparison of the design processes used in the CCV and conventional design studies revealed that they were basically the same.

  2. ANALYSES ON SYSTEMATIC CONFRONTATION OF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaiJinpeng; WuZhe; HuangJun

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the systematic confrontation between two military forcfes are the highest hierarchy on opera-tional effectiveness study of weapon systema.The physi-cal model for tactical many-on-many engagements of an aerial warfare with heterogeneous figher aircraft is estab-lished.On the basis of Lanchester multivariate equations of square law,a mathematical model corresponding to the established physical model is given.A superiorityh parame-ter is then derived directly from the mathematical model.With view to the high -tech condition of modern war-fare,the concept of superiority parameter which more well and truly reflects the essential of an air-to-air en-gagement is further formulated.The attrition coeffi-cients,which are key to the differential equations,are de-termined by using tactics of random target assignment and air-to-air capability index of the fighter aircraft.Hereby,taking the mathematical model and superiority parameter as cores,calculations amd analyses of complicate systemic problems such as evaluation of battle superiority,prog-mostication of combat process and optimization of colloca-tions have been accomplished.Results indicate that a clas-sical combat theory with its certain recent development has received newer applications in the military operation research for complicated confrontation analysis issues.

  3. Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulegan, G H

    1929-01-01

    This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Bureau of Standards under a research authorization from, and with the financial assistance of, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The choice of a damping liquid for aircraft instruments is difficult owing to the range of temperature at which aircraft operate. Temperature changes affect the viscosity tremendously. The investigation was undertaken with the object of finding liquids of various viscosities otherwise suitable which had a minimum change in viscosity with temperature. The new data relate largely to solutions. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of the following liquids and solutions was determined in the temperature interval -18 degrees to +30 degrees C. (1) solutions of animal and vegetable oils in xylene. These were poppy-seed oil, two samples of neat's-foot oils, castor oil, and linseed oil. (2) solutions of mineral oil in xylene. These were Squibb's petrolatum of naphthene base and transformer oil. (3) glycerine solutions in ethyl alcohol and in mixture of 50-50 ethyl alcohol and water. (4) mixtures of normal butyl alcohol with methyl alcohol. (5) individual liquids, kerosene, mineral spirits, xylene, recoil oil. The apparatus consisted of four capillary-tube viscometers, which were immersed in a liquid bath in order to secure temperature control. The method of calibration and the related experimental data are presented.

  4. Electron beam welding of structural aircraft components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illustrations of how electron beam (EB) welding is currently being used in the manufacture of large complex aircraft structures are reviewed. Starting with a general description of the process, its advantages and limitations and then tracing the evolution of the equipment from the sizes being used as recently as 1969 having vacuum chamber capacities of approximately 64 cubic feet to those presently in production having chamber capacities over 2500 cubic feet. A parallel growth is outlined in the application of the process to larger structures, beginning with the basic data on mechanical properties obtained with small element testing, through the testing of sub and full scale structures. Welding parameters for some typical joints are presented together with the mechanical properties being achieved, including tensile, fatigue, and fracture toughness properties. Pre and post weld processing are described which are being used to optimize these properties. Several examples are reviewed including the Grumman F-14 wing center section and wing outer panels, Boeing Vertol UTTAS Helicopter swashplates, Messerschmitt-Bolkow- Blohm, Multi-Role Combat Aircraft wing center section and the Dassault Mirage G8A wing panel. The final portion describes general guidelines in designing structures for EB welding, with particular emphasis on accessibility for visual, x-ray, ultrasonic, and dye penetrant inspection

  5. Silent Aircraft Initiative Concept Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    A risk assessment of the Silent Aircraft Initiative's SAX-40 concept design for extremely low noise has been performed. A NASA team developed a list of 27 risk items, and evaluated the level of risk for each item in terms of the likelihood that the risk would occur and the consequences of the occurrence. The following risk items were identified as high risk, meaning that the combination of likelihood and consequence put them into the top one-fourth of the risk matrix: structures and weight prediction; boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) and inlet design; variable-area exhaust and thrust vectoring; displaced-threshold and continuous descent approach (CDA) operational concepts; cost; human factors; and overall noise performance. Several advanced-technology baseline concepts were created to serve as a basis for comparison to the SAX-40 concept. These comparisons indicate that the SAX-40 would have significantly greater research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E) and production costs than a conventional aircraft with similar technology levels. Therefore, the cost of obtaining the extremely low noise capability that has been estimated for the SAX-40 is significant. The SAX-40 concept design proved successful in focusing attention toward low noise technologies and in raising public awareness of the issue.

  6. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: → Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. → SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO2. → Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. → Scan mode highlighted presence of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. → Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  7. Damage tolerance analysis of aircraft reinforced panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pirondi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at reproducing numerically a campaign of experimental tests performed for the development of reinforced panels, typically found in aircraft fuselage. The bonded reinforcements can significantly reduce the rate of fatigue crack growth and increase the residual strength of the skin. The reinforcements are of two types: stringers and doublers. The former provides stiffening to the panel while the latter controls the crack growth between the stringers. The purpose of the study is to validate a numerical method of analysis that can predict the damage tolerance of these reinforced panels. Therefore, using a fracture mechanics approach, several models (different by the geometry and the types of reinforcement constraints were simulated with the finite element solver ABAQUS. The bonding between skin and stiffener was taken either rigid or flexible due to the presence of adhesive. The possible rupture of the reinforcements was also considered. The stress intensity factor trend obtained numerically as a function of crack growth was used to determine the fatigue crack growth rate, obtaining a good approximation of the experimental crack propagation rate in the skin. Therefore, different solutions for improving the damage tolerance of aircraft reinforced panels can be virtually tested in this way before performing experiments.

  8. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  9. Monitoring Aircraft Motion at Airports by LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, C.; Jozkow, G.; Koppanyi, Z.; Young, S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving sensor performance, combined with better affordability, provides better object space observability, resulting in new applications. Remote sensing systems are primarily concerned with acquiring data of the static components of our environment, such as the topographic surface of the earth, transportation infrastructure, city models, etc. Observing the dynamic component of the object space is still rather rare in the geospatial application field; vehicle extraction and traffic flow monitoring are a few examples of using remote sensing to detect and model moving objects. Deploying a network of inexpensive LiDAR sensors along taxiways and runways can provide both geometrically and temporally rich geospatial data that aircraft body can be extracted from the point cloud, and then, based on consecutive point clouds motion parameters can be estimated. Acquiring accurate aircraft trajectory data is essential to improve aviation safety at airports. This paper reports about the initial experiences obtained by using a network of four Velodyne VLP- 16 sensors to acquire data along a runway segment.

  10. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  11. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  12. Modelling and simulation of flexible aircraft : handling qualities with active load control

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Stuart P.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the motion of manoeuvring aircraft has traditionally considered the aircraft to be rigid. This simplifying assumption has been shown to give quite accurate results for the flight dynamics of many aircraft types. As modern transport aircraft have developed however, there has been a marked increase in the size and weight of these aircraft. This trend is likely to continue with the development of future blended-wing-body and supersonic transport aircraft. This increas...

  13. Martian ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects of this paper are a discussion of the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, a comparison of currently proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, a report on our work of dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of our crater frequency data and those published by other authors. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data: model 1, with nearly equal Martian and lunar cratering rates around (ca.) 4- to 10-km crater sizes, and model II. equivalent to model I for ages >3.5 x 109 years but with a factor of 2 higher Martian cratering rate at ages 9 years. Those model cratering chronologies are applied to the data. The interpretation of all crater frequency data available and tractable by our methodology leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized essentially by two epochs of activity. The division between the two epochs is measured at a cumulative crater frequency value for 1-km craters (crater retention age) of N(1) = 8 x 10-4 (km-2) corresponding to an absolute age of ca. 3 x 109 years (applying model I cratering chronology) and of ca. 1.5 x 109 years (applying model II cratering chronology). In the ancient epoch all major events like emplacement of the plains lavas, the piling up of most volcanic constructs, and large-scale erosion of channels and mensae (highland/northern lowland boundary) have taken place. During the younger epoch, only the big Tharsis shield volcanoes were active, and some minor erosion took place. This means that Mars is not a youthful planet but an ancient one with respect to most of its surface features

  14. The longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  15. Assessment of aircraft noise sources variability using an acoustic camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, M.; Merino Martinez, R.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Noise assessment around airports is hampered due to the observed large variability in noise levels for fly-overs of the same aircraft type, which is not considered by the current models. This paper assumes that the noise variability is due to variations in the aircraft emitted noise, neglecting the

  16. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a.m., Wednesday, November 30, 2011. NTSB Chairman Deborah A.P. Hersman will chair the two-day forum and all five Board Members...

  17. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category...

  18. 78 FR 23329 - Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... the multitude of systems and equipment used by the NAS. The Aircraft Access to SWIM (AAtS) initiative is the airborne component of the SWIM SOA. AAtS will allow aircraft to exchange operational information such as: weather, airport information, and other services during all phases of flight. This...

  19. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  20. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost, operati

  1. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  2. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section 121.701 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...: Aircraft. (a) Each person who takes action in the case of a reported or observed failure or malfunction...

  3. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  4. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.;

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  5. Aircraft-skin Infrared Radiation Characteristics Modeling and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianwei; Wang Qiang

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important problems of stealth technology is to evaluate the infrared radiation (IR) level received by IR sensors from fighters to be detected. This article presents a synthetic method for calculating the IR emitted from aircraft-skin. By reckoning the aerodynamic heating and hot engine casing to be the main heat sources of the exposed aircraft-skin, a numerical model of skin temperature distribution is established through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Based on it, an infrared signature model for solving the complex geometry and structure of a fighter is proposed with the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. Finally, by way of determining the IR intensity from aircraft-skin, the aircraft components that emit the most IR can be identified; and the cooling effects of the main aircraft components on IR intensity are investigated. It is found that reduction by 10 K in the skin temperature of head, vertical stabilizers and wings could lead to decline of more than 8% of the IR intensity on the aircraft-skin in front view while at the broadside of the aircraft, the drops in IR intensity could attain under 8%. The results provide useful reference in designing stealthy aircraft.

  6. New opportunities for aircraft noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This papers aims (1) to provide a review of the (non-acoustic) social-psychological determinants of aircraft noise annoyance, (2) evaluate Schiphol’s noise policy from a social-psychological perspective and (3) review a governance model that can effectively address non-acoustic factors in aircraft n

  7. Optimization of operational aircraft parameters reducing noise emission

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Lina; Khardi, Salah; Haddou, Mounir

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a model and a minimization method to provide flight path optimums reducing aircraft noise in the vicinity of airports. Optimization algorithm has solved a complex optimal control problem, and generates flight paths minimizing aircraft noise levels. Operational and safety constraints have been considered and their limits satisfied. Results are here presented and discussed.

  8. Optimization of operational aircraft parameters Reducing Noise Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Lina; Khardi, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a model and a minimization method to provide flight path optimums reducing aircraft noise in the vicinity of airports. Optimization algorithm has solved a complex optimal control problem, and generates flight paths minimizing aircraft noise levels. Operational and safety constraints have been considered and their limits satisfied. Results are here presented and discussed.

  9. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  10. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section. Withdrawals under this paragraph shall be annotated with the term “Withdrawal under 19 CFR 10.62b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section 10.62b... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.62b Aircraft turbine fuel. (a) General. Unless otherwise...

  11. Aircraft noise exposure from Schiphol airport: A relation with complainants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.G. de; Wiechen, C.M.A.G. van; Franssen, E.A.M.; Lebret, E.

    2002-01-01

    The possible relation between aircraft noise exposure and the prevalence of complainants around Schiphol airport was studied. The home address of people who complain about aircraft noise at the Environment Advisory Committee Schiphol was combined with annual average noise levels, using a Geographic

  12. 77 FR 45480 - Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Federal Register (72 FR 33169). Written and electronic comments responding to the notice of proposed... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF34 Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft... contains final regulations relating to the use of business aircraft for entertainment. These...

  13. Obstacle avoidance and path planning for carrier aircraft launching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Launching safety and efficiency are important indexes to measure the fighting capacity of carrier. The study on path planning for taxi of carrier aircraft launching under actual deck environment is of great significance. In actual deck scheduling, manual command is applied to taxi of carrier aircraft, which has negative effects on the safety of staff and carrier aircraft launching. In consideration of both the safety and efficiency of carrier aircraft launching, the key elements of the problem are abstracted based on the analysis of deck environment, carrier aircraft maneuver performance and task requirements. According to the problem description, the mathematical model is established including various constraints. The carrier aircraft and the obstacles are reasonably simplified as circle and polygons respectively. What’s more, the proposed collision detection model reduces the calculations. Aimed at the features of model, the theory of model predictive control (MPC is applied to the path search. Then a dynamic weight heuristic function is designed and a dynamic multistep optimization algorithm is proposed. Taking the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier as an example, the paths from parking place to catapult are planned, which indicate the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the planning results under different simulation environments. The main contribution of research is the establishment of obstacle avoidance and path planning model. In addition, it provides the solution of model and technological foundations for comprehensive command and real-time decision-making of the carrier aircraft.

  14. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Coffey, Flight Test Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office, 12... this AD. Send your proposal to: John Coffey, Flight Test Engineer, Boston Aircraft Certification Office... 10, 2009 (74 FR 65496). The NPRM proposed revising the RFM SA S92A-RFM-003, Part 1, Section...

  15. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil;

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will provide measurements on the mixing flow in an aircraft cabin...

  16. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System...

  17. External interaction of the nuclear EMP with aircraft and missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general problem of external coupling of the nuclear EMP to metal structures is discussed with attention directed toward aircraft and missiles. Theoretical and experimental data are presented fo the skin current and charge densities induced on aircraft. Recommendations for future studies are also given

  18. A Study on Simulation of Aircraft Maintenance and Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance and support are basic elements to realize the effectiveness of aircraft. For basic analysis of the characteristics of an aircraft maintenance and support system, a simulation method is presented in this paper, and the structure and realization ofthe simulation system is discussed.

  19. Vulnerability of fighter–aircraft for new threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerten, E. van

    2002-01-01

    Technical developments in modern fighter aircraft design will contribute to aircraft survivability by influencing either the aircraft’s susceptibility or its vulnerability. On the other hand, technical developments in missile warhead and ammunition design will result in a lethality increase against

  20. The organization closed water battery plant Aircraft Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Ісаєнко

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  The information on unrational water usage and losts is given in the article. The necessity of closed water cycle introduction is shown for the aircraft repairing plant. The principle scheme of closed cycle water usage is developed for the accumulator department of the aircraft repairing plant. Modern technological equipment is offered for implementation.